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VectorCalculus

Reading:

Kreyszig,AdvancedEngineeringMathematics,10thEd.,2011

Selectionfromchapters9and10

Prerequisites:

Kreyszig,AdvancedEngineeringMathematics,10thEd.,2011

1.Vectorquantities.Dotandcrossproducts:Sections9.19.3

2. Doubleintegral:Section10.3

2.Tripleintegral:Section10.7

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 1

Contents

1. Vector physical quantities.

2. Vector calculus: Motivation and applications

3. Linear vector space. Dot, cross, and triple products

4. Scalar and vector fields and their derivatives

5. Curves

6. Surfaces

7. Line integrals of scalar and vector fields

8. Gradient, divergence, and curl

9. Pathindependent line integrals

10. Double integrals

11. Triple integrals

12. Surface integrals of scalar and vector fields

13. Greens theorem for a plane

14. Stokess theorem

15. Gauss divergence theorem

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 2

6.1Vectorphysicalquantities

Notion of a vector is inspired by the existence of physical quantities that are characterized by

both magnitude and direction, e.g., velocity and force. In physics

The scalar is a quantity that is determined by its magnitude (temperature).

The vector is a quantity that is represented by a directed line segment, and thus, has

magnitude | | (absolute value, length, or norm of the vector) and direction (velocity,

Force, angular momentum).

Two vectors and are equal to each other, = , if they have the same length and

direction even if their initial and terminal points are different. We say that any vector is a free

vector if translation (displacement without rotation) does not change the vector.

Two basic operations on vector physical quantities are the vector addition and

scalar multiplication . Since physical vectors are defined geometrically, we introduce

such operations also geometrically as

: | |

Vector addition Scalar multiplication

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 3

6.1Vectorphysicalquantities

And assume that they posses the following properties

, , , 0

(6.1.1)

, , , 1

Here:

is the zero vector, | | 0.

has the same length as , but opposite direction.

Existence of allows one to determine the vector subtraction: .

The unit vector is a vector of unit length, | | 1.

A whole set of objects (vectors) on which we can perform vector addition and scalar

multiplication with properties given by Eqs. (6.1.1) is called the (linear) vector space.

The idea behind the vector calculus is to utilize vectors and their functions for analytical

calculations.

This is possible if any vector is completely represented it terms of numbers, not directed line

segments.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 4

6.2Vectorcalculus:Motivationandapplications

Motivation:Calculationofworktypequantities

Work=forcexdistance

worktype quantities we

need:

Mathematical description

of curves

Whatifthepathiscomplexand/orforceisnotalignedwith Line integrals

thevelocity?

Trajectoryof generalization of equations

achaotic

Work=forcexdistance

pendulum

for worktype quantities

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov

6.2Vectorcalculus:Motivationandapplications

Motivation:Calculationoffluxtypequantities

Flux of a physical quantity is the amount of

this quantity transferred through a given area

(surface) per unit time

generalization of equation

for fluxtype quantities

quantities we need:

Mathematical description of surfaces

Surface integrals

Relationships between flux and work

type quantities (integral theorems)

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov

6.2Vectorcalculus:Motivationandapplications

Applications of the vector calculus: All science and engineering fields where problems are

formulated in terms of PDEs or require analysis of vector fields in multidimensional spaces.

Formulation of physical laws in terms of scalar, vector, and tensor fields.

General mathematical properties of such mathematical models .

Fluid mechanics and gas dynamics, combustion

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 7

6.2Vectorcalculus:Motivationandapplications

Solid mechanics Electromagnetic theory

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 8

6.3Linearvectorspace.Dot,cross,andtripleproducts

The idea behind using the vector quantities in calculus is that any vector can be represented by a

few numbers that are called components of the vector. It allows us to perform all operation on

vectors algebraically, i.e. without any geometrical considerations. Let's consider how we can

introduce components of vectors.

vector onto an axis and postulate the existence of

global 3D Cartesian coordinates

given direction). The direction of the axis can be

characterized by a unit vector placed along the

line and having the same direction. Then we can

geometrically define the vector projection and

scalar projection

(6.3.1) cos , =

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 9

6.3Linearvectorspace.Dot,cross,andtripleproducts

Based on observations and our experience we can postulate that the physical space in the

classical mechanics is Euclidean, i.e. we can introduce the Cartesian coordinate system, which is

composed of three mutually perpendicular axis , , and . Next we can fix an arbitrary

linear scale and introduce three unit vectors , , , directed along every axis, which we call the

(Cartesian) basis.

sum of its projections onto vectors of the Cartesian basis

. Now we see that if the Cartesian coordinates are fixed, every

vector (element of the vector space) is just a unique ordered

triple of real numbers

(6.3.2) , ,

basis , , and if Cartesian coordinates change, the

components or every vector change as well.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 10

6.3Linearvectorspace.Dot,cross,andtripleproducts

Based on the Pythagorean theorem we see that the

norm or length of the vector is now defined as

(6.3.3)

The cosine of angle between vectors and

(0 ) is equal to the scalar projection of

the unit vector along onto the unit vector

along :

(6.3.4)

cos

| |

where the number cos is called the Properties of the dot product:

dot (inner, scalar) product of vectors and .

Obviously, 1, 0, etc., so 1. 0,

if 0 then

1.

and 2.

3.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 11

6.3Linearvectorspace.Dot,cross,andtripleproducts

Question:Obviously,thechoiceofthebasisisnotunique.Howcanwechoosethebasis?

Vectors ,, are called linearly independent if 0 is possible only if

0, otherwise they are called linearly dependent.

Obviously, if ,, are linearly independent, then | | 0 for all 1, , .

A maximal number of linearly independent vectors of the vector space is call the dimension

of the vector space, and any linearly independent vectors , , are called the basis of the

vector space.

Theorem:

Any vector can be uniquely represented in the form of a linear combination of the basis vectors:

(6.3.5)

Proof:

Since 1 vectors are linearly dependent, we can write

0

where not all , , , are equal to zero. If 0 then ,, are linearly dependent and,

thus, 0. Then we can write

1

Real numbers , , are called the components of vector in the basis ,, . Thus, if

the basis is fixed, we can consider any vector as a set of numbers

,,

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 12

6.3.Linearvectorspace.Dot,cross,andtripleproducts(optional)

Note 1: In classical mechanics, we assume that in the physical space 3 (physical space is

threedimensional, 3D). This is an assumption based on our experience.

Note 2: In our 3D space, we can use, if necessary, nonorthogonal basis to introduce vector

components and to perform all operations with vectors. In is only important that basis must be

formed by linearly independent vectors. Such basis are used to introduce nonorthogonal

systems of coordinates.

Examples:

1. The vector addition and scalar multiplication now can be defined as follows

,, (6.3.6)

,, (6.3.7)

2. The inner (dot, scalar) product of two vectors and can now be defined as

(6.3.8)

arbitrary basis.Theyreduceto

thefamiliarformsfor

orthonormal (Cartesian)basis,

when

(6.3.9) 0

1

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 13

6.3Linearvectorspace.Dot,cross,andtripleproducts

The cross (vector) product of vectors and

is the vector that

1. Is equal to zero vector if | | 0 or

| | 0.

2. Is orthogonal to and .

3. Has the length

| sin | | sin |=areaofparallelogram

where is the angle between and . Righthanded Lefthanded

4. Has such direction that , , and Cartesiancoordinates Cartesiancoordinates

is the righthanded triplet, i.e. rotation

from to from the top of occurs in the

counterclockwise direction.

Then

, ,

... ...

(6.3.10)

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 14

6.3Linearvectorspace.Dot,cross,andtripleproducts

Note:Allpropertiesofthevectorproductcanbederivedfromthedefinition.Itisimportantthat

,

The triple product , , of vectors , , and

is the scalar calculated as

, ,

(6.3.11)

The triple product is equal to the signed

volume of a parallelepiped with edges

along vectors , , and :

cos

can be easily derived from properties of dot

and cross products.

apointwiththepositionvector .Thentheequationofthisplaneis 0.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 15

6.4Scalarandvectorfieldsandtheirderivatives

Lets consider 3D physical space. Based on experimental observations, in the classical mechanics

we make the following assumption about properties of the physical space:

The physical space is a Euclidean threedimensional (3D) space that means we can introduce

(global, unique for the whole space) 3D Cartesian coordinates such that the distance

between any two points , , and , , is given by

starting from the origin of the coordinates and

ending at point .

We can introduce three mutually orthogonal unit basic

vectors , , and connecting the origin with points

(1,0,0), (0,1,0) and (0,0,1) at the axes.

Every position vector can be represented in the form

where , , arecoordinatesandthescalar(dot)productis

Relative position of point with respect to point is characterized by the relative position

vector and distance

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 16

6.4Scalarandvectorfieldsandtheirderivatives

Letsconsidersomedomain ,whichcanbe

1. Onedimensional(1D):setofpointsatthereal axis

2. Twodimensional(2D):Setofpointsin plane

3. Threedimensional(3D):Setofpointsin space.

WeassumethatweintroduceaCartesiancoordinates withtheglobalbasis , ,

Ineverycasewecancharacterizeapoint of withtheposition(radius)vector

In3D,wewillconsideronlyrighthandcoordinates

1D2D3D

(6.4.1)

The function is called the scalar field.

1D: isafunction

2D: , isa2D(planar)scalarfield

3D: , , isa3Dscalarfield

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 17

6.4Scalarandvectorfieldsandtheirderivatives

The surface , , is called the isosurface of the scalar field .

In 2D case, curve defined by the equation , is called the isoline or contour line.

Example:Sphericallysymmetricgravitationalfield

The potential energy of a point mass in the spherically symmetric field of mass with center

in point , , is equal to

, ,

Isosurfaces aresphereswithcenterat , , .

Contourlinesat planearecircleswithcentersat , .

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 18

6.4Scalarandvectorfieldsandtheirderivatives

Now lets assume that in every point of we define a vector . Then is called

the vector field:

(6.4.2)

1D:

2D: , , ,

3D: , , , , , , , ,

The curve at every point of which the vector field is tangent to the curve is called the field line

of the vector field . Field lines are used for visualization of vector fields.

Example 1: Potential flow field around a cylinder in a crossflow.

, are polar coordinates ( cos , sin )

Scalar field: Velocity potential

, cos

2

Vectorfield:Fluidvelocity

1 sin cos cos sin

Whitecurves:Contourlinesofthevelocitypotentials

Blackcurves:Fieldlinesofthevelocityfields.

Influidmechanics,fieldlinesofthevelocityfieldarecalledthestreamlines.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 19

6.4Scalarandvectorfieldsandtheirderivatives

Example2:ScalartemperaturefieldExample3:Vectorvelocityfieldintheflowover

acircularcylinder

Localvelocityvectors

Fieldlinesofvelocityfield=streamlines

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 20

6.4Scalarandvectorfieldsandtheirderivatives

Example4:Electricfieldlinesofadipole Example5:MagneticfieldlinesovertheSun

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 21

6.4Scalarandvectorfieldsandtheirderivatives

Wecandefinederivativesofscalarandvectorfields,e.g.,withrespectto

, , , ,

lim (6.4.3)

, , , ,

lim

, , , , , , , , , , , ,

lim

(6.4.4)

Many rules valid for ordinary derivatives also hold for derivatives of the dot and cross products,

in particular

Thesepropertiesremainvalidbecause

arerepresentedintheformofsums,

whereeverytermisaproductoftwo

functions,e.g. .

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 22

6.5Curves

Lets consider a 3D space with Cartesian coordinates and a vector in this space, which

every coordinate is a function of some parameter :

, (6.5.1)

is called the vector function of parameter . Functions , , and are called the

coordinate functions of the vector function .

If is the position vector, then Eq. (6.5.1) determines a set of point in 3D space that form a

curve. In this case Eq. (6.5.1) is called the parametric representation of a curve.

Note: In 2D space, e.g., on the plane , we can use the

parametric representation of a plane (2D) curve in the form

Plane curve is a particular case of twisted (3D) curves.

Curve given by Eq. (6.5.1) is called oriented since an

increase of the parameter defines the direction of motion

along , is the initial point, is the terminal point.

Example 1: Parametric representation of a straight line in 3D

cos sin

Example 3: Parametric representation of a helix curve

cos sin /2

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 23

6.5Curves

Simple curve is a curve without multiple points, that is, without Curveswithmultiplepoints

points at which the curve intersects or touch itself.

A curve is called smooth in point (or at value of its

parameter), if its coordinate functions have derivatives of any

order in . A curve is called smooth if it is smooth in every point Piecewisesmoothcurve

of , .

A curve is called piecewise smooth if it consists of finitely many

smooth curves, i.e. can be represented as a set of a finite

number of smooth curves and can be divided into a

set of disjoint subintervals and for every subinterval is smooth.

If curve is smooth in point , we can define the vector function

Tangent

vector

lim

(6.5.2)

If | | 0, then vector takes the limiting position with respect

to the chord vector along the tangent to the

curve in point and is called the tangent vector to the curve

in the point .

Theparametricrepresentation

Example: If is time, is the trajectory of a point mass, then ofthetangenttothecurveis

is the velocity of the point mass.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 24

6.5Curves

Lets consider the arc (part of the curve) that corresponds to the

interval of the parameter , , and divide the arc by

points

, a

into a large set of curves . For every pair of neighbor points,

we can introduce the line segment with the chord vector

, which approximates curve .

Let max | | ). The smaller , the better

approximation of the arc by the broken line of chords with

endpoints . Then it is reasonable to call the following limit

lim | | lim | | (6.5.3)

the arc length. is the curve length.

Definition (6.5.3) shows us that / and

,

i.e. differential of the parameter corresponds to the

increment of the arc length called the linear

element of .

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 25

6.5Curves

Since is an increasing function, then can be used as another parameter. For this purpose,

we can resolve equation with respect to ). Then :

, 0

where , etc. For every curve there is a specific parameterization where

parameter is the arc length. For this parameterization

where

1

Thus,

| | 1

i.e. if the parameter is the arc length, the tangent vector is the unit tangent vector .

Theorem: If a vector function has unit length, 1, then the tangent vector is

orthogonal to , i.e. 0.

Proof: Assume 1. Then differentiation of the this equation results in:

2 2 2

0

2

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 26

6.5Curves(Optional)

Hereallderivativesarecalculated

for ,i.e. ,

Consequence:

If the parameter is the arc length then

0

If | | 0, then is called the principal normal

vector, /| | is called the unit principal

normal vector, and is called the unit

binormal vector.

Vectors , , and form the local trihedron of

mutually orthogonal vectors in a point of a curve.

Planes , , , , and , are called

osculating, normal, and rectifying planes.

Twomajornumericalpropertiesofatwistedcurvearethecurvature andtorsion :

| | | | (6.5.4)

Note: is parallel to , since , i.e. is orthogonal

to both and .

Meaning of curvature: It shows how fast the curve deviates from its tangent direction in the

point (for a straight line and 0; 1/ the radius of a circle).

Meaning of torsion: It shows how fast the curve deviates from a plane curve in the osculating

plane (for a plane curve and 0).

Note:Withexceptionofthefollowingexample,wewillnotusethecurvatureandtorsion.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 27

6.5Curves(Optional)

Example: Properties of a helix curve.

Parametric representation of the helix curve around axis of radius and pitch :

cos sin

2

sin cos

2

| |

2

cos sin

2

sin cos

2

cos sin sin cos

2 2

cos sin cos sin

| | 2 2

Curvature and torsion of the helix curve:

1 1 /2

,

1

2 2

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 28

6.6Surfaces

Thesurface in3Dspaceisasetofpointsthatcanbegivenbyanequation

, , 0 (6.6.1)

Example: is the sphere of radius with the center in the

point , , .

Locally, we can resolve Eq. (6.6.1) with respect to one of coordinates , , and obtain, e.g.

, (6.6.2)

For instance, at any point of the sphere, where , we can write

Equation in the form (6.6.2) may be not valid, however, for the whole surface, since given and

may correspond to a few different at the surface (e.g., for a sphere given and correspond

to two points on the sphere surface).

, ,

On the other hand, Eq. (6.6.2) shows that locally

the surface can be represented parametrically as

(6.6.3) , ,

where , denotes a radius vector of a point at ,

the surface. Eq. (6.6.3) shows that a surface is a

twodimensional set of points, since we need two

parameters ( and ) to describe it parametrically. ,

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 29

6.6Surfaces

In general, parameters do not need to coincide with Cartesian coordinates, so one can introduce

the general parametric representation of a surface in the form

(6.6.4) , , , ,

where and vary in some region on plane.

Eq. (6.6.4) describes the parametric mapping of the plane region into

3D surface.

Mapping

In order to define any surface parametrically, we need to

1. Introduce three functions: , , , , and , .

2. Define region on plane where and varies.

Example: Parametric representation of a cylinder and a sphere

0 2 0 2

0

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 30

6.6Surfaces

If we fix either or , Eq. (6.6.4) gives the parametric representation of a curve. Thus, the

parametric representation (6.6.4) defines two families of curves on the surface:

curves ( ):

, , ,

curves ( ):

, , ,

and curves are called the grid lines.

If both and have derivatives over and in

point , then we can introduce in this point two vectors , ,

,

, ,

(6.6.5) ,

These vectors are tangents in point to the corresponding

grid lines.

If 0, then we can plot a unique plane, containing

the point and vectors and . This plane is called the

tangent plane to the surface in point .

If tangent plane exists in point , then vector

is called the normal to the surface at point P ( is normal

to both and ). Vector /| | /| |

is called the unit normal.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 31

6.6Surfaces

Surface is called smooth in a point if in this point the surface has a unique tangent plane (i.e.

and exist and | | 0).

Surface is called smooth if it is smooth in every its point.

Surface is called piecewise smooth if it can be represented as a set of adjoin smooth surfaces.

Physical meaning of the tangent plane: If we perform calculation of surface properties in an

infinitesimal vicinity of point , we can perform all calculation on the tangent plane. Lets use

this rule in order to calculate the area of the surface that corresponds to increments and .

Lets assume that we consider point at the surface when parameters are equal to and and

we give them infinitesimal increments and . These increments correspond to the surface

element of infinitesimal area . Question: How is related to and ?

On the tangent plane, and correspond to the parallelogram of area

(6.6.6) | | | | | |

For the future consideration, we will also need areas of projections of this parallelogram onto

coordinate planes , , , , and , . Lets introduce the direction cosines for the unit

normal cos cos cos , where is an angle between normal and axis

( cos ), etc. Then the are of projection of onto , , , is equal to

cos | | | |

| |

(6.6.7) cos | |

cos | |

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 32

6.6Surfaces

The parametric representation

, , , ,

actually define two surfaces that are different in every

point by the direction of the normal: one surface has

normal , another has normal .

If we choose a unique direction of the normal in every

point of the surface, we say we choose orientation of the

surface.

A smooth surface is called orientable if the normal

direction given at an arbitrary point of can be continued

in a unique and continuous way to the entire surface.

A piecewise smooth surface is called orientable if we

can orient every smooth piece of so that along each

curve , which is a common boundary of two pieces

and , the positive direction of relative to is

opposite to the direction of relative to .

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 33

6.7Lineintegralsofscalarandvectorfields

Lets consider an oriented curve given by the parametric

representation:

, a

We assume that is a smooth curve, so / exists

in a any point of and the linear element is

.

The line integral of a scalar field over the curve is

the integral

, , (6.7.1)

The line integral of a vector field over the curve is the integral

(6.7.2)

The curve is called the path of integration. If , then is the closed path and the

line integral of a vector field is called circulation of the vector field and denoted as .

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 34

6.7Lineintegralsofscalarandvectorfields

Note: Direction that corresponds to increasing parameter is called positive.

Example: Lets consider motion of a point mass in a force field (e.g. gravitational field).

Then the line integral over the trajectory is the work done by

force .

Properties of the line integral:

1. Linearity

2. Additivity

3. Additivity allows one to extent definition of the line integral to any piecewise smooth curve

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 35

6.8Lineintegralsofscalarandvectorfields

Theorem:

For a given vector field and curve , all parametric representations of curve that give the

same positive direction on yield the same value of the line integral.

Proof:

Lets consider another parameterization of curve with some parameter :

,

. Since it is the representation of the same curve, . Then

Example 1: 0 0 . Lets calculate line integral over a straight path.

Parametric representation of the path:

, ,

0 1

, ,

2

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 36

6.7Lineintegralsofscalarandvectorfields

Example 2: , Line integral over the helix curve. Radius 1

Parametric representation of a helix curve around axis : Pitch 6

cos sin 3 , 0 2

sin cos 3

3 cos sin t sin cos 3

3 sin cos 3 sin

per unit length) and is the distance from the point to the axis , then

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 37

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

Gradient

Lets consider a scalar field , , . Gradient of this field is the vector field grad :

grad (6.8.1)

(6.8.2)

Lets consider a 3D scalar field and define some directional vector of unit

length ( 1) and . Then the directional derivative of the scalar field

in the direction of vector is

0

lim lim

The directional derivative indicates the rate of change of the scalar field in the direction of

vector . Lets calculate through partial derivatives / etc. using the chain rule:

(6.8.3)

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 38

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

Note: Gradient and directional derivative are easily applied to 2D fields:

grad , (6.8.4)

1. Direction of indicate the direction of the maximum increase of the scalar field . The

direction of the maximum increase is given by such for which is maximum. From

definition of the dot product

cos cos

where is the angle between and . is maximum, when 0, i.e. is directed

along .

2. If we introduce an isosurface in point , , ,

which is defined by the equation , ,

, , , then in this point is

directed along the surface normal vector.

In order to prove it, lets introduce a curve at the

isosurface going through point , , , which is

given by the vector function

. Since this curve lies on the Thesurfacenormalvector isperpen

isosurface, it should satisfy dicular tothesurfacetangentplane.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 39

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

, ,

Lets differentiate this equation with respect to in point , , . Then we will have

0 0

tangent place to the surface. Thus, is orthogonal to any vector lying in the tangent plane,

i.e. it is the surface normal vector.

3. Gradient is the physical vector, which retains its direction and length after any coordinate

transformation. The gradient is normal to the isosurface and its absolute value is equal to

the maximum increase of the scalar field. Since these properties of the scalar field do

not depend on coordinates, the direction and absolute value of also do not depend on

the choice of coordinates.

Example 1: Potential energy and force of the spherically symmetric gravitational field.

The potential energy of a point mass in the spherically symmetric field of mass with center

in a point , , is equal to

, , / , .

Then

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 40

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

Note: In 2D, the contour lines of the scalar field , and field lines of its gradient

constitute two families of curves that are locally normal to each other in every point.

Example 2: Electric field of a dipole ,

Contourlinesoftheelectrostatic

Potential

Fieldlinesoftheelectricalfield

Note: Two families of locally orthogonal curves can be used in order to introduce nonCartesian

orthogonal coordinates in 2D.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 41

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

Example 3: Potential fluid flow over a cylinder in the cross flow

cos , sin

, cos

2 Contourlinesoftheflow

potential white

Fieldlinesofthevelocityfield

(streamlines;black)

Thesecurvescanbeusedinordertointroduceorthogonalcoordinates.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 42

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

Example 4: Application of the gradient in the optimization problem

Optimization in , space = finding a maximum of a goal function

,

1. Plotcontourlines ,

2. grad isnormaltocontourlines

3. grad correspondstothe

directionofthefastestincreaseof

thegoalfunction

4. Stepsalonggrad leadtoalocal

maximum

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 43

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

Divergence

Lets consider a 3D vector field , , , , , , , , . The

divergence of the vector field is the scalar field div , which value is equal to

(6.8.5) div

Properties of divergence:

1. Lets consider a small parallelepiped of volume

. For any face we can define the flux of

vector field as , where is the unit vector

normal to the face and directed outwards and is the

face area. Then the flux through the whole surface is

, , , , , , , ,

, , , , div

Now we see that

div lim (6.8.6)

Divergence div defines the ratio of the flux of the vector field through the surface of an

(infinitely) small domain to the volume of this domain.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 44

6.7Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

2. Divergence is the physical scalar, i.e. its value does not change at any coordinate

transformation. Proof is based on Eq. (6.7.6), but also can be performed directly by

calculating div after a coordinate transformation.

Example 1: Divergence of a central vector field. The potential energy of a point mass in the

spherically symmetric gravitational field of mass with center in point , , is equal to

, , / , .

Then

3 /

2

Note: Divergence of any central vector field is a central scalar field.

If , , 0, then the scalar field , , depends only on the distance to the

center of coordinates and, thus, it is spherically symmetric with respect to . Then

, 2 .

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 45

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

The divergence is important for models based on the conservation laws: If is a flux density of

some physical quantity, then div is related density of sources or drains of this quantity.

= , mass flux density of a fluid

, , , mass flux through the face

, mass flux through the whole surface

, fluid mass inside the parallelepiped

Mass conservation law (no sources or drains for mass):

0

0

div 0

Steadystate flow ( / 0): div 0, which means the absence of internal sources or

drains of mass inside the fluid flow.

Incompressible flow ( ): div 0.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 46

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

Curl

Lets consider a vector field , , . The curl curl of is the vector field

curl (6.7.7)

This definition is valid for righthanded Cartesian coordinates. For lefthanded coordinates, the

definitions includes the negative sign: curl .

Properties of curl:

1. The curl is the physical vector, i.e. it does not change at any coordinate transformation

between any righthanded coordinates.

2. Lets assume that is the velocity field of a rigid body. It is proved in kinematics that the

velocity field in the rigid body with respect to pole at point can be represented in the form

where is the angular velocity vector. Lets use righthanded coordinates where .

Then

1

curl 2 2 curl (6.7.8)

2

0

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 47

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

Deformable body: Relative positions of points vary in the course of motion

One can show that for arbitrary deformable body (solid, liquid or gaseous), the kinematic

formula can be generalized in the form:

1

curl

2

where is the deformation velocity which describes the change of relative positions of

points in the body due to its deformation. Thus, for any body, rigid or deformable, the curl of

the velocity field describes the part of the motion that corresponds to the rigid rotation.

Rigidbodyrotation, 0 Deformablebodyrotation, 0

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 48

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

3. Circulation of the vector field on the plane

Lets consider a small rectangle in plane that corresponds to increments and . We can

introduce the circulation of the vector field along the contour of this rectangle:

, , , ,

curl

Nowweseethat

(6.8.9) curl lim

i.e. limit of circulation of a vector field over a small contour to

the area bounded by this contour is equal to the component

of the curl normal to the contour. Righthandsidescrewrule

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 49

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

Laplacian

The Laplacian of a scalar field , , is

Example:Theheatconductionequationinthemediumwithconstantpropertiesis

, , , and are invariant with respect to coordinate transformations.

Linearity, e.g., , where and are constants.

Vector field is called gradient (conservative) field, if there is scalar field , such that

grad . Scalar field is called the potential of the vector field .

Vector field is called irrotational field if curl 0.

Vector field is called divergencefree field if div 0.

Vector field is called central field if | | /| |.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 50

6.8Gradient,Divergence,andCurl

Properties:

Any gradient field is irrotational, i.e. curl grad 0.

Curl produces divergencefree field: div curl 0.

Any central field is a gradient field with the potential | | , .

Fluid flow is called irrorational (or potential) if its velocity field is irrorational, i.e. curl 0.

Now assume that , then curl curl 0. is called the velocity potential.

If fluid flow is incompressible, when the fluid density is constant, and the velocity field is

divergentfree, 0.

Then the velocity potential in any irrotational incompressible fluid flow should satisfy the

Laplace equation:

0 or 0.

ME501,MechanicalEngineeringAnalysis,AlexeyVolkov 51

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