You are on page 1of 10

Basic Operation For Over Temperature Protection

During starting sufficient current will flow through the CR relay to actuate it as the temperature
and resistance of the thermistors are low.

When the START-push button is pressed the primary winding of control transformer T1 gets
energised and therefore the secondary winding sends direct current to CR relay through diodes
D1 and D2.

With the closing of CR, contact CR1 closes and hence coil M gets energised. The three main
contacts close and the
motor is energised.

Whenever there is excessive motor temperature due to some reason, the thermistor resistance
increases and causes reduction in the current flowing through CR relay coil.Thus the CR relay
drops, which in turn drops contactor M and therefore the motor stops.

The motor can be started again only when temperature and hence resistance of the thermistors
drop to low values.For this, the relay is adjusted such that its pick up current is more than twice
its drop out current.
You need to know the followings for the PTC thermistor. Its power rating, temperature switching
point and minimum and maximum resistance change near the temperature switching point.

Assuming that the thermistor will switch between 240 ohms to 100k Ohms or higher resistance
value.

24V power connected to thermistor in series with relay of similar resistance will pass 50mA
current through coil and will have 12V drop across thermistor. Hence, take a 12V 50mA coil
current relay SPDT type and connect the coil in series with thermistor to 24V standard industrial
DC power supply.

Relay will remain ON most of the time and will cause some amount of heating in thermistor
(0.6W) which will be dissipated in motor coil. If motor heats up then thermistor resistance will
go up and relay will become OFF. Potential free contacts of relay can drive your PLC input.

If you wish to connect thermistor to PLC relay input then use slightly greater voltage for the
thermistor in the range of 48V for 24V PLC relay input sense coils.

If you have opto isolators in your PLC for sensing then be very careful not to exceed the input
voltage and current of the opto isolator else they will get permanently damaged due to over
current. Read the PLC catalog before you start connecting anything to it.

This is a simple interface to PLC through PTC thermistor. You have to use 24V or 36V or 48V
excitation voltage depending on the relay coil rating. 100mA relay sense coil will require 48V
power.

For Opto Isolator input use only 6V, 12V or 24V as permitted by the opto isolator input scheme
of your PLC and also watch out for input polarity. Relay does not require polarity but opto
isolator have polarity to input LED.

For NPN type input stage simple connect the thermistor to input and ground and no external
power required.
It is also possible to make PTC output as 4-20mA if your PLC is located at far point. I need the
response curve of the PTC to give you such proper design for direct use.

How Over Temperature /Overheat protection works?


The important component for over temperature protection from type of semiconductor device is
called Thermistor is used because this material have the unique property.

It have the comparatively resistance in low value at normal temperature and constant upto
some value and has a large positive temperature co-efficient of resistance that can be controlled
the range of temperature.

Another good feature is that its power carrying capacity is self-limiting since the device has the
tendency to increase its resistance as the temperature rises.

Electrical motor Part

Stator of Single Phase Induction Motor

The stator of the single phase induction motor has laminated stamping to reduce eddy current
losses on its periphery. The slots are provided on its stamping to carry stator or main winding. In
order to reduce the hysteresis losses, stamping are made up of silicon steel. When the stator
winding is given a single phase ac supply, the magnetic field is produced and the motor rotates at
a speed slightly less than the synchronous speed Ns which is given by

The construction of the stator of asynchronous motor is similar to that of three phase induction
motor except there are two dissimilarity in the winding part of the single phase induction motor.

1. Firstly the single phase induction motors are mostly provided with concentric coils. As
the number of turns per coil can be easily adjusted with the help of concentric coils, the
mmf distribution is almost sinusoidal.

2. Except for shaded pole motor, the asynchronous motor has two stator windings namely
the main winding and the auxiliary winding. These two windings are placed in space
quadrature with respect to each other.

Rotor of Single Phase Induction Motor


The construction of the rotor of the single phase induction motor is similar to the squirrel
cage three phase induction motor. The rotor is cylindrical in shape and has slots all over
its periphery. The slots are not made parallel to each other but are bit skewed as the
skewing prevents magnetic locking of stator and rotor teeth and makes the working of
induction motor more smooth and quieter. The squirrel cage rotor consists of aluminium,
brass or copper bars. These aluminium or copper bars are called rotor conductors and are
placed in the slots on the periphery of the rotor. The rotor conductors are permanently
shorted by the copper or aluminium rings called the end rings. In order to provide
mechanical strength these rotor conductor are braced to the end ring and hence form a
complete closed circuit resembling like a cage and hence got its name as "squirrel cage
induction motor". As the bars are permanently shorted by end rings, the rotor electrical
resistance is very small and it is not possible to add external resistance as the bars are
permanently shorted. The absence of slip ring and brushes make the construction of
single phase induction motor very simple and robust.

Working Principle of Single Phase Induction Motor


NOTE: We know that for the working of any electrical motor whether its ac or dc motor,
we require two fluxes as, the interact of these two fluxes produced the required torque,
which is desired parameter for any motor to rotate. When single phase ac supply is given
to the stator winding of single phase induction motor, the alternating current starts
flowing through the stator or main winding. This alternating current produces an
alternating flux called main flux. This main flux also links with the rotor conductors and
hence cut the rotor conductors. According to the Faradays law of electromagnetic
induction, emf gets induced in the rotor. As the rotor circuit is closed one so, the current
starts flowing in the rotor. This current is called the rotor current. This rotor current
produces its own flux called rotor flux. Since this flux is produced due to induction
principle so, the motor working on this principle got its name as induction motor. Now
there are two fluxes one is main flux and another is called rotor flux. These two fluxes
produce the desired torque which is required by the motor to rotate.

Why Single Phase Induction Motor is not Self Starting?

According to double field revolving theory, any alternating quantity can be resolved into
two components, each component have magnitude equal to the half of the maximum
magnitude of the alternating quantity and both these component rotates in opposite
direction to each other. For example - a flux, can be resolved into two components

Each of these components rotates in opposite direction i. e if one m / 2 is rotating in


clockwise direction then the other m / 2 rotates in anticlockwise direction.

When a single phase ac supply is given to the stator winding of single phase induction
motor, it produces its flux of magnitude, m. According to the double field revolving
theory, this alternating flux, m is divided into two components of magnitude m /2. Each
of these components will rotate in opposite direction, with the synchronous speed, Ns. Let
us call these two components of flux as forward component of flux, f and backward
component of flux, b. The resultant of these two component of flux at any instant of
time, gives the value of instantaneous stator flux at that particular instant.

Now at starting, both the forward and backward components of flux are exactly opposite
to each other. Also both of these components of flux are equal in magnitude. So, they
cancel each other and hence the net torque experienced by the rotor at starting is zero. So,
the single phase induction motors are not self starting motors.

The PTC temperature sensors (temperature-dependent with positive temperature


coeffcient) are selected by the
manufacturer of the motor depending on:
the motor insulation class according to IEC/EN 60034-11,
the special characteristics of the motor, such as the conductor cross-section of the
windings, the permissible
overload factor etc.
special conditions prescribed by the user, such as the permissible ambient temperature,
risks resulting from
locked rotor, extent of permitted overload etc
Electrical motor Part

Stator of Single Phase Induction Motor

The stator of the single phase induction motor has laminated stamping to reduce eddy current
losses on its periphery. The slots are provided on its stamping to carry stator or main winding. In
order to reduce the hysteresis losses, stamping are made up of silicon steel. When the stator
winding is given a single phase ac supply, the magnetic field is produced and the motor rotates at
a speed slightly less than the synchronous speed Ns which is given by

The construction of the stator of asynchronous motor is similar to that of three phase induction
motor except there are two dissimilarity in the winding part of the single phase induction motor.

3. Firstly the single phase induction motors are mostly provided with concentric coils. As
the number of turns per coil can be easily adjusted with the help of concentric coils, the
mmf distribution is almost sinusoidal.

4. Except for shaded pole motor, the asynchronous motor has two stator windings namely
the main winding and the auxiliary winding. These two windings are placed in space
quadrature with respect to each other.

Rotor of Single Phase Induction Motor

The construction of the rotor of the single phase induction motor is similar to the squirrel
cage three phase induction motor. The rotor is cylindrical in shape and has slots all over
its periphery. The slots are not made parallel to each other but are bit skewed as the
skewing prevents magnetic locking of stator and rotor teeth and makes the working of
induction motor more smooth and quieter. The squirrel cage rotor consists of aluminium,
brass or copper bars. These aluminium or copper bars are called rotor conductors and are
placed in the slots on the periphery of the rotor. The rotor conductors are permanently
shorted by the copper or aluminium rings called the end rings. In order to provide
mechanical strength these rotor conductor are braced to the end ring and hence form a
complete closed circuit resembling like a cage and hence got its name as "squirrel cage
induction motor". As the bars are permanently shorted by end rings, the rotor electrical
resistance is very small and it is not possible to add external resistance as the bars are
permanently shorted. The absence of slip ring and brushes make the construction of
single phase induction motor very simple and robust.
Working Principle of Single Phase Induction Motor
NOTE: We know that for the working of any electrical motor whether its ac or dc motor,
we require two fluxes as, the interact of these two fluxes produced the required torque,
which is desired parameter for any motor to rotate. When single phase ac supply is given
to the stator winding of single phase induction motor, the alternating current starts
flowing through the stator or main winding. This alternating current produces an
alternating flux called main flux. This main flux also links with the rotor conductors and
hence cut the rotor conductors. According to the Faradays law of electromagnetic
induction, emf gets induced in the rotor. As the rotor circuit is closed one so, the current
starts flowing in the rotor. This current is called the rotor current. This rotor current
produces its own flux called rotor flux. Since this flux is produced due to induction
principle so, the motor working on this principle got its name as induction motor. Now
there are two fluxes one is main flux and another is called rotor flux. These two fluxes
produce the desired torque which is required by the motor to rotate.

Why Single Phase Induction Motor is not Self Starting?

According to double field revolving theory, any alternating quantity can be resolved into
two components, each component have magnitude equal to the half of the maximum
magnitude of the alternating quantity and both these component rotates in opposite
direction to each other. For example - a flux, can be resolved into two components

Each of these components rotates in opposite direction i. e if one m / 2 is rotating in


clockwise direction then the other m / 2 rotates in anticlockwise direction.

When a single phase ac supply is given to the stator winding of single phase induction
motor, it produces its flux of magnitude, m. According to the double field revolving
theory, this alternating flux, m is divided into two components of magnitude m /2. Each
of these components will rotate in opposite direction, with the synchronous speed, Ns. Let
us call these two components of flux as forward component of flux, f and backward
component of flux, b. The resultant of these two component of flux at any instant of
time, gives the value of instantaneous stator flux at that particular instant.

Now at starting, both the forward and backward components of flux are exactly opposite
to each other. Also both of these components of flux are equal in magnitude. So, they
cancel each other and hence the net torque experienced by the rotor at starting is zero. So,
the single phase induction motors are not self starting motors.
Basic Operation For Over Temperature Protection

During starting sufficient current will flow through the CR relay to actuate it as the temperature
and resistance of the thermistors are low.

When the START-push button is pressed the primary winding of control transformer T1 gets
energised and therefore the secondary winding sends direct current to CR relay through diodes
D1 and D2.

With the closing of CR, contact CR1 closes and hence coil M gets energised. The three main
contacts close and the
motor is energised.

Whenever there is excessive motor temperature due to some reason, the thermistor resistance
increases and causes reduction in the current flowing through CR relay coil.Thus the CR relay
drops, which in turn drops contactor M and therefore the motor stops.
The motor can be started again only when temperature and hence resistance of the thermistors
drop to low values.For this, the relay is adjusted such that its pick up current is more than twice
its drop out current.

You need to know the followings for the PTC thermistor. Its power rating, temperature switching
point and minimum and maximum resistance change near the temperature switching point.

Assuming that the thermistor will switch between 240 ohms to 100k Ohms or higher resistance
value.

24V power connected to thermistor in series with relay of similar resistance will pass 50mA
current through coil and will have 12V drop across thermistor. Hence, take a 12V 50mA coil
current relay SPDT type and connect the coil in series with thermistor to 24V standard industrial
DC power supply.

Relay will remain ON most of the time and will cause some amount of heating in thermistor
(0.6W) which will be dissipated in motor coil. If motor heats up then thermistor resistance will
go up and relay will become OFF. Potential free contacts of relay can drive your PLC input.

If you wish to connect thermistor to PLC relay input then use slightly greater voltage for the
thermistor in the range of 48V for 24V PLC relay input sense coils.

If you have opto isolators in your PLC for sensing then be very careful not to exceed the input
voltage and current of the opto isolator else they will get permanently damaged due to over
current. Read the PLC catalog before you start connecting anything to it.

This is a simple interface to PLC through PTC thermistor. You have to use 24V or 36V or 48V
excitation voltage depending on the relay coil rating. 100mA relay sense coil will require 48V
power.
For Opto Isolator input use only 6V, 12V or 24V as permitted by the opto isolator input scheme
of your PLC and also watch out for input polarity. Relay does not require polarity but opto
isolator have polarity to input LED.

For NPN type input stage simple connect the thermistor to input and ground and no external
power required.

It is also possible to make PTC output as 4-20mA if your PLC is located at far point. I need the
response curve of the PTC to give you such proper design for direct use.

How Over Temperature /Overheat protection works?


The important component for over temperature protection from type of semiconductor device is
called Thermistor is used because this material have the unique property.

It have the comparatively resistance in low value at normal temperature and constant upto
some value and has a large positive temperature co-efficient of resistance that can be controlled
the range of temperature.

Another good feature is that its power carrying capacity is self-limiting since the device has the
tendency to increase its resistance as the temperature rises.