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class notes, M.

Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

ECE 145B / 218B, notes set 3:


Electrical device noise models.

Mark Rodwell
University of California, Santa Barbara

rodwell@ece.ucsb.edu 805-893-3244, 805-893-3262 fax


class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Thermal Noise

d En En* hf hf
4R * R
df 2 exp( hf / kT ) 1 R In

d I n I n* 4 hf hf En
*
df R 2 exp( hf / kT ) 1

For hf kT these become


d En En*
4kTR Available Power
df
kT
d I n I n* 4kT

df R

hF=kT Frequency
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Available Thermal Noise Power


M aximum power transfer : load R matched to generator R.
With matched load, voltage across load is E N / 2
R
With matched load, current through load is I N / 2 R

En
Given that
d En En* d I n I n* 4kT d Pload
4kTR or kT
df df R df

R
R R In R

Pload is the maximum (the available)


En noise power, hence
d Pavailable,noise
kT
df
All resistors have equal available noise power.
Any compononent under thermal equilibriu m (no bias) follows this law.
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Rough Argument for Thermal Noise Expression

Each degree of freedom in a systemat thermal equilibriu m


with a reservoir must have expected energy kT / 2.

Thermal equilibriu m is obtained via the resistor R L C


dissipation : circuit power heat EN
thermal noise : heat circuit power

A filter of 1 Hz bandwidth, observed for 1 second, has two


degrees of freedom (sin(2f o ) & cos(2f o )), hence the total
available power in this bandwidth must be kTf .
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Noise from any impedance under thermal equilibrium


For any component or complex network under thermal equilibriu m
( no energy supply)

d Pavailable,noise
kT
df
d En En* d I n I n*
4kT Re( Z ) or 4kT Re(Y )
df df

This follows from the 2 nd law of thermodynamics.


This allows quick noise calculatio n of complex passive networks
This allows quick noise calculatio n of antennas.

Biased semiconduc tor devices are NOT in thermal equilibriu m.


class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Noise from an Antenna

d Pavailable,noise d En En*
kT 4kT Re( Z )
df df

The antenna has both Ohmic and radiation resistance s.


Rrad

The Ohmic resistance has a noise voltage of spectral density En,rad

4kTambientROhmic , where Tambient is the physical antenna temperature


Rloss

By the2 nd law, the radiation resistance has a noise voltage of spectral En,loss

density 4kTfield Rrad , where T field is the average temperature


of the region from which the antenna receives signal power

Inter - galactic space is at 3.8 Kelvin... .


class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Noise on a capacitor

From
+
* *
d En E d I I 4kT R
4kTR or
n n n
Vc
C
df df R
En -
We find that
*
d VcVc* 1 1 d E E *


n n

df 1 j 2fRC 1 j 2fRC df
*
1 d En En

2 2 2 2
1 4 f R C df
So the mean stored Capacitor energy is
*
1 d En En
(1 / 2)C VcVc
2 2 2 2
df kT / 2
0
1 4 f R C df

This also follows directly from the Boltzmann law.


class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Shot noise
The proof (not given) extends upon our earlier discrete - time shot - noise calculatio n.

* If * , given a DC current I , the arrival of each electron is statistically


independen t of every other electron,

* then * the current has a noise power spectral density at lower frequencie s of
d I n I n*
2qI
df

M ost DCcurrents in circuits are * not * a statistically independen t flow of electrons.

The electron motion in a resistor generates local fields which influence the flow of
all other electrons. Classical resistors do not exhibit shot noise
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Shot Noise Example: Heavily Attenuated Light

An optical fiber is illuminate d by a noiseless source of optical power Pin and


produces a flux of photons per unit time of Pin / hoptical
The fiber has attenuation , hence the received optical power is Fin Pout Pin
and the received flux of photonsis Fout Pout / hoptical. Becuase each photon passes
through the fiber with probablity , the process again has shot noise with
*
d PoutPout
2hPout
df
This produces on a photodetector with quantum efficiency a photocurrent
I ph (q / h ) Pout with a shot noise of
*
d I outI out
2qI out
df
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Shot noise Example: Reverse Biased Schottky Diode

In the metal, electrons have a Fermi - Dirac energy distribution.


Some will have sufficient energy to cross over the barrier.

This produces reverse leakage current.

These events are (almost) independen t, hence the resulting


current has a noise spectral density of

*
d I leak I leak
2qI leak
df
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Shot noise* in PN junctions

The diode current is


I diode I s e qV / kT 1 I s e qV / kT I s I forward I reverse

Both the forward and reverse currents have shot noise, hence
*
d I diodeI diode
2qI forward 2qI reverse 2qI diode 2 I s
df

*
Under strong forward bias, d I diodeI diode df 2qI diode
*
under strong reverse bias, d I diodeI diode df 2qI s
*
Under zero bias, d I diodeI diode df 4kT / rdiode , as required by the2 nd law.

* Van der Zeil derives noise in PN junctions from the thermal noise of carrier diffusion.
The noise current spectral density thus calculated is equal to that of shot noise.
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Shot noise and PN junctions: another model

For a strongly forward biased junction


*
d I diodeI diode
2qI diode 2kT / rdiode where rdiode kT / qI diode
df
or
*
d VdiodeVdiode
2kTrdiode
df R
R In
hence
d Pdiode En
kT / 2
df

A biased diode has noise 1/2 that of a resistor of equal small - signal impedance.
The factor of 2 arises from one - way current flow.

* Van der Zeil derives noise in PN junctions from the thermal noise of carrier diffusion. The noise current spectral density thus calculated is equal to that of shot noise.
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Bipolar Transistor Model---without Noise

Ccbx

Rbb Ccbi Rc
B C

Rbe Vbe gm Vbee -jc

Cbe,diff =gm f Cje Rex


E
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Bipolar Transistor Model---with Noise

Ccbx

Ccbi INc EN,Rc Rc


B Rbb INb Rbe C

EN,Rbb Vbe

Cbe,diff =gm f Cje gm Vbee -jc


Rex
EN,Rex
E
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Bipolar Noise Model


Collector shot * noise
*
d I nc I nc
2qI c 2kT / re 2kTgm
df
Base shot * noise
*
d I nb I nb
2qI b 2kT / rbe
df
There is a slight correlatio n of I nb and I nc (a cross - spectral density)
when 2f ( b c ) approaches 1. We will ignore this small effect.

The physical resistors ( Rbb , Rex , Rc ) have thermal noise of spectral


density d V 2 df 4kTR

Rbe and re 1 / g m are not physical resistors.


The noise of Rbe and re are the base and the collector shot * noise generators .
* Van der Zeil derives noise in PN junctions from the thermal noise of carrier diffusion. The noise current spectral density thus calculated is equal to that of shot noise.
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

FET Small-Signal Model

Rg Cgd Rd
G D
Ri
Vgs Rds
Cgs
gm Vgse -j
Rs
S
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

FET Noise Model


Rg EN,Ri C gd INd EN,Rd Rd
G D

EN,Rg
INg
Ri
Vgs Rds

Cgs gm Vgs e -j
Rs
EN,Rs
S
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

FET Noise model


Rg EN,Ri C gd INd EN,Rd Rd
G D

EN,Rg
INg
Ri
Vgs Rds
Rg , Rs , Rd are physical resistance s d V 2 df 4kTR
Cgs gm Vgs e -j
I nd is the thermal noise of the channel current Rs
*
d I nd I nd df 4kTg m EN,Rs
2 / 3 : gradual - channel FET under constant mobility S

~ 1 1.5 : highly scaled FET under high - field conditions

Ri arises from the channel : E N ,Ri and I nd have small correlatio n


Effect is negligible approximate as uncorrelat ed.

d E N ,Ri E N* ,Ri df 4kTRi


*
I ng is the shot noise of the gate leakage current : d I ng I ng df 2qI gate
Rds is not a physical resistor - no associated noise generator.
class notes, M. Rodwell, copyrighted 2012

Alternate FET Noise model


4kTRg Cgd
Rg

Input
noise gmVgs
Ri
term 4kT*Gamma/gm
Cgs Vgs

Rs

4kTRs

You will also see this in the literature. There is no new physics here at all.
We have just applied the formula that for a general impedance
d I n I n*
2qI gate 4kT Re(Y ) 2qI gate 4kT * 2fC gs Ri
2

df
...to get the input in terms of a current.