You are on page 1of 151

WFCM

WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION MANUAL

WORKBOOK
Design of Wood Frame Buildings
for High Wind, Snow and
Seismic Loadings

American Forest & Paper Association


American Wood Council

ln Cooperation with the


International Code Council
May 2013

Codes and Standards Addenda and Amendments Related to Design Value Changes

The American Lumber Standard Committee (ALSC) Board of Review has approved changes to design
values for all grades and all sizes of visually-graded Southern Pine and Mixed Southern Pine lumber, 2"- 4"
thick, with a recommended effective date of June 1, 2013. For more information, visit www.spib.org and
www.southernpine.com.

AWC has developed addenda and other updates to use with new construction designed in accordance with
many of its standards and design tools. However, this document has not been updated to account for
changes to design values. Designers are urged to download the addendum to the 2001 WFCM, which
contains revised tables based on the new design values, and use them accordingly with this document.

For additional information or questions, visit the AWC website at www.awc.org or email your request to
info@awc.org.

Thank you.

222 Catoctin Circle, SE, Suite 201 Leesburg, VA 20175 202 463-2766 www.awc.org info@awc.org
Updates and Errata American Wood Council
While every effort has been made to ensure Engineered and Traditional Wood Products
the accuracy of the information presented, and
special effort has been made to assure that the information
reflects the state-of-the art, neither the American Forest & AWC Mission Statement
Paper Association nor its members assume any To increase the use of wood by assuring the broad
responsibility for any particular design prepared from this regulatory acceptance of wood products, developing
publication. Those using this document assume all design tools and guidelines for wood construction,
liability from its use. Updates or Errata are posted and influencing the development of public policies
are posted to the American Wood Council website affecting the use of wood products.
at www.awc.org. Technical inquiries may be
addressed to awcinfo@afandpa.org.

The American Wood Council (AWC) is the wood products division of the American Forest & Paper
Association (AF&PA). AF&PA is the national trade association of the forest, paper, and wood products
industry, representing member companies engaged in growing, harvesting, and processing wood and
wood fiber, manufacturing pulp, paper, and paperboard products from both virgin and recycled fiber, and
producing engineered and traditional wood products. For more information see www.afandpa.org.
WFCM
WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION MANUAL

WORKBOOK
Design of Wood Frame Buildings
for High Wind, Snow and
Seismic Loadings

American Forest & Paper Association


American Wood Council

ln Cooperation with the


Copyright 2005 International Code Council
American Forest & Paper Association, Inc.
Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook

Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook

First Printing: August 2004


Second Printing: September 2005

ISBN 0-9625985-4-2

Copyright 2004, 2005 by American Forest & Paper Association, Inc.


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical, or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation,
photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system) without express written permission of
the American Forest & Paper Association, Inc. For information on permission to copy material, please contact:

Copyright Permission
AF&PA American Wood Council
1111 Nineteenth St., NW, Suite 800
Washington, DC 20036
email: awcinfo@afandpa.org

Printed in the United States of America


AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook

FOREWORD
This Wood Frame Construction Manual prescriptive provisions found in Chapter 3 of the
Workbook (WFCM Workbook) provides a design WFCM. References to page numbers, tables and
example, typical checklist, and background section numbers are for those found in the 2001
information related to design of a wood-frame WFCM, unless noted otherwise. Additional
structure in accordance with AF&PAs Wood engineering provisions or alternate solutions are
Frame Construction Manual (WFCM) for One- and provided where necessary. See the American Wood
Two-Family Dwellings, 2001 Edition. The design Council website (www.awc.org) for an in-depth
example uses plans from a 2-story residence overview of the WFCM.
designed to resist wind, seismic and snow loads. While building codes (and the WFCM) are
Typically, these load conditions do not all apply to organized based on the construction sequence
the same structure (e.g., usually only 2 of these (foundation to roof), this design example is
conditions are evaluated depending on the organized based on the typical design sequence
geographic location and local building code (roof to foundation).
requirements). However, all three load conditions The Association invites and welcomes
are evaluated in this example to show the broader comments, inquiries and suggestions relative to the
range of applicability of the WFCM. The authority provisions of this document.
having jurisdiction should be consulted for
applicable load conditions. American Forest & Paper Association
The design example is based primarily on American Wood Council

The design example herein is based on AWCs Colonial Homes Idea House in Williamsburg, VA designed by nationally
acclaimed architect William E. Poole. The house was opened to the public in June 1995, and was featured in the October
1995 issue of Colonial Homes magazine.

The 47,000 square foot colonial style mansion featured both traditional and modern wood applications. The faade
replicates a historical home in Connecticut. Clad in southern pine siding, the house had glulam door headers, oak floors,
and antiqued wood kitchen cabinets. But what caught visitors attention most were the intricate wood moldings throughout
the house and the inlaid wood design bordering the foyer floor.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook

Table of Contents
Part / Title Page

I General ...................................1

II Roof Story Design .................13

III Top Story Design ...................29

IV Bottom Story Design .............41

Appendix A Supplemental Worksheets .....85

Appendix B Related Papers

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 1

GENERAL
INFORMATION

Building Description ..............................................2


Loads on the Building............................................4
WFCM Applicability Limitations ........................5
Prescriptive Design Limitations............................6
Load Paths ..............................................................7
Design Checklists ...................................................8

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


2 General Information

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information


BUILDING DESCRIPTION

ATTIC STORAGE

FINISHED ATTIC

RAISED CEILING

WEST WING

SLAB ON GRADE

MAIN HOUSE

SLAB ON GRADE
BASEMENT UNDER

EAST WING
NORTH

Option 1: Design as Separate Structures

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 3

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information


BUILDING DESCRIPTION

Bottom Floor Plan

North Openings
Windows
Typical 3'x4'-6"
Master Bath 6'x4'-6"
Foyer 6'x4'-6"
Kitchen 6'x6'
North Bath 4'x6'

Doors
Typical 3'x7'-6"
Master Bedroom 8'x8'-4"
Foyer 6'x7'-6"
Family Room 9'x7'-6"
Kitchen 3'x8'-4"

Top Floor Plan


First Floor Wall Height = 9' (Main) 10' (Wings) Roof Pitch = 12:12
Second Floor Wall Height = 9' House Mean Roof Height = 29'
Finished Grade to Foundation Top = 1' (1'+1'+9'+1'+9'+((32'))
Floor Assembly Height = 1' Wing Mean Roof Height = 18'
Overall Building Dimension = 35' x 72' (1'+9'+((32'))
Basement under Main House, Slab on Grade under Wings Roof Overhangs = 2'

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


4 General Information

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information

LOADS ON THE BUILDING


Structural systems in the WFCM 2001Edition have been sized using dead, live, snow, seismic and wind loads in accordance
with the 2000 International Building Code.

Lateral Loads:
Wind:

3-second gust wind speed in Exposure Category B = 120 mph

Seismic:

Seismic Design Category (SDC) = D1

Short period design spectral response acceleration (SDS) = 0.83

One second period design spectral response acceleration (SD1) = 0.48

Seismic response coefficient (Cs) = 0.1383

Gravity Loads:

Roof: Floors:

Roof Dead Load = 10 psf First Floor Live Load = 40 psf

Roof Snow Load Second Floor Live Load = 30 psf

Ground Snow Load, Pg = 30 psf Attic Floor Live Load = 20 psf

Flat Roof Snow Load (calculated from ASCE 7- Floor Dead Load = 10 psf
98 see WFCM Commentary Table 2.14B)
= 1.5(0.7)Pg Ce Ct I
= (1.5)(0.7)(30)(1.0)(1.1)(1.0)
Walls:
= 34.65 psf
= 35 psf Wall Dead Load = 11 psf

Displacements:
Roof Rafters with Ceiling Attached L/ = 240
Roof Rafters with no Ceiling Attached L/ = 180
Floor Joists L/ = 360

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 5

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information

WFCM APPLICABILITY LIMITATIONS (p. 2)


The following table is used to determine whether the building geometry is within the applicability limitations of the
WFCM. Conditions not complying with the limitations shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineer
practice (see WFCM 1.1.3).

Attribute Limitation Design Case 


BUILDING DIMENSIONS
Number of Stories maximum 3 31 
minimum Flat 12:12 
Roof Slope
maximum 12:12 12:12 
Mean Roof Height (MRH) maximum 33' 29' 
minimum 16'2 
Building Dimension (L or W)
maximum 80' 32'2 
minimum 1:4 1:2 
Building Aspect Ratio (L/W)
maximum 4:1 2:1 
1
Building designed as a 3-story structure since the roof slope exceeds 6:12 (see WFCM 3.1.3.1).
2
Building dimensions based on design as separate structures (Option 1).

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


6 General Information

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information


PRESCRIPTIVE DESIGN LIMITATIONS (p. 106)
The following table is used to determine whether the building geometry is within the applicability limitations of the
WFCM Chapter 3 prescriptive provisions. Conditions not complying with the limitations shall be designed in
accordance with WFCM Chapter 2 (see WFCM 3.1.3).

Element Attribute Limitation Design Case 


FLOOR SYSTEMS
Lumber Joist Span 26' maximum 16' 
Joists Joist Spacing 24" maximum 16" 
Cantilevers/Setback - Supporting loadbearing walls d1 maximum N/A 
or shearwalls
Cantilevers - Supporting non-loadbearing wall non- L/4 maximum N/A 
shearwall
Floor Vertical Floor Offset df maximum N/A 
Diaphragms Floor Diaphragm Aspect Ratio 3:1 maximum 2:1 
Floor Diaphragm Openings Lesser of 12' or 50% of 12' 
Diaphragm Dimension
WALL SYSTEMS
Wall Studs Loadbearing Wall Height 10' maximum 10' 
Non-Loadbearing Wall Height 20' maximum 16' 
Wall Stud Spacing 24" maximum 16" 
Shearwalls Shearwall Line Offset 4' maximum 3' 
Shearwall Story Offset d maximum 0 
Shearwall Segment Aspect Ratio 3:1 maximum2 3:1 
ROOF SYSTEMS
Lumber Rafter Span (Horizontal Projection) 26'3 maximum 16' 
Rafters Rafter Spacing 24" maximum 16" 
Eave Overhang Length Lesser of 2' or rafter length/3 2' 
Rake Overhang Length Lesser of 2' or purlin span/2 24" 
Roof Slope 12:12 maximum 12:12 
Roof Roof Diaphragm Aspect Ratio 3:1 maximum 2:1 
Diaphragms
1
Exception: For roof live loads and ground snow loads less than or equal to 20 psf and 30 psf, respectively, lumber floor joist
cantilevers supporting load-bearing walls shall not exceed one-eighth of the backspan when supporting only a roof load where the roof clear span
does not exceed 28 feet.
2
Shear wall segments aspect ratios are limited to a maximum of 2:1 for seismic loads (Table 3.17D Footnote 3). 2003 International
Building Code (IBC) Table 2305.3.3 footnote a., permits a 2w/h reduction for shear walls not meeting maximum shear wall aspect ratio of 2:1 for
seismic loads.
3
For roof snow loads, tabulated spans are limited to 20 ft, to account for unbalanced snow loading in the table.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 7

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information


LOAD PATHS
A continuous load path shall be provided to transfer all lateral and vertical loads from the roof, wall, and floor systems to the
foundation.

Continuous Load Path: The interconnection of framing elements of the lateral and vertical force resisting systems,
which transfer lateral and vertical forces to the foundation.

See 2001 WFCM Figures 2.2a-c

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


8 General Information

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information


CHECKLIST
The following checklist is used to assist with the evaluation of a structure in accordance with WFCM Chapter 3
prescriptive provisions. Items are keyed to sections of the WFCM Chapter 3 to allow a systematic evaluation of the
structure. Blank checklists are reproduced in the Appendix of the workbook.

WFCM 3.2 CONNECTIONS CHECKLIST


3.2.1 Lateral Framing and Shear Connections
3.2.1.1 Roof Assembly .........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.1.2 Roof Assembly to Wall Assembly............................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.1.3 Wall Assembly .........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.1.4 Wall Assembly to Floor Assembly...........................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.1.5 Floor Assembly.........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.1.6 Floor Assembly to Wall Assembly or Sill Plate .......................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.1.7 Wall Assembly or Sill Plate to Foundation...............................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.2 Uplift Connections


3.2.2.1 Roof Assembly to Wall Assembly............................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.2.2 Wall Assembly to Wall Assembly............................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.2.3 Wall Assembly to Foundation ..................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.3 Overturning Resistance


3.2.3.1 Holddowns................................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.4 Sheathing and Cladding Attachment


3.2.4.1 Roof Sheathing .........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.4.2 Wall Sheathing .........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.4.3 Floor Sheathing.........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.4.4 Roof Cladding...........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.4.5 Wall Cladding...........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.5 Special Connections


3.2.5.1 Ridge Straps..............................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.5.2 Jack Rafters...............................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.5.3 Non-Loadbearing Wall Assemblies..........................................................................................................Ok? 

3.2.5.4 Connections around Wall Openings .........................................................................................................Ok? 

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 9

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information


WFCM 3.3 FLOOR SYSTEMS CHECKLIST
3.3.1 Wood Joist Systems
3.3.1.1 Floor Joists .............................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.1.1.1 Notching and Boring ...............................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.1.2 Bearing ...................................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.1.3 End Restraint..........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.1.4 Lateral Stability ......................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.1.5 Single or Continuous Floor Joists

3.3.1.5.1 Supporting Loadbearing Walls................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.1.5.2 Supporting Non-Loadbearing Walls........................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.1.5.3 Supporting Concentrated Loads ..............................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.1.6 Cantilevered Floor Joists

3.3.1.6.1 Supporting Loadbearing Walls................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.1.6.2 Supporting Non-Loadbearing Walls........................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.1.7 Floor Diaphragm Openings ....................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.2 Wood I-Joist Systems ....................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.3 Wood Floor Truss Systems .......................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.4 Floor Sheathing


3.3.4.1 Sheathing Spans........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.4.2 Sheathing Edge Support ...........................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.3.5 Floor Diaphragm Bracing ...........................................................................................................Ok? 

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


10 General Information

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information


WFCM 3.4 WALL SYSTEMS CHECKLIST
3.4.1 Exterior Walls
3.4.1.1 Wood Studs ............................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.1.1.1 Notching and Boring ...............................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.1.1.2 Stud Continuity........................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.1.1.3 Corners ....................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.1.2 Top Plates...............................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.1.3 Bottom Plates .........................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.1.4 Wall Openings
3.4.1.4.1 Headers....................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.1.4.2 Full Height Studs.....................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.1.4.3 Jack Studs................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.1.4.4 Window Sill Plates ..................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.4.2 Interior Loadbearing Partitions


3.4.2.1 Wood Studs ............................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.2.1.1 Notching and Boring ...............................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.2.1.2 Stud Continuity........................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.2.2 Top Plates...............................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.2.3 Bottom Plates .........................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.2.4 Wall Openings
3.4.2.4.1 Headers....................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.2.4.2 Studs Supporting Header Beams .............................................................................................Ok? 

3.4.3 Interior Non-Loadbearing Partitions


3.4.3.1 Wood Studs ............................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.3.1.1 Notching and Boring ...............................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.3.2 Top Plates...............................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.3.3 Bottom Plates .........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.4.4 Wall Sheathing


3.4.4.1 Sheathing and Cladding..........................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.4.2 Exterior Shearwalls ................................................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.4.2.1 Sheathing Type Adjustments...................................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.4.2.2 Perforated Shearwall Adjustments ..........................................................................................Ok? 
3.4.4.2.3 Holddowns ..............................................................................................................................Ok? 

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 11

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information


WFCM 3.5 ROOF SYSTEMS CHECKLIST
3.5.1 Wood Rafter Systems
3.5.1.1 Rafters ....................................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.1.1 Jack Rafters .............................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.1.2 Rafter Overhangs.....................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.1.3 Rake Overhangs ......................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.1.4 Notching and Boring ...............................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.2 Bearing ...................................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.3 End Restraint..........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.4 Ridge Beams ..........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.5 Hip and Valley Beams............................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.6 Ceiling Joists ..........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.7 Open Ceilings.........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.1.8 Roof Openings........................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.2 Wood I-Joist Roof Systems ......................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.3 Wood Roof Truss Systems ........................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.4 Roof Sheathing


3.5.4.1 Sheathing ..................................................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.4.2 Sheathing Edge Support ...........................................................................................................................Ok? 

3.5.5 Roof Diaphragm Bracing .............................................................................................................Ok? 

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


12 General Information

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: General Information

Notes

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 13

ROOF STORY
DESIGN

Main House .........................................................14


Roof Framing ...........................................15
Ceiling Framing .......................................16
Roof and Ceiling Sheathing.....................17
Connections ..............................................18

West Wing ...........................................................22


Roof Framing ...........................................23
Ceiling Framing .......................................23
Roof and Ceiling Sheathing.....................24
Connections ..............................................24

East Wing ............................................................25


Roof Framing ...........................................26
Ceiling Framing .......................................27
Roof and Ceiling Sheathing.....................28
Connections ..............................................28

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


14 Roof Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Roof and Ceiling Framing Details

FINISHED ATTIC

Cross Section

Roof Framing

Ceiling Framing
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 15

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Roof Framing
Rafters (WFCM 3.5.1.1)(page 115)
Assuming ceiling attached to rafters, choose rafters from Table 3.26B and 3.26D (pp. 201 and 203)

Ground Snow Load: ............................................................................................... 30 psf


Live Load: .............................................................................................................. 20 psf
Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. 10 psf
Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ 120 mph Exp. B
Rafter Vertical Displacement L/: ....................................................................... 240

Required Span (Horizontal Projection): ................................................................. 16 ft.

Thrust Factor (Footnote 1): .................................................................................... 1.0 1


Wind Factor (Footnote 2):...................................................................................... 0.71 2
Sloped Roof Adjustment (Footnote 3): .................................................................. 1.17 3 ASCE Live load Reduction
Selection of Species, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.26B & C)
Species Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spacing 16" 16" 16" 16"


Grade #2 #2 #2 #2

4 Table 3.26B Span 2x6 14'-1" 2x8 17'-3" 2x6 14'-1" 2x8 17'-9"
Live Load Span 14.1(1.0)(1.17)= 17.3(1.0)(1.17)= 14.1(1.0)(1.17)= 17.75(1.0)(1.17)= Trial and
4 x 1 x 3 error
16'-6" ok 20'-2" ok 16'-6" ok 20'-9" ok

5 Table 3.26B Span 2x10 22'-6" 2x10 21'-11" 2x10 23'-2" 2x10 22'-3"
Wind Load Span 22.5(0.71)(1.17)= 21.9(0.71)(1.17)= 23.17(0.71)(1.17)= 22.25(0.71)(1.17)= Trial and
5 x 2 x 3 error
18'-8" ok 18'-2" ok 19'-3" ok 18'-6" ok

6 Table 3.26D Span 2x10 17'-9" 2x10 17'-3" 2x10 18'-3" 2x10 17'-6"
Snow Load Span 17.75(1.0)= 17.25(1.0)= 18.25(1.0)= 17.5(1.0)= Trial and
6 x 1 error
17'-9" ok 17'-3" ok 18'-3" ok 17'-6" ok
Note: as an energy consideration, 2x10 rafters might be a minimum requirement for batt insulation.

Ridge Beams (WFCM 3.5.1.4)


Since thrust is accounted for in rafter selection, per 3.5.1.4 exception use: 1x14 Ridge Board
Alternatively, use 3/4"x14" plywood or OSB.

* Alternatively, a Ridge Beam could be designed per Table 2.16 (p. 103) since the span exceeds values shown in
Table 3.29A and B (pp. 211-212). Additional columns at beam ends would be required to establish load path to the
foundation. Also, fasteners will need to be designed to resist uplift from the rafters at each end of the ridge beam.
Ground Snow Load: ....................................................................................... 30 psf
Live Load: ....................................................................................................... 20 psf
Dead Load: ...................................................................................................... 10 psf
Required Span: ................................................................................................ 40 ft.
Building Width:............................................................................................... 32 ft.
Tabulated Load:............................................................................................... 530 plf interpolated
From the 2001 ASD Manual Glulam Supplement Table 7.2 choose:
5-1/2" x 25-1/2" Western Glulam or 5-1/2"x24-3/4" Southern Pine Glulam
AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION
16 Roof Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Ceiling Framing
Floor Joists (WFCM 3.3.1.1)
For habitable attics use residential sleeping area with 30psf live load, choose floor joists from Table 3.18A (p.
177):

Live Load: .............................................................................................................. 30 psf


Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. 10 psf
Joist Vertical Displacement L/: .......................................................................... 360

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 16 ft.

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.18A)


Specie Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spacing 16 16 16 16
Grade #2 #2 #2 #2
Size 2x10 2x10 2x10 2x10
Maximum Span 17'-5" 16'-10" 18'-0" 17'-2"

Floor Sheathing (WFCM 3.3.4.1)


Choose floor sheathing from Table 3.14 (p. 164):

Floor Joist Spacing:................................................................................................ 16 in.


Sheathing Type (Wood Structural Panel or Board Sheathing):.............................. WSP_
Span Rating or Grade: ........................................................................................... 24/16

Tabulated Minimum Panel Thickness:................................................................... 7/16 in.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 17

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Roof and Ceiling Sheathing


Sheathing (WFCM 3.5.4.1)
Choose Roof Sheathing from Tables 3.12A and 3.12B (p. 162)

Ground Snow Load ................................................................................................ 30 psf


Live Load ............................................................................................................... 20 psf
Dead Load .............................................................................................................. 10 psf
Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ 120 mph Exp. B

Rafter/Truss Spacing: ............................................................................................. 16 in.


Sheathing Type:...................................................................................................... WSP

Tabulated Minimum Panel Thickness:


From Table 3.12A:................................................................................... 3/8 in.
From Table 3.12B: .................................................................................. 3/8 in.

Roof Diaphragm Bracing (WFCM 3.5.5)


Blocking in first two rafter bays per Figure 3.7b (p. 127) and Table 3.1 (p. 139) fastener schedule.
Blocking to Joist (toe-nailed): ................................................................................ 2-8d Common

RAFTERS

OR
Bracing Gable Endwall with Attic Floor/Ceiling Sheathing Length from Table 3.15 (p. 165)
(assumes windward and leeward loads and sheathing length from gable end to gable end)

Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ 120 mph Exp. B


Roof Pitch: ............................................................................................................. 12:12
Diaphragm Span:.................................................................................................... 32 ft.
Sheathing Type:...................................................................................................... WSP

Tabulated Minimum Length of Attic Floor/Ceiling Diaphragm: ........................... 10.67 ft. interpolated
Bracing One Gable End Adjustment (Table 3.15 Footnote 1): .............................. 1.0
Wall Height Adjustment (Table 3.15 Footnote 3):................................................. 1.125
Ceiling Framing Spacing Adjustment (Table 3.15 Footnote 5): ............................ 1.0 WSP used, not gypsum

Required Minimum Length of Attic Floor/Ceiling Diaphragm: Min sheathing length

Tabulated Minimum Length x Applicable Adjustment Factors:.............. 12.00 ft.


Tabulated minimum length 1/3 distance between bracing endwalls..... 10.67 ft.
(per Table 3.15 Footnote 1)

Use Table 3.1 (p.139) fastener schedule for floor sheathing.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


18 Roof Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections
Lateral Framing and Shear Connections (WFCM 3.2.1)
Roof Assembly to Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.2)
Choose Rafter/Ceiling Joist to Top Plate Lateral and Shear Connection from Table 3.4A (p. 150)

Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ 120 mph Exp. B

Rafter/Ceiling Joist Spacing................................................................................... 16 in.


Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... 9 ft.

Required number of 8d Common Nails


in each rafter/ceiling joist to top plate connection:................................................. 3 *

Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.2)


Roof Assembly to Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.2.1)
Choose Roof to Wall Uplift Strap Connection from Table 3.4B (p. 151)
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Three second gust wind speed 120 mph Exp. B 120 mph Exp. B
Framing Spacing 16 in. 16 in.
W
Roof Span 32 ft. 32 ft.
i
n Minimum tabulated number of 8d Common Nails required in each end of
4 41
d 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap every rafter / stud
No Ceiling Assembly nail increase (Footnote 3) 0
Minimum required number of 8d Common Nails in each end of strap every
rafter / stud = Tabulated number of nails - Reductions + Increases 4* 4*
1
calculated using 416 lbs uplift (below) divided by 127 lb/nail per WFCM Supplement Table 6A.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 19

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections (contd)
*Alternatively, use proprietary connectors every rafter with the following minimum capacities from Table 3.4
(pp. 148-149)

Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity (Table


3.4, page 149) 441 lbs
Interior framing adjustment (Footnote 1) 1.0
Roof dead load reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 3)
= [0.60(20 psf 15 psf) x 8' x 16" /12" / ' = 32 lbs] -32 lbs
W Non-Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity
i (Table 3.4C, page 152) 496 lbs
n Overhang Multiplier (Table 3.4C, Footnote 2) [(2' + OH) / 4']2 OH = 2 ' 1.0 1.0
d
Zone 2 Multiplier (Table 3.4C, Footnote 3) 1.0
Required Minimum Uplift Capacity of proprietary connector
= Tabulated minimum capacity x Adjustments - Reduction 409 lbs 496 lbs
Required Minimum Lateral Capacity 210 lbs 210 lbs
Required Minimum Shear Parallel to Ridge Capacity 74 lbs 74 lbs
Required Minimum Shear Perpendicular to Ridge Capacity 116 lbs 116 lbs

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


20 Roof Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections (contd)
Sheathing and Cladding Attachment (WFCM 3.2.4)
Roof Sheathing (WFCM 3.2.4.1)
Choose Roof Sheathing Nail Spacing from Table 3.10 (p. 160)

Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ 120 mph Exp. B

Rafter/Truss Spacing: ............................................................................................. 16 in.


Sheathing Type:...................................................................................................... WSP

Nail Spacing
8d Common Nails

Location Edges Field

4' Perimeter Edge Zone 6 6

Interior Zones 6 12

Gable Endwall Rake with 4* 4*


Overhang
* see 2001 WFCM Figure 2.1 p. 34 for nailing details. Perimeter edge zone nailing of 6 permitted for edges and field per Figure
2.1g.

Special Connections (WFCM 3.2.5)


Ridge Straps (WFCM 3.2.5.1)
For a clean finished ceiling line, rather than using collar ties to resist upward ridge separation,
choose Ridge Tension Strap Connection from Table 3.6A (p. 156)

Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ 120 mph Exp. B

Roof Pitch: ............................................................................................................. 12:12


Roof Span:.............................................................................................................. 32 ft.

Tabulated number of 8d Common Nails


required in each end of 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap:...................................................... 3
Ridge Strap Spacing Adjustment (Footnote 4): ....................................... 1.33

Required number of 8d Common Nails in each end of 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap:


Tabulated number of nails x Applicable adjustment factors: ................... 4 *

Ridge

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 21

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections (contd)
* Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacity from Table 3.6 (p. 155)
Tabulated minimum connection capacity:.............................................................. 324
Ridge Strap Spacing Adjustment (Footnote 4): ....................................... 1.33
Required minimum capacity of proprietary connector:
Tabulated minimum capacity x Applicable adjustment factors: .............. 431 lbs

Table 3.1 Nailing Schedule


Choose Ceiling Joist to Parallel Rafter and Ceiling Joist Lap Connection from Table 3.9A (p. 159)

Ground Snow Load: ............................................................................................... 30 psf


Roof Span:.............................................................................................................. 32 ft.
Rafter Slope:........................................................................................................... 12:12
Rafter Spacing:....................................................................................................... 16 in.

Tabulated number of 16d Common Nails required per heel joint splice: ............. 4
Clinched Nails Adjustment (Footnote 1): ................................................ 1.0
Ceiling Height/Roof Ridge Height Adjustment (Footnote 6): ................. 1.0

Required number of 16d Common Nails per heel joint splice:


Tabulated number of nails x Applicable adjustment factors: ................... 4 *
Required number of nails at splice (Footnote 4): ..................................... 4 *

*Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacity from Table 3.9 (p. 158)

Tabulated minimum connection capacity:.............................................................. 353 interpolated


Ceiling Height/Roof Ridge Height Adjustment (Footnote 5): ................. 1.0

Required minimum capacity of proprietary connector:


Tabulated minimum capacity x Applicable adjustment factors: .............. 353 lbs

Blocking to Rafter Connection from Table 3.1 (p. 139): ...... 2-8d common nails toe-nailed at each end

OR

Rim Board to Rafter Connection from Table 3.1 (p. 139): . 2-16d common nails end-nailed at each end

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


22 Roof Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Roof and Ceiling Framing Details


Ridge Beam

Note: Collar ties can be eliminated with the use of ridge straps.

ATTIC STORAGE

Cross Section

Gable Roof Framing

Ceiling Framing

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 23

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Roof Framing
Rafters (WFCM 3.5.1.1)
Design same as Main House rafters. See WFCM Workbook p.15.

Ridge Beams (WFCM 3.5.1.4)


The ridge beam could be designed per Tables 3.29A and 3.29B (pp. 211 & 212). Additional columns and/or framing
would be required to establish load path to the foundation. Fasteners to resist uplift at ridge beam ends will also
need to be designed.

Ground Snow Load: ........................................................................................ 30 psf


Live Load: ....................................................................................................... 20 psf
Dead Load: ...................................................................................................... 10 psf
Beam Vertical Displacement L/: ................................................................. 240

Required Span: ................................................................................................ 16 ft.

Building Width:............................................................................................... 32 ft.

Per Table 3.29A (interpolated):....................................................................... 3x12-3/8 Glulam


Per Table 3.29B (interpolated): ....................................................................... 3x13-3/4 Glulam (controls)

Ceiling Framing
Ceiling Joists (WFCM 3.5.1.6)
For attics used as residential sleeping areas, choose floor joists from Table 3.18A (p. 177)

Live Load: .............................................................................................................. 30 psf


Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. 10 psf
Joist Vertical Displacement L/: .......................................................................... 360 _

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 18(max) ft.

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing:


Specie Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spacing 16 16 16 16
Grade #1 SS #2 #2
Size 2x10 2x10 2x10 2x12
Tabulated Spans 18'-5" 18'-0" 18'-0" 19'-11"

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


24 Roof Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Roof/Ceiling Sheathing and Connections


Sheathing (WFCM 3.5.4.1)
Roof sheathing design same as main house roof sheathing. See WFCM Workbook p.17.

Roof Diaphragm Bracing (WFCM 3.5.5)


Blocking in first two rafter bays

RAFTERS

OR

Bracing Gable Endwall with Attic Floor/Ceiling Sheathing Length from Table 3.15 (p. 165)

Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ 120 mph Exp.B


Roof Pitch: ............................................................................................................. 12:12
Diaphragm Span:.................................................................................................... 32 ft.
Building Length: .................................................................................................... 16 ft.
Sheathing Type (wood structural panels or gypsum): ............................................ WSP GYP

Tabulated Minimum Length of Attic Floor/Ceiling Diaphragm (interpolated):..... 10.7 ft. 30.7 ft.
Bracing One Gable End Adjustment (Footnote 1): ................................................ 0.84 0.84
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3): (9'/8')...................................................... 1.125 1.125
Ceiling Framing Spacing Adjustment (Footnote 5): .............................................. 1.0 0.78

Required Minimum Length of Attic Floor/Ceiling Diaphragm:


Tabulated Minimum Length x Applicable Adjustment Factors:.............. 10.1 ft. 22.6 ft.

Structural sheathing is required for the ceiling diaphragm, since 22.6' required length of gypsum diaphragm
is greater than the 16' length of ceiling on the west wing. If full height studs to the roof planes are used, a
ceiling diaphragm will not be needed.

Min sheathing
length

Wall

Connections
All connections are designed the same as the main house elements. See WFCM Workbook pp.17-21.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 25

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Roof and Ceiling Framing Details

Cross Section

Gable Roof Framing

Ceiling Framing

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


26 Roof Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Roof Framing
Rafters (WFCM 3.5.1.1)
Assuming a finished ceiling attached to rafters (on lower rafter tails) and ceiling joists raised of the ridge
height from the top plate, choose rafters from Table 3.26B and 3.26C (pp. 201 and 202)

Ground Snow Load: ............................................................................................... 30 psf


Live Load: .............................................................................................................. 20 psf
Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. 10 psf
Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ 120 mph Exp. B
Rafter Vertical Displacement L/: ......................................................................... 240
Required Span (Horizontal Projection): ................................................................. 16 ft.
Thrust Factor (Footnote 1): .................................................................................... 0.76 1
Wind Factor (Footnote 2):...................................................................................... 0.71 2
Sloped Roof Adjustment (Footnote 3): .................................................................. 1.17 3 ASCE Live load Reduction

Selection of Species, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.26B & C)


Species Douglas Fir- Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir
Larch

Spacing 16" 16" 16" 16"


Grade #2 #2 #2 #2
4 Table 3.26B Span 2x8 18'-5" 2x10 21'-11" 2x8 18'-6" 2x10 22'-3"
Live Load Span 18.4(0.76)(1.17)= 21.9(0.76)(1.17)= 18.5(0.76)(1.17)= 22.25(0.76)(1.17)= Trial and
error
4 x 1 x 3 16'-4" ok 19'-5" ok 16'-5" ok 19'-9" ok
5 Table 3.26B Span 2x10 22'-6" 2x10 21'-11" 2x10 23'-2" 2x10 22'-3"
Wind Load Span 22.5(0.71)(1.17)= 21.9(0.71)(1.17)= 23.2(0.71)(1.17)= 22.25(0.71)(1.17)= Trial and
error
5 x 2 x 3 18'-8" ok 18'-2" ok 19'-3" ok 18'-6" ok
6 WoodWorks Span* 2x12 #1 21'-6" 2x12 SS 23'-4" 2x12 #2 21'-4" 2x12 SS 22'-10"
Snow Load Span 21.5(0.76)= 23.33(0.76)= 21.33(0.76)= 22.8(0.76)= Trial and
error
6 x 1 16'-4" ok 17'-9" ok 16'-2" ok 17'-4" ok
*Spans from WoodWorks Sizer since tabulated values are not given in the WFCM for spans greater than 20 feet.
Note: as an energy consideration, 2x10 rafters might be a minimum requirement for batt insulation.

Ridge Boards (WFCM 3.5.1.4)


Since thrust is accounted for in rafter selection, per 3.5.1.4 exception use: 153/4 deep Ridge Board
Use a 15.75" deep engineered wood product like glulam or LVL, or thick plywood.

Some building codes require that ridge boards be of continuous length. Long lengths are possible with engineered
wood products, or one could be built up using two layers of wood structural panel material ripped to depth and
end joints offset.

Ridge
Board

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 27

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Ceiling Framing
Ceiling Joists (WFCM 2.5.1.6)
For uninhabitable attics without storage, choose ceiling joists from Table 2.12A (p. 88), as an
alternative solution process.

Live Load: .............................................................................................................. 10 psf


Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. 5 psf
Joist Vertical Displacement L/:............................................................................ 240

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 24 ft.

Required E and Fb at 16"o.c. joist spacing for 24' span from Table 2.12A:
Size 2x8 2x10
Required E 1,800,000 900,000 psi
Required Fb 1,344 847 psi

Select Grade from WFCM Table 4A and 4B based on required E and Fb above:
Specie Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir

Size & Grade 2x8 No.1&Btr.* 2x10 #2 2x8 No.1 Dense* 2x10 #2
Trial and Tabulated E, psi 1,800,000 1,300,000 1,800,000 1,400,000
error
Tabulated Fb, psi 1200 850 1650 875
Size Factor, CF 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1
Load Duration Factor, 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
CD
Repetitive Member 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.15
Factor, Cr
Allowable Fb, psi 1200(1.2)(1.0)(1.15)= 850(1.1)(1.0)(1.15)= 1650(1.0)(1.0)(1.15)= 875(1.1)(1.0)(1.15)=
1,656 psi OK 1,075 psi OK 1,900 psi OK 1,110 psi OK
* 2x10 #2 will also work for Douglas-Fir Larch and Southern Pine

Adjustment factors for Table 4A are found on WFCM p. 279-280.


Adjustment factors for Table 4B are found on WFCM p. 286-287.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


28 Roof Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Roof and Ceiling Sheathing


Sheathing (WFCM 3.5.4.1)
Roof sheathing design same as main house roof sheathing. See WFCM Workbook p.17.

Roof Diaphragm Bracing (WFCM 3.5.5)


Blocking in first two rafter bays with full height studs on end wall framing.

RAFTERS

OR

Bracing Gable Endwall with Attic Floor/Ceiling Sheathing Length from Table 3.15 (p. 165) with
Gable Brace Figure 3.7a.

Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ 120 mph Exp.B


Roof Pitch: ............................................................................................................. 12:12
Diaphragm Span:.................................................................................................... 24 ft.
Building Length: .................................................................................................... 16 ft.
Sheathing Type (wood structural panels or gypsum): ............................................ WSP GYP

Tabulated Minimum Length of Attic Floor/Ceiling Diaphragm (interpolated):..... 8 ft. 20 ft.


Bracing One Gable End Adjustment (Footnote 1): ................................................ 0.84 0.84
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3): (13'/8').................................................... 1.625 1.625
Ceiling Framing Spacing Adjustment (Footnote 5): .............................................. 1.0 0.78

Required Minimum Length of Attic Floor/Ceiling Diaphragm:


Tabulated Minimum Length x Applicable Adjustment Factors:.............. 10.9 ft. 21.3 ft.

Structural sheathing is required for the ceiling diaphragm, since 21.3' required length of gypsum diaphragm
is greater than the 16' length of ceiling on the east wing.

Min sheathing
length

Wall

Connections
All connections are designed the same as the main house elements. See WFCM Workbook pp.17-21.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 29

TOP STORY
DESIGN

Main House
Wall Framing ...........................................30
Wall Sheathing .........................................32
Floor Framing ..........................................36
Floor Sheathing ........................................36
Connections ..............................................37

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


30 Top Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Wall Framing
Wall Studs (WFCM 3.4.1.1)
................................................................................................................. Loadbearing

Choose Studs from Table 3.20A or 3.20B and Footnotes (pp. 182-184)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... 9 ft.
Studs supporting (Roof, Ceiling, Floor):................................................................ Roof, Ceiling and 1 Floor
Sheathing Type (wood structural panel or minimum sheathing):........................... WSP

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.20A and 3.20B and Footnotes)

Specie Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir


Spacing, in. o.c. 16 16 16 16
Grade Stud Stud Stud Stud
Size 2x4 2x4 2x4 2x4
Maximum Length (Wind) 10'-5" * 10'-2" * 10'-10" * 10'-2" *
Maximum Length (Dead and 10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0"
Live Loads)
* Footnote a would require that stud spacing shall be multiplied by 0.85 for framing within 4 ft. of the corners. Since Table 3.20A
shows spans of 9-0 and 9-5 for Douglas Fir-Larch and Southern Pine studs, no spacing adjustment is required for those species.

................................................................................................................. Non-Loadbearing

Choose Studs from Table 3.20A or 3.20B and Footnotes (pp. 182-183)

Same as West Wing Design, except h = 9'. (see WFCM Workbook p.55)

Top Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.2)


Choose Building End Wall Double Top Plate Lap Splice Length from Table 3.21 (p. 185) (all other cases)

Building Dimension: .............................................................................................. 32 ft.

Tabulated Minimum Splice Length:....................................................................... 6 ft.

Connection: top plate to top plate:................................................................... 2-16d nails per ft.

Choose Building Side wall Double Top Plate Lap Splice Length from Table 3.21 (p. 185) (all other cases)

Building Dimension: .............................................................................................. 40 ft.

Tabulated Minimum Splice Length:....................................................................... 8 ft.

Connection: top plate to top plate:................................................................... 2-16d nails per ft.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 31

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House


Wall Framing (contd)
..................................................................................Foyer Window
Exterior Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.1.4.1)
Choose Headers in Loadbearing Walls from Tables 3.22A-E and Table 3.22F (pp. 186-193)

Building Width:...................................................................................................... 32 ft.


Required Span (Foyer Window):............................................................................ 6 ft.
Ground Snow Load: ............................................................................................... 30 psf
Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Header supporting roof, ceiling and attic floor use Table 3.22B (p. 187)
Preliminary Header Selection (Gravity Loads): 2-Southern Pine #2 2x12's
Maximum Header/Girder Span (interpolated):....................................................... 6'-5"
Tabulated Number of Jack Studs (Table 3.22F):.................................................... 3
Roof Span Adjustment (Footnote 1 (W+12)/48):................................................ 0.92
Adjusted number of jack studs required = tabulated x roof span adjustment:........ 3

Table 3.23A (p. 192)


Preliminary Header Selection (Wind Loads): 2-Southern Pine #2 2x6's
Maximum Header/Girder Span .............................................................................. 6'-0" ft.
Tabulated Number of Full Height (King) Studs (Table 3.23C):............................. 3
Reduced Full Height Stud Requirements (Table 3.23D):....................................... 2

Final Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size:


Gravity loads control: 2-Southern Pine #2 2x12's
(same species / grade
Number of Jack Studs Required (gravity controlled): ............................ 3* as Loadbearing Studs
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required (gravity controlled):..... 3 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

Using identical procedures:


North bathroom headers: 2-Southern Pine #2 2x8's ............. 4'-6" >4' OK
Number of Jack Studs Required:.............................................................. 2*
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required:....................................... 2
Typical bedroom headers: 2-Southern Pine #2 2x6's ............. 3'-6" >3' OK
Number of Jack Studs Required:.............................................................. 2*
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required:....................................... 2
*Note: WFCM 3.4.1.4.3 allows jack studs to be replaced with an equivalent number
of full height (king) studs if adequate gravity connections are provided.

Exterior Loadbearing Wall Window Sill Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.4.4)


Choose Window Sill Plates from Table 3.23B (p. 193)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Required Span (Foyer Sill Plate):........................................................................... 6 ft.

Selection of Window Sill Plate Specie, Grade, and Size: 2-Southern Pine #2 2x4's (flat)
Tabulated Window Sill Plate Span:........................................................................ 7'-8"
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3 (H/10)1/2): ................................................. 0.95

Adjusted Maximum Sill Plate Length:


Tabulated maximum Sill Plate Length wall Height Adjustment: ......... 8'-0"

Using identical procedures:


North bathroom sill plates: 1-Southern Pine #2 2x4 (flat) 4'-11" >4' OK
Typical bedroom sill plates: 1-Southern Pine #2 2x4 (flat) 4'-11" >3' OK

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


32 Top Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House


Wall Sheathing
Sheathing and Cladding (WFCM 3.4.4.1)
Choose Exterior Wall Sheathing or Cladding from Tables 3.13A and 3.13B, respectively (p. 163)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Sheathing Type (wood structural panels, fiberboard, board, hardboard): .............. WSP
Direction Across Studs (Short or Long):................................................................ Short
Stud Spacing: ......................................................................................................... 16 in.
Minimum Panel Thickness:.................................................................................... 3/8 in.
Shear wall minimum panel thickness (WFCM 3.4.4.2): ........................................ 7/16 in.

= 24 ft. long = LFH

North Elevation

= 22 ft. long = LFH

South Elevation

= 32 ft. long = LFH

East Elevation

= 29 ft. long = LFH

West Elevation
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 33

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House


Wall Sheathing (contd)
Exterior Segmented (Type I) Shear Walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)
Choose Exterior Segmented (Type I) Shear Wall Length from Table 3.17A-D (pp. 169-174)

Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... 9 ft.


Number of Stories Braced (per 3.1.3.1): ................................................................ 2

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Maximum shear wall aspect ratio for wind (Table 3.17D):.................................... 3.5:1
Minimum shear wall segment length (Wall height/aspect ratio):........................... 2.6 ft.

Seismic Design Category: ...................................................................................... D1


Maximum shear wall aspect ratio for seismic (Table 3.17D Footnote 3):.............. 2:1
Minimum shear wall segment length (Wall height/aspect ratio):........................... 4.5 ft.

Minimum WSP sheathing thickness (per WFCM 3.4.4.2):.................................... 7/16 in.


Minimum gypsum thickness (per WFCM 3.4.4.2):................................................ 1/2 in.

8d common nails
@ 6 OC on
panel perimeter 5d cooler nails
@ 7 OC on
panel
8d common
nails @ 12 OC
in field 5d cooler nails
@ 10 OC in
field
7/16 wood
structural panel 1/2 gypsum
continuous wallboard on
height over wall interior
plates

Panel exterior Panel interior

WFCM 3.4.4.2 Standard Shear Wall

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


34 Top Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House


Wall Sheathing (contd)
Exterior Segmented (Type I) Shear Walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)

Load Parallel Load Perpendicular


to Ridge to Ridge
Steps Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Length of Main Building 40' 40' 32' 32'
1 1
1 S Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing for Seismic (LFHS) 20' 18' 32' 29' Have
e Tabulated Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing for Seismic Loads per
2 i Table 3.17C (Ls) C1 = 57 C2 = 15 Lmax = 40' Lmin = 32' 19.5'2 19.5'2 19.5'2 19.5'2
s
3 m WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing Seismic (WFCM 3.4.4.2 + 3.4.4.2.1) 4" 4" 6" 6" pick
4 i Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 0.69 0.69 1.0 1.0
c
5 Min. Length Full Ht. SheathingSegmented Seismic (LTypeI-S = Ls(Cswa)) 13.5' 13.5' 19.5' 19.5' need
LTypeI-S < LFHS Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T
1 Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 24' 22' 32' 29' Have
W Tabulated Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing for Wind Loads per
2 i Table 3.17B and 3.17A (Lw) 10.6' 10.6' 17.5' 17.5'
n
3 WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing Wind (WFCM 3.4.4.2) 6" 6" 6" 6" pick
d
3 3 3
Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.33
4
5 Wall Height Adjustment (Table 3.17A&B Footnote 2) (CWH=9'/8') 1.125 1.125 1.125 1.125
Min. Length Full Ht. SheathingSegmented Wind (LTypeI-W=Lw(CWH)(Cswa) 15.5' 15.5' 25.6' 25.6' need
6
LTypeI-W < LFH Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T
1
Includes a 2w/h reduction for exceeding 2:1 aspect ratio for seismic.
There are four 3' segments in the south wall, so 12' (0.67) = 8' of additional full height sheathing (LFHS) can be added for shear
wall capacity for the south wall (LFHS = 18'). Similarly, an additional 8' can be added to the North wall (LFHS = 20').
2
From Table 3.17C: C1=57, C2=15, Lmax=40', Lmin=32' so reqd sheathing = [57+(0.25)15]32/100=19.5' on a 6:12 perimeter:field
nailing pattern. See Table 3.17C Footnote 5 for other assemblies and nail spacings.
3
Assumes 7/16" WSP exterior sheathing and non-rated interior sheathing (i.e., doesnt include gypsum as shear element).

North and south walls are seismic controlled (4" nail spacing). East and west walls are wind controlled.

Note: Since the North and South walls have shear wall segments with aspect ratios greater than the required 2:1 for
seismic loads (Table 3.17D Footnote 3), use 2003 International Building Code (IBC) Table 2305.3.3 footnote a.,
which allows a 2w/h reduction for shear walls not meeting maximum shear wall aspect ratio of 2:1. Therefore, the 3'
segments are added to the south wall as follows: 2w/h = 2(3)/9 = 0.67

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 35

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House


Wall Sheathing (contd)
Exterior Perforated (Type II) Shear Walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)
Choose Exterior Perforated (Type II) Shear Wall Length from Table 3.17E (p. 175)
Parallel Perpendicular
to Ridge to Ridge
Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Wall Height 9' 9' 9' 9'


Max. Unrestrained Opening Height 6'-0" 4'-6" 0 7'-6"
Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 24' 22' 32' 29'
Have Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing for Seismic (LFHS) 16'1 14.7'1 32' 29'
S
e Length of Wall (LWall) 40' 40' 32' 32'
i Percent Full Height Sheathing (LFH / LWall) 60% 55% 100% 91%
s
m Tabulated Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Segmented Seismic (LTypeI-S) 13.5' 13.5' 19.5' 19.5'
i
c Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL) 1.25 1.18 1.00 1.06

Need Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Perforated Seismic (LTypeII-S = LTypeI-S (CL)) 16.9' 15.9' 19.5' 20.7'
LType II < LFHS NG NG Ok?T Ok?T

Have Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 24' 22' 32' 29'
W Length of Wall (LWall) 40' 40' 32' 32'
i
n Percent Full Height Sheathing (LFH / LWall) 60% 55% 100% 91%
d
Tabulated Min. Length Full Height Sheathing - Segmented Wind (LTypeI-W) 15.5' 15.5' 25.6' 25.6'
Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL) 1.25 1.18 1.00 1.06
need
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Perforated Wind (LTypeII-W = LTypeI-W (CL)) 19.4' 18.3' 25.6' 27.1'
LTypeII-W < LFH Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T
1
Includes a 2w/h reduction for exceeding 2:1 aspect ratio for seismic applied to the entire length of full height
sheathing. See Top Story Segmented (Type I) wall sheathing design for explanation.

East and West walls are wind controlled. Since North and South walls do not have enough capacity, they can
either be designed as two Segmented (Type I) walls with hold downs around interior wall openings, or
sheathing edge nail spacing on the Perforated Type II wall can be reduced to 3" o.c. In the latter case, the
respective shear wall adjustment factor from Table 3.17D is 0.53 (seismic controlling). Multiplying each of
the North and South seismic wall lengths by 0.53 / 0.69 gives 12.98 ft and 12.2 ft respectively, each
satisfactorily below the effective length of full height sheathing LFHS for each wall. The 3 spacing will be
chosen here.

Top Story Main House Shear Wall Details Summary


Building Elevation North South East West
Shear Wall Type Perf Perf Perf Perf
WSP Perimeter Nail Spacing 3" 3" 6" 6"
Governing Load Seismic Seismic Wind Wind
Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 1.3 1.3

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


36 Top Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Floor Framing
Floor Joists (WFCM 3.3.1.1)
Choose Floor Joists from Tables 3.18A-B (pp. 177-178)

Live Load: .............................................................................................................. 30 psf


Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. 10 psf
Joist Vertical Displacement L/:........................................................................... 360
Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 16 ft.

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.18A)


Specie Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spacing 16 16 16 16
Grade #2 #2 #2 #2
Size 2x10 2x10 2x10 2x10
Maximum Span 17'-5" 16'-10" 18'-0" 17'-2"

Blocking per
WFCM 3.3.5

Floor opening
complies with WFCM
1.1.3.2.c. (WFCM p.3)
(lesser of 12 ft. or 50%
of the building
dimension).

Floor Framing

Floor Sheathing
Sheathing Spans (WFCM 3.3.4.1)
Choose Floor Sheathing from Table 3.14 (p. 164)

Floor Joist Spacing:................................................................................................ 16 in.


Sheathing Type:...................................................................................................... WSP
Span Rating ............................................................................................................ 24/16

Tabulated Minimum Panel Thickness:................................................................... 7/16 in.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 37

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections
Lateral Framing and Shear Connections (WFCM 3.2.1)

Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.3)

Top Plate to Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1 (p. 139): (6 nail spacing on East / West Walls)
...................................................................................................... 2-16d Commons per foot
Table 3.1 Footnote 1 for wall sheathing perimeter nailing spacings < 6 (North / South walls)
(4 nail spacing: 1.67 x 2 nails)........................................................................ 4-16d Commons per foot
(3 nail spacing: 2.0 x 2 nails).......................................................................... 4-16d Commons per foot

Top Plate Intersection Connection from Table 3.1:....................................... 4-16d Commons each side joint

Stud to Stud Connection from Table 3.1: ....................................................... 2-16d Commons 24" o.c.

Header to Header Connection from Table 3.1:.............................................. 16d Commons 16" o.c. -edges

Choose Top or Bottom Plate to Stud Connection from Table 3.1 & 3.5A:.. 2-16d Commons per 2x4 stud
...... 3-16d Commons per 2x6 stud
...... 4-16d Commons per 2x8 stud
Wall Assembly to Floor Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.4)

Bottom Plate to Floor Joist, Bandjoist,


Endjoist or Blocking Connection from Table 3.1: (6 nail spacing).............. 2-16d Commons per foot
Table 3.1 Footnote 1 for wall sheathing perimeter nailing spacings < 6
(4 nail spacing: 1.67 x 2 nails)........................................................................ 4-16d Commons per foot
(3 nail spacing: 2.0 x 2 nails).......................................................................... 4-16d Commons per foot

Floor Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.5)

Bridging to Floor Joist Connection from Table 3.1:...................................... 2-8d Commons each end

Blocking to Floor Joist Connection from Table 3.1:...................................... 2-8d Commons each end

Band Joist to Floor Joist Connection from Table 3.1:................................... 3-16d Commons per joist

Floor Assembly to Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.6)

Floor Joist to Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1: .................................... 4-8d Commons per joist

Blocking to Sill or Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1: ............................ 3-16d Commons each block

Band Joist to Sill or Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1: (6 nail spacing)2-16d Commons per foot
Table 3.1 Footnote 1 for wall sheathing perimeter nailing spacings < 6
(4 nail spacing: 1.67 x 2 nails)........................................................................ 4-16d Commons per foot
(3 nail spacing: 2.0 x 2 nails).......................................................................... 4-16d Commons per foot

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


38 Top Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections (contd)
Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.2.2)

Choose Wall to Wall Uplift Strap Connection from Table 3.4B (p. 151)
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Three second gust wind speed 120 mph Exp. B 120 mph Exp. B
Framing Spacing 16 in. 16 in.
W
Roof Span 32 ft. 32 ft.
i
n Minimum tabulated number of 8d Common Nails required in each end of
4 41
d 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap every stud
No Ceiling Assembly nail increase (Footnote 3) 0
Minimum required number of 8d Common Nails in each end of strap every
stud = Tabulated number of nails - Reductions + Increases 4* 4*
1
calculated using 416 lbs uplift (below) divided by 127 lb/nail per WFCM Supplement Table 6A.

*Alternatively, use proprietary connectors every stud with the following minimum capacities
Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity (Table
3.4, page 149) 441 lbs
Interior framing adjustment (Footnote 1) 1.0
Roof dead load reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 3)
W = [0.60(20 psf 15 psf) x 8' x 16"/12"/ ' = 32 lbs] -32 lbs
i Wall-to-Wall and Wall-to-Foundation reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 4)
n = [60 plf x (16" / 12"/ ' ) = 80 lbs] -80 lbs
d Non-Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity
(Table 3.4C, page 152) 496 lbs
Wall-to-Wall and Wall-to-Foundation reduction (WFCM 3.2.5.3)
= [60 plf x (16" / 12"/ ' ) = 80 lbs] -80 lbs
Required minimum capacity of proprietary connector
= Tabulated minimum capacity x Adjustments - Reduction 329 lbs 416 lbs

Check Perforated Shearwall plate anchorage between wall ends

The assumption is that the wall plate nailing to the floor frame (WFCM 3.2.1.6 Table 3.1, see previous page), in
addition to the wind uplift straps (determined above), are sufficient to resist uplift requirements on the plate using
the Perforated Shearwall Method.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 39

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections (contd)
Overturning Resistance (WFCM 3.2.3)

Hold downs (WFCM 3.2.3.1)

Choose Hold downs from Table 3.17F for Type I &II Wall (p. 176)
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Wall Height 9 9 9 9
WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - wind 6" 6" 6" 6"
W Tabulated hold down connection capacity required wind (T ) 3924 lbs 3924 lbs 3924 lbs 3924 lbs
w
i
n Hold down adjustment per Table 3.17F Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa) 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
d Adjusted hold down capacity (Taw = (Tw) / (Cswa)) 3019 lbs 3019 lbs 3019 lbs 3019 lbs
S WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - seismic 3" 3" 6" 6"
e
i Tabulated hold down connection capacity required seismic (Ts) 2160 lbs 2160 lbs 2160 lbs 2160 lbs
s Hold down adjustment per Table 3.17F footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 1.0 1.0
m
i Adjusted hold down capacity (Tas = (Ts) / (Cswa))
c 4075 lbs1 4075 lbs1 2160 lbs 2160 lbs
1
Three inch nail spacing controls.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


40 Top Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections (contd)
Sheathing and Cladding Attachment (WFCM 3.2.4)

Wall Sheathing (WFCM 3.2.4.2)

Choose Wall Sheathing Nail Spacing from Table 3.11 (p. 161)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Stud Spacing: ......................................................................................................... 16 in.


Sheathing Type:...................................................................................................... WSP

Location Edges Field

4' Edge Zone 6 12


Interior Zones 6 12
Shear wall sheathing nail spacing requirements control.

Special Connections (WFCM 3.2.5)

Connections around Wall Openings (WFCM 3.2.5.4)


.................................................................................. Foyer Window
Choose Header/Girder Connections based on loads from Table 3.7 (p. 157)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Roof Span:.............................................................................................................. 32 ft.


Header Span (Foyer Window):............................................................................... 6 ft.

Required Connection Capacity at Each End of Header:


Tabulated Uplift Capacity (interpolated):............................................................... 992 lbs.
Tabulated Lateral Capacity: ................................................................................... 472 lbs.

Using identical procedures:


North Bathroom (4' header) Tabulated Uplift Capacity (interpolated):.................. 661 lbs.
North Bathroom (4' header) Tabulated Lateral Capacity: ...................................... 315 lbs.

Typical Bedroom (3' header) Tabulated Uplift Capacity (interpolated):................ 496 lbs.
Typical Bedroom (3' header) Tabulated Lateral Capacity (interpolated): .............. 236 lbs.

Choose Window Sill Plate Connections based on loads from Table 3.8 (p. 157)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Window Sill Plate Span:......................................................................................... 6 ft.

Tabulated Lateral Connection Capacity at Each End of Window Sill Plate:.......... 472 lbs.

Using identical procedures:


North Bathroom (4' sill) Tabulated Lateral Connection Capacity at Each End...... 315 lbs.
Typical Bedroom (3' sill) Tabulated Lateral Connection Capacity at Each End .... 236 lbs.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 41

BOTTOM STORY
DESIGN

Main House
Wall Framing ...........................................42
Wall Sheathing .........................................45
Floor Framing ..........................................48
Floor Sheathing ........................................48
Connections ..............................................49

West Wing
Wall Framing ...........................................55
Wall Sheathing .........................................59
Floor Framing ..........................................63
Floor Sheathing ........................................63
Connections ..............................................64

East Wing
Wall Framing ...........................................70
Wall Sheathing .........................................73
Floor Framing ..........................................77
Floor Sheathing ........................................77
Connections ..............................................78

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


42 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Wall Framing
Wall Studs (WFCM 3.4.1.1)
Choose Studs from Table 3.20A or 3.20B and Footnotes (pp. 182-184)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... 9 ft.
Sheathing Type (wood structural panel or minimum sheathing):........................... WSP
Studs supporting (Roof, Ceiling, Floors): .............................................................. Roof, Ceiling, 2 Floors

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.20B and Footnotes)

Specie Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spacing 16 16 16 16
Grade Stud Stud Stud Stud
Size 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x6
Maximum Length (Wind) 14'-10" 14'-5" 15'-7" 14'-5"
Maximum Length (Dead and 10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0"
Live Loads)

Top Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.2)


Choose Building End Wall Double Top Plate Lap Splice Length from Table 3.21 (p. 185)

Building Dimension: .............................................................................................. 32 ft.

Tabulated Minimum Splice Length:....................................................................... 6 ft.

Connection: top plate to top plate:................................................................... 2-16d nails per ft.

Choose Building Side Wall Double Top Plate Lap Splice Length from Table 3.21 (p. 185)

Building Dimension: .............................................................................................. 40 ft.

Tabulated Minimum Splice Length:....................................................................... 8 ft.

Connection: top plate to top plate:................................................................... 2-16d nails per ft.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 43

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Wall Framing (contd)


..................................................................................Family Room Door

Exterior Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.1.4.1)

Choose Headers in Loadbearing Walls from Tables 3.22A-E and Table 3.22F (pp. 186-193)

Building Width:...................................................................................................... 32 ft.


Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 9 ft.
Ground Snow Load: ............................................................................................... 30 psf
Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Headers supporting roof, ceiling and two center bearing floors, use Table 3.22D (p. 189)
Preliminary Header Selection (Gravity Loads): ..................................................... 24F Glulam 5x11
Maximum Header/Girder Span (interpolated):....................................................... 10'-6"
Tabulated Number of Jack Studs Required (Table 3.22F): .................................... 3
Roof Span Adjustment (Footnote 1 (W+12)/48):................................................ 0.92
Adjusted number of jack studs required = tabulated x roof span adjustment:........ 3

Table 3.23A (p. 192)


Preliminary Header Selection (Wind Loads): ....................................................... 3-Southern Pine #2 2x12's
Maximum Header/Girder Span .............................................................................. 9'-4"
Tabulated Number of Full Height (King) Studs (Table 3.23C):............................. 4

Final Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size:


Gravity Loads Control : ........................................................................... 24F Glulam 5x11
Number of Jack Studs Required (gravity controlled): ............................ 3*
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required (wind controlled): ........ 4
(same species / grade as Loadbearing Studs, WFCM Workbook p. 42 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

Using identical procedures:


Foyer headers (12' required): 24F Glulam 5x15.125 .......................... >13'-1" >12' OK
Number of Jack Studs Required:.............................................................. 4*
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required:....................................... 5

Typical Window headers (3' required): 2-Southern Pine #2 2x6's .... 3'-1" >3' OK
Number of Jack Studs Required:.............................................................. 2*
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required:....................................... 2
*Note: WFCM 3.4.1.4.3 allows jack studs to be replaced with an equivalent number
of full height (king) studs if adequate gravity connections are provided.

Exterior Loadbearing Wall Window Sill Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.4.4)


Choose Window Sill Plates from Table 3.23B (p. 193)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 3 ft.

Selection of Window Sill Plate Specie, Grade, and Size: 1-Southern Pine #2 2x6 (flat) (to match wall stud size)
Tabulated Window Sill Plate Span:........................................................................ 7'-6"
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3 (H/10)1/2): ................................................. 0.95

Adjusted Maximum Sill Plate Length:


Tabulated maximum sill plate Length wall Height Adjustment: .......... 7'-10" >3' OK
AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION
44 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Wall Framing (contd)


..................................................................................Living Room Door
Interior Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.2.4.1)
Choose Headers for Interior Loadbearing Walls from Tables 3.24A-C (pp. 195-197)

Building Width:...................................................................................................... 32 ft.


Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 6 ft.

Table 3.24B (p.196)


Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size: 3-Southern Pine #2 2x12's
Maximum Header/Girder Span (interpolated):....................................................... 6'-1" ft. >6' OK
Number of Jack Studs Required (Table 3.24C):..................................................... 3

..................................................................................Foyer Hall
Interior Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.2.4.1)
Choose Headers for Interior Loadbearing Walls from Tables 3.24A-C (pp. 195-197)

Building Width:...................................................................................................... 32 ft.


Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 4 ft.

Table 3.24B (p.196)


Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size: 2-Southern Pine #2 2x10's
Maximum Header/Girder Span (interpolated):....................................................... 4'-2" ft. >4' OK
Number of Jack Studs Required (Table 3.24C):..................................................... 3

..................................................................................Ends of Hallway
Interior Non-Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.1.4.1)
The 2000 International Residential Code (IRC) section R602.7.2 allows a single flat 2x4 for interior non-
loadbearing walls up to 8' spans.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 45

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Wall Sheathing
Sheathing and Cladding (WFCM 3.4.4.1)
Choose Exterior Wall Sheathing or Cladding from Tables 3.13A and 3.13B respectively (p. 163)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Sheathing Type (wood structural panels, fiberboard, board, hardboard): .............. WSP
Direction Across Studs (Short or Long):................................................................ Short
Stud Spacing: ......................................................................................................... 16 in.
Minimum Panel Thickness:.................................................................................... 3/8 in.
Shearwall minimum panel thickness (WFCM 3.4.4.2): ......................................... 7/16 in.

= 25 ft. long = LFH

North Elevation

= 22 ft. long = LFH

South Elevation

= 25 ft. long = LFH

East Elevation

= 28 ft. long = LFH

West Elevation
AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION
46 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Wall Sheathing (contd)


Exterior Segmented (Type I) Shear Walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)
Choose Exterior Segmented (Type I) Shear Wall Length from Table 3.17A-D (pp. 169-174)

Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... 9 ft.


Number of Stories Braced (per 3.1.3.1): ................................................................ 3

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Maximum shear wall aspect ratio for wind (Table 3.17D):.................................... 3.5:1
Minimum shear wall segment length (Wall height/aspect ratio):........................... 2.6 ft.

Seismic Design Category: ...................................................................................... D1


Maximum shear wall aspect ratio for seismic (Table 3.17D Footnote 3):.............. 2:1
Minimum shear wall segment length (Wall height/aspect ratio):........................... 4.5 ft.

Minimum WSP sheathing thickness (per WFCM 3.4.4.2):.................................... 7/16 in.


Minimum gypsum thickness (per WFCM 3.4.4.2):................................................ 1/2 in.

Note: The main house is designed as a three story structure and the wings are designed as 2 story structures.
Therefore, shear walls will be designed as 3 separate structures.
Load Parallel Load Perpendicular
to Ridge to Ridge
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Steps
Actual Length of Wall Main House 40' 40' 32' 32'
1 Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing for Seismic (LFHS) 22'1 18'1 25' 28' Have
S
e Tabulated Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing for Seismic Loads per
2 29.6' 29.6' 29.6' 29.6'
i Table 3.17C (Ls) C1 = 87 C2 = 22 Lmax = 40' Lmin = 32'
s
3 m WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing Seismic (WFCM 3.4.4.2 + 3.4.4.2.1) 3" 3" 4" 4" pick
4 i
Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 0.69 0.69
c
5 Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Segmented Seismic (LTypeI-S = Ls x Cswa) 15.7' 15.7' 20.4' 20.4' need
LTypeI-S < LFHS Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T
1 Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 25' 22' 25' 28' Have
2 Tabulated Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing for Wind Loads per
W Table 3.17B and 3.17A (Lw) 16'2 16'2 27.6' 27.6'
3 i
WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing- Wind (WFCM 3.4.4.2) 6" 4" 3" 4" pick
n
4 d Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 1.0 0.74 0.60 0.74
5 Wall Height Adjustment (Table 3.17A&B Footnote 2) (CWH =9'/8') 1.125 1.125 1.125 1.125
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Segmented Wind (LTypeI-W=Lw(CWH)(Cswa) 18' 13.3' 18.6' 23'
need
6
LTypeI-W < LFH Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T
1
Includes a 2w/h reduction for exceeding 2:1 aspect ratio for seismic. See Top Story wall design for explanation.
2
This is a conservative based on design as separate structures (see note on East Wing Segmented shear walls
regarding inscribed method). Shielding from the wings is not accounted for in selection of tabulated values.

North and south walls are seismic controlled (3" nail spacing). East and west walls are wind controlled (3"
nail spacing for the east wall and required length for the west wall).

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 47

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Wall Sheathing (contd)

Exterior Perforated (Type II) Shear Walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)


Choose Exterior Perforated (Type II) Shear Wall Length from Table 3.17E (p. 175)

Load Parallel Load Perpendicular


to Ridge to Ridge
Building Wall Elevation North South East West South
Wall Height 9' 9' 9' 9' Split?

Max. Unrestrained Opening Height 7'-6" 7'-6" 7'-6" 7'-6"


Have Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 25' 22' 25' 28' 11'
1 1
Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing for Seismic (LFHS) 16.7' 14.7' 25' 28' 7.3'
S Length of Wall (LWall) 40' 40' 32' 32' 17'
e
i Percent Full Height Sheathing (LFH / LWall) 63% 55% 78% 88% 65%
s Minimum Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Segmented Seismic (LTypeI-S) 15.7' 15.7' 20.4' 20.4' 15.7/2
m =7.85'
i Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL) 1.29 1.37 1.16 1.08 1.13
Need c 8.9'
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Perforated Seismic (LTypeII-S=LTypeI-S(CL)) 20.3' 21.3' 23.7' 22'
> 7.3' NG
LTypeII-S < LFHS NG NG Ok?T Ok?T
Have Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 25' 22' 25' 28'
Length of Wall (LWall) 40' 40' 32' 32'
W Percent Full Height Sheathing (LFH / LWall) 63% 55% 78% 88%
i
n Tabulated Min. Length Full Height Sheathing - Segmented Wind
d (LTypeI-W) 18' 13.3' 18.6' 23'
Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL) 1.29 1.37 1.16 1.08
need Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Perforated Wind (LTypeII-W = LTypeI-W
(CL)) 23.2' 18.2' 21.6' 24.8'
LType II-W < LFH Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T
1
Includes a 2w/h reduction for exceeding 2:1 aspect ratio for seismic. See Segmented (Type I) shear wall
calculations.

North and South walls require design as Segmented (Type I) shear walls. Wind controls for east wall because
of 3" nail spacing requirement.

Shear wall requirements for the building wings will be added to the requirements here for the main building
for shared walls (see East and West wing wall sheathing sections).

Bottom Story Main House Shear Wall Details Summary


Building Elevation North South East West
Shear Wall Type Segmented Segmented Perf Perf
WSP Perimeter Nail Spacing 3" 3" 3" 4"
Governing Load Seismic Seismic Wind Wind
Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 0.60 0.74

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


48 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Floor Framing
Floor Joists (WFCM 3.3.1.1)
Choose Floor Joists from Tables 3.18A-B (pp. 177-178)

Live Load: .............................................................................................................. 40 psf


Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. 10 psf
Joist Vertical Displacement L/:........................................................................... 360__
Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 16 ft.

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.18B)

Specie Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spacing 16 16 16 16
Grade #1 #1 #2 SS
Size 2x10 2x10 2x10 2x10
Maximum Span 16'-5" 16'-0" 16'-1" 16'-0"

Blocking per
WFCM 3.3.5

Floor Framing

Floor Sheathing
Sheathing Spans (WFCM 3.3.4.1)
Choose Floor Sheathing from Table 3.14 (p. 164)

Floor Joist Spacing:................................................................................................ 16 in.


Sheathing Type (wood structural panels or boards): .............................................. WSP
Span Rating ............................................................................................................ 24/16

Tabulated Minimum Panel Thickness:................................................................... 7/16 in.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 49

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections
Lateral Framing and Shear Connections (WFCM 3.2.1)

Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.3)

Top Plate to Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1 (p. 139): (6 nail spacing on East / West Walls)
...................................................................................................... 2-16d Commons per foot
Table 3.1 Footnote 1 for wall sheathing perimeter nailing spacings < 6 (North / South walls)
(4 nail spacing: 1.67 x 2 nails)........................................................................ 4-16d Commons per foot
(3 nail spacing: 2.0 x 2 nails).......................................................................... 4-16d Commons per foot

Top Plate Intersection Connection from Table 3.1:....................................... 4-16d Commons each side joint

Stud to Stud Connection from Table 3.1: ....................................................... 2-16d Commons 24" o.c.

Header to Header Connection from Table 3.1:.............................................. 16d Commons 16" o.c. -edges

Choose Top or Bottom Plate to Stud Connection from Table 3.1 & 3.5A:.. 2-16d Commons per 2x4 stud
...... 3-16d Commons per 2x6 stud
...... 4-16d Commons per 2x8 stud
Wall Assembly to Floor Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.4)

Bottom Plate to Floor Joist, Bandjoist,


Endjoist or Blocking Connection from Table 3.1: (6 nail spacing).............. 2-16d Commons per foot
Table 3.1 Footnote 1 for wall sheathing perimeter nailing spacings < 6
(4 nail spacing: 1.67 x 2 nails)........................................................................ 4-16d Commons per foot
(3 nail spacing: 2.0 x 2 nails).......................................................................... 4-16d Commons per foot

Floor Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.5)

Bridging to Floor Joist Connection from Table 3.1:...................................... 2-8d Commons each end

Blocking to Floor Joist Connection from Table 3.1:...................................... 2-8d Commons each end

Band Joist to Floor Joist Connection from Table 3.1:................................... 3-16d Commons per joist

Floor Assembly to Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.6)

Floor Joist to Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1: .................................... 4-8d Commons per joist

Blocking to Sill or Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1: ............................ 3-16d Commons each block

Band Joist to Sill or Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1: (6 nail spacing)2-16d Commons per foot
Table 3.1 Footnote 1 for wall sheathing perimeter nailing spacings < 6
(4 nail spacing: 1.67 x 2 nails)........................................................................ 4-16d Commons per foot
(3 nail spacing: 2.0 x 2 nails).......................................................................... 4-16d Commons per foot

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


50 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections (contd)
Lateral, Shear, and Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.1 and 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Foundation (WFCM 3.2.1.7 and 3.2.2.3)

Choose Sill Plate to Foundation Connection Requirements for Anchor Bolts Resisting Lateral, Shear, and
Uplift Loads from Table 3.2A & B (pp. 142-144)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Stories supported by Foundation:........................................................................... 3
Anchor Bolt Diameter: ........................................................................................... 5/8 in.

Assuming Crawl Space or Basement, determine maximum Anchor Bolt Spacing:


Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Shear wall line dimension (Lsw) 40' 40' 32' 32'


Building dimension perpendicular to shear wall line (Table 3.2A) 32' 32' 40' 40'
Number of stories receiving wind load (Table 3.2A) 3 3 3 3
W
i Tabulated number of bolts to resist shear loads from wind (Table 3.2A) 9 9 12 12
n Bolt spacing for wind shear loads s = (L -2) / (#bolts-1) 57" 57" 32" 32"
ws sw
d
Max. bolt spacing to resist wind uplift loads (swu) (Table 3.2C & 3.4C) 33" 33" 72"1, 2 72"1, 2

S Tabulated anchor bolt spacing to resist seismic loads (ss) (Table 3.3A) 47" 47" 47" 47"
e
i WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - Seismic 3" 3" 4" 4"
s Bolt spacing adjustment per Table 3.3A Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 0.69 0.69
m
i Adjusted bolt spacing for seismic loads ssa = (ss)(Cswa)
c 24" 24" 32" 32"
Max. anchor bolt spacing (lesser of sws, swu, and ssa) 24" 24" 32"3 32"3
1
Calculated from WFCM Table 3.4C based on 16" o.c. outlooker spacing (horizontal projection) with 2 wall dead loads
subtracted (0.6x99plf) and anchor bolt capacity of 1488 lbs from WFCM Commentary Table 3.2B.
Table 3.4C = 496 lbs x 12/ / 16 120 plf (walls) = 372 plf 120 plf = 252 plf
252 plf (32ft) / 1488 lbs = 5.4bolts, so spacing = 72" maximum.
2
Anchor bolt spacing shall not exceed 6' (72") on center per Table 3.2A Footnote 2.
3
These will be added to anchor bolts required by West and East wing common walls respectively.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 51

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House


Connections (contd)
Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacities from Table 3.2 (pp. 140-
141), Table 3.3 (pp. 145-146) and Table 3.4C (p. 152).

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Stories supported by Foundation:........................................................................... 3

Assuming Crawl Space or Basement, determine required loads for proprietary connectors:

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Building dimension W or L 40' 40' 32' 32'


R=L/W or W/L for Table 3.2 0.8 0.8 1.25 1.25
Number of stories receiving lateral wind load (Table 3.2A) 3 3 3 3
Wind uplift (Table 3.4C) 496 lbs 496lbs
Uplift force Spacing 16" 16"
Wind uplift plf basis 372 plf 372 plf
W Overhang Reduction (Table 3.4C Footnote 2) [(2' - OH / 4']2 1.0 1.0
i
n Wall Dead Load Reduction1 ( 2 walls (0.6)(99plf)) -119 -119
d
Adjusted Wind uplift (Table 3.4C) 253 plf 253 plf
Wind uplift (Table 3.2(U)) 151 plf 151 plf

Wind lateral load (Table 3.2(L)) * * * *

Wind shear load (Table 3.2(S)) 411 R 329 plf 329 plf 514 plf 514 plf

Seismic shear load (Table 3.3)2 C1 = 208 C2 = 53 Lmax = 40'


Lmin = 32' or, T slab on grade 7080 lbs 7080 lbs 7080 lbs 7080 lbs
Wall Dead Load ww 11 psf 11 psf 11 psf 11 psf
S
e Footnote 4 Wall Dead Load Reduction
Rw = (ww + 70.65) / 85.65 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95
i
s Footnote 5 Sheathing Adjustment Factor for wall (Table 3.17D)
m (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 0.69 0.69
i
c Adjusted seismic shear load = seismic shear load x Rw / Cswa 12690 12690 9748 lbs 9748 lbs
lbs lbs
Wall length 40' 40' 32' 32'

Seismic shear load = adjusted seismic shear load / wall length 317 plf 317 plf 305 plf 305 plf
1
Refer to WFCM Commentary 1.1.2.
*Table 3.2 Footnote: Determine anchorage for Lateral Loads in foundation design per Section 1.1.4
2
See top story main segmented shearwall design for example seismic calculation using C1 and C2.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


52 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections (contd)
Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Wall Assembly or Wall Assembly to Foundation (WFCM 3.2.2.2 and 3.2.2.3)

Choose Wall to Wall Uplift Strap Connection from Table 3.4B (p. 151)
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Three second gust wind speed 120 mph Exp. B 120 mph Exp. B
Framing Spacing 16 in. 16 in.
W
Roof Span 32 ft. 32 ft.
i
n Tabulated number of 8d Common Nails required in each end of
4 31
d 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap every stud
No Ceiling Assembly nail increase (Footnote 3) 0
Required number of 8d Common Nails in each end of strap every stud
= Tabulated number of nails - Reductions + Increases 4* 3*
1
calculated using 336 lbs uplift (below) divided by 127 lb/nail per WFCM Supplement Table 6A.

*Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacities


Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity (Table
3.4, page 149) 441 lbs
Interior framing adjustment (Footnote 1) 1.0
Roof dead load reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 3)
W = [0.60(20 psf 15 psf) x 8'-0" x 16"/12"/ ' = 32 lbs] -32 lbs
i Wall-to-Wall and Wall-to-Foundation reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 4)
n = [60 plf x 2 walls (16" / 12"/ ' ) = 160 lbs] -160 lbs
d Non-Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity
(Table 3.4C, page 152) 496 lbs
Wall-to-Wall and Wall-to-Foundation reduction (WFCM 3.2.5.3)
= [60 plf x 2 walls (16" / 12"/ ' ) = 160 lbs] -160 lbs
Required minimum capacity of proprietary connector
= Tabulated minimum capacity x Adjustments - Reduction 249 lbs 336 lbs

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 53

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections (contd)
Overturning Resistance (WFCM 3.2.3)

Hold downs (WFCM 3.2.3.1)

Choose Hold downs from Table 3.17F for Segmented (Type I) and Perforated (Type II) Walls (p. 176)

Building Wall Elevation North South East West


Wall Height 9' 9' 9' 9'
Tabulated hold down connection capacity required wind (Tw) 3924 lbs 3924 lbs 3924 lbs 3924 lbs
WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - wind 3" 3" 3" 4"
W Hold down adjustment per Table 3.17F Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa) 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.74
i
Adjusted hold down capacity (Twa = (Tw) / (Cswa)) - wind 6540 lbs 6540 lbs 6540 lbs 5303 lbs
n
d Additional story hold down requirements wind (see Workbook p.39) 3019 lbs 3019 lbs 3019 lbs 3019 lbs
Total hold down requirement for floor to foundation wind (Twa) 9559 lbs 9559 lbs 9559 lbs 8322 lbs
Tabulated hold down connection capacity required seismic (Ts) 2160 lbs 2160 lbs 2160 lbs 2160 lbs
S WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - seismic 3" 3" 3" 4"
e
i Hold down adjustment per Table 3.17F Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.69
s Adjusted hold down capacity (Tsa = (Ts) / (Cswa)) - seismic 4075 lbs 4075 lbs 4075 lbs 3130 lbs
m
i Additional story hold down reqments seismic (see Workbook p.39) 4075 lbs 4075 lbs 2160 lbs 2160 lbs
c Total hold down requirement for floor to foundation (Tsa) - seismic 8150 lbs 8150 lbs 6235 lbs 5290 lbs

Sheathing and Cladding Attachment (WFCM 3.2.4)

Wall Sheathing (WFCM 3.2.4.2)

Choose Wall Sheathing Nail Spacing from Table 3.11 (p. 161)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Stud Spacing: ......................................................................................................... 16 in.


Sheathing Type (wood structural panels, board or lap siding): .............................. WSP

Location Edges Field

4' Edge Zone 6 12


Interior Zones 6 12

Shear wall sheathing nail spacing requirements control.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


54 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: Main House

Connections (contd)
Special Connections (WFCM 3.2.5)

Connections around Wall Openings (WFCM 3.2.5.4)


....................................................................... Typical Window
Choose Header/Girder Connections based on loads from Table 3.7 (p. 157)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Roof Span:.............................................................................................................. 32 ft.


Header Span (Typical Window):............................................................................ 3 ft.

Required Connection Capacity at Each End of Header:


Tabulated Uplift Capacity (interpolated):............................................................... 496 lbs.
Floor load adjustment (per footnote 4):.................................................................. -90 lbs.
Adjusted Uplift Capacity ....................................................................................... 406 lbs.
Tabulated Lateral Capacity: .................................................................................. 236 lbs.

Using identical procedures:


Family Room Door (9' header) Tabulated Uplift Capacity (interpolated):............. 1219 lbs.
Family Room Door (9' header) Tabulated Lateral Capacity: ................................. 708 lbs.

Foyer Door (12' header) Tabulated Uplift Capacity (interpolated): ....................... 1625 lbs.
Foyer Door (12' header) Tabulated Lateral Capacity (interpolated):...................... 944 lbs.

Choose Window Sill Plate Connections based on loads from Table 3.8 (p. 157)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Window Sill Plate Span:......................................................................................... 3 ft.

Tabulated Lateral Connection Capacity at Each End of Window Sill Plate: ........ 236 lbs.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 55

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Wall Framing
Wall Studs (WFCM 3.4.1.1)
................................................................................................................. Loadbearing

Choose Studs from Table 3.20A or 3.20B and Footnotes (pp. 180-184)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... 10 ft.
Sheathing Type (wood structural panel or minimum sheathing):........................... WSP
Studs supporting:.................................................................................................... Roof, Ceiling, 1 Floor

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.20B and Footnotes)

Specie Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spacing 16 16 16 16
Grade Stud Stud Stud Stud
Size 2x41 2x41 2x41 2x41
Maximum Length (Wind) 10'-5" 10'-2" 10'-10" 10'-2"
Maximum Length (Dead 10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0"
and Live Loads)

1
While 2x4s will work, 2x6s will frame consistently with end walls and main building.

................................................................................................................. Non-Loadbearing

Choose Studs from Table 3.20A or 3.20B and Footnotes (pp. 180-184)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... 16 (max) ft.
Sheathing Type (wood structural panel or minimum sheathing):........................... WSP

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.20B and Footnotes)

Specie Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spacing 16 16 16 16
Grade #2 #2 #2 #2
Size 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x6
Maximum Length (Wind) 18'-7" 17'-4" 18'-7" 17'-9"
Maximum Length (Dead 20'-0" 20'-0" 20'-0" 20'-0"
and Live Loads)

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


56 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Wall Framing (contd)


Top Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.2)
Choose Building End Wall Double Top Plate Lap Splice Length from Table 3.21 (p. 185)

Building Dimension: .............................................................................................. 32 ft.

Tabulated Minimum Splice Length:....................................................................... 6 ft.

Connection: top plate to top plate:................................................................... 2-16d nails per ft.

Choose Building Side wall Double Top Plate Lap Splice Length from Table 3.21 (p. 185)

Building Dimension: .............................................................................................. 16 ft.

Tabulated Minimum Splice Length:....................................................................... 3 ft.

Connection: top plate to top plate:................................................................... 2-16d nails per ft.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 57

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Wall Framing (contd)


....................................................................... Bedroom Patio Door
Exterior Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.1.4.1)
Choose Headers in Loadbearing Walls from Tables 3.22A-E and Table 3.22F (pp. 186-193)

Building Width:...................................................................................................... 32 ft.


Required Span (Foyer Window):............................................................................ 8 ft.
Ground Snow Load: ............................................................................................... 30 psf
Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Header supporting roof, ceiling and attic floor use Table 3.22B (p. 187)
Preliminary Header Selection (Gravity Loads): 3-Southern Pine #2 2x12's

Maximum Header/Girder Span (interpolated):....................................................... 8'-0"


Tabulated Number of Jack Studs (Table 3.22F):.................................................... 2
Roof Span Adjustment (Footnote 1 (W+12)/48):................................................ 0.92
Adjusted number of jack studs required = tabulated x roof span adjustment:........ 2

Table 3.23A (p. 192)


Preliminary Header Selection (Wind Loads): 3-Southern Pine #2 2x8's

Maximum Header/Girder Span .............................................................................. 8'-1" ft.


Tabulated Number of Full Height (King) Studs (Table 3.23C):............................. 3
(same species / grade as Loadbearing Studs, WFCM Workbook p. 55 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

Final Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size:


Gravity loads control: 3-Southern Pine #2 2x12's
Number of Jack Studs Required (gravity controlled): ............................ 2*
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required (wind controlled): ........ 3
(same species / grade as Loadbearing Studs, WFCM Workbook p. 55 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

Using identical procedures:


Typical bedroom headers (3'): 2-Southern Pine #2 2x6's ......... 3'-8" >3' OK
Number of Jack Studs Required:.............................................................. 2*
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required:....................................... 2
(same species / grade as Loadbearing Studs, WFCM Workbook p. 55 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))
*Note: WFCM 3.4.1.4.3 allows Jack Studs to be replaced with an equivalent number of Full
Height (King) Studs of same species / grade as Loadbearing Studs on WFCM Workbook p.
55 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2) if adequate gravity connections are provided.

Exterior Loadbearing Wall Window Sill Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.4.4)


Choose Window Sill Plates from Table 3.23B (p. 193)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Required Span (Foyer Sill Plate):........................................................................... 3 ft.

Selection of Window Sill Plate Specie, Grade, and Size: 1-Southern Pine #2 2x6 (flat) (to match wall stud size)
Tabulated Window Sill Plate Span:........................................................................ 7'-6"
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3 (H/10)1/2): ................................................. 1.0

Adjusted Maximum Sill Plate Length:


Tabulated maximum sill plate Length wall Height Adjustment: .......... 7'-6" >3' OK

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


58 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Wall Framing (contd)


..................................................................................Master Bath
Exterior Non-Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.1.4.1)
Choose Headers in Non-Loadbearing Walls from Table 3.23B and 3.23C (p. 193)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 6 ft.

Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size: 1-Southern Pine #2 2x6 (flat)
Tabulated Header Span: ......................................................................................... 7'-6"
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3 (H/10)1/2): ................................................. 1.0
Adjusted Header Span:........................................................................................... 7'-8"
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required: ..................................................... 3
(same species / grade as Non-Loadbearing Studs on WFCM Workbook p. 55 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

Exterior Non-Loadbearing Wall Window Sill Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.4.3)


Choose Window Sill Plates from Table 3.23B (p. 193)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 6 ft.

Selection of Window Sill Plate Specie, Grade, and Size: 1-Southern Pine #2 2x6 (flat)
Tabulated Window Sill Plate Span:........................................................................ 7'-6"
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3 (H/10)1/2): ................................................. 1.0
Adjusted Header Span:........................................................................................... 7'-8"
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required: ..................................................... 3
(same species / grade as Non-Loadbearing Studs on WFCM Workbook p. 55 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

..................................................................................Master Bath Door


Interior Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.2.4.1)
Choose Header Table 3.24A (p. 195)

Building Width:...................................................................................................... 32 ft.

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... 3 ft.

Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size: 2-Southern Pine #2 2x6's


Maximum Header/Girder Span: ............................................................................. 3'-11" ft.
Number of Jack Studs Required:............................................................................ 1

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 59

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Wall Sheathing
Sheathing and Cladding (WFCM 3.4.4.1)
Choose Exterior Wall Sheathing or Cladding from Tables 3.13A and 3.13B respectively (p. 163)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Sheathing Type (wood structural panels, fiberboard, board, hardboard): .............. WSP
Direction Across Studs (Short or Long):................................................................ Short
Stud Spacing: ......................................................................................................... 16 in.
Minimum Panel Thickness:.................................................................................... 3/8 in.
Shear wall minimum panel thickness (WFCM 3.4.4.2): ........................................ 7/16 in.

= 8 ft. long = LFH

North Elevation

= 10 ft. long = LFH

South Elevation

= 28 ft. long = LFH

East Elevation

= 26 ft. long = LFH

West Elevation
AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION
60 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing


Wall Sheathing (contd)
Exterior Segmented (Type I) Shear walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)
Choose Exterior Segmented (Type I) Shear Wall Length from Table 3.17A-D (pp. 169-174)

Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... 10 ft.


Number of Stories Braced (per 3.1.3.1): ................................................................ 2

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Maximum shear wall aspect ratio for wind (Table 3.17D):.................................... 3.5:1
Minimum shear wall segment length (Wall height/aspect ratio):........................... 2.9 ft.

Seismic Design Category: ...................................................................................... D1


Maximum shear wall aspect ratio for seismic (Table 3.17D Footnote 3):.............. 2:1
Minimum shear wall segment length (Wall height/aspect ratio):........................... 5.0 ft.

Minimum WSP sheathing thickness (per WFCM 3.4.4.2):.................................... 7/16 in.


Minimum gypsum thickness (per WFCM 3.4.4.2):................................................ 1/2 in.

Note: Since the main house is designed as a three story structure and the wings are designed as 2 story structures, the
shear walls will be designed as 3 separate structures (see 3.1.3.3c Exception).
Load Parallel Load Perpendicular
to Ridge to Ridge
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Steps (h = 9')

Length of Wall West Wing 16' 16' 32' 32'


Have
1 1 1
S Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing for Seismic (LFHS) 6.4' 6.7' 28' 26'
2 e
i Tabulated Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing for Seismic Loads per
s Table 3.17C (Ls) C1 = 51 C2 = 15 Lmax = 32' Lmin = 16' 10.6' 10.6' 10.6' 10.6'
3 pick
m WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing Seismic (WFCM 3.4.4.2 + 3.4.4.2.1) 3" 3" 6" 6"
4 i
c Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 1.0 1.0 need
5
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Segmented Seismic (LTypeI-S = Ls x Cswa) 5.6' 5.6' 10.6' 10.6'

1 LTypeI-S < LFHS Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T


Have
Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 8' 10' 28' 26'
2 Tabulated Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing for Wind Loads per
Table 3.17B and 3.17A (Lw) 10.6'2 10.6'2 7.1'3 7.1'3
3 W pick
i WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing Wind (WFCM 3.4.4.2) 3" 4" 6" 6"
4 n
d Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 0.6 0.74 1.0 1.0
5
Wall Height Adjustment (Table 3.17A&B Footnote 2) (CWH =10'/8') 1.25 1.25 1.125 1.25
6 need
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Segmented Wind (LTypeI-W=Lw(CWH)(Cswa) 7.9' 9.8' 8.0' 8.9'
LTypeI-W < LFH Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T
1
Includes a 2w/h reduction for exceeding 2:1 aspect ratio for seismic. See shear wall calculations for bottom story
main structure, except h = 10' for North, South & West walls. (w = 4' North) (w = 3'-4" South).
2
This is conservative based on design as separate structures (see note on East Wing Segmented shear walls regarding
inscribed method). Shielding from the main building is not accounted for in selection of tabulated values.
3
Extrapolated from Table 3.17A
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 61

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Wall Sheathing (contd)


North wall is wind controlled. East and west walls are seismic controlled (required length), while the south
wall is seismic controlled due to the 3" perimeter edge nail spacing.

Exterior Perforated (Type II) Shear Walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)


Choose Exterior Perforated (Type II) Shear Wall Length from Table 3.17E (p. 175)

Load Parallel Load Perpendicular


to Ridge to Ridge
Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Wall Height 10' 10' 9' 10'


Max. Unrestrained Opening Height 8'-4" 4'-6" 7'-6" 4'-6"

Have Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 8' 10' 28' 26'
Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing for Seismic (LFHS) 6.4'1 6.7'1 28' 26'
S
e Length of Wall (LWall) 16' 16' 32' 32'
i Percent Full Height Sheathing (LFH / LWall) 50% 63% 88% 81%
s
m Tabulated Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Segmented Seismic (LTypeI-S) 5.6' 5.6' 10.6' 10.6'
i
c Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL) 1.43 1.11 1.08 1.05

Need Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Perforated Seismic (LTypeII-S=LTypeI-S(CL)) 8.0' 6.2' 11.4' 11.1'
LTypeII-S < LFHS Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T

Have Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 8' 10' 28' 26'
Length of Wall (LWall) 16' 16' 32' 32'
W Percent Full Height Sheathing (LFH / LWall) 50% 63% 88% 81%
i
n Tabulated Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Segmented Wind (LTypeI-W) 7.9' 9.8' 8' 8.9'
d
Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL) 1.43 1.11 1.08 1.05

need Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Perforated Wind (LTypeII-W = LTypeI-W (CL)) 11.3' 10.9' 8.6' 9.4'
LTypeII-W < LFH NG NG Ok?T Ok?T
1
Includes a 2w/h reduction for exceeding 2:1 aspect ratio for seismic. See shear wall calculations for bottom story main structure.

North and South walls require design as Segmented (Type I) wall with hold downs around the interior opening.
Alternatively, use Table 3.17D (p.174) to increase capacity by changing the interior sheathing from gypsum to 7/16" wood
structural panels with an edge nail spacing of 3" o.c. giving a length adjustment factor, Cswa, of 0.35 for wind loads. Since
an adjustment factor was used in the Segmented (Type I) shear wall calculations, it will be divided out: North wall (wind
controlled): 11.3' / (0.6)*(0.35) = 6.6' < 8' OK; South wall (wind controlled): 10.9' / (0.74)*(0.35) = 5.2' < 10' OK

Bottom Story West Wing Shear Wall Details Summary


Building Elevation North South East West
Shear Wall Type Perf Perf Perf Perf
WSP Perimeter Nail Spacing (North wall WSP on both sides) 3" 3" 6" 6"
Governing Load Wind Seismic Seismic Seismic

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


62 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing


Wall Sheathing (contd)
Combine Shear Wall Requirements for Main Building and West Wing
Adjust Shear Wall Requirements to Common Nailing Pattern
Building Wall Elevation Wind Seismic

Segmented (Type I) Shear Wall Requirements Sheathing Thickness 7/16" 7/16" Use Table 3.17D
(p.174) to increase
Reqd FROM Main Building West Elevation (WSP perimeter edge nail spacing) (LFH1) 23.0'(4") 20.4'(4") sheathing capacity.
Changing the WSP
Length adjustment factor, Cswa1 (Table 3.17D) 0.74 0.69 sheathing edge nail
spacing to 4"o.c. on
Revised Length Adjustment Factor (Cswa1revised) (Table 3.17D) no change no change West Wing East
Elevation, gives a
Length adjustment factor ratio Cswa1 ratio = Cswa1revised / Cswa1 no change no change length adjustment
factor, Cswa, of 0.74
Adjusted Shared wall length = LFH1 *Cswa1 ratio = LFHadj1 23.0'(4") 20.4'(4") for wind loads and
0.69 for seismic
REQd FROM West Wing East Elevation (WSP perimeter edge nail spacing) (LFH2) 8.9'(6") 10.6'(6") (previous value of
Cswa for 6o.c. nail
Change Length adjustment factor, Cswa2 (Table 3.17D) 1.0 1.0 spacing was 1.0 for
wind and seismic).
Revised Revised Length Adjustment Factor (Cswa2revised) (Table 3.17D) 0.74 0.69 (29.6' OK based on
conservatism due to
Length adjustment factor ratio Cswa2 ratio = Cswa2revised / Cswa2 0.74 0.69
progressive
Adjusted Shared wall length = LFH2 *Cswa2 ratio = LFHadj2 6.6'(4") 7.9'(4") rounding. see
Footnote 2 on
p.60.)
NEED Adjusted Shared Wall Total Requirement (LTypeIadjusted) = LFHadj1 + LFHadj2 29.6' 27.7'

HAVE Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 31.0'1 31.0'1


LTypeIadjusted < LFH Ok? T Ok? T

Perforated (Type II) Shear Wall Requirements


Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL) 1.08 1.08
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Perforated
NEED 31.9' 29.9'
(LTypeIIadjusted = LTypeIadjusted (CL))
HAVE Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 31.0'1 31.0'1
LTypeIIadjusted < LFH Ok? ~ Ok? T

1
Actual length including the 3' offset of the wings.
Decreased nail spacing should be considered first to increase Perforated (Type II) shear wall capacity, otherwise try increasing
WSP thickness.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 63

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Wall Sheathing (contd)


Combine Shear Wall Requirements for Main Building and West Wing
Bottom Story West Wing Shear Wall Details Summary - Final
Building Elevation North South East West
Shear Wall Type Perf Perf Perf Perf
WSP Perimeter Nail Spacing (North wall WSP on both sides) 3" 3" 4" 6"
Governing Load Wind Seismic Wind Seismic
Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 0.35 0.53 0.74 1.0

Floor Framing
Floor Joists (WFCM 3.3.1.1)
Slab on Grade not applicable

Floor Sheathing
Sheathing Spans (WFCM 3.3.4.1)
Slab on Grade not applicable

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


64 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Connections
Lateral Framing and Shear Connections (WFCM 3.2.1)
See Top Story design for wall and roof assembly connection requirements (Workbook p.37).

Lateral, Shear, and Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.1 and 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Foundation (WFCM 3.2.1.7 and 3.2.2.3)


Choose Sill or Bottom Plate to Foundation Connection Requirements for Anchor Bolts Resisting Lateral,
Shear, and Uplift Loads from Table 3.2A & B (pp. 142-144) and Table 3.3A (p. 147).

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Stories supported by Foundation:........................................................................... 2
Anchor Bolt Diameter: ........................................................................................... 5/8 in.

Assuming Crawl Space or Basement, determine maximum Anchor Bolt Spacing for common wall portion :

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Shear wall line dimension (Lsw) 32'


Building dimension perpendicular to shear wall line (Table 3.2A) 16'
Number of stories receiving wind load (Table 3.2A) 2
W
i Tabulated number of bolts to resist shear loads from wind (Table 3.2A) 5
n Bolt spacing for wind shear loads s = (L -2) / (number of bolts-1) 72"1, 2, 3
ws sw
d
Max. bolt spacing to resist wind uplift loads (swu) (Table 3.2C & 3.4C) N/A4
1
Calculated per WFCM Commentary for Table 3.2A
2
Anchor bolt spacing shall not exceed 6' on center per Table 3.2A Footnote 2.
3
These anchor bolts will be added to anchor bolt requirements for Main house west wall.
4
WFCM 3.2.5.3 provision for walls that do not support the roof assembly and are attached according to 3.2.1 need no additional
uplift connections.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 65

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Connections (contd)
Assuming Slab on Grade, determine maximum Anchor Bolt Spacing for non-common wall portions:

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Shear wall line dimension (Lsw) 16' 16' 36' 32'


Number of stories receiving wind load (Table 3.2B) 2 2 2 2
W
i Bolt spacing for wind lateral and shear loads (Table 3.2B) 45" 45" 45" 45"
n Wall sheathing type adjustment factor per Table 3.17D (Table 3.2B 0.35 0.74 0.74 1.0
d Footnote 3) (assumes perforated shear wall capacities) C
swa

Adjusted bolt spacing for wind lateral and shear loads (sws) 15" 33" 33" 45"
Max. anchor bolt spacing to resist wind uplift loads (swu) (Table 3.2C) 60"1 60"1 33" 33"
S Tabulated anchor bolt spacing to resist seismic loads (ss) (Table 3.3A) 72" 72" 72" 72"
e
i WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - Seismic 3" 3" 4" 6"
s
m
i
Bolt spacing adjustment per Table 3.3A Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 0.69 1.0
c
Adjusted bolt spacing for seismic loads ssa = (ss)(Cswa) 38" 38" 49" 72"2
Max. anchor bolt spacing (lesser of sws, swu, and ssa) 15" 33" 33" 33"
1
Calculated from WFCM Table 3.4C based on 16" o.c. (horizontal projection) outlooker spacing with 1 wall dead load subtracted
(0.6x99plf) and anchor bolt capacity of 1488 lbs from WFCM Commentary Table 3.2B.
Table 3.4C 496 lbs x 12"/' / 16" = 372 plf
(372 plf 60 plf)(32ft) / 1488lbs = 6.7 bolts, so spacing =60" maximum
2
Anchor bolt spacing shall not exceed 6' on center per Table 3.3A Footnote 5.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


66 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Connections (contd)
Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacities from Table 3.2 (pp. 140-141)
and Table 3.3 (pp. 145-146)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Stories supported by Foundation:........................................................................... 2

Assuming Slab on Grade, determine required loads for proprietary connectors:

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Building dimension W or L 16' 16' 32' 32'


R=L/W or W/L for Table 3.2 0.5 0.5 2 2
Number of stories receiving lateral wind load (Table 3.2A) 2 2 2 2
Wind uplift (Table 3.4C) 496 lbs 496lbs
Uplift force Spacing 16" 16"
Wind uplift plf basis 372 plf 372 plf
W Overhang Reduction (Table 3.4C Footnote 2) [(2' - OH / 4']2 1.0 1.0
i
n Wall Dead Load Reduction1 ( 1 walls (0.6)(99plf)) -60 -60
d
Adjusted Wind uplift (Table 3.4C) 312 plf 312 plf
Wind uplift (Table 3.2(U)) 211 plf 211 plf

Wind lateral load (Table 3.2(L)) 157 plf 157 plf 157 plf 157 plf

Wind shear load (Table 3.2(S)) 411 R 329 plf 329 plf 514 plf 514 plf

Seismic shear load (Table 3.3)2 C1 = C2 =

Lmax = Lmin = or,  slab on grade 240 plf 240 plf 240 plf 240 plf

S Wall Dead Load ww 11 psf 11 psf 11 psf 11 psf


e Footnote 4 Wall Dead Load Reduction
i Rw = (ww + 70.65) / 85.65 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95
s
m Footnote 5 Sheathing Adjustment Factor for wall (Table 3.17D)
i (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 0.69 1.0
c
Adjusted seismic shear load = seismic shear load x Rw / Cswa 430 plf 430 plf 330 plf 228 plf
Wall length 16' 16' 32' 32'

Seismic shear load = adjusted seismic shear load / wall length 430 plf 430 plf 330 plf 228 plf
1
Refer to WFCM Commentary 1.1.2.
2
See top story main segmented shearwall design for example seismic calculation using C1 and C2. Here, the determination is
based on slab-on-grade condition. Note that Table 3.3 limits spacing of exterior shear wall lines to 20 80 feet for two stories.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 67

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Connections (contd)
Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Wall Assembly or Wall Assembly to Foundation (WFCM 3.2.2.2 and 3.2.2.3)
Choose Wall to Wall Uplift Strap Connection from Table 3.4B (p. 151)
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Three second gust wind speed 120 mph Exp. B 120 mph Exp. B
Framing Spacing 16 in. 16 in.
W
Roof Span 32 ft. 32 ft.
i
n Tabulated number of 8d Common Nails required in each end of
4 41
d 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap every stud
No Ceiling Assembly nail increase (Footnote 3) 0
Required number of 8d Common Nails in each end of strap every stud
= Tabulated number of nails - Reductions + Increases 4* 3*
1
calculated using 416 lbs uplift (below) divided by 127 lb/nail per WFCM Supplement Table 6A.

*Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacities


Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity (Table
3.4, page 149) 441 lbs
Interior framing adjustment (Footnote 1) 1.0
Roof dead load reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 3)
W = [0.60(20 psf 15 psf) x 8'-0" x 16"/12"/' = 32 lbs] -32 lbs
i Wall-to-Wall and Wall-to-Foundation reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 4)
n = [60 plf x 1 walls (16" / 12"/' ) = 80 lbs] -80 lbs
d Non-Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity
(Table 3.4C, page 152) 496 lbs
Wall-to-Wall and Wall-to-Foundation reduction (WFCM 3.2.5.3)
= [60 plf x 1 walls (16" / 12"/' ) = 160 lbs] -80 lbs
Required minimum capacity of proprietary connector
= Tabulated minimum capacity x Adjustments - Reduction 361 lbs 416 lbs

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


68 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Connections (contd)
Overturning Resistance (WFCM 3.2.3)
Hold downs (WFCM 3.2.3.1)
Choose Hold downs from Table 3.17F for Segmented (Type I) and Perforated (Type II) Walls (p. 176)

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Wall Height 10' 10' 10' 10'

WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - wind 3" 3" 4" 6"
W
i Tabulated hold down connection capacity required wind (Tw) 4360 lbs 4360 lbs 4360 lbs 4360 lbs
n Hold down adj. per Table 3.17F Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (C ) 0.60 0.60 0.74 1.0
swa
d
Adjusted hold down capacity (Twa = (Tw) / (Cswa)) 7267 lbs 7267 lbs 5892 lbs 4360 lbs

S WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - seismic 3" 3" 4" 6"
e
i Tabulated hold down connection capacity required seismic (Ts) 2400 lbs 2400 lbs 2400 lbs 2400 lbs
s Hold down adjustment per Table 3.17F Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa) 0.53 0.53 0.69 1.0
m
i Adjusted hold down capacity (Tsa = (Ts) / (Cswa))
c 4528 lbs 4528 lbs 3478 lbs 2400 lbs

Since there are 3 offsets at the junction of the main building to the wings, hold down requirements for the
building wings will not be added to the requirements for the main building for shared walls.

Hatched Wall Area (31 ft):


7/16 WSP 8d Common
@ 4 edge spacing +
Gyp (Unblocked) 5d Cooler
@ 7 edge spacing

7267 9559 7267 9559


lbs lbs bs lbs
West Main West Main
Wing Wing

East Wall Elevation

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 69

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: West Wing

Connections (contd)
Sheathing and Cladding Attachment (WFCM 3.2.4)
Wall Sheathing (WFCM 3.2.4.2)

Choose Wall Sheathing Nail Spacing from Table 3.11 (p. 161)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Stud Spacing: ......................................................................................................... 16 in.


Sheathing Type:...................................................................................................... WSP

Location Edges Field

4' Edge Zone 6 12


Interior Zones 6 12

Shear wall sheathing nail spacing requirements control.

Special Connections (WFCM 3.2.5)

Connections around Wall Openings (WFCM 3.2.5.4)


....................................................................... Typical Window
Choose Header/Girder Connections based on loads from Table 3.7 (p. 157)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Roof Span:.............................................................................................................. 32 ft.


Header Span (Typical Window):............................................................................ 3 ft.

Required Connection Capacity at Each End of Header:


Tabulated Uplift Capacity (interpolated):............................................................... 496 lbs.
Floor load adjustment (per footnote 4):.................................................................. -90 lbs.
Adjusted Uplift Capacity ....................................................................................... 406 lbs.
Tabulated Lateral Capacity: .................................................................................. 236 lbs.

Using identical procedures:


Bedroom Patio Door (8' header) Tabulated Uplift Capacity (interpolated):........... 1323 lbs.
Bedroom Patio Door (8' header) Tabulated Lateral Capacity: ............................... 630 lbs.

Master Bath (6' header) Tabulated Uplift Capacity (interpolated): ........................ 992 lbs.
Master Bath (6' header) Tabulated Lateral Capacity: ............................................. 472 lbs.

Choose Window Sill Plate Connections based on loads from Table 3.8 (p. 157)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Window Sill Plate Span:......................................................................................... 3 ft.

Tabulated Lateral Connection Capacity at Each End of Window Sill Plate: ........ 236 lbs.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


70 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Wall Framing
Wall Studs (WFCM 3.4.1.1)
................................................................................................................. Loadbearing

Choose Studs from Table 3.20A or 3.20B and Footnotes (pp. 180-184)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... 10 ft.
Sheathing Type:...................................................................................................... WSP
Studs supporting:.................................................................................................... Roof & Ceiling Only

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.20B and Footnotes)

Specie Douglas Fir-Larch Hem-Fir Southern Pine Spruce-Pine-Fir

Spacing 16 16 16 16
Grade Stud Stud Stud Stud
Size 2x41 2x41 2x41 2x41
Maximum Length (Wind) 10'-5" 10'-2" 10'-10" 10'-2"
Maximum Length (Dead 10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0" 10'-0"
and Live Loads)

1
While 2x4s will work, 2x6s will frame consistently with end walls and main building.

................................................................................................................. Non-Loadbearing

Choose Studs from Table 3.20A or 3.20B and Footnotes (pp. 180-184)

Same as West Wing Design (see WFCM Workbook p.55) except wall will balloon to raised ceiling to avoid
formation of hinges.

4
BLOCKING

10

Top Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.2)


Same as West Wing Design (see Workbook p.56).

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 71

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Wall Framing (contd)


....................................................................... Door/Window Typical

Exterior Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.1.4.1)


Choose Headers in Loadbearing Walls from Tables 3.22A-E and Table 3.22F (pp. 186-193)

Building Width:...................................................................................................... 32 ft.


Required Span (Typical Door/Window): ............................................................... 3 ft.
Ground Snow Load: ............................................................................................... 30 psf
Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Header supporting roof and ceiling use Table 3.22a (p. 186)
Preliminary Header Selection (Gravity Loads): 2-Southern Pine #2 2x6's

Maximum Header/Girder Span (interpolated):....................................................... 4'-1"


Tabulated Number of Jack Studs (Table 3.22F):.................................................... 2
Roof Span Adjustment (Footnote 1 (W+12)/48):................................................ 0.92
Adjusted number of jack studs required = tabulated x roof span adjustment:........ 2

Table 3.23A (p. 192)


Preliminary Header Selection (Wind Loads): 2-Southern Pine #2 2x4's

Maximum Header/Girder Span .............................................................................. 5'-0" ft.


Tabulated Number of Full Height (King) Studs (Table 3.23C):............................. 2
(same species / grade as Loadbearing Studs, p. 68 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

Final Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size:


Gravity loads control: 2-Southern Pine #2 2x6's
Number of Jack Studs Required (gravity controlled): ............................ 2*
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required (wind controlled): ........ 2
(same species / grade as Loadbearing Studs, p. 68 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))
*Note: WFCM 3.4.1.4.3 allows Jack Studs to be replaced with an equivalent number
of Full Height (King) studs of same species / grade as Loadbearing Studs on WFCM
Workbook p. 68 (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2) if adequate gravity connections are provided.

Exterior Loadbearing Wall Window Sill Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.4.4)


Choose Window Sill Plates from Table 3.23B (p. 193)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Required Span (Typical Window):......................................................................... 3 ft.

Selection of Window Sill Plate Specie, Grade, and Size: 1-Southern Pine #2 2x6 (flat) (to match wall stud size)
Tabulated Window Sill Plate Span:........................................................................ 7'-6"
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3 (H/10)1/2): ................................................. 1.0

Adjusted Maximum Sill Plate Length:


Tabulated maximum sill plate Length wall Height Adjustment: .......... 7'-6" >3' OK

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


72 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Wall Framing (contd)


..................................................................................Master Bath

Exterior Non-Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.1.4.1)


Same as West Wing Design (see WFCM Workbook p.58)

Exterior Non-Loadbearing Wall Window Sill Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.4.3)


Same as West Wing Design (see WFCM Workbook p.58)

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 73

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Wall Sheathing
Sheathing and Cladding (WFCM 3.4.4.1)
Choose Exterior Wall Sheathing or Cladding from Tables 3.13A and 3.13B respectively (p. 163)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B

Sheathing Type (wood structural panels, fiberboard, board, hardboard): .............. WSP
Direction Across Studs (Short or Long):................................................................ Short
Stud Spacing: ......................................................................................................... 16 in.
Minimum Panel Thickness:.................................................................................... 3/8 in.
Shear wall minimum panel thickness (WFCM 3.4.4.2): ........................................ 7/16 in.

= 13 ft. long = LFH

North Elevation

= 16 ft. long = LFH

South Elevation

Although this wall is balloon framed to avoid hinges,


conservatively the lower 10 ft below the blocking
required for panel perimeter nailing (shown hatched)
will be designed as a shear wall to resist lateral loads.

= 20 ft. long = LFH

East Elevation

= 25 ft. long = LFH

West Elevation
AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION
74 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing


Wall Sheathing (contd)
Exterior Segmented (Type I) Shear Walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)
Choose Exterior Segmented (Type I) Shear Wall Length from Table 3.17A-D (pp. 169-174)
* Although the
Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... 10 ft. space above the
Number of Stories Braced (per 3.1.3.1): ................................................................ 2* kitchen ceiling is
considered an
Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B Attic,
Uninhabitable
Maximum shear wall aspect ratio for wind (Table 3.17D):.................................... 3.5:1 without Storage
Minimum shear wall segment length (Wall height/aspect ratio):........................... 2.9 ft. (see definition
WFCM p. 6), the
Seismic Design Category: ...................................................................................... D1 number of stories
can be driven by
Maximum shear wall aspect ratio for seismic (Table 3.17D Footnote 3):.............. 2:1 the roof slope
Minimum shear wall segment length (Wall height/aspect ratio):........................... 5.0 ft. exceeding 6:12
(see WFCM
Minimum WSP sheathing thickness (per WFCM 3.4.4.2):.................................... 7/16 in. 3.1.3.1 and
Figure 3.1a), as
Minimum gypsum thickness (per WFCM 3.4.4.2):................................................ 1/2 in. in this case.

Note: Since the main house is designed as a three story structure and the wings are designed as 2 story structures, the
shear walls will be designed as 3 separate structures (see 3.1.3.3c Exception).
Load Parallel Load Perpendicular
to Ridge to Ridge
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Steps (h = 9')

Length of Wall East Wing 16' 16' 32' 32'


Have
1
S Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing for Seismic (LFHS) 12.6'1 6.7'1 19.2'1 24.6'1,2
2 e
i Tabulated Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing for Seismic Loads per
s Table 3.17C (Ls) C1 = 51 C2 = 15 Lmax = 32' Lmin = 16' 10.6' 10.6' 10.6' 10.6'
3 pick
m WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing Seismic (WFCM 3.4.4.2) 6" 3" 6" 6"
4 i
c Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 1.0 0.53 1.0 1.0 need
5
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Segmented Seismic (LTypeI-S = Ls x Cswa) 10.6' 5.6' 10.6' 10.6'

1 LTypeI-S < LFHS Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T


Have
Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 13' 10' 20' 25'
2 Tabulated Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing for Wind Loads per
Table 3.17B and 3.17A (Lw) 10.6'3 10.6'3 7.1'4 7.1'4
3 W pick
i WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing Wind (WFCM 3.4.4.2) 4" 3" 6" 6"
4 n
d Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 0.74 0.6 1.0 1.0
5
Wall Height Adjustment (Table 3.17A&B Footnote 2) (CWH =10' / 8') 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.125
6 need
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Segmented Wind (LTypeI-W=Lw(CWH)(Cswa) 9.8' 8.0' 8.9' 8.0'
LTypeI-W < LFH Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T
1
Includes a 2w/h reduction for exceeding 2:1 aspect ratio for seismic. See shear wall calculations for bottom story west wing,
where ws are as follows: 4'-6" North, 3'-4" South, 4'-0" East, 4'-0" West.
2
The segment at the wall offset is part of a longer wall segment. Since the design is based on separate structures, it is considered a
4 segment for design of this wing. This is a conservative assumption and may be relaxed based on engineering judgment.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 75

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing


Wall Sheathing (contd)
3
This is a conservative based on design as separate structures. The total length (building and 2 wings) of the North and South
walls assuming an inscribed 3-story structure would be 17'-6" with 6" perimeter edge nail spacing.
4
Extrapolated from Table 3.17A.
North and south walls are wind controlled. East and West walls are seismic controlled.

Exterior Perforated (Type II) Shear Walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)


Choose Exterior Perforated (Type II) Shear Wall Length from Table 3.17E (p. 175)

Load Parallel Load Perpendicular


to Ridge to Ridge
Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Wall Height 10' 10' 10' 9'


Max. Unrestrained Opening Height 8'-4" 4'-6" 8'-4" 7'-6"

Have Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 13' 10' 20' 25'
Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing for Seismic (LFHS) 12.6'1 6.7'1 19.2'1 24.6'1,2
S
e Length of Wall (LWall) 16' 16' 32' 32'
i Percent Full Height Sheathing (LFH / LWall) 81% 63% 63% 78%
s
m Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing - Segmented Seismic (LTypeI-S) 10.6' 5.6' 10.6' 10.6'
i
c Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL) 1.13 1.11 1.29 1.15

Need Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Perforated Seismic (LTypeII-S=LTypeI-S(CL)) 12.0' 6.2' 13.7' 12.2'
LTypeII-S < LFHS Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T

Have Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 13' 10' 20' 25'
Length of Wall (LWall) 16' 16' 32' 32'
Percent Full Height Sheathing (LFH / LWall) 81% 63% 63% 78%
W Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing - Segmented Wind (LTypeI-W) 9.8' 8.0' 8.9' 8.0'
i
n Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL) 1.13 1.11 1.29 1.15
d Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Perforated Wind (L
need TypeII-W = LTypeI-W (CL)) 11.1' 8.9' 11.5' 9.2'
LTypeII-W < LFH Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T Ok?T
1
Includes a 2w/h reduction for exceeding 2:1 aspect ratio for seismic. See shear wall calculations for bottom story main structure.
2
The segment at the wall offset is part of a longer wall segment. Since the design is based on separate structures, it is considered a
4 segment for design of this wing. This is a conservative assumption and may be relaxed based on engineering judgment.
East and West walls are seismic controlled. North and south walls are wind controlled (north wall due to 4"
perimeter edge nail spacing).

Bottom Story East Wing Shear Wall Details Summary


Building Elevation North South East West
Shear Wall Type Perf Perf Perf Perf
WSP Perimeter Nail Spacing 4" 3" 6" 6"
Governing Load Wind Wind Seismic Seismic

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


76 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing


Wall Sheathing (contd)
Combine Shear Wall Requirements for Main Building and East Wing

Adjust Shear Wall Requirements to Common Nailing Pattern


Building Wall Elevation Wind Seismic

Segmented (Type I) Shear Wall Requirements Sheathing Thickness 7/16" 7/16" Use Table 3.17D
Reqd FROM Main Building East Elevation (WSP perimeter edge nail spacing) (LFH1) (p.174) to increase
18.6'(3") 20.4'(4")
sheathing capacity
Length adjustment factor, Cswa1 (Table 3.17D) 0.60 0.69 for Main Building
and East Wing wall
Revised Length Adjustment Factor (Cswa1revised) (Table 3.17D) no change 0.53 elevations.
Changing the WSP
Length adjustment factor ratio Cswa1 ratio = Cswa1revised / Cswa1 no change 0.77 sheathing edge nail
spacing to 3"o.c.,
Adjusted Shared wall length = LFH1 *Cswa1 ratio = LFHadj1 18.6'(3") 15.7'(3") gives a length
adjustment factor,
REQd FROM East Wing West Elevation (WSP perimeter edge nail spacing) (LFH2) 8.0'(6") 10.6'(6") Cswa, of 0.53 for
seismic loads and
Change Length adjustment factor, Cswa2 (Table 3.17D) 1.0 1.0 0.60 for wind loads.
(the previous values
Revised Revised Length Adjustment Factor (Cswa2revised) (Table 3.17D) 0.60 0.53 of Cswa was 1.0 for
6 nail spacing for
Length adjustment factor ratio Cswa2 ratio = Cswa2revised / Cswa2 0.60 0.53 wind and seismic
loads, and 0.69 for
Adjusted Shared wall length = LFH2 *Cswa2 ratio = LFHadj2 4.8'(3") 5.6'(3") seismic load for 4
nail spacing).
NEED Adjusted Shared Wall Total Requirement (LTypeIadjusted) = LFHadj1 + LFHadj2 23.4' 21.3'

HAVE Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 28.0'1 28.0'1


LTypeIadjusted < LFH Ok? T Ok? T

Perforated (Type II) Shear Wall Requirements


Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL) 1.15 1.15
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Perforated
NEED 26.9' 24.5'
(LTypeIIadjusted = LTypeIadjusted (CL))
HAVE Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) 28.0'1 28.0'1
LTypeIIadjusted < LFH Ok? T Ok? T

1
Actual length including the 3' offset of the wings.
Decreased nail spacing should be considered first to increase Perforated (Type II) shear wall capacity, otherwise try increasing
WSP thickness.

This shared wall is wind controlled.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 77

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Wall Sheathing (contd)


Combine Shear Wall Requirements for Main Building and East Wing
Bottom Story East Wing Shear Wall Details Summary - Final
Building Elevation North South East West
Shear Wall Type Perf Perf Perf Perf
WSP Perimeter Nail Spacing 4" 3" 6" 3"
Governing Load Wind Wind Seismic Wind
Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa) 0.74 0.6 1.0 0.60

Floor Framing
Floor Joists (WFCM 3.3.1.1)
Slab on Grade not applicable

Floor Sheathing
Sheathing Spans (WFCM 3.3.4.1)
Slab on Grade not applicable

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


78 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Connections
Lateral Framing and Shear Connections (WFCM 3.2.1)
See Top Story design for wall and roof assembly connection requirements (Workbook p.37).

Lateral, Shear, and Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.1 and 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Foundation (WFCM 3.2.1.7 and 3.2.2.3)


Choose Sill or Bottom Plate to Foundation Connection Requirements for Anchor Bolts Resisting Lateral,
Shear, and Uplift Loads from Table 3.2A & B (pp. 142-144) and Table 3.3A (p. 147).

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Stories supported by Foundation:........................................................................... 2
Anchor Bolt Diameter: ........................................................................................... 5/8 in.

Assuming Crawl Space or Basement, determine maximum Anchor Bolt Spacing for common wall portion :

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Shear wall line dimension (Lsw) 32'


Building dimension perpendicular to shear wall line (Table 3.2A) 16'
Number of stories receiving wind load (Table 3.2A) 2
W
i Tabulated number of bolts to resist shear loads from wind (Table 3.2A) 5
n Bolt spacing for wind shear loads s = (L -2) / (number of bolts-1) 72"1, 2, 3
ws sw
d
Max. bolt spacing to resist wind uplift loads (swu) (Table 3.2C & 3.4C) N/A4
1
Calculated per WFCM Commentary for Table 3.2A
2
Anchor bolt spacing shall not exceed 6' on center per Table 3.2A Footnote 2.
3
These anchor bolts will be added to anchor bolt requirements for Main house west wall.
4
WFCM 3.2.5.3 provision for walls that do not support the roof assembly and are attached according to 3.2.1 need no additional
uplift connections.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 79

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Connections (contd)
Assuming Slab on Grade, determine maximum Anchor Bolt Spacing for non-common wall portions:

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Shear wall line dimension (Lsw) 16' 16' 32' 36'


Number of stories receiving wind load (Table 3.2B) 2 2 2 2
W
i Bolt spacing for wind lateral and shear loads (Table 3.2B) 45" 45" 45" 45"
n Wall sheathing type adjustment factor per Table 3.17D (Table 3.2B 0.74 0.60 1.0 0.60
d Footnote 3) (assumes perforated shear wall capacities) C
swa

Adjusted bolt spacing for wind lateral and shear loads (sws) 33" 27" 45" 27"
Max. anchor bolt spacing to resist wind uplift loads (swu) (Table 3.2C) 60"1 60"1 33" 33"
S Tabulated anchor bolt spacing to resist seismic loads (ss) (Table 3.3A) 72" 72" 72" 72"
e
i WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - Seismic 4" 3" 6" 3"
s
m
i
Bolt spacing adjustment per Table 3.3A Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa) 0.69 0.53 1.0 0.53
c
Adjusted bolt spacing for seismic loads ssa = (ss)(Cswa) 49" 38" 72"2 38"
Max. anchor bolt spacing (lesser of sws, swu, and ssa) 33" 27" 33" 27"
1
Calculated from WFCM Table 3.4C based on 16" o.c. (horizontal projection) outlooker spacing with 1 wall dead load subtracted
(0.6x99plf) and anchor bolt capacity of 1488 lbs from WFCM Commentary Table 3.2B.
Table 3.4C 496 lbs x 12"/' / 16" = 372 plf
(372 plf 60 plf)(32ft) / 1488lbs = 6.7 bolts, so spacing =60" maximum
2
Anchor bolt spacing shall not exceed 6' on center per Table 3.3A Footnote 5.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


80 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Connections (contd)
Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacities from Table 3.2 (pp. 140-141)
and Table 3.3 (pp. 145-146)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... 120 mph Exp. B


Stories supported by Foundation:........................................................................... 2

Assuming Slab on Grade, determine required loads for proprietary connectors:

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Building dimension W or L 16' 16' 32' 32'


R=L/W or W/L for Table 3.2 0.5 0.5 2 2
Number of stories receiving lateral wind load (Table 3.2A) 2 2 2 2
Wind uplift (Table 3.4C) 496 lbs 496lbs
Uplift force Spacing 16" 16"
Wind uplift plf basis 372 plf 372 plf
W Overhang Reduction (Table 3.4C Footnote 2) [(2' - OH / 4']2 1.0 1.0
i
n Wall Dead Load Reduction1 ( 1 walls (0.6)(99plf)) -60 -60
d
Adjusted Wind uplift (Table 3.4C) 312 plf 312 plf
Wind uplift (Table 3.2(U)) 211 plf 211 plf

Wind lateral load (Table 3.2(L)) 157 plf 157 plf 157 plf 157 plf

Wind shear load (Table 3.2(S)) 411 R 329 plf 329 plf 514 plf 514 plf

Seismic shear load (Table 3.3)2 C1 = C2 =

Lmax = Lmin = or,  slab on grade 240 plf 240 plf 240 plf 240 plf

S Wall Dead Load ww 11 psf 11 psf 11 psf 11 psf


e Footnote 4 Wall Dead Load Reduction
i Rw = (ww + 70.65) / 85.65 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95
s
m Footnote 5 Sheathing Adjustment Factor for wall (Table 3.17D)
i (Cswa) 0.69 0.53 1.0 0.53
c
Adjusted seismic shear load = seismic shear load x Rw / Cswa 330 plf 430 plf 228 plf 430 plf
Wall length 16' 16' 32' 32'

Seismic shear load = adjusted seismic shear load / wall length 330 plf 430 plf 228 plf 430 plf
1
Refer to WFCM Commentary 1.1.2.
2
See top story main segmented shearwall design for example seismic calculation using C1 and C2. Here, the determination is
based on slab-on-grade condition. Note that Table 3.3 limits spacing of exterior shear wall lines to 20 80 feet for two stories.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 81

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Connections (contd)
Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Wall Assembly or Wall Assembly to Foundation (WFCM 3.2.2.2 and 3.2.2.3)
Choose Wall to Wall Uplift Strap Connection from Table 3.4B (p. 151)
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Three second gust wind speed 120 mph Exp. B 120 mph Exp. B
Framing Spacing 16 in. 16 in.
W
Roof Span 32 ft. 32 ft.
i
n Tabulated number of 8d Common Nails required in each end of
4 41
d 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap every stud
No Ceiling Assembly nail increase (Footnote 3) 0
Required number of 8d Common Nails in each end of strap every stud
= Tabulated number of nails - Reductions + Increases 4* 3*
1
calculated using 416 lbs uplift (below) divided by 127 lb/nail per WFCM Supplement Table 6A.

*Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacities


Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity (Table
3.4, page 149) 441 lbs
Interior framing adjustment (Footnote 1) 1.0
Roof dead load reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 3)
W = [0.60(20 psf 15 psf) x 8'-0" x 16"/12"/' = 32 lbs] -32 lbs
i Wall-to-Wall and Wall-to-Foundation reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 4)
n = [60 plf x 1 walls (16" / 12"/' ) = 80 lbs] -80 lbs
d Non-Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity
(Table 3.4C, page 152) 496 lbs
Wall-to-Wall and Wall-to-Foundation reduction (WFCM 3.2.5.3)
= [60 plf x 1 walls (16" / 12"/' ) = 160 lbs] -80 lbs
Required minimum capacity of proprietary connector
= Tabulated minimum capacity x Adjustments - Reduction 361 lbs 416 lbs

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


82 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Connections (contd)
Overturning Resistance (WFCM 3.2.3)
Hold downs (WFCM 3.2.3.1)
Choose Hold downs from Table 3.17F for Segmented (Type I) and Perforated (Type II) Walls (p. 176)

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Wall Height 10' 10' 10' 10'

WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - wind 4" 3" 6" 3"
W
i Tabulated hold down connection capacity required wind (Tw) 4360 lbs 4360 lbs 4360 lbs 4360 lbs
n Hold down adj. per Table 3.17F Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (C ) 0.74 0.60 1.0 0.60
swa
d
Adjusted hold down capacity (Twa = (Tw) / (Cswa)) 5892 lbs 7267 lbs 4360 lbs 7267 lbs

S WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - seismic 4" 3" 6" 3"
e
i Tabulated hold down connection capacity required seismic (Ts) 2400 lbs 2400 lbs 2400 lbs 2400 lbs
s Hold down adjustment per Table 3.17F Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa) 0.69 0.53 1.0 0.53
m
i Adjusted hold down capacity (Tsa = (Ts) / (Cswa))
c 3478 lbs 4528 lbs 2400 lbs 4528 lbs

Since there are 3 offsets at the junction of the main building to the wings, hold down requirements for the
building wings will not be added to the requirements for the main building for shared walls.

Hatched Wall Area (28 ft):


7/16 WSP 8d Common
@ 3 edge spacing +
Gyp (Unblocked) 5d Cooler
@ 7 edge spacing

9559 7267 9559 7267


lbs bs lbs bs
Main East Main East
Wing Wing

West Wall Elevation


AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 83

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Connections (contd)
Sheathing and Cladding Attachment (WFCM 3.2.4)
Wall Sheathing (WFCM 3.2.4.2)
Same as West Wing design (see Workbook p.69).

Special Connections (WFCM 3.2.5)

Connections around Wall Openings (WFCM 3.2.5.4)

Same as West Wing design (see Workbook p.69).

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


84 Bottom Story Design

Job: WFCM Workbook Description: East Wing

Notes

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook 85

APPENDIX A
SUPPLEMENTAL
WORKSHEETS

Scoping
WFCM Applicability Limitations
Prescriptive Design Limitations

Checklists
WFCM 3.2 Connections Checklist
WFCM 3.3 Floor Systems Checklist
WFCM 3.4 Wall Systems Checklist
WFCM 3.5 Roof Systems Checklist

Worksheets
Roof Systems Worksheets
Roof Assembly Connections Worksheets
Wall Systems Worksheets
Floor Systems Worksheets
Wall and Floor Assembly Connections Worksheets

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook General Information

Job: Description:

BUILDING DESCRIPTION

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

BUILDING DESCRIPTION

Bottom Floor Plan

North Openings
Windows
Typical
Master Bath
Foyer
Kitchen
North Bath

Doors
Typical
Master Bedroom
Foyer
Family Room

Top Floor Plan


First Floor Wall Height = _________ Roof Pitch = ___________
Second Floor Wall Height = _________ House Mean Roof Height = ___________
Finished Grade to Foundation Top = _________
Floor Assembly Height = _________ Wing Mean Roof Height = ___________
Overall Building Dimension = _________
Foundation Type = _________ Roof Overhang Distance = ___________
AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION
Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook General Information

Job: Description:
LOADS ON THE BUILDING
Structural systems in the WFCM 2001Edition have been sized using dead, live, snow, seismic and wind loads in accordance
with the 2000 International Building Code.

Lateral Loads:
Wind:

3-second gust wind speed in Exposure Category _______ =

Seismic:

Seismic Design Category (SDC) =

Short period design spectral response acceleration (SDS) =

One second period design spectral response acceleration (SD1) =

Seismic response coefficient (Cs) =

Gravity Loads:

Roof:

Roof Dead Load = psf Floors:

Roof Snow Load First Floor Live Load = psf

Ground Snow Load, Pg = psf Second Floor Live Load = psf

Flat Roof Snow Load (calculated from ASCE 7-98 see Attic Floor Live Load = psf
WFCM Commentary Table 2.14B)
= 1.5(0.7)Pg Ce Ct I Floor Dead Load = psf
= (1.5)(0.7)( )( )( )( )

= ______ psf Walls:

Wall Dead Load = psf

Displacements:
Roof Rafters with Ceiling Attached L/ =
Roof Rafters with no Ceiling Attached L/ =
Floor Joists L/ =

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

WFCM APPLICABILITY LIMITATIONS (p. 2)


The following table is used to determine whether the building geometry is within the applicability limitations of the
WFCM. Conditions not complying with the limitations shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineer
practice (see WFCM 1.1.3).

Attribute Limitation Design Case 


BUILDING DIMENSIONS
Number of Stories maximum 3
minimum Flat
Roof Slope
maximum 12:12
Mean Roof Height (MRH) maximum 33'
minimum
Building Dimension (L or W)
maximum 80'
minimum 1:4
Building Aspect Ratio (L/W)
maximum 4:1

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

PRESCRIPTIVE DESIGN LIMITATIONS (p. 106)


The following table is used to determine whether the building geometry is within the applicability limitations of the
WFCM Chapter 3 prescriptive provisions. Conditions not complying with the limitations shall be designed in
accordance with WFCM Chapter 2 (see WFCM 3.1.3).

Element Attribute Limitation Design Case 


FLOOR SYSTEMS
Lumber Joist Span 26' maximum
Joists Joist Spacing 24" maximum
Cantilevers/Setback - Supporting loadbearing walls d1 maximum
or shearwalls
Cantilevers - Supporting non-loadbearing wall non- L/4 maximum
shearwall
Floor Vertical Floor Offset df maximum
Diaphragms Floor Diaphragm Aspect Ratio 3:1 maximum
Floor Diaphragm Openings Lesser of 12' or 50% of Dia.
Dimension
WALL SYSTEMS
Wall Studs Loadbearing Wall Height 10' maximum
Non-Loadbearing Wall Height 20' maximum
Wall Stud Spacing 24" maximum
Shearwalls Shearwall Line Offset 4' maximum
Shearwall Story Offset d maximum
Shearwall Segment Aspect Ratio 3:1 maximum2
ROOF SYSTEMS
Lumber Rafter Span (Horizontal Projection) 26'2 maximum
Rafters Rafter Spacing 24" maximum
Eave Overhang Length Lesser of 2' or rafter length/3
Rake Overhang Length Lesser of 2' or purlin span/2
Roof Slope 12:12 maximum
Roof Roof Diaphragm Aspect Ratio 3:1 maximum
Diaphragms
1
Exception: For roof live loads and ground snow loads less than or equal to 20 psf and 30 psf, respectively, lumber floor
joist cantilevers supporting load-bearing walls shall not exceed one-eighth of the backspan when supporting only a roof load where
the roof clear span does not exceed 28 feet.
2
Shear wall segment aspect ratios are limited to 2:1 for seismic loads (Table 3.17D Footnote 3). 2003 International
Building Code (IBC) Table 2305.3.3 footnote a., permits a 2w/h reduction for shear walls not meeting maximum shear wall aspect
ratio of 2:1 for seismic loads.
3
For roof snow loads, tabulated spans are limited to 20 ft. to account for unbalanced snow loading in the table.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:
WFCM 3.2 CONNECTIONS CHECKLIST
3.2.1 LATERAL FRAMING AND SHEAR CONNECTIONS
3.2.1.1 Roof Assembly ......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.1.2 Roof Assembly to Wall Assembly............................................................................................................ Ok? T

3.2.1.3 Wall Assembly ......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.1.4 Wall Assembly to Floor Assembly........................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.1.5 Floor Assembly......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.1.6 Floor Assembly to Wall Assembly or Sill Plate ....................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.1.7 Wall Assembly or Sill Plate to Foundation............................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.2 UPLIFT CONNECTIONS


3.2.2.1 Roof Assembly to Wall Assembly............................................................................................................ Ok? T

3.2.2.2 Wall Assembly to Wall Assembly............................................................................................................ Ok? T

3.2.2.3 Wall Assembly to Foundation .................................................................................................................. Ok? T

3.2.3 OVERTURNING RESISTANCE


3.2.3.1 Holddowns................................................................................................................................................ Ok? T

3.2.4 SHEATHING AND CLADDING ATTACHMENT


3.2.4.1 Roof Sheathing ......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.4.2 Wall Sheathing ......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.4.3 Floor Sheathing......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.4.4 Roof Cladding........................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.4.5 Wall Cladding........................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.5 SPECIAL CONNECTIONS


3.2.5.1 Ridge Straps.............................................................................................................................................. Ok? T

3.2.5.2 Jack Rafters............................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.5.3 Non-Loadbearing Wall Assemblies.......................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.2.5.4 Connections around Wall Openings ......................................................................................................... Ok? T

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

WFCM 3.3 FLOOR SYSTEMS CHECKLIST


3.3.1 WOOD JOIST SYSTEMS
3.3.1.1 Floor Joists ............................................................................................................................................. Ok? T

3.3.1.1.1 Notching and Boring ............................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.3.1.2 Bearing ................................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.3.1.3 End Restraint.......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.3.1.4 Lateral Stability ...................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.3.1.5 Single or Continuous Floor Joists

3.3.1.5.1 Supporting Loadbearing Walls................................................................................................ Ok? T

3.3.1.5.2 Supporting Non-Loadbearing Walls........................................................................................ Ok? T

3.3.1.5.3 Supporting Concentrated Loads .............................................................................................. Ok? T

3.3.1.6 Cantilevered Floor Joists

3.3.1.6.1 Supporting Loadbearing Walls................................................................................................ Ok? T

3.3.1.6.2 Supporting Non-Loadbearing Walls........................................................................................ Ok? T

3.3.1.7 Floor Diaphragm Openings .................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.3.2 WOOD I-JOIST SYSTEMS ................................................................................................................. Ok? T

3.3.3 WOOD FLOOR TRUSS SYSTEMS ............................................................................................... Ok? T

3.3.4 FLOOR SHEATHING


3.3.4.1 Sheathing Spans........................................................................................................................................ Ok? T

3.3.4.2 Sheathing Edge Support ........................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.3.5 FLOOR DIAPHRAGM BRACING .................................................................................................. Ok? T

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:
WFCM 3.4 WALL SYSTEMS CHECKLIST
3.4.1 EXTERIOR WALLS
3.4.1.1 Wood Studs ............................................................................................................................................ Ok? T
3.4.1.1.1 Notching and Boring ............................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.1.1.2 Stud Continuity........................................................................................................................ Ok? T
3.4.1.1.3 Corners .................................................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.1.2 Top Plates............................................................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.1.3 Bottom Plates ......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.1.4 Wall Openings
3.4.1.4.1 Headers.................................................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.1.4.2 Full Height Studs..................................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.1.4.3 Jack Studs................................................................................................................................ Ok? T
3.4.1.4.4 Window Sill Plates .................................................................................................................. Ok? T

3.4.2 INTERIOR LOADBEARING PARTITIONS


3.4.2.1 Wood Studs ............................................................................................................................................ Ok? T
3.4.2.1.1 Notching and Boring ............................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.2.1.2 Stud Continuity........................................................................................................................ Ok? T
3.4.2.2 Top Plates............................................................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.2.3 Bottom Plates ......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.2.4 Wall Openings
3.4.2.4.1 Headers.................................................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.2.4.2 Studs Supporting Header Beams ............................................................................................. Ok? T

3.4.3 INTERIOR NON-LOADBEARING PARTITIONS


3.4.3.1 Wood Studs ............................................................................................................................................ Ok? T
3.4.3.1.1 Notching and Boring ............................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.3.2 Top Plates............................................................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.3.3 Bottom Plates ......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.4.4 WALL SHEATHING


3.4.4.1 Sheathing and Cladding.......................................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.4.2 Exterior Shearwalls ................................................................................................................................ Ok? T
3.4.4.2.1 Sheathing Type Adjustments................................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.4.2.2 Perforated Shearwall Adjustments .......................................................................................... Ok? T
3.4.4.2.3 Holddowns .............................................................................................................................. Ok? T

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

WFCM 3.5 ROOF SYSTEMS CHECKLIST


3.5.1 Wood Rafter Systems
3.5.1.1 Rafters .................................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.5.1.1.1 Jack Rafters ............................................................................................................................. Ok? T

3.5.1.1.2 Rafter Overhangs..................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.5.1.1.3 Rake Overhangs ...................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.5.1.1.4 Notching and Boring ............................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.5.1.2 Bearing ................................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.5.1.3 End Restraint.......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.5.1.4 Ridge Beams .......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.5.1.5 Hip and Valley Beams............................................................................................................................ Ok? T

3.5.1.6 Ceiling Joists .......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.5.1.7 Open Ceilings......................................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.5.1.8 Roof Openings........................................................................................................................................ Ok? T

3.5.2 Wood I-Joist Roof Systems ............................................................................................................ Ok? T

3.5.3 Wood Roof Truss Systems ............................................................................................................. Ok? T

3.5.4 Roof Sheathing


3.5.4.1 Sheathing .................................................................................................................................................. Ok? T

3.5.4.2 Sheathing Edge Support ........................................................................................................................... Ok? T

3.5.5 Roof Diaphragm Bracing ................................................................................................................. Ok? T

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Roof and Ceiling Framing Details

Cross Section

Roof Framing

Ceiling Framing
AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL
Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Roof Framing
Rafters (WFCM 3.5.1.1)
Assuming ceiling not attached to rafters, choose rafters from Table 3.26A and 3.26C (pp. 200 and 202)

Ground Snow Load: ............................................................................................... psf


Live Load: .............................................................................................................. psf
Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. psf
Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ mph Exp. ___
Rafter Vertical Displacement L/: .......................................................................
Required Span (Horizontal Projection): ................................................................. ft.

Thrust Factor (Footnote 1): .................................................................................... 1


Wind Factor (Footnote 2):...................................................................................... 2
Sloped Roof Adjustment (Footnote 3): .................................................................. 3

Selection of Species, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.26A & C)


Species

Spacing
Grade

4 Table 3.26A Span


Live Load Span
4 x 1 x 3

5 Table 3.26A Span


Wind Load Span
5 x 2 x 3

6 Table 3.26C Span


Snow Load Span
6 x 1

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Roof Framing - Ridge Members


Ridge Beams (WFCM 3.5.1.4)
Since thrust is accounted for in rafter selection, per 3.5.1.4 exception use: Ridge Board
Alternately, use ____ " x ____" plywood or OSB.

OR

A ridge beam could be designed per Tables 3.29A and B (pp. 211-212). Additional columns would be required to
establish load path to the foundation.

Ground Snow Load: ....................................................................................... psf


Live Load: ....................................................................................................... psf
Dead Load: ...................................................................................................... psf
Required Span: ................................................................................................ ft.
Building Width:............................................................................................... ft.

Per Table 3.29A (interpolated):....................................................................... Glulam


Per Table 3.29B (interpolated): ....................................................................... Glulam

OR

A ridge beam could be designed per Table 2.16 (p. 103) since the span exceeds values shown in Table 3.29A and B
(pp. 211-212). Additional columns would be required to establish load path to the foundation.

Ground Snow Load: ....................................................................................... psf


Live Load: ....................................................................................................... psf
Dead Load: ...................................................................................................... psf
Required Span: ................................................................................................ ft.
Building Width:............................................................................................... ft.
Tabulated Load:............................................................................................... plf

From the 2001 ASD Manual Glulam Supplement Table 7.2 choose:

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Ceiling Framing
Ceiling Joists (WFCM 3.5.1.6)
For uninhabitable attics with limited storage live load, choose ceiling joists from Table 3.25A or B (pp. 198-
199):

Live Load: .............................................................................................................. psf


Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. psf
Joist Vertical Displacement L/:............................................................................ ______

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... ft.

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.25A or B)


Specie

Spacing
Grade
Size
Maximum Span

Floor Joists (WFCM 3.3.1.1)


For habitable attics, use residential sleeping area with 30 psf live load, choose ceiling joists from Table 3.18A
(p. 177):

Live Load: .............................................................................................................. psf


Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. psf
Joist Vertical Displacement L/:............................................................................ ______

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... ft.

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.18A)


Specie

Spacing
Grade
Size
Maximum Span

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Ceiling Framing
Ceiling Joists (WFCM 2.5.1.6)
For uninhabitable attics without storage, choose ceiling joists from Table 2.12A (p. 88), as an
alternative solution process.

Live Load: .............................................................................................................. psf


Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. psf
Joist Vertical Displacement L/:............................................................................

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... ft.

Required E and Fb at ____"o.c. joist spacing for ______' span from Table 2.12A:

Size
Required E psi
Required Fb psi

Select Grade from WFCM Table 4A and 4B based on required E and Fb above:
Specie

Size & Grade


Trial and Tabulated E, psi
error
Tabulated Fb, psi
Size Factor, CF
Load Duration Factor,
CD
Repetitive Member
Factor, Cr
Allowable Fb, psi

Adjustment factors for Table 4A are found on WFCM p. 279-280.


Adjustment factors for Table 4B are found on WFCM p. 286-287.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Roof and Ceiling Sheathing


Sheathing (WFCM 3.5.4.1)
Choose Roof Sheathing from Tables 3.12A and 3.12B (p. 162)

Ground Snow Load ................................................................................................ psf


Live Load ............................................................................................................... psf
Dead Load .............................................................................................................. psf
Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ mph Exp. ____

Rafter/Truss Spacing: ............................................................................................. in.


Sheathing Type:......................................................................................................

Tabulated Minimum Panel Thickness:


From Table 3.12A:................................................................................... in.
From Table 3.12B: ................................................................................... in.

Roof Diaphragm Bracing (WFCM 3.5.5)


Blocking in first two rafter bays per Figure 3.7b (p. 127) and Table 3.1 (p. 139) fastener schedule.
Blocking to Joist (toenailed): .................................................................................

RAFTERS

OR

Bracing Gable Endwall with Attic Floor/Ceiling Sheathing Length from Table 3.15 (p. 165)
(assumes windward and leeward loads and sheathing length from gable end to gable end)

Fastest Mile Windspeed: ........................................................................................ mph Exp. ___


Roof Pitch: .............................................................................................................
Diaphragm Span:.................................................................................................... ft.
Sheathing Type:......................................................................................................

Tabulated Minimum Length of Attic Floor/Ceiling Diaphragm: ........................... ft.


Bracing One Gable End Adjustment (Footnote 1): ................................................
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3):...................................................................
Ceiling Framing Spacing Adjustment (Footnote 5): ..............................................
Min sheathing length

Required Minimum Length of Attic Floor/Ceiling Diaphragm:


Tabulated Minimum Length x Applicable Adjustment Factors:.............. ft.
Tabulated minimum length 1/3 distance between bracing endwalls..... ft.
(per Table 3.15 Footnote 1)

Use Table 3.1 (p.139) fastener schedule for floor sheathing.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Connections Roof Lateral, Shear, Uplift


Lateral Framing and Shear Connections (WFCM 3.2.1)
Roof Assembly to Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.2)
Choose Rafter/Ceiling Joist to Top Plate Lateral and Shear Connection from Table 3.4A (p. 150)

Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ mph Exp. ___

Rafter/Ceiling Joist Spacing................................................................................... in.


Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... ft.

Required number of 8d Common Nails


in each rafter/ceiling joist to top plate connection:................................................. *

Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.2)


Roof Assembly to Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.2.1)
Choose Roof to Wall Uplift Strap Connection from Table 3.4B (p. 151)
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Three second gust wind speed
Framing Spacing
W
Roof Span
i
n Minimum tabulated number of 8d Common Nails required in each end of
d 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap every rafter / stud
No Ceiling Assembly nail increase (Footnote 3)
Minimum required number of 8d Common Nails in each end of strap every
rafter / stud = Tabulated number of nails - Reductions + Increases
1
calculated using lbs uplift (below) divided by lb/nail per WFCM Supplement Table 6A.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Connections Roof Lateral, Shear, Uplift (contd)


Alternatively, use proprietary connectors every rafter with the following minimum capacities from Table 3.4
(pp. 148-149)

Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity (Table


3.4, page 149)
Interior framing adjustment (Footnote 1)
Roof-to-Wall reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 3)
= [0.60(___ psf 15 psf) x 'x " / 12 "/ ' = lbs]
W Non-Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity
i (Table 3.4C, page 152)
n Overhang Multiplier (Table 3.4C, Footnote 2) [(2' + OH) / 4']2 OH = '
d
Zone 2 Multiplier (Table 3.4C, Footnote 3)
Required Minimum Uplift Capacity of proprietary connector
= Tabulated minimum capacity x Adjustments - Reduction
Required Minimum Lateral Capacity
Required Minimum Shear Parallel to Ridge Capacity
Required Minimum Shear Perpendicular to Ridge Capacity

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Connections Roof Sheathing, Ridge


Sheathing and Cladding Attachment (WFCM 3.2.4)
Roof Sheathing (WFCM 3.2.4.1)
Choose Roof Sheathing Nail Spacing from Table 3.10 (p. 160)

Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ mph Exp. ____

Rafter/Truss Spacing: ............................................................................................. in.


Sheathing Type:......................................................................................................

Nail Spacing
8d Common Nails

Location Edges Field

4' Perimeter Edge Zone

Interior Zones

Gable Endwall Rake with


Lookout Block
* see 2001 WFCM Figure 2.1 p. 34 for nailing details. Perimeter edge zone nailing of 6 permitted for edges and field
per Figure 2.1g.

Special Connections (WFCM 3.2.5)


Ridge Straps (WFCM 3.2.5.1)
For a clean finished ceiling line, rather than using collar ties to resist upward ridge separation,
choose Ridge Tension Strap Connection from Table 3.6A (p. 156)

Three second gust windspeed:................................................................................ mph Exp. ____

Roof Pitch: .............................................................................................................


Roof Span:.............................................................................................................. ft.

Tabulated number of 8d Common Nails


required in each end of 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap:......................................................
Ridge Strap Spacing Adjustment (Footnote 4): .......................................

Required number of 8d Common Nails in each end of 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap:


Tabulated number of nails x Applicable adjustment factors: ................... *

Ridge

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Connections Roof Heels


* Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacity from Table 3.6 (p. 155)
Tabulated minimum connection capacity:..............................................................
Ridge Strap Spacing Adjustment (Footnote 4): .......................................
Required minimum capacity of proprietary connector:
Tabulated minimum capacity x Applicable adjustment factors: .............. lbs

Table 3.1 Nailing Schedule


Choose Ceiling Joist to Parallel Rafter and Ceiling Joist Lap Connection from Table 3.9A (p. 159)

Ground Snow Load: ............................................................................................... psf


Roof Span:.............................................................................................................. ft.
Rafter Slope:...........................................................................................................
Rafter Spacing:....................................................................................................... in.

Tabulated number of 16d Common Nails required per heel joint splice: .............
Clinched Nails Adjustment (Footnote 1): ................................................
Ceiling Height/Roof Ridge Height Adjustment (Footnote 6): .................

Required number of 16d Common Nails per heel joint splice:


Tabulated number of nails x Applicable adjustment factors: ................... *
Required number of nails at splice (Footnote 4): ..................................... *

*Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacity from Table 3.9 (p. 158)

Tabulated minimum connection capacity:..............................................................


Ceiling Height/Roof Ridge Height Adjustment (Footnote 5): .................

Required minimum capacity of proprietary connector:


Tabulated minimum capacity x Applicable adjustment factors: .............. lbs

Blocking to Rafter Connection from Table 3.1 (p. 139): ...... __________________________________

OR

Rim Board to Rafter Connection from Table 3.1 (p. 139): . __________________________________

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Wall Framing - Studs


Wall Studs (WFCM 3.4.1.1)
................................................................................................................. Loadbearing

Choose Studs from Table 3.20A or 3.20B and Footnotes (pp. 180-184)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp. ____


Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... ft.
Sheathing Type (wood structural panel or minimum sheathing):...........................
Studs supporting:....................................................................................................

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.20B and Footnotes)

Specie

Spacing
Grade
Size
Maximum Length (Wind)
Maximum Length (Dead
and Live Loads)

................................................................................................................. Non-Loadbearing

Choose Studs from Table 3.20A or 3.20B and Footnotes (pp. 180-184)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp. ____


Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... ft.
Sheathing Type (wood structural panel or minimum sheathing):...........................

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.20B and Footnotes)

Specie

Spacing
Grade
Size
Maximum Length (Wind)
Maximum Length (Dead
and Live Loads)

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Wall Framing Top Plates


Top Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.2)
Choose Building End Wall Double Top Plate Lap Splice Length from Table 3.21 (p. 185)

Building Dimension: .............................................................................................. ft.

Tabulated Minimum Splice Length:....................................................................... ft.

Connection: top plate to top plate:................................................................... nails per ft.

Choose Building Side wall Double Top Plate Lap Splice Length from Table 3.21 (p. 185)

Building Dimension: .............................................................................................. ft.

Tabulated Minimum Splice Length:....................................................................... ft.

Connection: top plate to top plate:................................................................... nails per ft.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Wall Framing - Exterior Headers, Sills


.................................................................................. ________________

Exterior Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.1.4.1)


Choose Headers in Loadbearing Walls from Tables 3.22A-E and Table 3.22F (pp. 186-193)

Building Width:...................................................................................................... ft.


Required Span (Foyer Window):............................................................................ ft.
Ground Snow Load: ............................................................................................... psf
Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp. ____

Header supporting roof, ceiling and attic floor use Table 3.22B (p. 187)
Preliminary Header Selection (Gravity Loads):
Maximum Header/Girder Span (interpolated):.......................................................
Tabulated Number of Jack Studs (Table 3.22F):....................................................
Roof Span Adjustment (Footnote 1 (W+12)/48):................................................
Adjusted number of jack studs required = tabulated x roof span adjustment:........

Table 3.23A (p. 192)


Preliminary Header Selection (Wind Loads):
Maximum Header/Girder Span .............................................................................. ft.
Tabulated Number of Full Height (King) Studs (Table 3.23C):.............................
Reduced Full Height Stud Requirements (Table 3.23D):.......................................
(same species / grade as Loadbearing Studs (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

Final Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size:


__________ loads control:
Number of Jack Studs Required (_______ controlled): .........................
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required (_______ controlled): ..
(same species / grade as Loadbearing Studs (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

Exterior Loadbearing Wall Window Sill Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.4.4)


Choose Window Sill Plates from Table 3.23B (p. 193)

Three second gust wind speed: ............................................................................... mph Exp. B


Required Span (Foyer Sill Plate): ........................................................................... ft.

Selection of Window Sill Plate Specie, Grade, and Size:


Tabulated Window Sill Plate Span: ........................................................................
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3 (H/10)1/2): .................................................

Adjusted Maximum Sill Plate Length:


Tabulated maximum Sill Plate Length wall Height Adjustment: .........

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Wall Framing Exterior Headers, Sills (contd)


..................................................................................

Exterior Non-Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.1.4.1)


Note: When headers support wall loads only, it is conservative to use the tabulated value for a header
supporting a roof and ceiling with a 12 roof span and 20psf live load.

Choose Headers in Non-Loadbearing Walls from Table 3.23B and 3.23C (p. 193)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp. B

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... ft.

Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size:


Tabulated Header Span: .........................................................................................
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3 (H/10)1/2): .................................................
Adjusted Header Span:...........................................................................................
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required: .....................................................
(same species / grade as Non-Loadbearing Studs (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

Exterior Non-Loadbearing Wall Window Sill Plates (WFCM 3.4.1.4.3)


Choose Window Sill Plates from Table 3.23B (p. 193)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp. B

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... ft.

Selection of Window Sill Plate Specie, Grade, and Size:


Tabulated Window Sill Plate Span:........................................................................
Wall Height Adjustment (Footnote 3 (H/10)1/2): ................................................. ____
Adjusted Header Span:...........................................................................................
Number of Full Height (King) Studs Required: .....................................................
(same species / grade as Non-Loadbearing Studs (WFCM 3.4.1.4.2))

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Wall Framing Interior Headers


.................................................................................._______________
Interior Loadbearing Wall Headers (WFCM 3.4.2.4.1)
Choose Header Table 3.24A (p. 195)

Building Width:...................................................................................................... ft.

Required Span: ....................................................................................................... ft.

Selection of Header Specie, Grade, and Size:


Maximum Header/Girder Span: ............................................................................. ft.
Number of Jack Studs Required:............................................................................

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Wall Framing - Sheathing


Sheathing and Cladding (WFCM 3.4.4.1)
Choose Exterior Wall Sheathing or Cladding from Tables 3.13A and 3.13B respectively (p. 163)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp.


Sheathing Type:......................................................................................................
Direction Across Studs (Short or Long):................................................................
Stud Spacing: ......................................................................................................... in.
Minimum Panel Thickness:.................................................................................... in.
Shear wall minimum panel thickness (WFCM 3.4.4.2): ........................................ in.

= ____ ft. long = LFH

North Elevation

= ____ ft. long = LFH

South Elevation

= ____ ft. long = LFH

East Elevation

= ____ ft. long = LFH

West Elevation

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Wall Sheathing Segmented Shear Walls


Exterior Type I Shear walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)
Choose Exterior Type I Shear Wall Length from Table 3.17A-D (pp. 169-174)

Wall Height: ........................................................................................................... ft.


Number of Stories Braced (per 3.1.3.1): ................................................................

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp.


Maximum shear wall aspect ratio for wind (Table 3.17D):....................................
Minimum shear wall segment length (Wall height/aspect ratio):........................... ft.

Seismic Design Category: ......................................................................................


Maximum shear wall aspect ratio for seismic (Table 3.17D Footnote 3):..............
Minimum shear wall segment length (Wall height/aspect ratio):........................... ft.

Minimum WSP sheathing thickness (per WFCM 3.4.4.2):.................................... in.


Minimum gypsum thickness (per WFCM 3.4.4.2):................................................ in.

Load Parallel Load Perpendicular


to Ridge to Ridge
Steps Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Length of Building ____________
1 S Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing for Seismic (LFHS) Have
e Tabulated Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing for Seismic Loads per
2 i Table 3.17C (Ls) C1 = C2 = Lmax = Lmin = ______
s
3 m WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing Seismic (WFCM 3.4.4.2 + 3.4.4.2.1) pick
4 i Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa)
c
5 Min. Length Full Ht. SheathingSegmented Seismic (LTypeI-S = Ls(Cswa)) need
LTypeI-S < LFHS Ok? Ok? Ok? Ok?
1 Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH) Have
W Tabulated Minimum Length Full Height Sheathing for Wind Loads per
2 i Table 3.17B and 3.17A (Lw)
n
3 WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing Wind (WFCM 3.4.4.2) pick
d
Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa)
4
5 Wall Height Adjustment (Table 3.17A&B Footnote 2) (CWH = '/8')
Min. Length Full Ht. SheathingSegmented Wind (LTypeI-W=Lw(CWH)(Cswa) need
6
LTypeI-W < LFH Ok? Ok? Ok? Ok?

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Wall Sheathing Perforated Shear Walls


Exterior Type II Shear Walls (WFCM 3.4.4.2)
Choose Exterior Type II Shear Wall Length from Table 3.17E (p. 175)

Parallel Perpendicular
to Ridge to Ridge
Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Wall Height
Max. Unrestrained Opening Height
Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH)
Have Effective Length of Full Height Sheathing for Seismic (LFHS)
S
e Length of Wall (LWall)
i Percent Full Height Sheathing (LFH / LWall)
s
m Tabulated Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Segmented Seismic (LTypeI-S)
i
c Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL)

Need Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Perforated Seismic (LTypeII-S = LTypeI-S (CL))
LType II < LFHS Ok? Ok? Ok? Ok?

Have Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH)


W Length of Wall (LWall)
i
n Percent Full Height Sheathing (LFH / LWall)
d
Tabulated Min. Length Full Height Sheathing - Segmented Wind (LTypeI-W)
Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL)
need
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing - Perforated Wind (LTypeII-W = LTypeI-W (CL))
LTypeII-W < LFH Ok? Ok? Ok? Ok?

Remarks:

Shear Wall Details Summary _________________________________________

Building Elevation North South East West


Shear Wall Type
WSP Perimeter Nail Spacing
Governing Load
Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa)

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:
Wall Sheathing - Combined Shear Walls
Combine Shear Wall Requirements at Interface of Two Buildings ________

Building Wall Elevation Wind Seismic

Segmented (Type I) Shear Wall Requirements Sheathing Thickness


Reqd FROM Building 1 Elevation (WSP perimeter edge nail spacing) (LFH1)
Length adjustment factor, Cswa1 (Table 3.17D)
Revised Length Adjustment Factor (Cswa1revised) (Table 3.17D)
Length adjustment factor ratio Cswa1 ratio = Cswa1revised / Cswa1
Adjusted Shared wall length = LFH1 *Cswa1 ratio = LFHadj1

REQd FROM Building 2 Elevation (WSP perimeter edge nail spacing) (LFH2)

Change Length adjustment factor, Cswa2 (Table 3.17D)


Revised Revised Length Adjustment Factor (Cswa2revised) (Table 3.17D)
Length adjustment factor ratio Cswa2 ratio = Cswa2revised / Cswa2
Adjusted Shared wall length = LFH2 *Cswa2 ratio = LFHadj2

NEED Adjusted Shared Wall Total Requirement (LTypeIadjusted) = LFHadj1 + LFHadj2


HAVE Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH)
LTypeIadjusted < LFH Ok? Ok?

Perforated (Type II) Shear Wall Requirements


Perforated (Type II) Length Increase Factor from Table 3.17E (CL)
Min. Length Full Ht. Sheathing-Perforated
NEED (LTypeIIadjusted = LTypeIadjusted (CL))
HAVE Actual Length of Full Height Sheathing (LFH)
LTypeIIadjusted < LFH Ok? Ok?
Decreased nail spacing should be considered first to increase Perforated (Type II) shear wall capacity, otherwise try increasing
WSP thickness.

Shear Wall Details Summary - Final


Building Elevation North South East West
Shear Wall Type
WSP Perimeter Nail Spacing
Governing Load
Shear wall Adjustment per Table 3.17D (Cswa)

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Floor Framing
Floor Joists (WFCM 3.3.1.1)
Choose Floor Joists from Tables 3.18A-B (pp. 177-178)

Live Load: .............................................................................................................. psf


Dead Load: ............................................................................................................. psf
Joist Vertical Displacement L/:...........................................................................
Required Span: ....................................................................................................... ft.

Selection of Specie, Grade, Size, and Spacing: (Table 3.18A)


Specie

Spacing
Grade
Size
Maximum Span

Floor Framing

Floor Sheathing
Sheathing Spans (WFCM 3.3.4.1)
Choose Floor Sheathing from Table 3.14 (p. 164)

Floor Joist Spacing:................................................................................................ in.


Sheathing Type:......................................................................................................
Span Rating ............................................................................................................

Tabulated Minimum Panel Thickness:................................................................... in.

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:
Connections Wall / Floor Assemblies
Lateral Framing and Shear Connections (WFCM 3.2.1)

Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.3)

Top Plate to Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1 (p. 139): ........................
Table 3.1 Footnote 1 for wall sheathing perimeter nailing spacings < 6"
(4" nail spacing: 1.67 x _____ nails) ................................................................
(3" nail spacing: 2.0 x _____ nails) ................................................................

Top Plate Intersection Connection from Table 3.1:.......................................

Stud to Stud Connection from Table 3.1: .......................................................

Header to Header Connection from Table 3.1:..............................................

Choose Top or Bottom Plate to Stud Connection from Table 3.1 & 3.5A:..
......
......
Wall Assembly to Floor Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.4)

Bottom Plate to Floor Joist, Bandjoist,


Endjoist or Blocking Connection from Table 3.1: (6" nail spacing) ..............
Table 3.1 Footnote 1 for wall sheathing perimeter nailing spacings < 6"
(4" nail spacing: 1.67 x _____ nails) ................................................................
(3" nail spacing: 2.0 x _____ nails) ................................................................

Floor Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.5)

Bridging to Floor Joist Connection from Table 3.1:......................................

Blocking to Floor Joist Connection from Table 3.1:......................................

Band Joist to Floor Joist Connection from Table 3.1:...................................

Floor Assembly to Wall Assembly (WFCM 3.2.1.6)

Floor Joist to Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1: ....................................

Blocking to Sill or Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1: ............................

Band Joist to Sill or Top Plate Connection from Table 3.1: .........................
Table 3.1 Footnote 1 for wall sheathing perimeter nailing spacings < 6"
(4" nail spacing: 1.67 x _____ nails) ................................................................
(3" nail spacing: 2.0 x _____ nails) ................................................................

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Connections Floor / Wall Assemblies (contd)


Lateral, Shear, and Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.1 and 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Foundation (WFCM 3.2.1.7 and 3.2.2.3)

Choose Sill Plate to Foundation Connection Requirements for Anchor Bolts Resisting Lateral, Shear, and
Uplift Loads from Table 3.2A (pp. 142-143)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp. ____


Stories supported by Foundation:...........................................................................
Anchor Bolt Diameter: ........................................................................................... in.

Assuming Crawl Space or Basement, determine maximum Anchor Bolt Spacing:

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Shear wall line dimension (Lsw)


Building dimension perpendicular to shear wall line (Table 3.2A)
Number of stories receiving wind load (Table 3.2A)
W
i Tabulated number of bolts to resist shear loads from wind (Table 3.2A)
n Bolt spacing for wind shear loads s = (L -2) / ( number of bolts-1)
ws sw
d
Max. bolt spacing to resist wind uplift loads (swu) (Table 3.2C & 3.4C)

S Tabulated anchor bolt spacing to resist seismic loads (ss) (Table 3.3A)
e
i WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - Seismic
s Bolt spacing adjustment per Table 3.3A Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa)
m
i Adjusted bolt spacing for seismic loads ssa = (ss)(Cswa)
c
Max. anchor bolt spacing (lesser of sws, swu, and ssa)
Notes:

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:
Connections Floor / Wall Assemblies (contd)
Lateral, Shear, and Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.1 and 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Foundation (WFCM 3.2.1.7 and 3.2.2.3)

Choose Bottom Plate to Foundation Connection Requirements for Anchor Bolts Resisting Lateral, Shear, and
Uplift Loads from Table 3.2B (pp. 144) and Table 3.3A (p. 147).

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp.


Stories supported by Foundation:...........................................................................
Anchor Bolt Diameter: ........................................................................................... in.

Assuming Slab on Grade, determine maximum Anchor Bolt Spacing:

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Shear wall line dimension (Lsw)


Number of stories receiving wind load (Table 3.2B)
W
i Bolt spacing for wind lateral and shear loads (Table 3.2B)
n Wall sheathing type adjustment factor per Table 3.17D (Table 3.2B
d Footnote 3) (assumes perforated shear wall capacities) C
swa

Adjusted bolt spacing for wind lateral and shear loads (sws)
Max. anchor bolt spacing to resist wind uplift loads (swu) (Table 3.2C)

S Tabulated anchor bolt spacing to resist seismic loads (ss) (Table 3.3A)
e
i WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - Seismic
s Bolt spacing adjustment per Table 3.3A Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa)
m
i Adjusted bolt spacing for seismic loads ssa = (ss)(Cswa)
c
Max. anchor bolt spacing (lesser of sws, swu, and ssa)
Notes:

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Connections Floor / Wall Assemblies (contd)


Lateral, Shear, and Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.1 and 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Foundation (WFCM 3.2.1.7 and 3.2.2.3)


Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacities from Table 3.2 (pp. 140-
141), Table 3.3 (pp. 145-146) and Table 3.4C (p. 152).

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp. ____


Stories supported by Foundation:...........................................................................

Determine required loads for proprietary connectors:

Building Wall Elevation North South East West

Building dimension W or L
R=L/W or W/L for Table 3.2
Number of stories receiving lateral wind load (Table 3.2A)
Wind uplift (Table 3.4C)
Uplift force Spacing
Wind uplift plf basis
W Overhang Reduction (Table 3.4C Footnote 2) [(2' OH / 4' ]2
i
n Wall Dead Load Reduction1 ( walls (0.6) ( plf))
d
Adjusted Wind uplift (Table 3.4C)
Wind uplift (Table 3.2(U))

Wind lateral load (Table 3.2(L))

Wind shear load (Table 3.2(S))

Seismic shear load (Table 3.3) C1 = C2 =


Lmax = Lmin = or, R slab on grade

Wall Dead Load ww


S
e Footnote 4 Wall Dead Load Reduction
i Rw = (ww + 70.65) / 85.65
s Footnote 5 Sheathing Adjustment Factor for wall (Table 3.17D)
m (Cswa)
i
c Adjusted seismic shear load = seismic shear load x Rw / Cswa
Wall length

Seismic shear load = adjusted seismic shear load / wall length


1
Refer to WFCM Commentary 1.1.2.
*Table 3.2 Footnote: Determine anchorage for Lateral Loads in foundation design per Section 1.1.4

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:
Connections (contd)
Uplift Connections (WFCM 3.2.2)

Wall Assembly to Wall Assembly or Wall Assembly to Foundation (WFCM 3.2.2.2 and 3.2.2.3)

Choose Wall to Wall Uplift Strap Connection from Table 3.4B (p. 151)
Building Wall Elevation North South East West
Three second gust wind speed
Framing Spacing
W
Roof Span
i
n Tabulated number of 8d Common Nails required in each end of
d 1-1/4" x 20 gage strap every stud
No Ceiling Assembly nail increase (Footnote 3)
Required number of 8d Common Nails in each end of strap every stud
= Tabulated number of nails - Reductions + Increases
1
calculated using lbs uplift (below) divided by lb/nail per WFCM Supplement Table 6A.

*Alternatively, use proprietary connectors with the following minimum capacities


Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity (Table
3.4, page 149)
Interior framing adjustment (Footnote 1)
Roof dead load reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 3)
W = [0.60( psf 15 psf) x x "/12"/ ' = lbs]
i Wall-to-Wall and Wall-to-Foundation reduction (Table 3.4, Footnote 4)
n =[ plf x walls ( " / 12"/ ' ) = lbs]
d Non-Loadbearing Walls - Tabulated minimum uplift connection capacity
(Table 3.4C, page 152)
Wall-to-Wall and Wall-to-Foundation reduction (WFCM 3.2.5.3)
=[ plf x walls ( " / 12"/ ' ) = lbs]
Required minimum capacity of proprietary connector
= Tabulated minimum capacity x Adjustments - Reduction

Check Perforated Shear Wall plate anchorage between wall ends


The assumption is that the wall plate nailing to the floor frame (WFCM 3.2.1.6 Table 3.1) in addition to the wind
uplift straps are sufficient to resist uplift requirements on the plate using the Perforated Shear Wall Method.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:

Connections Floor Wall Assemblies (contd)


Overturning Resistance (WFCM 3.2.3)

Hold downs (WFCM 3.2.3.1)

Choose Hold downs from Table 3.17F for Type I and Type II Walls (p. 176)

Building Wall Elevation North South East West


Wall Height
Tabulated hold down connection capacity required wind (Tw)
WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - wind
W Hold down adjustment per Table 3.17F Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa)
i
Adjusted hold down capacity (Twa = (Tw) / (Cswa)) - wind
n
d Additional story hold down requirements wind
Total hold down requirement for floor to foundation wind (Twa)
Tabulated hold down connection capacity required seismic (Ts)
S WSP Perimeter Edge Nail Spacing - seismic
e
i Hold down adjustment per Table 3.17F Footnotes (Table 3.17D) (Cswa)
s Adjusted hold down capacity (Tsa = (Ts) / (Cswa)) - seismic
m
i Additional story hold down requirements seismic
c Total hold down requirement for floor to foundation (Tsa) - seismic

Sheathing and Cladding Attachment (WFCM 3.2.4)

Wall Sheathing (WFCM 3.2.4.2)

Choose Wall Sheathing Nail Spacing from Table 3.11 (p. 161)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp.

Stud Spacing: ......................................................................................................... in.


Sheathing Type (wood structural panels, board or lap siding): ..............................

Location Edges Field

4' Edge Zone


Interior Zones

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook - Worksheets

Job: Description:
Connections Wall Opening Elements
Special Connections (WFCM 3.2.5)

Choose Header/Girder Connections based on loads from Table 3.7 (p. 157)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp. ____

Roof Span:.............................................................................................................. ft.


Header Span (Typical Window):............................................................................ ft.

Required Connection Capacity at Each End of Header:


Tabulated Uplift Capacity (interpolated):............................................................... lbs.
Floor load adjustment (per footnote 4):.................................................................. lbs.
Adjusted Uplift Capacity ....................................................................................... lbs.
Tabulated Lateral Capacity: .................................................................................. lbs.

Choose Window Sill Plate Connections based on loads from Table 3.8 (p. 157)

Three second gust wind speed:............................................................................... mph Exp. B


Window Sill Plate Span:......................................................................................... ft.

Tabulated Lateral Connection Capacity at Each End of Window Sill Plate: ........ lbs.

AMERICAN WOOD COUNCIL


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook

APPENDIX B
RELATED PAPERS

Perforated Shearwall Design Method


Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Perforated Shear Wall Design

Philip Line, P.E.

Introduction
The perforated shear wall (Fig. 1) method is one of sev- for determining shear and uplift forces between wall ends.
eral options for the design of wood-frame shear walls in the This equation format provides a convenient means for cal-
2000 International Building Code (IBC). Two other methods culating anchorage requirements based on shear forces re-
include: the segmented approach which utilizes full-height sisted by perforated shear walls.
shear wall segments each with full end-restraint against
Design Equations
overturning (Fig. 2), and the force transfer approach which
utilizes strapping to transfer forces around openings. The Basic equations for design shear capacity, and calcula-
perforated shear wall method provides one way to account tion of anchorage and chord forces based on story shear
for strength and stiffness of sheathed walls with openings forces, are described below.
while providing an alternative to strapping and anchors Design Shear Capacity
typically required by other methods. The design shear force must not exceed the design shear ca-
A perforated shear wall design for a two-story building is pacity of a perforated shear wall, V Vwall. The design shear
described in this paper. The example is similar to one devel- capacity, Vwall, of a perforated shear wall is calculated as:
oped for the Commentary to the Recommended Provisions
for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Struc- Vwall = ( v C O ) Li [1]
tures (2000 NEHRP) but is modified to address wind load- where:
ing using an allowable strength design approach. Vwall = design shear capacity of a perforated shear
A separate example is provided to demonstrate one ap- wall, lb.
proach for calculating deflection of a perforated shear wall. = design unit shear capacity of a segmented
Design Provisions shear wall, plf
The perforated shear wall method is included in the Co = shear capacity adjustment factor from Table
2000 International Building Code (IBC), AF&PAs Wood 1 which accounts for the strength reducing
Frame Construction Manual (WFCM) for One- and Two-Fam- effect of openings on shear wall capacity
ily Dwellings, Standard Building Code (SBC, 1994 revised), iL = sum of lengths of perforated shear wall seg-
and the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic ments. A perforated shear wall segment is a
Regulations for New Buildings (FEMA, 2000). section of shear wall sheathed full height and
The basic method for determining design shear capacity which meets minimum aspect ratio require-
of perforated shear walls is the same in each of these docu- ments in the governing building code. In most
ments. However, application limits as well as requirements cases, this ratio is 3-1/2:1 for shear walls re-
for shear and uplift forces between wall ends vary. For ex- sisting wind and low seismic forces, ft.
ample, 2000 NEHRP provisions contain an equation format

L1 L2 L3
L Hold-downs
Hold-down

Figure 1.Perforated shear wall. Figure 2.Segmented shear wall.

Spring 2002 3
Uplift Anchorage Force at Perforated Shear Wall Ends Table 1.Shear capacity adjustment factor, Co.
At each end of a perforated shear wall, end post anchors Maximum opening heighta
Wall
must be designed for an uplift force, R, due to overturning:
height (h) h/3 h/2 2h/3 5h/6 h
Vh
R= 8 ft. 0 in. 2 ft. 8 in. 4 ft. 0 in. 5 ft. 4 in. 6 ft. 8 in. 8 ft. 0 in.
C O Li [2] 10 ft. 0 in. 3 ft. 4 in. 5 ft. 0 in. 6 ft. 8 in. 8 ft. 4 in. 10 ft. 0 in.
Percent
where:
full-height
R = uplift anchorage force at perforated shear sheathingb Shear capacity adjustment factor
wall ends, lb.
10% 1.00 0.69 0.53 0.43 0.36
V = shear force in perforated shear wall, lb.
20% 1.00 0.71 0.56 0.45 0.38
h = shear wall height, ft.
30% 1.00 0.74 0.59 0.49 0.42
Anchorage Force for In-Plane Shear 40% 1.00 0.77 0.63 0.53 0.45
The unit shear force, v, transmitted into the top of a per- 50% 1.00 0.80 0.67 0.57 0.50
forated shear wall, out of the base of the perforated shear 60% 1.00 0.83 0.71 0.63 0.56
wall at full height sheathing, and used to size collectors
70% 1.00 0.87 0.77 0.69 0.63
(drag struts) connecting perforated shear wall segments, is
80% 1.00 0.91 0.83 0.77 0.71
calculated as:
90% 1.00 0.95 0.91 0.87 0.83
V
v max = 100% 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
C O Li [3] a The maximum opening height is taken as the maximum opening
clear height in a perforated shear wall. Where areas above and
where:
below an opening remain unsheathed, the height of the opening
vmax = maximum induced unit shear force, plf shall be defined as the height of the wall.
b The percent of full height sheathing is calculated as the sum of
Uplift Anchorage Force Between Perforated Shear Wall
lengths of perforated shear wall segments divided by the total
Ends
length of the perforated shear wall including openings.
Perforated shear wall bottom plates at full height sheath-
ing must be anchored for a uniformly distributed uplift
force, t, equal to the unit shear force, vmax, calculated in
Equation 3.
Tension and Compression Chords
Each end of a perforated shear wall must be designed for
a tension force, T, and a compression force, C, equal to the
uplift anchorage force, R, calculated in Equation 3. Each
end of each perforated shear wall segment must be de-
signed for a compression force, C.
offset walls
Load Path
Requirements for shear and uplift anchorage and chord PLAN VIEW
forces are based on story shear forces. Elements resisting Figure 3.In-plane versus offset walls.
forces contributed by multiple stories should be designed
for the sum of forces contributed by each story. A continu-
ous load path to the foundation needs to be maintained and
perforated shear walls. Offset walls are shown as heavy
include effects of gravity and other forces.
lines in Figure 3.
Other Requirements c. Collectors for shear transfer shall be provided through
In addition to requirements for design shear capacity, an- the full length of the perforated shear wall.
chorage forces, and chord forces, limitations outlined in d. A perforated shear wall shall have uniform top of wall
2000 NEHRP are also applicable: and bottom of wall elevations. Perforated shear walls
a. A perforated shear wall segment shall be located at each not having uniform elevations shall be designed by other
end of a perforated shear wall. Openings shall be permit- methods. One example of a wall with non-uniform top
ted to occur beyond the ends of the perforated shear and bottom elevations is the stepped wall as shown in
wall. However, the length of such openings shall not be Figure 4.
included in the length of the perforated shear wall. e. Perforated shear wall height, h, shall not exceed 20 ft.
b. Where out of plane offsets occur, portions of the wall on f. The allowable tabulated capacity set forth in the 2000
each side of the offset shall be considered as separate IBC for wood structural panel shear walls should not ex-

4 WOOD DESIGN FOCUS


sures that the capacity of each perforated shear wall seg-
ment can be developed without being limited by collector
element capacity or bottom plate attachment for shear and
uplift. One apparent result of the conservatism is that actual
anchorage requirements for shear are in excess of the de-
sign shear force, V, resisted by the perforated shear wall.
Average unit shear in perforated shear wall segments
equal to V/Li is not used to size shear and uplift anchorage
Figure 4.Wall with non-uniform top and bottom of wall or collector elements because it underestimates forces that
elevation (stepped wall). may develop in a particular perforated shear wall segment.

Discussion Uplift Between Wall Ends


ceed 490 plf. For wind design, the allowable capacity can For perforated shear wall segments between wall ends, a
be taken as 1.4 times 490 plf or 686 plf. uniform uplift anchorage force is specified for attachment of
Discussion Maximum Unit Shear bottom plates to elements below. Designing dstributed an-
chorage for vmax provides resistance to overturning of perfo-
Shear is not distributed uniformly to perforated shear
rated shear wall segments between wall ends. Alternatively,
wall segments within the wall. Segments with greater end
concentrated anchorage for uplift at ends of perforated shear
restraint develop greater shear than segments with less end
wall segments, to provide equivalent moment resistance, satis-
restraint. Tests of shear wall segments with varying levels of
fies the intended purpose: to keep the segment from overturn-
end restraint (Chun and Karacabeyli 2000 and Salenikovich
2000) verify the influence of end restraint on shear capacity. ing by holding the bottom plate to elements below (Fig. 5).
Lower bound strengths are attributed to wall segments In tests of long shear walls with openings (Dolan and
without end restraint and upper bound strengths are attrib- Johnson 1996), anchor bolts resisting overturning were lo-
uted to wall segments with full end-restraint. cated within 12 in. from ends of perforated shear wall seg-
The unit shear force determined by Equation 3 repre- ments. It is also acceptable to restrain studs by strapping
sents maximum unit shear force, vmax, developed in any since bottom plates in turn are held down.
perforated shear wall segment. The value of vmax is associ- The conservatism of the uplift anchorage requirement
ated with the shear force developed by any perforated shear between wall ends is seen when evaluating longer perfo-
wall segments having full end-restraint (such as those at the rated shear wall segments. In such cases, the concentrated
ends of the perforated shear wall). Use of vmax to size shear force to restrain the bottom plate (based on moment resis-
and uplift anchorage between wall ends and collectors be- tance equivalent to that provided by specified uniformly
tween perforated shear wall segments is required in lieu of a distributed uplift anchorage force) at ends of the perforated
more complicated analysis of the actual distribution of shear wall segment exceeds the force required to develop
shear within a perforated shear wall. This conservatism en- the maximum induced unit shear force, vmax. Recognizing

Distributed Concentrated

Perforated shear
wall segment
between wall
ends

Anchor Bolts Figure 5.Uplift anchorage force


between wall ends.

L L
L1
t
F F

uniformly distributed F = v max L2 = (equivalent uplift


uplift anchorage 2 L1 anchorage force)
force

Summer 2002 5
Figure 6.Two-story building with perforated
shear walls.

that induced shear will not exceed vmax, it is acceptable to Maximum opening height ratio
limit the concentrated uplift anchorage force at ends of per- = 4 ft./8 ft. = 0.50
forated shear wall segments, due to story shear, to vmaxh Shear capacity adjustment factor, Co, from Table 1
where h is the wall height. This force will match the uplift = 0.80
anchorage force, R, from Equation 2. Vwall = (v Co) Li
Example Two-Story Building = (365 plf)(0.80)(8 ft.) = 2,336 lb.
2,336 lb. > 2,000 lb. OK
A design example involving a simple two-story building
(Fig. 6) demonstrates application of the perforated shear Note that v = 365 plf is for 15/32-in. rated sheathing with
wall method. Design shear capacity, shear and uplift be- 8d common nails (0.131 by 2.5 in.) at 6-in. perimeter spac-
tween wall ends, and end post forces are calculated. Only ing resisting wind load (365 plf is obtained by multiplying
lateral loads due to wind are considered. Building dead load the IBC Table 2306.4.1 value by the wind increase factor, or
and wind uplift forces are not included. Once forces are de- 260 plf 1.4).
termined, two detailing options are considered. Configura- Uplift Anchorage Force at Shear Wall/Ends:
tion A uses a continuous rim joist at the second floor level
Vh ( 2,000 lb.)( 8 ft.)
sized to resist localized uplift and compression forces along R= = = 2,500 lb.
the base of the wall due to story shear forces. Configuration C O Li ( 0.80)( 8 ft.)
B considers a condition where there is blocking between
joists (e.g., floor framing runs perpendicular to the perfo- Anchorage Force for In-Plane Shear:
rated shear wall). V ( 2,000 lb.)
v max = = = 313 plf
Second Floor Wall C O Li ( 0.80)( 8 ft.)
Design Shear Capacity:
Anchorage Force for Uplift, t, Between Wall Ends:
Percent full-height sheathing
= (4 ft. + 4 ft.)/16 ft. 100 = 50% t = vmax = 313 plf

6 WOOD DESIGN FOCUS


Figure 7.Configuration A detailcontinuous
rim joist.

Tension Chord Force, T, and Compression Chord Force, C, at When Maintaining Load Path from Story Above:
Each End of a Perforated Shear Wall Segment: R = R from second floor + R from first floor
= 2,500 lb. + 4,070 lb. = 6,570 lb.
C = T = R = 2,500 lb.
Anchorage Force Force for In-Plane Shear:
First Floor Wall
V ( 3,500 lb.)
Design Shear Capacity: v max = = = 509 plf
Percent full-height sheathing
C O Li ( 0.86)( 8 ft.)
= (4 ft. + 4 ft.)/12 ft. 100 = 67% Anchorage Force for Uplift, t, Between Wall Ends:
Maximum opening height ratio
= 4 ft./8 ft. = 0.50 t = vmax = 509 plf
Shear capacity adjustment factor, Co, from Table 1 Uplift, t, can be cumulative with 313 lb. from the story
= 0.86 above to maintain load path. Whether this occurs depends
Vwall = (v Co) Li on detailing for transfer of uplift forces between wall ends.
= (530 plf)(0.86)(8 ft.) = 3,646 lb. Tension Chord Force, T, and Compression Chord Force, C, at
3,646 lb. > 3,500 lb. OK Each End of a Perforated Shear Wall and Compression Chord
Note that v = 530 plf is for 15/32-in. rated sheathing with Force, C, at Each End of a Perforated Shear Wall Segment:
8d common nails (0.131 by 2.5 in.) at 4-in. perimeter spac-
C = T = R = 4,070 lb.
ing resisting wind load (530 plf is obtained by multiplying
the IBC Table 2306.4.1 value by the wind increase factor, or When maintaining load path from story above,
390 plf 1.4). C = 4,070 lb. + 2,500 lb. = 6,570 lb.
Uplift Anchorage Force at Shear Wall/Ends:
Load Path - Configuration A Detail
Vh ( 3,500 lb.)( 8 ft.)
R= = = 4,070 lb. Configuration A detailing (Fig. 7) uses a continuous rim
C O Li ( 0.86)( 8 ft.) joist at the second floor.

Summer 2002 7
The rim joist is sized to resist forces from perforated Direction of
Loading
shear wall segments between wall ends. For the second
story perforated shear wall shown in Figure 8, a compres-
sion force, C, and uplift force, t, induce moment and shear
in the rim joist. Continuity of load path for uplift and com-
pression is maintained by adequate sizing of the rim joist for
induced forces and adequate attachment at ends. For this
C t = vmax C T
example, dead load and additional compression reactions
from wall studs below are ignored to simplify boundary Rim Joist

conditions and assumed loading. Nails in the second story


wall bottom plate to rim joist connection resist overturning
of perforated shear wall segments between wall ends. Nails Figure 8.Uplift and compression forces for rim joist design.
can be uniformly spaced to meet the specified uplift force
(Equation 3) or alternatively, a concentrated nail schedule
at ends of segments can be used to provide equivalent mo- clude uplift forces from the story above, where applicable,
ment resistance to the specified uplift force. Other fasteners to maintain a load path to the foundation. For simplicity,
such as lag screws or bolts are an alternative to nails loaded floor platform height is ignored in calculation of load path
in withdrawal. for overturning.
Second story hold-downs at wall ends are sized for the
force specified in Equation 2. Load Path - Configuration B Detail
Transfer of shear from the second story to the first story is Configuration B detailing (Fig. 9) addresses a condition
by nails in the wall bottom plate to rim joist connection and where a continuous rim joist is not provided. In Configura-
toe nails in the rim joist to wall top plate connection. First tion B, floor framing runs perpendicular to the shear wall
floor anchor bolts provide for transfer of shear and uplift with blocking between floor framing members.
forces between wall ends to the foundation. Plate washers Nails in second story wall bottom plate-to-blocking con-
and anchor bolts are sized to provide adequate bearing area nections and toe-nails in rim joist-to-wall top plate connec-
and capacity to resist uplift forces. In this case, uplift be- tions transfer in-plane shear forces. Transfer of shear to the
tween wall ends is not additive with second story uplift be- foundation is by anchor bolts in the first story wall bottom
tween wall ends due to design of the second story rim joist. plate-to-concrete connection. Transfer of uplift forces be-
First floor hold-downs are sized to resist uplift forces and in- tween wall ends, from the second story to the first story, is

Figure 9.Configuration B de-


tailblocking between joists.

8 WOOD DESIGN FOCUS


by metal strapping. Load path for uplift between wall ends
ExamplePerforated Shear Wall Deflection
is maintained by strapping into the foundation or lapping
The deflection of a perforated shear
the strap around the first story bottom plate. When the strap wall can be calculated from standard
is lapped around the bottom plate, the anchor bolt and plate equations for deflection of wood
washer must be sized to resist induced forces. First floor structural panel shear walls. Using
IBC Equation 23-2, the deflection of
hold-downs are sized to resist uplift and include uplift a wood structural panel shear wall
forces from the story above, where applicable, to maintain a can be calculated as:
load path to the foundation. For simplicity, floor platform 8 vh 3 vh
= + + 0.75hen + da
height is ignored in calculation of load path for overturning. EAb Gt

Discussion - Configuration A and B Detail where:


A= Area of boundary element cross section, in.2
In Configuration A and B, fastening for shear and uplift
b= Wall width, ft.
between wall ends is provided over the length of full-height da = Deflection due to anchorage details, in.
sheathed wall sections. Fastening between full-height seg- E= Modulus of Elasticity of boundary element, psi
ments will be controlled by minimum construction fasten- en = Deformation of mechanically fastened connections, in.
ing requirements. For bottom plates on wood platforms this Gt = Rigidity through the thickness of wood structural
would typically require one 16-penny common nail at 16 in. panel, lb./in. of panel depth
on center. In some cases, it may be preferable for construc- h = Wall height, ft.
tion convenience to extend a single bottom plate fastening v = Maximum unit shear due to design loads at the top
schedule across the entire length of the perforated shear of the wall, lb./ft.
wall rather than require multiple fastening schedules.
For the first floor perforated shear wall in Figure 5, standard
Load path for uplift between wall ends is simplified in inputs for variables of A, da, E, en, Gt, and h apply. Maximum
Configuration A by design of the rim joist to resist induced unit shear, v, is taken as vmax = V/[Co Li] = 509 plf and wall
width, b, is taken as b = Li = 8 ft.
forces. Detailing for shear and uplift between wall ends can
be accomplished with standard connectors between the Assuming deflection due to anchorage is 0.125 in. and boundary
wall bottom plate and rim joist. In Configuration B, strap- elements (end posts) consisting of two 2x4 Douglas Fir, No. 2
grade lumber, deflection of the perforated shear wall is calculated
ping is used to restrain bottom plate uplift between wall as follows:
ends. Anchor bolts and plate washers sized for accumulated
8( 509)83 ( 509)8
uplift forces maintain load path to the foundation for uplift = + + 0.75(8)(0049
. ) + 0125
.
(1,6000,000)(10.5)(8) 38,000
forces between wall ends.
= 0016
. + 0107
. + 0.294 + 0125
. = 0.54 in.
Shear Wall Deflection
One method for calculating deflection of a perforated Figure 10.Perforated shear wall deflection.
shear wall is shown in Figure 10. The calculation procedure
accounts for the presence of openings within the wall and is
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2000. NEHRP
comparable to the process used to calculate deflection of a
Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New
segmented shear wall. Buildings and Other Structures and Commentary. FEMA Re-
Summary ports 368 and 369, Washington, DC.
International Code Council, International Building Code (IBC).
A two-story example demonstrates one application for 2000. Falls Church, VA.
use of perforated shear walls. Methods for determining per- Ni, C. and E. Karacabeyli. 2000. Effect of Overturning Restraint on
forated shear wall design capacity and bottom plate anchor- Performance of Shear Walls. World Conference on Timber En-
age requirements, based on story shear forces, are shown. gineering. Whistler, B.C., Canada.
In the example, sufficient strength to resist applied loads is Salenikovich, A.J. 2000. The Racking Performance of Light-Frame
provided by the perforated shear wall without the use of Shear Walls. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
typical strapping and anchors required by other methods. Department of Wood Science and Forest Products, Blacksburg,
VA.
Instead, anchorage requirements for bottom plates in a per-
Standard Building Code Congress International, Standard Build-
forated shear wall provide an option to typical strapping
ing Code (SBC). Wood Section 1994 edition with 1996 revi-
and anchors that may be difficult to install. sions, Birmingham, AL.
References Sugiyama, Hideo. 1981. The Evaluation of Shear Strength of Ply-
wood-Sheathed Walls with Openings. Mokuzai Kogyo (Wood
American Forest & Paper Association. 2001 Wood Frame Con-
Industry). 36-7, 1981.
struction Manual (WFCM) for One- and Two-Family Dwellings.
Washington, DC. 235 pp.
Dolan, J.D. and A.J. Johnson. 1996. Cyclic Tests of Long Shear
Walls with Openings. Report TE-1996-02, Virginia Polytechnic Philip Line, P.E., Senior Manager, Engineering Research,
Institute and State University Department of Wood Science and American Forest & Paper Association, American Wood Coun-
Forest Products, Blacksburg, VA. cil, Washington, D.C.

Summer 2002 9
CONSIDERATIONS IN WIND DESIGN OF WOOD STRUCTURES

Bradford K. Douglas, P.E.

Brian R. Weeks, P.E.

Proper design of wood structures to resist high wind loads requires the correct use of
wind load provisions and member design properties. A thorough understanding of the
interaction between wind loads and material properties is important in the design process.

There are varying wind load provisions in local, state and model building codes currently
used in the United States. Most of these provisions are based on wind engineering research
conducted over the last 50 years. Proposals to change current code provisions are the result of
interpretations of new state-of-the-art wind engineering research.

The wind load provisions of the national load standard ASCE 7-98 Minimum Design
Loads for Buildings and Other Structures include general wind load provisions which, in turn,
are used as the basis for wind load requirements in most U.S. building codes. For the purposes
of this paper, the references to wind loads in this article have been limited to the provisions
found in ASCE 7-98.

Wind Load Provisions


Design wind load provisions in ASCE 7-98 are based on wind speed data collected during
severe wind events in the United States. The wind speed contours provided in ASCE 7-98 are
presented in terms of three second gust. Three second gust wind speed is based on the peak
wind speed at a given height and exposure averaged over 3 seconds. The three second gust wind
speed data has been statistically adjusted to a 50-year recurrence interval with an average annual
probability of occurrence of 2 percent. The data has also been adjusted to a reference height of
33 feet and Exposure Category C, which assumes a flat, open terrain with scattered obstructions.
The wind load provisions of ASCE 7-98 provide adjustments for variations from reference
conditions such as increased wind speeds during hurricane events, different exposure conditions,
different elevations, and localized peak gusts.

ASCE 7-98 contains separate provisions for the design of major structural elements using
"Main Wind Force-Resisting System" (MWFRS) loads and secondary structural elements using
"Component & Cladding" (C&C) loads. In building design, MWFRS loads have been developed
to represent critical loads on the main structural elements from the two major orthogonal
directions. These loads "envelope" the major structural actions induced on a building from
various wind directions and for various building geometries, roof heights and roof slopes.

C&C loads have been developed to represent peak gusts which occur over small areas as
a result of localized funneling and turbulence. Localized load increases can approach 300% at
corners and ridges under certain configurations and require special considerations when
designing for these loads. In wood structures, wind damage surveys have indicated that these
localized loads can cause failures of connections in small areas which can effect the overall Main
Wind Force Resisting System.

When designing a structural wood member, a decision must be made whether a member
is a MWFRS element, a C&C element, or an element of both systems. ASCE 7-98 defines the
MWFRS as an assemblage of major structural elements assigned to provide support and stability
for the overall structure. The system generally receives wind loading from more than one
surface. Components and cladding are defined as elements of the building envelope that do not
qualify as part of the MWFRS. Components and cladding are either directly loaded by the wind
or receive wind loads originating at relatively close locations, and which transfer these loads to
the MWFRS. However, some elements such as roof trusses, load-bearing studs, and structural

Copyright American Forest & Paper Association, Inc.


sheathing have been identified in both systems. One suggested interpretation is to design these
elements for the MWFRS loads they would receive as part of the MWFRS and, separately,
design these elements for the C&C loads they would receive if they were only a C&C element.
In many cases this would require at least two checks; however, differences in the load cases and
estimated stresses make it both necessary and beneficial to separately check both cases.
Moreover, under certain common conditions, elements can be pre-engineered for C&C loads.

Allowable Design Stresses


Once the induced loads on a wood member or connection have been determined, that
element can be designed. Structural wood members and connections should be designed using
the appropriate provisions of the local building code. For the design of solid-sawn wood
members and general connections, the codes normally reference or include provisions from the
National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS). Included in NDS design
provisions are various adjustments to design values. Among these adjustments is the duration of
load (CD) factor.
Wood strength properties have been observed to exhibit increased capacities under
shorter durations of maximum load. This phenomenon has been analyzed extensively in the U.S.
and in countries around the world. To account for this phenomenon in design, the U.S. Forest
Service, Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin developed the "Madison Curve"
which relates the maximum load-carrying capacity to a given load duration.

Most wood member design properties and connection capacities in the NDS are based on
10-minute test values which have been reduced for the effects of defects, stress concentrations,
safety and duration of load. The duration of load adjustment reduces a 10-minute design value to
a 10-year design value by dividing by a factor of 1.6 based on the "Madison Curve". During a
severe wind event, maximum peak wind gusts on a structural member or connection have a
cumulative duration of approximately 1-10 seconds. Worst case estimates by wind load experts
have indicated that over the life of a structure the cumulative duration of these maximum loads
would be less than 1 minute. NDS provisions specify an increase of 1.6 which returns the design
capacities of the wood members or connections to the 10-minute test duration values.

While a duration of load increase is allowed for most design properties and connections,
there are a few important exceptions. For lumber, a duration of load increase is not permitted for
compression perpendicular-to-grain (FCz), and Modulus of Elasticity (E) design values. These
properties are based on deformation and stiffness limits, which are not directly affected by the
duration of load phenomenon. For panel product systems, published design capacities in the
building codes for shear walls and diaphragms are expressed in terms of the test duration and
need only be adjusted for long-term loading. In some codes the shear capacity of wood
structural panel shearwalls and diaphragms, resisting wind loads, is permitted to be multiplied by
a factor of 1.4 . In addition, information on proprietary products and systems should be
reviewed to determine if CD adjustments of design capacities are permitted for those products.
Design Example
A 36'x60' one-story wood-frame building is to be built on a site located in a 120 mph
three second gust wind zone and on terrain representative of Exposure B. The walls will be
constructed using 10-foot studs spaced 16 inches on center. The roof will be constructed using
trusses spanning 36 feet spaced 24 inches on center and having 2 foot eave overhangs. The
mean roof height will be approximately 15 feet and the roof angle will be approximately 20
degrees. The base velocity pressure can be calculated using the following equation:

qh = 0.00256KzKztKdV2I
= 21.93 psf
Where:

AF&PA/AWC Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures Page 2


qh = Velocity pressure evaluated at height, h, above the
ground, psf (Exposure B)

Kz = Exposure coefficient evaluated at height, h, above


the ground
(ASCE 7-98 Table 6-5)
= 0.70 (Exposure B, 15' mean roof height)

Kzt = Topographic factor (ASCE 7-98 Figure 6-2)


= 1.0

Kd = Wind directionality factor (ASCE 7-98 Table 6-6)


= 0.85

I = Importance factor
= 1.0 (Category II, ASCE 7-98 Table 6-1)

V = Three second gust wind speed, mph


= 120 mph

Using the calculated base velocity pressure, MWFRS design loads can be determined
using the following equation:

p3-sec gust = qh(GCpf)-qh(GCpi)

Where:

p3-sec gust = Design wind pressure, psf (MWFRS)

qh = Velocity pressure, psf (120 mph, Exposure B)


= 21.93 psf

GCpf = External pressure coefficient


= 0.80 (Edge Zone - Windward Wall)
= 0.53 (Interior Zone - Windward Wall)
= -0.64 (Edge Zone - Leeward Wall)
= -0.43 (Interior Zone - Leeward Wall)

= -0.48 (Edge Zone - Side Walls)


= -0.45 (Interior Zone - Side Walls)

= -1.07 (Edge Zone - Windward Roof, 20 roof angle)


= -0.69 (Interior Zone - Windward Roof)

= -0.69 (Edge Zone - Leeward Roof, 20 roof angle)


= -0.48 (Interior Zone - Leeward Roof)

GCpi = Internal pressure coefficient


= 0.18 (internal pressurization)
= -0.18 (internal suction)
= 0.68 (underside overhang pressurization)

AF&PA/AWC Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures Page 3


For C&C design, the "effective" load area of the component must be determined to
determine the external pressure coefficients. For rectangular load areas, ASCE 7-98 allows the
area to be calculated as, A=L2/3. For this example, the C&C design loads for studs can be
calculated using the following equation and inputs:

pC&C = qh(GCp)-qh(GCpi)

Where;

pC&C = Design wind pressure, psf (C&C)

qh = Velocity pressure, psf (120 mph, Exposure B)


= 21.93psf

GCp = External pressure coefficient


= 0.91 (windward wall, 33 ft2)
= -1.22 (leeward wall, 3' edge, 33 ft2)
= -1.00 (leeward wall, interior, 33 ft2)

GCpi = Internal pressure coefficient


= 0.18 (internal pressurization)
= -0.18 (internal suction)

AF&PA/AWC Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures Page 4


Using the equations and values given above, loads for design of the exterior load-bearing
studs can be derived. Tabulated below are design loads for the MWFRS and C&C load cases:

MWFRS Loads

Internal Internal
Pressurization Suction

Windward Walls
Edge Zone 13.59 21.49
Interior Zone 7.68 15.57
Leeward Walls
Edge Zone -17.98 -10.09
Interior Zone -13.38 -5.48
Side Walls
End Zone -14.47 -6.58
Interior Zone -13.82 -5.92

Wind Perpendicular to Ridge


Windward Roof
Edge Zone -27.41 -19.52
Interior Zone -19.08 -11.18
Windward Roof Overhang
Edge Zone -38.38 -38.38
Interior Zone -30.04 -30.04
Leeward Roof
Edge Zone -19.08 -11.18
Interior Zone -14.47 -6.58
Leeward Roof Overhang
Edge Zone -19.08 -11.18
Interior Zone -14.48 -6.58

C&C Loads

Internal Internal
Pressurization Suction

Windward Walls 16.01 23.90


Leeward Walls (Edge) -30.70 -22.81
Leeward Walls (Interior) -25.88 -17.98

AF&PA/AWC Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures Page 5


After determining the design wind loads on the structure, building components and
assemblies can be designed. All pertinent load combinations should be considered. In ASCE 7-
98 the following load combinations should be considered for allowable stress design:

1) Dead
2) Dead + Livef + Fluid + Earth + Self Straining + (Liver or Snow or Rain)
3) Dead + Livef + (Wind or 0.7*Seismic) + (Liver or Snow or Rain)
4) 0.6*Dead + Wind + Earth
5) 0.6*Dead + 0.7*Seismic + Earth

When structural effects due to two or more loads in combination with dead load, but
excluding earthquake load, are investigated in the load combinations of ASCE 7-98, the
combined effects due to the two or more loads multiplied by 0.75 plus effects due to dead loads
shall not be less than the effects from the load combination of dead load plus the load producing
the largest effects.

Under most design conditions, many of these load combinations can be dismissed. For
the design of load-bearing studs in the example case, it is assumed that the building will be
located in an area that receives little or no snow, that rain can not pond on the roof, and that roof
live loads will not be present during a high-wind event. In addition, the studs only support the
roof and ceiling loads, therefore, a special case for floor live loads need not be considered.
Given these assumptions, only the following load combinations need to be considered in this
example:

1) Dead
2) Dead + Livef + (Wind or 0.7*Seismic) + (Liver or Snow or Rain)
3) 0.6*Dead + Wind + Earth

For this example, live and dead loads in the structure must be determined. Tabulated
below are the assumed roof and ceiling live and dead loads.

Dead Load Live Load

Roof 10 psf 20 psf

Ceiling 5 psf 10 psf

Wall 11 psf ---

AF&PA/AWC Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures Page 6


The duration of load adjustment and induced loads exerted on the studs for each load
case and combination are tabulated below. Note that the loads tabulated below are for End Zone
pressures, as they represent the worst case design pressure.

MWFRS C&C

Load Combination CD Adjustment Axial Lateral Moment Lateral

Load Moment

1) Dead 0.9 532 lbs. (C) 0 in-lbs. 0 in-lbs.

2) Dead + Liver 1.25 1064 lbs. (C) 0 in-lbs. 0 in-lbs.


3) Dead + Wind 1.6
Wind Perpendicular to Ridge

Pressurization

Windward Studs -464 lbs. (T) 2711 in-lbs. 3194 in-lbs.


Leeward Studs -324 lbs. (T) 3587 in-lbs. 6125 in-lbs.

Suction

Windward Studs -276 lbs. (T) 4287 in-lbs. 4768 in-lbs.


Leeward Studs - 113 lbs. (T) 2013 in-lbs. 4551 in-lbs.

The final step in design of the studs is to choose a member which has sufficient design
capacity to resist the induced loads tabulated above. Stud walls are a hybrid system in wind
engineering terminology. Studs should be designed using MWFRS pressures when considering
the combined interactions of axial and bending stresses; and designed using C&C pressures
when considering axial or bending stresses individually. This interpretation was developed
because only MWFRS pressures provide loads which have been temporally and spatially
averaged for different surfaces (MWFRS loads are considered to be time-dependent loads).
Since C&C loads attempt to address a worst case loading on a particular element during the
wind event, these loads are not intended for use when considering the interaction of loads from
multiple surfaces (C&C loads are not considered to be time-dependent loads) In the above
example, stud design is limited by the C&C load case. This is not uncommon and in most cases
can be considered the controlling limit in wind design of loadbearing and non-loadbearing
exterior studs. However, until sufficient boundary conditions are placed on this simplification,
both MWFRS and C&C load cases should be considered. These assumptions were also used in
the development of the Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and Two-Family Dwellings,
1995 High Wind Edition (WFCM-SBC).

For this example, Hem-Fir #2 - 2x4 was chosen. The following tabulated base design
values were taken from the NDS Supplement:

Fb = 850 psi
Ft = 525 psi
Fc = 1300 psi
MOE = 1,300,000 psi

AF&PA/AWC Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures Page 7


Applying the appropriate adjustments and checking each load combination as follows:
1) Dead Loads

fc = C/A
= 532/5.25 = 101 psi

Fc* = Fc*CD*CF
= 1300*0.9*1.15 = 1346 psi

Fc' = Fc**Cp
= 1346*0.233 = 314 psi

fc # Fc'
101 psi # 314 psi T
2) Dead + Live Loads

fc = 1064/5.25 = 203 psi

Fc* = Fc*CD*CF
= 1300*1.25*1.15 = 1869 psi

Fc' = Fc**Cp
= 1869*0.171 = 320 psi

fc # Fc'
203 psi # 320 psi T
3) Dead + Wind Loads (Wind Perpendicular to Ridge - Windward Studs)

MWFRS Loads
ft = T/A
= 464/5.25 = 88 psi
Ft' = Ft*CD*CF
= 525*1.6*1.5 = 1260 psi

fb = M/S
= 2711/3.06 = 885 psi
Fb* = Fb*CD*CF*Cr
= 850*1.6*1.5*1.5 = 3060 psi

Fb** = Fb*CD*CF*Cr
= 850*1.6*1.5*1.5 = 3060 psi

ft/Ft' + fb/Fb* # 1.0


88/1260 + 885/3060 = 0.36 # 1.0 T
(fb - ft)/Fb** # 1.0
(885-88)/3060 = 0.26 # 1.0 T

C&C Loads
fb = M/S
= 3194/3.06 = 1044 psi

Fb' = Fb*CD*CF*Cr
= 850*1.6*1.5*1.5 = 3060 psi

fb # Fb'
1044 psi # 3060 psi T

AF&PA/AWC Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures Page 8


The other cases considered under load combination 3, dead plus wind, can be calculated
in a similar manner. Tabulated below are the load/resistance ratios for each load combination
and load case.

MWFRS C&C

Load Combination Load/Resistance Load/Resistance

1) Dead 0.32 ---


2) Dead + Liver 0.63 ---
3) Dead + Wind
Wind Perpendicular to Ridge
Pressurization
Windward Studs 0.36 0.34
Leeward Studs 0.43 0.65
Suction
Windward Studs 0.50 0.51
Leeward Studs 0.23 0.49

Summary
Determination of wind loads and material resistance must be considered together.
Adjustments of reference wind conditions to extreme-value peak gusts require designers to make
similar adjustments to design properties to ensure equivalent and economic designs.

Major structural elements should be designed for MWFRS loads and secondary cladding
elements should be designed for C&C loads. Components and assemblies which receive loads
both directly and as part of the MWFRS should be checked for MWFRS and C&C loads
independently.

In cases where components and assemblies must be designed for lateral wind loads the
controlling design case often will be wind acting alone. However, each load combination should
be considered thoroughly before being dismissed.

As the wind load provisions in ASCE 7-98 and the Building Codes continue to change,
the wood industry must keep abreast of these changes. Efforts must be made to improve
engineering knowledge and procedures to ensure adequate design of structures in high wind
areas.
REFERENCES

1. American Society of Civil Engineers. 1998. ASCE 7-98 Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings and Other Structures. ASCE, New York, NY.

2. American Forest & Paper Association. 1997. National Design Specification for Wood
Construction. AF&PA, Washington D.C.

3. American Forest and Paper Association. 1997. Design Values for Wood Construction -
A Supplement to the 1997 National Design Specification for Wood Construction.
AF&PA, Washington D.C.

4. American Forest and Paper Association. 1995. Wood Frame Construction Manual for
One- and Two-Family Dwellings, 1995 High Wind Edition. AF&PA, Washington D.C.

5. Vickery, B.J., P.N. Georgiou and D. Surry. 1988. The Determination of a Time of
Application for Wind Loads in the Design of Timber in Low-Rise Structures. University
of Western Ontario, Canada.

AF&PA/AWC Considerations in Wind Design of Wood Structures Page 9


Wood Frame Construction Manual Workbook

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION


Updates and Errata American Wood Council
While every precaution has been taken to ensure Engineered and Traditional Wood Products
the accuracy of this document, errors may have
occurred during development. Updates or Errata
are posted to the American Wood Council website AWC Mission Statement
at www.awc.org. Technical inquiries may be To increase the use of wood by assuring the broad
addressed to awcinfo@afandpa.org. regulatory acceptance of wood products, developing
design tools and guidelines for wood construction,
and influencing the development of public policies
affecting the use of wood products.

The American Wood Council (AWC) is the wood products division of the American Forest & Paper
Association (AF&PA). AF&PA is the national trade association of the forest, paper, and wood products
industry, representing member companies engaged in growing, harvesting, and processing wood and
wood fiber, manufacturing pulp, paper, and paperboard products from both virgin and recycled fiber, and
producing engineered and traditional wood products. For more information see www.afandpa.org.
American Forest & Paper Association
American Wood Council
1111 19th Street, NW
Suite 800
Washington, DC 20036
www.awc.org
awcinfo@afandpa.org

Americas Forest & Paper People


improving Tomorrows Environment Today

International Code Council


5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 600
Falls Church, VA 22041-3405
www.iccsafe.org