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Moreover for this method the option of forcing the reservoir to be initially in gravitational equilibrium is

appeared. Generally it is assumed that all reservoirs are in gravitational equilibrium before the beginning of
the production. The reason why this options appears only for depth average initialization is because the
saturation calculation is done by using the capillary pressures and this may prevent gravity capillary pressure
equilibrium from being established(Computer Modelling Group Ltd, 2010). By using this a pressure
correction is applied to each phase. This option is useful because in the case that the reservoir is not initially
in gravitational equilibrium oscillations may occur during simulation procedure.

In depth average and in block centered(as it is described below) initialization methods three
options are apparent depending the phases that the reservoir initially contains. These options are
the following:

Water, oil and gas

This option implies a saturated reservoir where all three phases initially exist.

Water and oil(no free gas)

This option implies an under-saturated reservoir where initially only oil and water exist while
gas is dissolved in the oil phase and can be liberated if the reservoir pressure has dropped
below bubble point pressure during production creating a gas cap.

Water and gas

This option implies a gas reservoir where only gas and water initially appear. Also this option
can be used in cases of under-saturated condensate reservoirs. For the depth average
initialization by using this option the user has also to specify if a transition zone from water to
gas will exist or not. The transition zone can be apparent in cases where the gas-water capillary
pressure entered in the rock-fluid data section is not zero. That create a zone that gradually the
gas saturation increase while the water saturation diminish until the water saturation to be
equal to the connate water saturation. When no transition zone is modeled then the transition
from the water phase to the oil phase is sharp.

1. Input format for the bubble point or dew point pressure or both

This field implies to the simulator the form that these pressure values are going to be introduced.
Here it has to be noted that the required pressure depend on the definition of the model in the
component section. For all the component models only the bubble point pressure is needed.
Exceptions to this rule constitute the two phase gas-water or gas(with condensate) model where
instead of the bubble point the dew point is required and the volatile model where both bubble point
and dew point pressure have to be entered. Two available options can be set for this which are the
following:

Property array(Pb or Pd or both)

When this option is selected then the bubble point pressure or the dew point pressure or both
depending the model selected in the component section have to be entered in array format.

Depth dependent table(PBT or PDEWT or both)

When this option is selected then the bubble point pressure or the dew point pressure or both
depending the model selected in the component section have to be entered in a tabulated form.
2. Array input format for bubble point or dew point pressure or both

Again in this part the rule defined in the previous group regarding the required pressures and its
exceptions apply. In this group the simulator offers three options about the way that these pressures
will be determined:

Set using Specify property or Edit property option

This option implies that the bubble point inserted in the array properties tab(reservoir description
section) will be used.

Reservoir initially saturated(Pb=P)

By using this option the simulator equalize the bubble point pressure to a reference pressure
entered in the component section.

Constant value array

By this option a value for the bubble-point pressure has to be assigned in this field.

Here it has to be noted that when the user has selected the tabulated way to introduce pressures the
above options are replaced by a table constituted by pairs of depth and their pressure values.

3. Reference pressure and depth

By this group the reference depth where the reservoir pressure is measured as well as and the initial
reservoir pressure are imported.

4. Phase contact depth

In this group three options appear depending the phases that the reservoir initially contains. These
options are the depth of the oil-water contact, the gas-oil contact and the gas-water contact . The
depth of the oil-water(or gas-oil) contact when the depth average initialization method is used is
defined as the depth at which the capillary pressure is equal to the value entered in the 'capillary
pressure at phase contacts' field of this tab.

5. Capillary pressure at phase contacts

This field refers to the value that the capillary pressure presents at the phase contact. For water wet
reservoirs the default value is zero while for oil wet reservoirs that value is defaulted to the
maximum capillary pressure value apparent in the tables entered in the rock-fluid data section. In the
case that these data are not entered then they are calculated internally by the simulator at the
minimum wetting phase saturation.

Here it has to be noted that when an API tracking model is selected to be used in the component properties
section then an extra group is apparent named light oil volume fraction. In this group the introduction of the
value of the initial light oil volume fraction can be done by two ways. The first way is to use the value set at
the array properties in the reservoir description section while the second way is to enter it by using a table.
This table is constituted by pairs of values of depths and the corresponding values of initial light volume
fractions.

CALCULATION METHOD
This tab remains exactly the same and in the GEM simulator. The only differences apparent are in the block
centered calculation method where one extra option is included and is the user specified composition as a
function of depth. Also in the user input initialization method the global composition has to be entered in the
array properties tab in the reservoir description section.

INITIALIZATION REGION PARAMETERS


This subsection is the same as in IMEX simulator but in GEM two extra fields exist:

1. The critical depth field

As it was mentioned previously this field is enabled when the user specified composition option of the block
centered calculation method is selected. This critical depth is used for the identification of the fluid phases.
When single phase fluid is encountered above this depth then the fluid is identified as gas while if a single
phase fluid is encountered below this depth then it is identified as oil.

2. The oil zone and gas composition

In this field a table for introducing the composition of the oil and gas zone appears. This is used so as to enter
in the simulator the exact initial composition of each phase. Here it has to be noted when the user specified
composition option of the block centered calculation method is used then the oil and gas composition table is
converted to a variation of composition with depth table where for each depth value the composition of th
fluid is entered.

ADVANCED PARAMETER
In this subsection the datum depth for pressure and the gas cap initialization fields exist and are defined as in
the IMEX simulator. Moreover some extra group of fields exist here and are:

1. Initial fluid in place calculation

By this group the user selects by which way the calculation of the initial hydrocarbons in place will be
performed. The two different ways that this calculation can be done are the following:

Use the surface separator conditions

This is the recommended option by the simulator as it can provide more accurate results as it accounts for the
actual separation process that is used. The calculation in this case is done by perform flash calculations of the
fluid through the separators. When this option is selected then the separators sub section has to be defined
by the user.

Use initial reservoir fluid formation volume factors

By using this option the calculation is done directly by using the formation volume factors which are
introduced by the next group.

2. Fluid formation volume factors

This field has to be entered when the calculation of the initial fluid in place is determined to be done by
using the initial reservoir fluid formation volume factors. In this group the oil and gas formation volume
factors(Bo and Bg) and the gas-oil ratio(Rs) measured at the initial conditions of the reservoir have to be
inserted into the simulator.

3. Injector standard pressure, temperature and EOS set


The standard pressure and temperature and which EOS set is going to be used by the simulator for the
injection wells are defined in this group of parameters. These parameters are needed so as to convert the
surface rates to reservoir rates for the injection wells and so as to convert the make up gas surface rate (see...)
to molar rate when gas recycling is used.

Long format

This format is used in cases where more streams than the oil and gas streams are present. The long format
separator is constituted by three parts the stages, the surface streams and the inlet stream.

Stages

Firstly for the definition of each stage the stage type has to be entered. For the stage type introduction two
options are available the two phase EOS flash and the table of component distribution fractions. Depending
the selected option in this field different parameters from those described below are required. When the two
phase EOS flash option is selected then all the parameters have to be entered except the plant table number
and the middle output destination fields. On th other hand when the table of component distribution is
selected then all the parameters have to be introduced.

EOS set number

By this field is defined to which EOS set this separator corresponds.

Pressure and temperature

These parameters of pressure and temperature refer to the separator's pressure and temperature.

Plant table number

By this keyword which plant table is going to be used for this stage is defined. The plant tables are defined in
the edit tables tab. This interface is constituted by the plant table, the stream density table and the component
density set.

Plant table
In this tab the key hydrocarbon components and a table of components and the available outlets of the
separator appear. Before the definition of the table, the range hydrocarbon components that this table refers
has to be entered in the simulator. The definition of this range is done by the key hydrocarbon components
which are the first and the last component of this sequence. Then to the previously mentioned table the
liquid, the vapor and the middle fractions have to be entered for each component. The liquid output is used
for the oil, the middle for liquefied natural gas(LNG) while the vapor stream is used for the light gas. The
sum of the fractions of each component of the table should be equal to the unity while if an output stream is
missing then the corresponding fraction should be equal to zero. These compositions are used by the
simulator so as to determine the amount and the composition of the oil and gas produced after the separation.

Stream density table

In this interface the mole fraction of the stream and the stream mass density are entered.

Component density set


By using this and the stream density table the simulator is able to calculate the density of every surface
stream. In this interface the mass density of each component that constitutes the stream is entered.
Liquid output to(output destination)

This field indicates the destination of the liquid output(oil) of the current separator. This liquid output is the
liquid that has remained after the gas liberation that took place in the separator. In the case that the
separation is done in one stage then the liquid output can be directed toward the oil or gas or intermediate
liquid(INL) surface stream. Thereafter these surface streams are directed further downstream. In case that the
separation is done in multiple stages then except from the surface streams the liquid output from the one
separator can be directed as inlet(feed) for the next separator.

Vapor output to(output destination)

As previously this field indicates the destination of the vapor output(light gas) that has been liberated during
the current separation stage. The available options for the vapor output destination are the same as in the
liquid output destination.

Middle output to(output destination)

This field indicates the destination of the middle output which stands for liquefied natural gas(LNG) of the
current separator stage. The middle stream is used only in cases when emulsions occur in the separator. The
available options for the destination of this stream are the same as in the liquid output destination.

Volume constraint measuring point(inlet)

This field is enabled only when a density calculation is to be performed for the inlet stream as it is described
below.

Surface streams/Inlet stream

In this tab a table constituted by the surface streams of oil, gas and intermediate liquid and the inlet
stream(named as wet gas by the simulator) is appeared. In this table the way by which each stream's density
will be calculated is defined and the needed parameters for each way are introduced. The available ways to
calculate the density are:

Single phase EOS

When this option is enabled the stream density is calculated by using the EOS at the pressure and
temperature of the stream. When this calculation method is selected the parameters that have to be defined
are which EOS set is going to be used, the pressure and temperature of the stream and the criterion for the
root selection for the EOS. For the root selection can be done between the liquid, vapor and Gibbs options.
When the liquid option is selected then the root which gives the smaller compressibility is used while by
using the vapor option the root with the larger compressibility is used. Finally when the Gibbs option is used
then the selected root is the one that results in the smallest Gibbs energy.

Function of key-component mole fraction

When this stream density calculation method has been selected then the calculation is done by interpolation
to the stream density table. By using this option only which stream density table is going to be used has to be
defined.

Component mass density mixing rules

When this option is selected the density of the stream is calculated by using a mixing rule using the mass
density values entered in the component density table. By using this method only which component density
set is going to be used has to be defined.
Gas law relation( )

By using this method the needed parameters are the z-factor, the pressure and the temperature while the
density of the stream is calculated by the gas law relation.