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Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism

HANDBOOK OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
HANDBUCH DER ORIENTALISTIK

SECTION TWO
INDIA
edited by
J. Bronkhorst
A. Malinar

VOLUME 22/5

Jacobsen (Editor-in-Chief ) Associate Editors Helene Basu Angelika Malinar Vasudha Narayanan Leiden  • boston 2013 .Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism Volume V: Religious Symbols Hinduism and Migration: Contemporary Communities outside South Asia Some Modern Religious Groups and Teachers Edited by Knut A.

Angelika.. or transmitted in any form or by any means. IDC Publishers and Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. India.  III.   BL1105. 222 Rosewood Drive.  I. paper) 1. recording or otherwise. translated. Helene. photocopying. Helene Basu. Danvers. mechanical. v. Fees are subject to change. associate editors. 22/5)   ISBN 978-90-04-17896-0 (hardback : alk. All rights reserved. USA. cm. Hotei Publishing. without prior written permission from the publisher. stored in a retrieval system.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Brill’s encyclopedia of Hinduism / edited by Knut A. Malinar. Printed in the Netherlands . Jacobsen. 1956-  II.  Hinduism—Encyclopedias. No part of this publication may be reproduced. Suite 910. Vasudha. Section three.  IV.  Narayanan. MA 01923. The Netherlands. — (Handbook of oriental studies. Basu. electronic. Global Oriental. Vasudha Narayanan.    p. Angelika Malinar.B75 2009   294.503—dc22 2009023320 ISSN 0169-9377 ISBN 978 90 04 17896 0 Copyright 2013 by Koninklijke Brill NV. Jacobsen (editor-in-chief). Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center. Leiden. ISSN 0169-9377. Knut A. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill.

............................................................................................ 3 History  .............................................. Lakuṭa......................................... and “Shining”: Vitality..... V Also available online – www............................. Palm-Leaf Manuscript (Pustaka)  .......................................... 6 Conclusion  ................................ 20 Book................................... and “Dark”: Kṛsṇ ̣a......................................................... Volume V Prelims Preface  ........ Śara)  ........................................................... 7 Elements..... 3 Symbolic Meanings of the Cakra  .. Black.................................................. 12 White and Ash Gray: Soma and Śiva  ...........................com ................ or Bhṛṅgāra)  ................ lxxvii General Abbreviations  ............. ....................... Flag (Dhvaja........................... xviii Notes for Users  .................................... 5 Cakra in New Age Movements  ....................................................................................................... or Ewer (Kamaṇ ḍalu........ Gold.......................................... ............................................................................................................ 23 © Koninklijke Brill NV............. 17 Ornaments  ............................................................ Devotion............... Experience.......................................................... vol................................ xvii List of Contributors  ................................................................................... 20 Bottle.......................... xc Religious Symbols Cakra  .................... 20 Bow (Cāpa.............................................................. 11 Red................................. 14 Iconography  ........................ lxviii Journals and Series  ........................................... and Kālī  .................................... 4 Worship of Sudarśana  ................................ 18 Arrow (Bāṇ a................................... xxxiii Primary Sources  ................... Kuṭhāra)  ........................................................................................................................ 15 Divine Attributes and Emblems  ........................................... 18 Animal Skin (Carman)  ............................................ Table of Contents.................................................................................................................................. 14 The Conch as a Sign of Viṣṇu  ............... 21 Cloth (Vastra)  ......... 20 Bell (Ghaṇ tạ̄ )  ...... xxxv Primary Source Abbreviations  ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 Perspectives on Color  ............................................................................................................................................. ............................. Agni....................................................................... 18 Akṣamālā (String of Seeds or Beads Used for a Contemplative Practice)  ............................ 13 Conch  .......................................................................... or Śārṅga)  ............... Ketu)  ................. ......... 6 Colors  ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... and Iconography  ..................................... 22 Cobra (See Serpent)  ................................................... 20 Begging Bowl (Bhikṣāpātra)  ............................ 2013 BEH...... 16 The Term “Emblem” in the Present Context  .............................................................................. Śiva....................................................................... Kalaśa.................................................................................... Metaphysics....................... and Ritual  ............................................................................................ Musala [Pestle])  ...................................... Kuṇ ḍikā.......................................... 14 The “Presence” of Viṣṇu’s Conch on Earth  ........................... 7 Color in Medicine.............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................... 10 Deities.................................................................................................................................................................. 14 Mythology  ..... 9 Colorlessness.................... and the Cosmos  ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Dhanus........... 15 Use in Ritual  .... .. Magic.............................................................................................................................................................. 11 Blue................ ........ and Transcendence  .......................................................................................................................... Leiden................... ...... and the Goddess  ....... 19 Axe or Hatchet (Paraśu............................................................................................................. Rudra............................................................................................................................................... 21 Chisel or Related Implement (Ṭ aṅka)  ......................................................... 19 Banner...................................................brill................................. ............. Purity....................................................................................................................................................................... Waterpot............. 22 Club (Gadā....

.............................. Kiḷi)  ......................... Lasso (Pāśa)  .......................................................... Śūla)  ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Phallus (See Liṅga)  ......................vi Table of Contents Conch Shell (Śaṅkha)  ............... ................ 30 Shield (Kheṭaka)  ................. or Phallus)  ..................................................................................................................................................... Elephant Driver’s Hook (Aṅkuśa)  .............................................................................................. 25 Fruit (Phala)  ................................................................................... or Akṣa)  ....................................... 29 Parasol (Chattra)  ....... 28 Noose............................................................................... 24 Elephant (Gaja)  ....... 25 Goad....................................................... 26 Liṅga (Sign......................................................................................................................................... or Javelin (Śakti..... 36 Musical Instruments  .............................................................................................. 32 Staff (Daṇ ḍa)  ....... 24 Eye (Netra......... ....................... Vallakī)  ............................................................................................................................................ 30 Pot of Riches (Nidhipātra)  . .............. 30 Sacrificial Ladles (Sruk or Śruc...... 35 Wreath or Garland (Mālā)  .. 45 ....... 34 Water Lily (Kalhāra or Kahlāra......... 29 Pen.............................................................................................. Drama................................................................. Tam........................................................................................ .............. Utpala........................................ ............................................................................ or Kamala)  .......................................................................... 26 Jewel-Filled Vessel (Ratnapātra)  ............. Dharaṇ i)  ....... 25 Flute (Veṇ u................................................................ 30 Serpent........................... 28 Money Bag (Mātrābhastrā)  .......................................................................................................... 33 Thunderbolt or Bolt of Lightning (Vajra)  ......... 24 Fire (Agni................................................................................................................. 23 Dagger (See Knife)  .................................................................................................................................... ................................. 28 Mirror (Darpaṇ a)  .................................................................................................................. Skull-Cup (Kapāla)  ..................................................................................................... 31 Skull................................................... 34 Tooth or Tusk (Danta....................................................... Paṅkaja.......................... Tam................... 23 Drum (Ḍ amaru [a Small Hourglass-Shaped Drum].. Sruva)  .. 23 Discus or Wheel (Cakra)  ....................................... 35 Waterpot (See Bottle)  .................................. ............................... Svadanta [One’s Own Tooth or Tusk])  ...................................... Vēl)  ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Cobra (Sarpa......................................................................... 26 Head.............................................. .......... or Indīvara)  .......................................................... 25 Flag (See Banner)  ........... Nayana............................... ... 26 Hammer (Mudgara)  ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................... 28 Moon Crescent (Bālacandra – Young Moon)  ... Reed Pen (Lekhanī)  ... 37 Myth......................................... 29 Peacock Feathers (Mayūrapattra...................................................................................................................................... ............................................ .................................................................... 43 Dress and Adornment  ............................................... 28 Mongoose (Nakula)  ............................................ 35 Winnowing Fan (Śūrpa)  ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Drinking Vessel (Pātra............. .................................................................................................................................... 30 Radish (Mūlaka)  ...................................... 30 Rooster (Kukkuṭa.. ... 35 Divine Musical Instruments  .......................................................................................... ............................................................ 27 Mace (See Club)  .... 29 Parrot (Śuka................................ Pānapātra)  ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................. 30 Plow (Hala)  ... Also Asi)  . Śūla.......................................................... 24 Earth (Mahī................................................................... Muralī)  ............... 34 Trident (Triśūla................................ 23 Deer (Mṛga)  ........................................................................................................................................... Kṛkavāku)  ...................................................................................... Nāga............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 33 Sword (Khaḍga.................. .................................... Bald Head (Muṇ ḍa)  ............................................................................ ......................................................................................... Kartṛ. Jvāla)  .............. 31 Spear................................. 32 Sweet Balls (Modaka)  ................................................................ 34 Treasure (See Pot of Riches)  ........ Nīlotpala..................................................................................................................................................... ............................... or Churī)  ............................... 26 Lotus (Padma. Mayūrapiccha)  ........... 25 Fly Whisk (Cāmara)  ..... and Religious Practice  .......................... Emblem........................................ Lance........................ or Bhujaṅga)  ......................................... 32 Stringed Instrument Resembling a Lute or Stick Zither (Vīṇ ā.................................................................. ................. 26 Knife or Dagger (Kartari........................................................................... Ḍ hakkā)  .

...................................................................................................................... 115 The Written “Rām”  ........................................................................................................................................................... and Sapphires  ..................................................................................................................................... Seed..... 97 Oṃ   ........................................................... 117 Sacred Threads  ............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................. 83 Detachment  ....................................... 63 Magical.............................................................................. 92 The Mudrās as States of Consciousness in the Krama  ........................................................ Emeralds....................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................ 50 Agni’s Hiding  .................................................................................................................................................... 108 Understanding Prasāda in Classical and Contemporary Terms  ............................................................................................................. 114 Medieval Vaiṣṇava Upaniṣads  ..................................................................................................................................................................... 114 Svāmī Rāmānanda and His Sampradāya  ............................................................................................................................................... 101 Regional Traditions  ..................................................................... 106 General Observations on Contemporary Hindu Prasāda  .......................................................... Gold...................................................... 91 Mudrās in Theatre  ............ ............................................................................................................................................. 53 Gems................................. 56 Concluding Remarks  ............................ 52 Sexual and Procreative Fire  ................................................. ............................................................ 64 Hair  ..... 88 Making Mālās: Devotion or Work?  .......................................... 113 The Purāṇas  ......... .............................................................................................. Snake Gems.............................................................................................................................. 119 Sacred Threads in Hindu Rituals  .................................................... 112 Literary Sources for Rām and Rāmnām  .. 79 Lotus  .................................................... 102 Prasāda  ........................................................................................................................ 91 Mudrās in Iconography  .................. 72 Liṅga in Ritual  ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 85 Mālā  .......................................................... 62 Notable Individual Hindu Gemstones  ........................................................................ 82 The Lotus and Hindu Deities: Auspiciousness and Generative Power  .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 100 Oṃ in the Vedas and Upaniṣads  ................... 96 New Field and Ancient Echoes  ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 87 Fresh Flowers and Pūjā  ................................. 104 Prasāda in Śaiva Contexts  ....................................................... 72 Textual Sources  .................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................. 103 Material Prasāda in Hindu Ritual  ...................................................................................... 61 Crystal  ...................................................................................................................................................... 92 Mudrās in the Tantric Texts and Rituals  .............................................. 105 Prasāda in Śākta Contexts  ........................................................... Idolatrous Hindu Gems in the Western Imagination  .................................................................................................................. and Soma: The Multiforms of Fire  ...................................... 89 Mudrās  ............................................................................... .......................................................... 101 Conclusion  .................. 57 Gemstones  ....................... ........................................... 103 Prasāda in Vaiṣṇava Contexts  .................................................................... 116 Rāmnām Banks  ........................ 51 The Trifunctional Fire  ............................................................................................ 69 Liṅga  .................. 114 Tantric Tradition and Literature  .......................... 77 Iconography  ........................................................................................... 110 Rām  .................................................. 59 The Origins of Gemstones  ....................................................................................... 100 Oṃ in Later Literature  .............................................. 84 The Lotus and the Sun  .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 59 The Conventional Properties and Meanings of Gemstones  ........... 65 Practices  ............................................................................ 107 Prasāda in Sanskrit Sources  ................... Table of Contents vii Fire  .................................................................................................................................................................................................... Pearls............... 119 ................ 65 Meanings  ............................................................................................. 50 Agni in Comparisons and Metaphors  ................................................................................................................................................................................. 60 Diamonds.......................................................................................................

................................ 156 The Three Horizontal Lines of Śaiva Devotees  ................. 171 Grāha (crocodile)  ............................................................................... 159 Meditation and the Eye of Wisdom  ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 170 Bhūta (lit................................................................... 159 Conclusion  ..................................................................................................................... 171 Garuḍa (“Devourer”)  ...... 171 Godhā............................................................................................. 170 Gaja (elephant)  ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 121 Śālagrāma  ........ 156 Sectarian Marks and Their Connection to Caste and Stage of Life  ........................ ..... 123 Kinds of Śālagrāmas  .......................................... 159 The Auspicious State of Being Married  .......................................... ........................................................................................... 150 Tilaka and Other Forehead Marks  ...................... 171 Gṛdhra (vulture)  .............................................................. 152 Origins of the Mark  ................................................................................................................................................................ ....................................................... .................................................................................... 160 Trees and Plants  ........................................................................................................................................................ 162 Conclusion  ...... ........ 129 Later Developments  ......................... ....... 161 Important Plants and Trees  ................................... 171 Harin: see mṛga  ..... 146 The Nādabrahman as a Cultural and Transcultural Symbol  ......................................... 171 .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 139 Holy Hearing and Acoustic Piety in Postvedic Literature  ............................................................................................. 128 Aromatic Materials and Perfumes  .............................................................. godhikā (lizard............................................................................................ 134 The Veda as a Paradigm of Sacred Sound  ........................... iguana)  ................................................................................................................ 140 Tantric and Devotional Mantras – Mantra Power and Musicalized Devotion  ........................................................................................................................... 143 The Postvedic Language Goddess and the Alphabet as Primordial Sound  ........................................... ....................... 124 Narratives about the Origins of the Śālagrāma  ................................... 125 Smell  .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 169 Ajā (goat)  .. 168 Vāhanas in Iconography  ................................................................................................................................................................... 127 The Sense of Smell and the Nature of Odors  ......................................................... 171 Hanumān (“Having [Large] Jaws”)  .................................................................................................... 135 The Language Goddess Vāc  .................................. 123 History of Śālagrāma Worship  ...................................................... 136 Mantras.... living being): see Rāvaṇa  ........................................ 170 Bhāsa (vulture): see gṛdhra  .................................................................................................. 141 Fluid Signs and Sonic Symbols – Language and the Alphabet in Scientific Contexts  ........... 170 Aśva (horse)  ................................................................................................................................................................... also called Śeṣa)  ........................................ 157 Pilgrimage and Sacrality of Local Places........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 166 Vāhanas  ........................ donkey)  ................................................................................................. 134 Brahman in the Early Ṛgveda  .... 127 Important Odors in Hinduism  ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........” “Infinite”..................................................................................................................................................................................... 170 Ananta (“Endless.......................... 170 Gardabha (ass.......................................................................................................................... 155 Sectarian Traditions  ................................................. 171 Go (cow)  . 136 Oṃ in the Upaniṣads  ................................................................... Melodies.................................... ................... 157 The Sounds of the Sacred Name: Mantra and Meaning  .............................................................................................................................................................. ..... and Nonsemantic Sthobas  .. ........................................................................................................... Ritual............................................................................................................................ 170 Ākhu (mouse........................................................................................................................................................................................ rat)  ............................................................................ .......................................................................................................................... Moral  ........................................ ... 132 Sound  .. 145 Linguistic Metaphysics  ................................................................................................................. 154 Life-affirming and Life-negating Values  .............................................. 148 Svastika  ............................................................................................................................................viii Table of Contents The Sacrificial Cord of the Brahmans  ................................... 158 Purity: Physical................... 154 Concepts of the Deity: Gods and Goddesses  ............................................................................................................................ 171 Haṃ sa (wild goose)  ............ Physical and Moral Purity  .. 120 The Ascetics’ and Others’ Threads  ............................................ 124 Arcā and Śālagrāma  ...........................

................. 175 Uṣṭra (camel)  ................................................................................................................................. 175 Śyena (hawk)  .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 175 Sarpa (serpent): see nāga  .......................................................... 171 Kola (boar)  .......................................................................... 171 Khara (ass): see gardabha  ............... 191 Summary  ........................” “Gladdening”)  ............................. . 184 Hinduism and Migration: Contemporary Communities outside South Asia Afghanistan  .................................................................................................................................................................................. 173 Ṛkṣa (bear) ............................ ........... lion.......................................................................................................................................................................... 171 Kukkuṭa (cock)  .............. 175 Vṛka (wolf )  ..... ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 175 Śvan (dog)  ..................................... leopard)  ..................................................... ................... 175 Śūkara (boar): see kola  .............................. 173 Matsya (fish)  ............................................................... antelope........................................................................................ ................................... .................................................................................................. Religious Persecution................................................................ 175 Sṛgāla (or śṛgāla................................ 189 Developments in the Late 20th Century  ................................................................................................................................................. 173 Nakra (crocodile): see graha  ......................................... pigeon)  ..................... ...................................................................................................................................................... 171 Maṇ ḍūka (frog)  ........................................................................... 171 Mahiṣa (buffalo)  ........................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... 175 Śava (corpse)  ................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Yoni  ................................................................................ Table of Contents ix Kabandha (a category of gaṇ a)  .................... 171 Kūrma (tortoise)  ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... and Expulsion Since 1992  .............................. 175 Śuka (parrot)  ................ 171 Kapota (dove................................................................................................................................ ....................................................... 175 Siṃ ha (lion)  ................................................. ........................................................................................... ................................................................................ crocodile)  ........................... 195 ..................... 192 Australia and New Zealand  ....................................................... deer)  .................................................................... 193 White Australia Policy  ................... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ............................ 175 South Indian Temple Vāhanas  .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 173 Preta (the dead................ ................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 173 Meṣa (ram)  ........ ........................ 193 Australia  ....................................................... 175 Śeṣa (“Remainder”)  . 174 Śārdūla (tiger...................... .......................... 193 “Coolie” Diaspora  ........ 175 Yāḷi (leogryph)  ........... 173 Mayūra (peacock)  ... 173 Nandi (“Rejoicing................................................. 173 Nāga (snake)  ..................................................................... 175 Vṛsạ n............................................ ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 171 Kāmadhenu (“Wish-fulfilling Cow”)  ................................................ 173 Mīna (fish): see matsya  ......................... panther.............. 173 Nara (man)  ....................................................... vṛsạ bha (bull)  ............................................. 173 Rāvaṇa (“Roaring” or “Causing to Cry”)  .................................................................................................................................. 194 The Post-Independent Hindu Settlement  .............................................................. 194 The Postcolonial and Postmodern Phase  ............. .............. 173 Mārjāra (cat)  ...... ... ... 171 Kāka (raven)  ........ 173 Mṛtaka (corpse): see śava  .................................................. 190 The 21st Century – Discrepancies between General Improvements for Muslims and the   Precarious Situation of Hindus and Sikhs  ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 175 Vānara (monkey)  ............................................................................... departed)  ................................................................................................................ jackal)  .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 190 Restriction...................................................................... 173 Mṛga (gazelle......................................................... 175 Ulūka (owl)  .................................... ............................. 171 Makara (dolphin.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 175 Vibhūti  ............. .............................................................. 175 Śikhin (peacock): see mayūra  ....................................................

................................................. . 243 Kuwait  ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 240 Hindu Communities  ......... 199 New Zealand  ................................................................. 206 China  .......................................................... ..... 218 The Sri Lankan Tamil Hindus  ....................... Collective and Otherwise  ....................................... 255 Italy  .............. 242 United Arab Emirates  ..................................... 242 Festivals  ........................................................................................................ 250 Conclusion  .. 227 Fiji  .. and Reorientation  ................. 230 The Period as a Farming Community  ........................................... ..... .................................................... 253 Hindu Community  .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 230 Independence and Development of a Political Community  ........................................................................................................ 277 ...... .................... 243 Saudi Arabia  ................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... 232 Conclusion  .......................................................................................................................................................... 244 Qatar  ...................................... 241 Hindu Traditions  ................................................................................................................................ 214 Conclusion  ............................................................................................................. 224 Temples and Spiritual Gatherings  ............................................................... 221 East Africa  .................................................................. 217 The Indian Hindus  .......................................................................... 272 Netherlands  ..................................... 246 A South Indian–Based Religious Tradition  ........................................................................................ 222 Social Background  .................. 271 Conclusion  ................................................................................................................................................ 244 Yemen  ...................... 263 Mauritius  ...................................................................................... 241 Temple Worship  ....................... 242 Oman  .................................................................................................. 242 Bahrain  ........................................................................................ 250 Indonesia  ............................................................................................................................................................................ 235 Gulf Countries  ............................................... 276 Analysis and Typification  ........................................ 199 Canada  ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 196 Conclusion  ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 212 Indians in China since the 1980s  ........................................................................................ .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 244 Concluding Remarks  ........... ........... .................................. 257 Malaysia  . 252 The Idea of Agama Hindu  ................................................................................................................................................................................... 241 Life-cycle Rituals  ............................. ............ 254 The Good........................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 247 The Modern Challenges  ............................x Table of Contents Adaptation  ......................................................................................................................... 212 Religious Practices among the Indian Traders in China  .......................................................................................... 270 Modern Developments  ......................... 248 International Connections  ....... 254 Of Solidarity.......................................................................................................................... 229 The Religious Life of the First Generation  . ................... 244 Guyana  ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 225 Conclusion  ........................................................... 274 Processes of Loss.... .................................................................................................................................................................................... Maintenance......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 252 Religion in Indonesia  ........................ ............................................................................................................ 233 France  ........................................................... ................................ Place and Person  ......................................................................................................................... ................................... 216 Denmark  .......................................................................... 246 The North Indian–Based Religious Tradition  ........................................................................................................................................................ 274 Successful Integration?  ......................................................................................................................................... .......................................... .............. .................................................................................................................................................................. ......................................... 269 Temples and the Social Structure  .................................................... 219 Keeping Up Hindu Traditions in a New Setting and Under New Circumstances  ...................................................................................................................................................

.... ....................... .................................................................................................................................................. 353 .......................................... 322 Thailand  ......... 337 National Initiatives and Global Interconnections  ................................................................................. ......... .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................... ........................................ 310 Conclusion  ................................................................................. and Visibility  ............................................................................................................... 309 Some Specific Religious Issues  ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................... Table of Contents xi Norway  ................................................................................................................................. . 348 Community Activities  ........ 314 Shrines of the Guru Movements  ................................................................................................................................................................... 343 Yoga  ..................... 307 Religious Reproduction and Group Formation  ......................... 347 Cyber Societies  ........................................................................... 338 United States  .............. 327 Trinidad and Tobago  .............................................................................. 347 Temple Communities  ..................................................... 300 Social History of South African Indians  ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 311 Sweden  .................................................. 318 New Religious Movements with a Hindu Background  ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 347 Cultural Groups  ............................................................................................................................ ....... 348 Temple Hinduism  ...................................................... 288 Russia  ............. 295 South Africa  .................................. ............... 347 Global Organizations  ................................. 279 Portugal  ......... 314 Yoga in Sweden  ....... 305 Recent Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) in South Africa  ................................................ 285 Migration to Portugal after Mozambican Independence  .................... 300 Emergence of Temple Culture  ........................ 312 Diaspora Hindus and Their Shrines  ...... ..................................................................... 334 Hinduism in Britain: Sources  .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 331 Conclusion  ................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................. ........................ 287 Sociocultural Integration  ................. 351 Vietnam  ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 306 Suriname  ......................................................... 315 Integration.................................................................................................. .......................... Representation................................................................................................... 291 Singapore  ....................................................................................... 325 The Hindus’ Position inThai Society  ....................................................................... ............................................................................... 312 Diaspora Temples in Stockholm  ................... 342 History of Hindu Ideas and Practices  .............................................................. 346 Statistics and Taxonomy of Hindu Institutions in the United States  .................................................................................. 313 Gujaratis in West Sweden  .................................................... ........... 317 Hindu Migrant Communities  .................... 301 A Challenge to Ritualistic Hindu Culture: Neo-Hinduism  ......................................... 307 Postwar Institutionalization  ....................................................... 332 United Kingdom  ............................................................................................................................................. 316 Switzerland  ............................................................................................................................................................................... 324 Various Communities of Indian Hindus due to Migration  ................................................... 285 Adaptation: Economic Integration  ................................................................................................... 303 Bollywood Influence on Hinduism  ..................................................................... 329 Religion in the Village Setting  ................... 321 Yoga in Switzerland  ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 334 Hindu Settlement and Communal Development  ...................... 342 Vivekananda and the Ongoing Messages of “Universalism”  ....................................................................................... 346 Domestic/Informal Groups  ......................................................................................................................................... 335 Home and Family  ...................................................... 324 The Thai Brahmans  .............. ......................................................... 329 The New Hinduism of the Postwar Era  ...................................................................... 305 Conclusion  .................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................. 320 The Presence of Global Hindu Movements  ..................................... ............................................................................................................................................. 345 History of Hindus in the United States  ........ .........................

............. from 1991  ..................................... 416 Religious Practice  .............................................................................................................. 393 The Arya Samaj in Independent India and Overseas  ................................................................................... .......................................................................................... 420 Studies of Bhaktisiddhanta’s Work  ....................................................................... ...................................................... 397 Early Life  ....... ............................ 395 Aurobindo  .......................... .. 1974–1981  ..... 359 The Ideology of a Political Religion  .... 380 The Teachings  ........ 363 Ad Dharm Anew  .................................... and Women’s Uplift  ............................................ 409 The Fourth Phase: The Buddha Returns to Pune.................................................................................................... ............... 385 Transforming Rural India  ..................... 373 Life..................... 364 Ananda­mayi Ma  ................................................................................... ..................................................................................................... 409 The Third Phase: Passage to America......................... 420 Crises of Succession  ................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 366 Ma’s Teachings  ............................................................................................................................................. 412 Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati  ........ 400 Three Formulations of His Yoga  ........................................ 420 Modern Hindu Personalism  ...................... .................. 371 Conclusion  ............................................................. 418 The Gaudiya Math in Europe  ............................................................................. Doctrinal Basis............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 415 Early Life  ........................................................................................................................ 402 Legacy  ......................................................................................................................................................... 377 Images of Navalar  .............................. 389 The Social Project of Aryanism: Education............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 421 ................................................................................................................................................................................. Caste Reform..................... 381 Free Education: Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Peeth  ............................. ..................................................... an Avatār of Kālī  ........................................ 380 The Founder  ..................................................................... and an Epic Fast  ...... 405 Core Teachings under the Various Names Rajneesh Used  ............................. 378 Art of Living Foundation  .............................................................................................................................. 405 The Early Years  ................... 387 The Future  ............................ ..................................... ..... 412 The Legacy  .................................................................................................................................................. 407 The Second Phase: The Pune Ᾱśram............................................................................................ Activity............................................ 411 The Fifth Phase: The Contemporary Movement.......... 407 The Disciples in Pune  ..................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 376 Āgamas and Rituals  ............................................................................................................................... ............................................... 361 Politics and the Decline of Ad Dharm  ........ ....................................................................................................................................................... 374 Criticism of Protestant Missionaries  ................................... 403 Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh/Osho  ........................................................ 417 Missionary Work  ............................................................ 401 Later Life and Writings and Death: 1938–1950  ....................................................................... 398 Life during the 1920s and 1930s: the Mother and the Founding of the Āśram  ............................................................................................ 389 Origins................. .............................................. and Early Development  ........ ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 386 Politics  ............... 391 The Political Entanglements of the Arya Samaj  ....................................................... and Teaching  ............................. ................................................................................................................................. 397 Major Works  ...................... 385 Peace  .......................................................................................................................................................... Census.................................................................. .......................................................... ........................................................................................... 387 Arya Samaj  ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................. 1986–1990  .... 366 Ananda­mayi Ma’s Life  .... 372 Aramuga Navalar  .............. 359 Mangoo Ram and the Founding Circle  .......................................................................... 369 The Human Kālī after Her Death  .................. .................................................................................. 368 Ananda­mayi Ma........................................................................................................................................................................................ 415 Historical Context  ....................... ............................................. 376 Caste  ...........xii Table of Contents Some Modern Religious Groups and Teachers Ad Dharm  .................................... 360 Schisms.................................................... 405 The First Phase: 1960–1974  .......................................................... ... 1981–1985  .....................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 504 Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Transcendental Meditation  ............................................................................................................................................................................... 453 Modern Search for Truth  ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 425 Athletic Asceticism and Brahmacarya  ......... 424 The Child Manifestation of Śiva  ........................ 461 Women and Classical Definitions  ......................... ....................................................................................................... 433 Transnational Growth  ............................................................................................................. 446 Teachings  ......................................................................................................... 477 Preparation for Meditation  ...................................................................................................................... 480 Meditation  ............C.......................................................... .................................................................................................................................. 485 History and Development  .................................... 458 Hindu Nationalism and State  ........................................................................ 496 Relationship  ........................................................ 426 Organization Development  .............. Āryāvarta................................... ...... 473 The Heritage of Shri Hans Ji Maharaj  ............................................................ 464 Authority  ...................................... 485 A........................................................................................................... 515 Legendary Origins  ........................................... 428 Bochasanwasi Shri Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha  ....... 470 Contested Academic Sources  .............. 461 Social Expectations for Women  . Bhaktivedanta Swami (Srila Prabhupada)  .............. 483 ISKCON and Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada  ........................................................... 476 Kāpil Guphā (Cave of Kapila)  ..................... 487 Tradition...................................................................................................... 432 Growth  ................ ............. 466 Community  ..... ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 472 The Teachings of Shri Hans Ji Maharaj  . 470 Biography  ............................................... 453 Dayananda’s Thought and Philosophy  ................... 432 Line of Succession  ...................................... 454 Defining Ethical Hinduism  ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 494 Dialogue  ............................................................................................................................. 488 ISKCON’s Position About Its Relation to Hinduism  ..................................................................................... 481 Conclusion  ...... 432 Early History of BAPS  ........ ................................................................................................................................................ 460 Female Gurus and Ascetics  ........... 448 Organizations  ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ and Unity among Hindus  ....................................................................... .. ....................................... 459 Conclusion  .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 427 The Divine Guru  ..................................................... 508 Mahima Dharma and Bhima Bhoi  .......................................................................... 491 Biographical Details  .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................ 437 Chinmayananda and Chinmaya Mission  ....................................................................... 434 Brahmo Samaj and Keshub Chandra Sen  ......................................................... 445 Life  .................................................................................................. ........... 497 Krishnamacharya  ......... 515 Youth and Initiation  ......................................................... ......................................... 498 Lakshman Joo  ........ 466 Hans Ji Maharaj and the Divya Sandesh Parishad  ................................................................................................................ 489 Jiddu Krishnamurti  ............................................. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 454 Constructing Vedic Religion  .............. Table of Contents xiii Bharat Sevashram Sangha and Swami Pranavanandaji Maharaj  ..... 474 Hariharananda Aranya  ........................................................................................................................................... 502 Philosophy and Spiritual Practice  ..................................... 502 Life and Works  ................................................................................................................................................ .............. 450 Dayananda Saraswati  ................... .... .............................................................................................................................................. 496 Education  ........................ .......................................................................................................................................... 455 Aryans................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................. 491 Philosophical Foundations  ............................... Doctrines...................................................................... 515 First Disciples and the Ᾱśrama in Khaliapali  ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........... ........................................................................................ and Practices  ......................................................................... 516 .............................................................................................................

....................................................... 559 Life and Education  . 560 Philosophy  .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 591 Ramana Maharshi  ........... 516 Bhima Bhoi: The Blind Ascetic?  ................. 602 Rammohun’s Works  .......................................... 566 Radhasoamis  .................... 597 Rammohun Roy  .......................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................... 561 Religious and Social Reforms  ................................................................................ 581 The Gospel of Ramakrishna  ................................... 602 Rammohun’s Life  ................................ .......................................... 594 Life and Works  .. 533 Local and Pan-Indian Deity  ...................................................... 527 Empowering Women  .................................. ................................................. ......................... ......... .................................................................................................. 521 Institutional Splits with the Mahima Dharma Movement  ................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 562 Radhakrishnan  ................................ 590 Conclusion  ................... 529 Melmaruvathur Movement  .......................................................................................................................................... 542 Concepts and Practices  ........................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................... 537 Cultural Transmission and Western Practitioners  ........................................................... 529 Critics  ........................................................................ 526 Housing/Care for Children/Fighting Hunger  ..................................................................................... 578 The Life and Teachings of Ramakrishna: Primary Sources  .. ....................................................................................................................................... ............................................. 520 The Lay Guru  ................ 531 Origins of the Temple  .................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................ 516 Themes of Bhima Bhoi’s Poetry  .................................................................................................. 572 The Utopian Society of Dayalbagh  ........................................................................................................ 555 Narayana Guru  ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 595 Philosophy  ...... ..............................................................................................................................................................................................xiv Table of Contents Disappearance and Succession  ................................................. 523 Disaster Relief  ........................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 529 Medicine  .................................................................. ............................................................... 538 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi  .............................................................. 532 Innovative Rituals and Tradition  .......................................................................................................... 552 The Practices  .................... 545 The Bhagavadgītā  ....................................................... 578 The Early Life of Ramakrishna  . 519 The Subaltern Voice  ....................................................................................... 535 The Appeal to (and of ) Nāḍigranthas  ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 580 A Brahman Guru and Middle-Class Devotees  .............. 579 Spiritual Apprenticeship  ........................................................... 549 Muktananda and Siddha Yoga  ........................... 532 The Goddess Focuses on Social Problems  ................................................................................................................................................... 587 Landmarks in the Subsequent Development of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission  .................................................................................................................................. 608 ............................................................................................................... ................. 531 The Goddess and Bangaru Adigalar  . 535 Translators and Educators  ................ 533 Modern Astrologers  ............................... 604 Rammohun’s Ideas  .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 559 Literary Works  ...... 576 Ramakrishna  ... 586 The Origins and Early Development of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission  ................................................................................................................................... ...................... 582 Ramakrishna Math and Mission  ......................................................................................................................................... ............................................. 521 Mata Amritanandamayi Mission Trust and Embracing The World  ........................................... 542 Biography  ....... ..... 523 Mata Amritanandamayi  ................................................................. ............. ........................................ ............... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 528 Education  ...................... 572 The Spiritual Kingdom of Beas  ......................................................... 606 Rammohun’s Legacy  ........................................................................................................... .......................................................................... 586 Emic and Etic Literature on the Ramakrishna Math and Mission  .................................... ............................

.................................. and Wisdom of the Holy Mother  ...................................................................................................... and Spirituality  ........................................................... 625 Constructing the Sacred Person in Indic Theology: A Philosophy of Intimate Charisma  ......................................................................... ................................................. Strategies................................................. . 684 “No Religion Higher Than Truth”  .................................................... 625 Sathya Sai Baba’s Life Story............................................. ..............................................................................................................   and Persuasiveness  ................................................................................................... 651 Sivananda and M..................................... 673 Public Universalist Hinduism and the Hindu Nation  ............................................ Table of Contents xv Sarada Devi  ................................................... Narratives...................................................................................... 675 The Religion of Man  ... 631 Satnamis  ........... 668 Transnational expansion  ................................................................................................. 635 Critical Elaborations  ...................................................................................... 672 Budding Poet  . 659 Swadhyaya after Athavale  . 639 Questions of Politics  ............................................... 672 Religious Training and Experiences  .......... 686 Vivekananda  .............................................................................................................. God of Life  ..................................................................................................... ................... 664 The Life Story of Sahajanand Swami  ............................................................................................................. 654 Sivananda and the All-India Tour  ................. 610 Sarada Devi and Sri Ramakrishna  ...................................................... 639 Shirdi Sai Baba  ......................................................................................................................................... .................................................... Evolution............................................................................................................................................................................................. 679 Theosophy................................................................ .................. and Yogaswami  ............... 691 ....... 641 The Teachings  ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 623 Sathya Sai Baba  ................................................................... ...................................... 622 The Hinduism Today Magazine  ...................................................................................... 666 Division  ........................................................................................... 689 Points of Contention  ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................. 613 Her Later Years: Family Anxieties  ............................................................................................................................................................... 631 Towards Nomadic Charisma  ...................... 630 Beyond Humanity and Divinity: Tactical Captivity and Strategic Liberation  ................................................................ 648 Sivananda and the Divine Life Society  ........................ .............................. and Transcendence  ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... and Charisma  ................ Wit................. 616 Charisma.............................................. 670 Conclusion  ..................................... ................................................................... .............. ........................................................................................................................................... 672 Jīvandevatā.............................................................................................................................................. Chellappaswami............................................ ........................................................ 674 Theology of Hindu Modernity  ............................................................ 653 Building the Divine Life Society  .............................. ........................ 637 Issues of Gender  .................................. 610 Ramakrishna’s Passing and the Emergence of the Holy Mother  ........................................ 628 Theories of Charisma and Sathya Sai Baba’s Personhood: Relationality............. 646 Conclusion  ........................................................................... 671 Tagore  ........................................................................................... 641 The Life  ...................................................................... 665 Swaminarayan Social Reform and Discipline  ........................................................................................................ 619 Religious Lineage: Kadaitswami......................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 677 Theosophical Society  ................... ........... Durabilities..................................... 634 Satnāmīs in Early Modern India  ............ 662 Swaminarayan and Swaminarayan Hinduism  ...............................   and Logics  ........................................................ .............................................................. 664 Swaminarayan Teachings  ................... 652 Sivananda and Tantrism  ..................................... 629 Constructing and Deploying Sacred Personhood........................... 626 Extending Sacred Personhood and Charisma  .................. Affect.............................................. Globalization...................................................... 657 Swadhyaya Movement and Pandurang Shastri Athavale  ...................................................... 655 Creating a Transnational Community: The Divine Life Society and Worldwide Yoga  .................... 634 The Satnampanth of Chhattisgarh  ..... Eliade  ................................................. 689 Vivekananda’s Life  .............................................................. 617 Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami  ......................................................................................................................................................... 635 Formation of the Satnampanth  ... 625 The Conquest of Death: Charisma in the Imagination............................................................................ Personhood.......

..............xvi Table of Contents Vivekananda’s Works  ............................. 750 Early Developments  .. 720 Between Shame and Fame: Fame  ................ 725 The First Key Moment: The Separation of Brahmans and Non-Brahmans  ....... .................................. 705 Autobiography of a Yogi and Intersections  ...... 731 Feminism  ....................................................................................................... 695 Vivekananda Kendra  ................ ...................................................................................................... ...................................................... 767 Glossary  ............................................................. 698 Eknath Ranade........ 775 ....................................................... 703 Yogananda and the Self-Realization Fellowship  .......................................................................................................................... 715 Power: The Eye of the Beholder  ......................................................................................... 750 Who Is a Hindu?  .. 734 Catalyst by Elite Men  ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 755 Conclusion  ............................................................. ........ 729 J.................................... 702 Conclusion  . 717 Between Shame and Fame: Shame  ..................................................................................................................................... 728 P......................................................................... 704 Early Life in India  ................................................................................................................................................ 726 The Second Key Moment: Linking Dravidian Ideology with Tamil Śaivism and Śaiva Siddhānta  ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ..................... 705 Self-Realization Fellowship: Then and Today  .................. Shame.......... ......................................... 766 Conclusion  .................... 704 Traveling  .................................................................................................................................................................................... ..M........... ....................................... Sundaram Pillay (1855–1897)  .............................................. 699 Emic and Etic Literature on the Vivekananda Kendra  ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .......... 711 Appendix Devadāsīs/Courtesans  .................................................................................................... 743 Nationalism  ............................................ 723 Hinduism and Dravidian Identity  ......................... 734 Women’s Voices  ..................................................................................... 715 Courtesans between Power......... the Founder of the Vivekananda Kendra  ...................................................................................................... 760 Media and Religion in Colonial India  ............................................................................. 699 The Origins and Development of the Vivekananda Kendra  ............................................... 758 Politics and Media  .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 741 Nature and Praxis of Feminism  ..... 730 Maraimalai Adigal (1876–1950)  .......................... 753 The Sangh Parivar  ...................................................................................................................... 734 The Woman Question  ........................................................ 692 Vivekananda’s Ideas  .. 771 Sections for Future Volumes  ........................................................................................ 764 Mediatic Differences and Linguistic Divisions  ... 692 Vivekananda’s Legacy  ........................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 716 Power: A Logic of Practice  ............................................................................... 709 Conclusion  ........................................................................................................................................................... .............................. 722 Power Revisited  .......... 760 Media Theory and Practice in the Era of National Independence  .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Nallaswami Pillai (1864–1920)  ........................................................................................................................................................................ 737 Post-Independence and Post-colonial Feminisms: Methods and Issues  . 728 The Indigenization of Dravidian Ideology  ........................ ................................................................................................................ 700 Vivekananda Kendra’s Yoga Way of Life  ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ . 742 Interventions  ........................................................................................................................................................................ 761 A New Phase of Hinduism?  .............................................................................................................................................. and Fame  ..............................................

(mudrākhya). 162) but in the meaning of coin. gestures that symbolize the weapons (āyudhas) Satkunaratnam. 25. These hastas constitute but one part of the theatrical performance two chapters on ritual āṅgikābhinaya. introduces in the middle of the text on 2003). Nandikeśvara 3. found in either of these two texts. Mudrā tion of the hastas and their meanings occupy as the gesture sign will be discussed on the basis of half of this relatively short text. hand gestures serve as an aesthetic hand gesture in theatrical performance.17. Malinar.32–33). 38) seems to not only com- often identified with emotions transmitted by the bine the classical hand gestures of the earlier texts actors through actions of physical nature. as if trying to 9 of the Nāṭyaśāstra. nication. 3.). both of which are the body (aṅga). It is only later muni (c. respectively. uses the word mudrā only once (AbhiD. deals update the material of the non-extant Nāṭyasūtra with the 67 meaningful gestures (hastas. (sāttvikābhinaya. that the term mudrā instead of hasta is used for 25–38). but their nography). tantric traditions of Kerala. Mudrā in the sense of gesture sign cannot be In the Nāṭyaśāstra. method of calculation and a decoration of poetry. naya (acting in theatre) include speech (vācika).  texts on → dance and performance (see also saṃ yuta. 2010. 1957. or expression by various parts of mudrās (ViDhP. Thus. ce) is considered to be later than the can be found in Kaut ̣ilya’s Arthaśāstra (13. and demeanor mudrādīpikā. 2010. 603. who commented on the Nāṭyaśāstra in by means of dynamic hand gestures. The anonymous Hastalakṣaṇ adīpikā (or Hasta­ costume or decor (āharya). 250ff. Sudha. or disk – and hand gestures representing manuals. 610). and the gaze. ce. This text uses both The word mudrā in the Nāṭyaśāstra does not of the terms and calls one of the hastas mudrā mean gesture but rather earring or ring (NāṭŚā. Venu. Bansat-Boudon. with some parts as old as the 5th century ce posture. 31).  tantric texts (→ Tantras). and nṛtta. that it cites. 29. 2010. It follows the three different kinds of sources: Nāṭyaśāstra classification of gestures (asaṃ yuta. or done 2. 7f. Unni. 103. play an important role in the performance tra. the Abhinayadarpaṇ a includes āyudhas – hand ditions and in the corresponding manuals (e. It presents the dancer with a vocab- 21. The other three aspects of abhi­ tinted by tantric influence. 2013. Olivelle. 2000. gesture. joined. fingerring or ear. such as sword. 3rd cent. which are. displayed by the precise position of which was written before the 10th–11th centu- the fingers in conjunction with the whole body ries. 2001. all hand gestures without exception According to secondary literature hand gestures are called hastas and not mudrās. the movement.4.  texts on iconography (see → images and ico. Mudrās Mudrā in different texts and contexts might his Abhinavabhārati (Nagar & Joshi.g. used hasta instead of mudrā when referring to a ring. and “dance” gestures). such but also include the hand gestures used in the as goose bumps or fainting. Additionally. One of the enhancer and as a nonverbal means of commu. 1986. Pati. dis- → drama and theatre). it can be surmised that it did not mean the incarnations (→ avatāras) of → Viṣṇu. 33–34). but wielded by various deities. ce. Chapter (Rocher. when it comes to tracing the word mudrā in these conch. that is. 1992. or single-hand gestures. The descrip- 2nd–3rd cents. mark. 35–36). first texts to do so is the Viṣṇ udharmottarapurāṇ a. 1988). with both hands. 1. and numbers and applications differ. trident. Noteworthy is that → Abhina­ ulary of almost one thousand signs to be displayed vagupta. also mean not only coin (money). The Abhinayadarpaṇ a of Nandikeśvara (post- Such meanings as “seal” and “sign of recognition” 5th cent. joined. This gesture is again called hasta. the Hastābhinaya. This text. a text ascribed to Bharata.).41. the latter 202–208. 10th–15th century ce. describing a ges- ture in which the fingers are displayed as if hold- Mudrās in Theatre ing a coin (mudrā). Nāṭyaśāstra (Ghosh. and sign of recognition but also a hand gesture. .

Show.129) and the krodhamudrā. Gestures denoting objects and weapons of the deities seem to be called mudrās only in the Mudrās in the Śiva-/Bhairava-Oriented tantric texts. the tantric ideas. The most popular include boon-giving (varadamudrā) and protective ges. 14) these very same objects become the a necessary part of everyday ritual. 669). It confirms that mudrās in the 666–669). there). are represented in medieval Indian . while others. The Svacchanda­ mudrās. on the gen- jñānamudrā. form in about the 9th century. Hand positions are either called hastas or mudrās in iconographical texts. such as the mudrā as “actions which combine postures or Pratiṣtḥ ālakṣaṇ asārasamuccaya (Bühnemann. the (15. 1988. gestures or spiritual elements. In these texts mudrā is a technical Texts term applied only to the gestures displayed by a This group of early Śaiva tantric texts includes human practitioner in a ritual context.92 Mudrās Mudrās in Iconography sense of agents of transformation most likely orig- inated in the tantric tradition. Singular occurrences include Śaiva tantric tradition (4th-6th cents. as bodily actions the Caturvargacintāmaṇ i. displayed by its various meanings rose tremendously. allowing the connection between the two through ing the objects through gestures. of the deity). 1988. played by some → yoginīs in the → Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃ hitā see Sanderson. Mudrās in the Tantric Texts and tures (abhayamudrā). 66). 2013. but servant.33) and attained its current or Bhairava forms. Rituals consciousness (cinmudrā). or the” gesture of number of occurrences of the word as well as of anger” represented by a folded fist. aiming to achieve an afterdeath Svacchanda­bhairava (see → Bhairava) holds in proximity to the deity (often as becoming a gaṇ a. or the “gesture of knowledge. and in titioner and that are ascribed to the deity as well. threatening (tarjanīmudrā). 1988. in another pas. by means of → mantras. the fact that the early tantric Śākta-oriented texts reflecting the yoginī cult. but they do resonate with the very core of still belonging to the Atimārga (Sanderson. and complicated ritual arrangements tantra (2. The and puranic literature calls the objects held by range of meanings in the tantric texts has been deities mudrās. this case these gestures are called mudrās. or → liberation. these meanings shall be described below follow- Similar to the gestures in the context of theat- ing the differences between the Śaiva texts and the rical performance. (see → sampradāya). However. 6th and early 7th centuries. 2004). Within this period. These 6th century ce because it is referred to by the are the traditions worshipping Śiva in his Sadāśiva → Brahmayāmala (39. which at the same time are moments of religious usually do not use the word mudrā to describe the and/or mystical experience. and explanation The word mudrā with the meaning of a ritual ges- (vyākhyānamudrā) are hardly mentioned in icon- ture displayed by the hands and fingers occurs in ographical context (Bühnemann. the practitioner emulation. The display of mudrās also marks the allows himself to be pervaded by the qualities or membership of practitioners in the community powers of the deity.” hands of deities. The display of mudrās by the officiant becomes sage (ch. There are sets of five and six eign in the context of vedic literature (and it is not mudrās (pañcamudrā and ṣaṇ mudrā. 663). Sanderson. 1988. It is far more common for deities to hold tantric meanings of mudrā had been formed. summarized by A. → Kāpālikas. Such settings appear to be for. Padoux (1990.90–93) mentions the objects that (→ maṇ ḍalas). his 18 arms. “weapons” (āyudhas).. such as greet- ing (añjalimudrā).” dis- eral lines of development of the Śaiva traditions. personal the texts that testify to the emergence of the early communication). Mudrās here gestures to be displayed by the practitioner with are the attributes that are displayed by the prac- bare hands (without the actual objects). and the Kṛtyakalpataru. 92). By the the tantric forms of Gaṇeśa (Bühnemann. A good the earliest strata of the → Śaiva Siddhānta and the example illustrating this is the Svacchanda­tantra. and objects in their hands. appears to be a later practice. who defines The pratiṣṭhā (installation) manuals. but does not call them mudrās. respectively) surprising that the word mudrā does not occur approximating a Kāpālika-like attire. Mantrapīṭha (see below) part of the Mantramārga which already existed in some form before the (Way of Mantras. a whole spectrum of 32.

trans. if not the (Serbaeva. The practitioner appears to assume the sakala form of a deity – that is. the Vidyāpīṭha (see below). By means of obtained a new. syllable. Having repeated the vidyā for one lakṣa ticular. the mudrā con. Displayed by the guru. he can cut off the vital skull held in the hand and a khaṭvāṅga (a club. mudrās are linked to particu- lar psychophysical states often identified with The “knife” is known to be fivefold. and enter Śiva . In the last book of the 10 mudrās in the Niśvāsatattvasaṃ hitā and about Niśvāsatattvasaṃ hitā. mastery of which was necessary in early Śaiva tra. The already-mentioned Svacchandatantra dis- they are also used in aggressive or black magic cusses in chapters 3 and 4 the usage of mudrās in (ṣaṭkarma. but they amount to in the process of yogic death. .11–16). O Beloved. namely. fundamental transformation in yogic and tantric cal state of a person and the person’s very nature practice. This aspect becomes earliest. one can destroy trees. or invocation]. earrings.e. They empower the per. sions on the psychophysical state of the disciple The Niśvāsatattvasaṃ hitā is an early. 2007). immediate separation from the body (utkrānti). In comparison with the earlier of awareness] is brought upwards in the body Śaiva texts.16. see Smith. Mudrās 93 literature looking as horrible as their deities and “haṃ . the main deities of which are all female. 1988. deities without exception. that is. should concentrate upon the water element raphy. Mudrās in the Yoginī Cult of the a form with physical shape as opposed to the Vidyāpīt ̣ha absolute or aspect-less (niṣkala) form of the A whole new list of mudrās was introduced in deity – by means of mudrās (NiśTSa. by] the practices related to wind and the body is the sixth mudrā (Lorenzen. Two interconnected aspects define the god- ditions. enlightened by “two fires” [coded The mudrā as an emblem worn on the body vidyā]. 3. 2010. as with decorations made of human bone. 17. fire elements (vāyavyāgneyadhāranaiḥ ). in the context of initiation (dīkṣā). the the Jayadrathayāmala.53–56. tantric text of the Siddhānta tradition. not only allowing the Mantras”). and so on (Serbaeva. ḍākinīs. Vidyās”).4. in the yoginī-related corpus that con- (utkramayet) of the practitioner or the bound stitutes the main body of the Vidyāpīṭha (Sander- soul (paśu) when joined with “puruṣa” [this son. 2006). 5. play of the mudrās and particular states related to The mudrās as gestures affect the psychophysi. In it. . 2006. 100.” which has been previously explained carrying a set of five mudrās. First. stitutes a link between the mantra of the deity and contrary to the Mantrapīt ̣ha (“Throne of the the body of the practitioner. Second. It [tentatively the principle White. There are fewer than 5. the context of initiation. āveśa. breath (prāṇ a) even in the navel [tentatively often represented as a skull-topped staff ) as well kṛkkāpi] when joined with the kartarimudrā.10­–23. they are related to nonhuman beings such Those who visualize that become liberated as yoginīs. affording → possession (stobha. 69–72). a human by me. where the male forms of Śiva/Bhairava invocation of a deity but also implying a certain are the center of the cult.. to mudrās. Furthermore. are applied to all (varuṇ enanibhandhyante) if one wants to live long (NiśTSa. particularly important in the goddesses-­oriented redacted between the 4th and the 6th century ce Vidyāpīt ̣ha (“Throne of the Invocations or (Goodall & Isaacson. One The five mudrās in the context of tantric iconog. son through identification with the deity in both these signs are said to have immediate repercus- kinds of procedures. esoteric meaning as soon as the “tattva” [coded syllable] joined with sound tantric tradition started to be practiced not only . voluntary 85 in the → Brahmayāmala. It is called kṣurikāmudrā or kartarimudrā dess-oriented early tantric traditions in relation (knife mudrā). new and additional meanings might refer to the syllable to be added to the vidyā.8. 2­3). while the sixth mudrā usually characterizes the main deity (always male) This passage demonstrates that as early as the of the maṇ ḍala. there was a link between the dis- deities. Ashes are never applied to female 6th century ce. 670ff. anklets and bracelets. a particular mudrā is used 20 in the Svacchandatantra. and more than 270 in leaving the physical body by a yogic procedure. degree of embodiment. of times [i.119–123. 1991. The appli. both Śaiva and Buddhist. abhicāra).). in par. etc. By means of the seed of mudrās are to be found. 2009). by author).000] one achieves success cation of ashes (→ vibhūti) from a funeral pyre to in [lit.

performance.94 Mudrās in lonely and secluded places but also in the pal. or the mother-goddesses. consisting of 24. and of such objects as skull. Satisfied with meat.  Vidyāpīt ̣ha (Throne of the Invocations). Mantramārga are traditionally split in four major ing mudrās. It is a physical sign that the initiant is ple gestures. as exemplified by sified in accordance with the weapons held by the the pheṭkāriṇ īmudrā. these gestures are clas. stationed in as well as in the iconography. place. which is strictly nonverbal.  Maṇḍalapīṭha (Throne of the Maṇ ḍalas). (JY. in Kubjikāmatatantra 25). and they are displayed with the utmost according to two different versions).  Mantrapīṭha (Throne of the Mantras). or the mudrā of the jackal’s mātṛkās. and other yoginīs related to her. They open the psychophysical doors to vision- tion” did not stop there. in chapter 15 of the groups: → Tantrasadbhāvatantra belonging to the Trika 1. contains no fewer than 800 occurrences of proof (cihna. a whole set of gestures if performed in any other place. The → Tantras of the sciousness aroused by the display of correspond. 15. For instance. 97–98) Jayadrathayāmala stands apart in the tantric in relation to yogic practices. the particular states of con. The display of mudrās in this case becomes mistake in display. The → Brahmayāmala is the earliest text gesture synonyms. Each class of The majority of these mudrās are linked to the yoginīs. alcohol. and the mudrās started ary states and to seeing and conversing with the to denote. 4. the esoteric meanings 3. and others are 4. Whereas in the beginning of the The 9th-century Kubjikāmatatantra and chapter (TSadT. and are linked to provoked possession. see mantras. Sanderson. plicated composite practices. while the as human flesh. transformation of the practitioner’s physical and erence for some particular gestures.000 mudrās by a person who is being initiated is a ślokas. are hidden behind innocent-looking words and aces of kings and in the households of ministers. 663). precision in the rituals invoking them. 672. see also parallels 2. and this is reflected in the rituals plishments. khaṭvāṅga.2. tradition (Sanderson. being explained. 15. while in the process of mutual recognition the middle of the altar (vedi). further on (TSadT. trans. prefers Now I will explain the supreme mudrā called the conch and disk mudrās (śaṅkhamudrā and pheṭkāriṇ ī. by a secret language. Besides sim- (dīkṣā). and holding his observances (vratas).573–575. one makes a is used. the joining of the rivers or in the empty house. the body position (āsana) – and the mudrā.576–577) the technicalities of meeting (melaka or melāpa) can be thus conveyed. Most often. the objects and practices. the khaṭvāṅga means a to be drawing on Mudrāpīṭha material. The skull-topped staff. The human-born śmaśāna. the mudrās here also refer to com- entering a nondiscursive state of conscious. In the → Brahmayāmala. used in author) order to talk with the yoginīs and among the initi- ated. are being replaced by mudrā equivalents tice.23). The spontaneous and unlearned display of The Jayadrathayāmala. often to visionary experiences. con- Transgressive substances and practices – such sisting in folding the fists near the ears. in addition to physical objects and their yoginīs. and conditions of the next Further on (JY. cognitive apparatus (body and mind) and thus like the yoginīs themselves. Followed by: . which is called chommā. 1988. yoginīs mark the doors of their houses with such one should display this queen of mudrās in signs. [Otherwise] at of a yoginī and a tantric practitioner (sādhaka). ḍākinīs. The process of “esoteriza. The time. lakṣaṇ a) of successful initiation the word mudrā and its derivations. making rise the fruits of all accom- cakramudrā). The longest list of mudrās is to be found Object mudrās are related to particular classes in chapters 1 and 2 of book 4 (100 or 121 mudrās of yoginīs. mudrās are obliga- usually rejected as impure and transgressive by tory for a long period of post-initiation prac- society. that refers to the Mudrāpiṭha. 1988. lier texts. it denotes the whole tradition as the most detailed manual on mudrā body of the practitioner and the control over it. In this connection. 4. play the role of body-related equivalents of (on the domestication of the tantric traditions.  Mudrāpīt ̣ha (Throne of the Mudrās). when the solitary ritual the 10th-century Jayadrathayāmala are said observance is discussed. which were called ness that transforms the mind and visibly affects sādhana or vrata (practice or observance) in ear- the body. and other such beings has a pref. howling: Vaiṣṇavī. gestures. and ritual intercourse – head is facing up – are described.2. For example.

These “vampiric” prac- affect the blood circulation and vestibular system tices (raktākarṣaṇ a. who Bhairava. accomplishing to men. he is transformed by the power of The strong emphasis on the transformative the deity. these feared vampiric tures (hastas) of the kind that the Nāṭyaśāstra practices are similar to the mode of operation to and other texts describe are but one dimension of the actions of a guru performing dīkṣā. with cruel doned temples. the drain their blood. This mudrā called pheṭkārinī. aban- manner of the jackal. the help of these mudrās. . practice. and cremation grounds. Nor does it occur in former and actively participate in his visionary the Pāśupatasūtra (or in the Pāñcārthabhāṣya. krodhinī. khecarī and bhairavī. Mudrās 95 The practitioner should shout terribly in the secluded places. often acting from within the required positions and movements might heavily very body of the victims. by author) welcoming drink – for the preparation of which he makes a cut on his left arm. the aim is usually a yoginī-related transfor.2. which consists in a variety of procedures are fivefold and encoded by the same empowering and consciousness-altering aspects. and the animal and human going initiation as well as a victim of vampiric sacrifices together make the mudrās efficient. This is the manner to dis. him trembles – these are the usual signs of the ribly the circle of yoginīs. be able to put other beings under control or to ary state. a chosen deity. cruel expression on the face. sessed. 4. in the second case. and they will stand coming deities.). namely. Furthermore. eyes. caves. the When in the Jayadrathayāmala the sādhaka yoginīs transform the sādhaka into a flying being is trying by means of mudrās to enter a special (khecara) or even let the sādhaka occupy the cen- state. 2010. and he feels that the ground under measures of time (ghaṭikā). that there is no straightforward connec- pleasing nonhuman entities. play. hand ges. 17f. respectively “skel- most inauspicious moments of the lunar month. (JY. in the descriptions of mudrā play pheṭkāriṇ ī. deity. he should As a result. tral place – that of Bhairava – in their group. Both a person under- the context of worship. all- sometimes have animal heads. in the first case. the lelihānā. As is the case with some mudrās. The mantras. “licking”. The mudrās in the Vidyāpīt ̣ha text are also used thirsty Cāmuṇḍā (see → Kālī) with her dry and by the practitioners in order to get the necessary shriveled belly. The sādhaka closely imitates – one can sādhaka becomes all powerful and omniscient as say. he will shake ter. karaṅkiṇ ī. and both the tantric mudrā. who assemble around the solitary per. wildly shouting and dancing Bhairava or a blood. such as yoginīs and tion to the → Pātañjala Yoga. But such materials for their transgressive and violent ritu- theatre-like performance is often not sufficient als. the use of transgressive substances in (Serbaeva. O Beloved. . lit. who can then be sacrificed. after some time ranging from shout a terrible cry . aims at controlling or “sealing” (mudraṇ a) the nar. the audience is different: aspect and the change in body and consciousness the display of secret mudrās by a sādhaka is not suggest a connection to yogic practices. series of five mudrās. In this situation.578–583. The sādhaka finds himself sur- in front of him under control. is absent in the Yogasūtra. the person undergoing initiation Whereas an actor displaying a gesture in a theatre experiences temporary access to the powers of the play is not affected by the emotions and physi. as in front of rounded by the terribly beautiful yoginīs. such as a the deity is supposed to be. minutes to weeks. blood extraction) can of the sādhaka. Both the yoginīs and the sādhakas are said to in itself to transpose the sādhaka into a vision. “flying” and “terrifying” the alcohol. which can be . by which one obtains a meet. Vidyāpīt ̣ha. has been explained to the sādhaka is to offer them a bloody argha – you. Satisfied. plays the role of – a particular deity. “entered” (āviṣṭa) by another entity with the mudrās are also performed in the Tantras. eagerly licking her lips. the particularly horrible places. Interestingly. the sādhaka actually turns into victim. serve as one of the characteristic features of the According to the Jayadrathayāmala. “anger”. trans. 2010. It seems. eton”. which takes place in the most desolate and Kauṇḍinya’s commentary on it). The mation. the sādhaka hears sounds and sees fall- ing (melāpa) with the yoginīs within two small ing meteors. since the word mudrā ḍākinīs. The results are different: but their effects and contexts are quite different. the yoginī or sādhaka cal aspect accompanying his or her role (Mali. yoginīs or sādhakas are supposed to become pos- Compared to the gestures of the Nāṭyaśāstra. intended for human spectators but is aimed at however. 78–83). such as deep forests.

5. The second specificity of the Krama tradition is but it only started to be termed mudrā during the the presence of a stable sequence of five mudrās – period following the time of coming into fash.). the five types of siddhās. śākta. represents the whole spectrum of meanings formed with the help of mudrās. In stemming from the Vidyāpīt ̣ha-rooted Kaula. her personal experience of the kramamudrā under J. which leads to a external world. nally. 151). Esoteric tantric mudrās at great length. the the Vidyāpīṭha by tending to interpret the mudrās most important exponents of which – Abhinava­ as internal yogic states that have little to do with gupta and Kṣemarāja – commented on the earlier any external practice or physical display.268). 31). as (see → Pāśupatas). ion of tantric Śaivism texts. and various drugs. the Trivandrum Mahānāyaprakaśa 7.96 Mudrās considered the earliest-known Śaiva yoga text the means to achieve identification with a deity. of consciousness. chommā. and mind. denot. starts to be reflected with equal power in the ing the tongue behind the palate. is mentioned (mudrā of astonishment) in the Vātulānāthasūtra (TĀ. speech.269). Consciousness in the Krama 79. The other “m’s” being flesh (māṃ sa). khecarīmudrā. this single mudrā can be “dis. and the states of consciousness in which they dwell tions of both corpora are yet to be explored. described by Abhinavagupta in chapters 1 to 4 of Mudrās.139–144. another Mahānāyaprakaśa. These types ship variously identified with parched grain or of display are related to aṇ ava. (see Arṇasiṃha’s Mahānāyaprakāśa 84–104. 136) describes variety of psychophysical results. known 20th century-guru of → Kashmir Śaivism. where it in addition means the 4th “m” or the drum (7. with its cakras. 17–19) convincingly dem. often ing the totality of the universe (vṛndacakra). and intercourse the lowest to the highest) types of pervasion (maithuna). but the Buddhist connec. state and the state itself. derivations 32 times in his Tantrāloka. app. general and the Krama tradition in particular. the other way around. 46–47. is mentioned – it represents the highest state Bhairavīmudrā as provoking alteration in normal and unites the means of immersion into such a state of consciousness is referred to (TĀ. B. 4. It’s called vismayamudrā Mudrā as secret language. however. and especially Mahārthamañjarī v. which are states of ascribed to the word within the Vidyāpīṭha in awareness and not gestures (Devīdvyārdhaśatikā. Chapter 17 of the Tantrāloka deals (samāveśa). only one mudrā “sealed” by the way of śāmbhava (TĀ. guidance of Swami → Lakshman Joo. uses the term mudrita to signify a person In a number of Krama texts. the struc- The Mudrās as States of ture of which is sorted out in Serbaeva. and not universe. śāmbhava – the hierarchically arranged (from fish (matsya). is known from the early texts of the Pali Canon. published in Trivan. as a practice.129–131). and which refers to the highest and nondualistic state sexual mudrās are also mentioned in these texts. karaṅkinīmudrā. 4. in the corpus constituted by the Haṭha Yoga texts. 60. He vv. alcohol (madirā). 2003. a state of the absolute awareness Khecarīmudrā is of particular importance for brought back from within into the outer aspect of both the tantric traditions and the Hat ̣ha Yoga. They are said to have psychophysical effects. Bäumer (2007.88). These aspects of the Krama tradition have influ- The Krama tradition distinguishes itself within enced Kashmiri exegesis of the earlier Tantras. do appear in large numbers his Tantrāloka (see also → śakti). 37. and bhairavīmudrā – encoding that it was the Hat ̣ha Yoga texts that adopted the not the physical positions but the totality of the mudrās from the early Vidyāpīt ̣ha texts. His usage tification with the absolute consciousness are per. achieved inter- One of the physical forms of this mudrā is insert. that is. 3. This single mudrā is also called kramamudrā. Mallinson (2007. Similar usage of the word (v.57. mysterious fourth element of transgressive wor- played” by body. when a yogic state. vyāpti (pervasion) in the Bhavopahāra partner in chapter 15. krodhinīmudrā. Thus. Mudrā is also used to mean a sexual (sūtra 13).200). standing respectively for the way and with the possession-provoking mudrās in tantric . it is most likely lelihanāmudrā. reality. the well- onstrates that the khecarīmudrā. and dhāmamudrā (mudrā of splendor) in mudrā can also be found in the Kaula-based Arṇasiṃha’s Mahānāyaprakāśa (v. → Śrīvidyā texts and the later Bengali Tantras. practices such as “coming out of the body” and Abhinavagupta uses the word mudrā and its “entering the body of the other being” and the iden. Kramasadbhāvatantra 1.

Schoterman’s edition [1988. true mudrā is thus a “pervasion by awakening” because a person being pervaded or possessed (bodhāveśa) of the oneness with one’s own true by it attracts the yoginīs and has all supernatural essence (svarūpa. by Flood. (1986. 58. but ultimately are just grimaces (dehavikriyā. 1990. The they are all that same khecarīmudrā (TĀ. 32. The mudrās pleasing the yoginīs are men. khacārīmudrā.65). 32. unmanifested form is the deity itself vaded by the circle of khecarīs (i. 133. 1993. That supporter of mudrās is proclaimed. which the Kubjikāmatatantra in T. old Vidyāpīt ̣ha physical techniques of provoked hands. Summarizing Tantrāloka 32. sādhaka. he casts linking the mudrās with what is now classified as off the dual divisions. Sander- Imitating the deity by moving the tongue and son (2001) and his introduction of the Vidyāpīt ̣ha laughing like Bhairava. speech. 32. returns to the initial definition.  body: mudrās worn on the body as emblems the lost Trikasāra. Having visualized himself as Bhairava.26 cites 1. and An awakened one (buddha) is constantly char- 4. introduction] majority of the sakalamudrās are said to induce and the Jayadrathayāmala in Goshal’s ­reading) . description of possession-provoking mudrās (e. resulting in particular visionary and tac- trates all the aspects of mudrā. manifested when the practitioner is being per- or absolute.e.4). 581). which opened ascends within the realms of his subtle body. Mudrās 97 dīkṣā. Abhinavagupta what is to be achieved – namely joy from obtain.  those related to mind appear to be percep- acterized (mudrita) by mudrās arising in the tible signs manifesting when the practitioner body. ing of mudrā as a state of consciousness with its 2. Sanderson’s translations particular sort of emptiness) and transcends it. which the abhinaya (see above) of which Abhinavagupta consists in the realization of one’s identity with was certainly aware. 243) 72).10–24: New Field and Ancient Echoes The physical āsana.g.  hand: gestures. TĀ. The mudrā in its niṣkala. him.9). Indeed the rest are (just) holders of bones. doubts. full or colorful calities of the karaṅkiṇ īmudrā. 134n311). 32. jvālinīmudrā.” which refers to In the end of the chapter. The A. although writing about the Abhinavagupta then deals with the techni. 32. in which the yogī tantric texts constitute a new field. TĀ. kuṇ ḍalinī-like symptoms in the paśu – that is. The possession-provoking mudrās from the Śaiva leads to an altered state. that very consciousness (see also Müller-Ortega. Although possession into a state of pure and spontaneous this appears to follow the fourfold classification of immersion into nondual consciousness. thanks to the comparative approach of A. 32.3). reaches a particular state in dhyāna (intuitive.3–6). feeling ascend. entering the bod- According to chapter 32 of the Tantrāloka the ies of the other beings. and so on. he enters the vyoma (a texts into Indology. accomplishments (siddhis. 178n40. yoginīs). (trans. He is in a state in which he has ness” including such aspects as provoked pos- no consciousness of himself. meaning as Kāpālika emblem worn on the body. while in its manifested form (sakala).7). many scholars. and mind (TĀ. tile experiences. 2009.  speech: mantras. which compares the mean- like those of the Kāpālikas (see above). void of such pervasion. the Tantrālokaviveka.66–67). main meaning of the term is “sign. Goudriaan’s and were all listed in the beginning of the chapter. In unity with the session and trance. were unprecedented. spontaneous visualization. see also Padoux. it exists as a multitude of mudrās. A. all the rest of the mudrās. explaining that ing the essence of the self by means of the “door” the mudrā is the body form that is spontaneously of the body (TĀ. early Vidyāpīṭha representation: Kṣemarāja in the Śivasūtravimarṣiṇ ī 3. TĀ. Next Abhinavagupta provides a description of the khecarīmudrā. 1995. 3. tioned in the context of esoteric sexual practice the person to be (but not yet) initiated – or in the in chapter 29. the quietness of the mind. and other sakalamudrās. and concerns part of the domain of “altered states of conscious- of the world. Before mantra he sees all deities within his own body. Jayaratha in his commentary. while (TĀ. 32. glosses these according to 2000. Vidyāpīt ̣ha-related tantric texts. Abhinavagupta thus overcodes mudrās as Mudrās are fourfold: they relate to body. while chapter 32 explains and illus.

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