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May 01, 2017

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Speed

3-Phase induction motor has full load torque T and

starting torque 1.5T

Max. torque (2.5T) is called breakdown torque of the

motor

Torque vs. Speed

If load is increased beyond the breakdown Torque,

the motor will stall and come to a rapid stop

At full load the motor runs at a speed n

Torque vs. Speed

Small motors (10 kW) develop breakdown torque at

a speed nd of about 80% of synchronous speed ns

Big motors (1000 kW and more ) attain their

breakdown torque at about 98% of synchronous

speed ns

Effect of Rotor Resistance

The torque-speed characteristics is greatly affected

by change in resistance of the rotor

The only characteristic which is unchanged is the

breakdown torque

The rotor resistance of a squirrel cage rotor is

essentially constant, except that it increases with

temperature

The resistance increases with increase in load

because the temperature rises

Effect of Rotor Resistance

In designing the squirrel cage rotor, the rotor

resistance can be selected by using copper,

Aluminum or other metals in the rotor bars and end

rings

Effect of Rotor Resistance

Torque speed curve of a 10kW (13.4hp), 50Hz, 380V

induction motor

Synchronous speed of 1000 rpm

Full load torque of 100 N.m

Effect of Rotor Resistance

Full load current is 20A

Locked rotor current is 100A

The rotor has an arbitrary resistance R

Effect of Rotor Resistance

Increase the rotor resistance by a factor of 2.5 by

using higher resistive material such as bronze for

rotor bars and end rings

Effect of Rotor Resistance

The starting torque doubles from 100 Nm to 200 Nm

The locked rotor current decreases from 100A to

90A

Effect of Rotor Resistance

Motor develops its breakdown torque at a speed nd

of 500 rpm

Compared to original nd of 800 rpm

Effect of Rotor Resistance

Resistance is doubled to 5R, the locked rotor torque

attains a maximum value of 250 Nm for a

corresponding current of 70A

Effect of Rotor Resistance

Further increase in resistance to 25R

The locked rotor current drops to 20A

The starting torque also drops

The motor develops the same starting torque 100

Nm as it did when the locked rotor current was 100 A

Effect of Rotor Resistance

Effect of Rotor Resistance

A high rotor resistance is

desirable because it

produces a high starting

torque and a relatively low

starting current

Unfortunately it produces

a rapid fall in speed with

increasing load

Effect of Rotor Resistance

Slip at rated torque is high,

the motor I2R losses are

high

Efficiency is low and motor

tends to overheat

Effect of Rotor Resistance

Under running conditions it is preferable to have low

resistance

The speed decreases very less with increasing load

Slip at rated torque is small

The efficiency is high and the motor tends to run cool

Wound Rotor Motor

High starting and low running resistance can be

obtained by using a wound rotor induction motor

Such a rotor allows variation in the rotor resistance

as desired by means of external rheostat

Operating Characteristics

Sector Motor

The stator of a standard 3-

phase, 4-pole, wye-

connected motor having a

synchronous speed of 1800

rpm is cut in half

Half of the winding is

removed

Two complete N and S

poles left (per-phase)

Sector Motor

The stator terminal

connected to 3-phase, 60Hz

source will move the Rotor

close to 1800 rpm

Voltage can be reduce to

half, because the stator

winding has half the original

number of turns

Sector Motor

This sector motor delivers

20% of its rated power

The sector motor produces

the same revolving field as in

the original 3-phase motor

Instead of making one

complete turn, the field

continuously travels from one

end to the other

Linear Motor

Sector motor can be laid out flat, without effecting

shape or speed of magnetic field to make linear

induction motor

The flux travel at a linear synchronous speed given

by vs = 2wf

vs = linear synchronous speed [m/s]

w = width of one pole-pitch [m]

f = frequency [Hz]

Linear speed does not depend upon number of poles

but pole pitch (Distance between adjacent poles)

Electro Mechanical System 22

Linear Motor

If a flat squirrel cage rotor

is brought near, the field

drags it along

Practically, a simple

aluminum or copper

plate is used as a rotor

In practical applications

the rotor is stationary

while stator moves like in

high-speed trains

Travelling Waves

The impression is that when the flux

reaches the end of a linear stator,

there is a delay before it restarts

The linear induction motor produces

a travel wave of flux which moves

continuously and smoothly

The flux cuts off sharply at the

extremities A and B of the stator

As fast as N and S poles disappears

at the end, it builds up again at the

left

Electro Mechanical System 24

Magnetic Levitation

Sweeping a permanent

magnet across a

conducting ladder, tends

to drag the ladder along

with it

Horizontal forces is also

accompanied by a

vertical force which tends

to push the magnet away

from the ladder

Magnetic Levitation

N-pole is swept across

the top of conductor 2

Maximum voltage will be

induced due to maximum

flux density

If the magnet moves

slowly, current reaches its

maximum when the

magnet is at the top

Magnetic Levitation

Returning currents from 1

and 3 creates nnn and

sss as shown

Front half is repelled

upward while rear half is

attracted downwards

Due to slow motion nnn

and sss poles are

symmetrical with respect

to centre of the magnet

Magnetic Levitation

Resulting vertical force is

nil

If magnet moves very

rapidly

Centre of magnet is

ahead of conductor 2

when current in it is

maximum

The N-pole is now

directly above nnn pole

Electro Mechanical System 28

Magnetic Levitation

Results in a strong vertical

force which tends to push

the magnet upwards

This is called principle of

magnetic levitation

Maglev

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