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Plugging an Induction 1

In some industrial applications, the induction motor
and its load have to be brought to a quick stop
This can be done by interchanging two stator leads, so
that the revolving field suddenly turns in the opposite
direction to the rotor
During this plugging period, the motor acts as a brake
It absorbs kinetic energy from the still-revolving load,
causing its speed to fall
Plugging an Induction 2

The power Pm is entirely dissipated as heat in the rotor
Rotor continues to receive Pr from stator, which is also
dissipated as heat
Plugging an Induction 3

Plugging produces I2R losses in the rotor that even
exceed those when the rotor is locked
Motors should not be plugged too frequently because
high rotor temperatures may melt the rotor bars or
overheat the stator winding
Plugging an Induction 4

Rule 2 - The heat dissipated in the rotor during the
plugging period (initial rated speed to zero speed) is
three times the original kinetic energy of all the
revolving parts
Braking with DC 5

An induction motor can

also be brought to a quick
stop by circulating dc
current in the stator
DC Injection Braking
Any two terminals can be
connected to the dc source
Braking with DC 6

The direct current produces stationary N, S poles in

the stator
The number of poles created is equal to the number of
poles which the motor develops normally
A 3-phase, 4-pole motor produces 4 dc poles
When the rotor sweeps past the stationary field, an ac
voltage is induced in the rotor bars
Braking with DC 7

The voltage produces an ac current and the resulting

rotor l2R losses are dissipated at the expense of the
kinetic energy stored in the revolving parts
The advantage of dc braking is that it produces far less
heat than does plugging
Abnormal Conditions 8

Abnormal motor operation may be due to internal

problems (short-circuit in the stator, overheating of the
bearings, etc) or to external conditions
External problems may be caused by any of the
Mechanical overload
Supply voltage changes
Single phasing
Frequency changes
Abnormal Conditions 9

According to national standards, a motor shall operate

satisfactorily on any voltage within 10% of the
nominal voltage, and for any frequency within 5% of
the nominal frequency
Mechanical Overload 10

Standard induction motors Overloads cause

can develop twice their overheating
rated power for short In practice, the overload
periods causes the thermal
They should not be overload relays in the
allowed to run beyond starter box to trip before
their rated capacity for the temperature gets too
long high
Mechanical Overload 11
Mechanical Overload 12

Some drip-proof motors are designed to carry a

continuous overload of 15 percent
This overload capacity is shown on the nameplate by the
service factor 1.15
Mechanical Overload 13

During emergencies a drip-proof motor can be made to

carry overloads as much as 125 percent, as long as
supplementary external ventilation is provided
This is not recommended for long periods
Supply Voltage Changes 14

Torque-speed curve of the motor is effected by line

voltage change (T sE2/R)
The torque at any speed is proportional to the square of
the applied voltage
If the stator voltage decreases by 10%, the torque at
every speed will drop by approximately 20%
Supply Voltage Changes 15

A line voltage drop is often produced during start-up,

due to the heavy starting current drawn from the line
If the line voltage is too high when the motor is
running, the flux per pole will be above normal
This increases both the iron losses and the magnetizing
current and the power factor is reduced
Supply Voltage Changes 16

If the 3-phase voltages are unbalanced, they produce

a serious unbalance of the three line currents
This condition increases the stator and rotor losses,
yielding a higher temperature
Single Phasing 17

If one line of a 3-phase line is accidentally opened, or if

a fuse blows while the 3-phase motor is running, the
machine will continue to run as a single-phase motor
The current drawn from the remaining two lines will
almost double, and the motor will begin to overheat
Thermal relays will eventually trip the circuit-breaker
Single Phasing 18

The torque-speed curve is seriously affected when a 3-

phase motor operates on single phase
Fully loaded 3-phase motor may simply stop if one of
its lines is suddenly opened
The resulting locked-rotor (LR) current is about 90% of
the normal 3-phase LR current
It is therefore large enough to trip the circuit breaker or to
blow the fuses
Single Phasing 19

The breakdown torque decreases to about 40% of its

original value, and it develops no starting torque at all
Curves follow each other closely until the torque
approaches the single-phase breakdown torque
Frequency Changes 20

Frequency changes never take place on a large

system, except during a major disturbance
The frequency may vary significantly on isolated
systems where energy is generated by diesel engines
Frequency change will change the motor speed
If the frequency drops by 5%, the motor speed drops by
5% (ns = 120f/p)
Frequency Changes 21

Motor-driven equipment imported from countries where

the frequency is 50 Hz may cause problems when they
are connected to a 60 Hz system
Everything runs 20% faster than normal, and this may
not be acceptable in some applications
In such cases we either have to gear down the motor
speed or supply an expensive auxiliary 50 Hz source
Frequency Changes 22

A 50 Hz motor operates well on a 60 Hz line

Since Tm = (9.55Pm)/n torque decreases
Terminal voltage should be raised to 6/5 (or 120%) of
the nameplate rating
The new breakdown torque is then equal to the original
breakdown torque and the starting torque is slightly
Power factor, efficiency, and temperature rise remain
Frequency Changes 23

A 60 Hz motor can also operate on a 50 Hz line

Since Tm = (9.55Pm)/n torque increases
Terminal voltage should be reduced to 5/6 (or 83%) of
its nameplate value
The breakdown torque and starting torque are then
about the same as before, and the power factor,
efficiency, and temperature rise remain satisfactory