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6/12/2012

Athlete Profiling: Choosing a


Periodization System to Maximize
Individual Performance

Nick Winkelman MSc CSCS,*D


Director of Training Systems
AZ-NSCA State Director
Athletes Performance

SpecialThanks
NSCA
AthletesPerformanceStaff&Family
PerformancePartners

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Objectives:Periodization
Defineandpresentthebasisforusing
periodization
Discussconsiderationsforusingperiodization
DiscussperiodizationprofilesforNovice,
i i di i fil f i
IntermediateandAdvancedathletes
Provideexamplesbasedonthe
Athletes PerformanceTrainingSystem

TheBasisof
Periodization
CreatingaLongTermPlan

HistoryofPeriodization
Kotov(OlympicSport,1917)
General,PreparatoryandSpecificStages
Matveyev,1964
FormerUSSR(EasternBlock)
FounderofTraditionalTheory
Definedasthesubdivisionoftheseasonal
D fi d h bdi i i f h l
programintosmallerperiodsandtrainingcycles
Preparatory Period Competition Transition

General (GPP) Special (SPP) Pre Main Transition

(Issurin, 2010, Verkhoshansky and Siff, 2009, Bompa and Haff, 2009)

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DefiningPeriodization
KraemerandHkinnen,2002
Definedasprogrammedvariationinthetrainingstimuli
withtheuseofplannedrestperiodstoaugmentrecovery
andrestorationofanathletespotential
MikeH.Stone,2004
Definedasalogicalphasicmethodofvaryingtraining
volume,intensityfactors,andexercisesinorderto
optimizetrainingprogress
VerkhoshanskyandSiff,2009
Definedasthelongtermcyclicstructuringoftrainingand
practicetomaximizeperformancetocoincidewith
importantcompetitions

Periodization CycleHierarchy
PeriodizationCycles Description
QuadrennialCycle Multiyearplan:4years
4years

Descriptionofcompletetraining
Macrocycle period:1year
1year
Descriptionofsingulartrainingcycle
p g g y
M l (Ph )
Mesocycle(Phase) orblock:3
34weeks
Describesthestructuralunitofa
Microcycle mesocycle:1week
1week
Describesthestructuralunitofa
Workouts microcycle:hours/minutes
hours/minutes

Periodization LoadingParameters
LoadingParameters Description
Describesthetotalnumberoflifts
Volume completedinatrainingsession
(Ex.4liftsx4setsx6reps=96lifts)
Describesthequalityofeachliftandis
measuredaspower(W),repetition
Intensity maximum(RM)orpercentof1RM
(%1RM)
Describesthetotaltrainingstimulusand
istherecommendedvariablefortracking
VolumeLoad loadingstatus(Ex.4setsx6reps
x100kg=2400kg)
Describesthesubjectiveimpactthe
intensityofeachlift/sessionhasonan
RPE(Cybernetics) individual(Eachlift/sessionisrated15or
RPERPE)

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WhyPeriodization?
Decreaseriskofovertraining
Managefatigue
Optimizeperformanceoveraspecifictime
period
13PeakEvents(ex.T&FIndoor/Outdoor)
SportingSeason(ex.Soccer)
S ti S ( S )
Cyclicalstructuremaximizesgeneraland
specificpreparation
Accountsforindividualization,training
status/ageandavailabletimeperiods

PeriodizationConsiderations
PeakPerformanceisachievedwhenthecorrect
PeriodizationProfileisexecuted
Drivingfactorsshouldinclude
TrainingGoals/Needs
TrainingTimePeriod
Delayed Transformation
DelayedTransformation
TransferofTraining
Progressions
TrainingResiduals
TrainingStatus/Level

DelayedTransformation
Fatigueaccumulatesandgainsdiminishover
thecourseofatrainingphase.Fordesired
adaptationtoberealizedaperiodof
unload/peaking(detraining)shouldbe
completed
Timetopeakadaptationisdirectlyrelatedto
periodofoverload
Ex.4weeksofoverloadwillrequire4weeksof
unloadforspecificadaptationtopeak
(Issurin, 2010, Verkhoshansky and Siff, 2009, Zatsiorsky and Kraemer, 2006)

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TransferofTraining
Sequentialorconcurrentdevelopmentofmotorabilitieswill
haveacompoundingoutcomethatexhibitspositive,negative
ornochangeonperformance
Optimaltransferistheresultofcomplimentarystrengthand
movementqualitiesbeingdevelopedinthecorrectsequence
KeyConsideration

Overload Specificity

(Zatsiorsky and Kraemer, 2006)

ProgressionHierarchy
Motor abilities should be developed in a
logical sequence that is general specific,
simple complex and slow fast

Acceleration Specific Starting Str


Movement

Hang Clean Specialized Movement Explosive Str

Front Squat General Movement Maximal Str

TrainingResiduals(Detraining)
Lengthoftimeaspecificadaptationis
sustainedduringaperiodofdetrainingwhere
thetrainingstimulusisremoved
MajorLimitingFactors
Durationofdevelopmentalperiod(GPP/SPP)
Earlytoripe,earlytorotten
TrainingAge/Status
SpecificMotorAbilities
MaintenanceWorkCompleted
(Issurin, 2010, Verkhoshansky and Siff, 2009, Zatsiorsky and Kraemer, 2006)

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TrainingResiduals(Detraining)
AdaptiveQuality Detraining Description
MitochondrialDensity
CapillaryDensity
AerobicSystem 30 5days AerobicEnzymes
GlycogenStorage
AnaerobicEnzymes
AnaerobicSystem 18 5days H+Buering
GlycogenStorage

NeuralMechanisms
M i l St
MaximalStrength
th 30 5days
30 5d MyofibrillarDensityFT
MyofibrillarDensityST
StrengthEndurance 15 5days Aerobic/AnaerobicEnzymes
Lac cAcidTolerance
MotorControl
MaximalSpeed 5 3days NeuromuscularFunc on
Phosphocrea neStorage

Training Residuals affect the periodization profile used and should be


based on the identified limiting factors in addition to the
structure of the competition phase

PeriodizationProfiles
Novice,Intermediate,Advanced

PeriodizationProfiles
Novice:TraditionalModel
Matveyev,1964
Bompa,1983
BompaandHaff, 2009
Intermediate:NonTraditionalModel
Poliquin,1988
,
Bakeretal.,1994
Stoneetal.,2007
Advanced:ConjugateSequenceModel
VerkhoshanskyandSiff,1993and2009
Bondarchuk,2007
Issurin,2008
(Stone et al., 2007, Plisk and Stone, 2003)

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Novice:TraditionalModel
Classically:LinearPeriodization
Wavelikechangesinvolumeandintensity
Basedoncompetitionschedulesversusadaptation
recoverymodels
One,TwoandThreePeakModels
Concurrent
Concurrentdevelopmentoftechnical,cardio
development of technical cardio
respiratoryandstrengthqualities
GeneralPreparatoryPeriod(GPP)
SpecialPreparatoryPeriod(SPP)
Competition(C)
Transition(T)

TraditionalPeriodization Model
INTENSITY

VOLUME

TECHNIQUE

General (GPP) Special (SPP) Competition Transition

Specific
Endurance

Alactic

Anaerobic
TENSITY

Aerobic
A bi
INT

Sequential Flat-Loading

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ResearchSupport:

Subjects: 33mwith6monthsWTExperience
StudyDesign: 12weeksNonPeriodized,Linear
Periodization,UndulatingPeriodization
d d l d
Results: StatisticallyequalgainsinSquat/BenchPress1RM
forallgroups
Conclusion: Whenvolumeisequatedthereisno
differenceinstrengthimprovementacross
periodizedandnonperiodizedprograms

ResearchSupport:

Subjects: 40mwithWTExperience
StudyDesign: 14weeksLinearPeriodization,Daily
Undulating Periodization
UndulatingPeriodization
Results: StatisticallyequalgainsinBenchPress1RMforall
groupsandnochangeinMRFD
Conclusion: Dailyundulatingandlinear
periodizationmodelsinducesimilarincreasesin
1RMstrengthinpreviouslytrainedmen

ResearchSupport:

Subjects: 18m/10wwith4weeks WTExperience


StudyDesign: 9weeksLinear,DailyUndulatingand
WeeklyUndulatingPeriodization
Results: StatisticallyequalgainsinBenchPressandLeg
Press1RM
Conclusion: Daily/Weeklyundulatingandlinear
periodizationmodelsinducesimilarincreasesin1RM
strengthinearlyphasetraining

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Intermediate:NonTraditionalModel
UndulatingPeriodization
Increasedvariationthroughfrequentchangesin
volumeandintensity
Phase
Weekly
Daily
TrainingPeriodscharacterizedasextensiveor
intensive
KeyConcepts
SummatedMicrocycles
HeavyLightDays

Intermediate:NonTraditionalModel
EXTENSIVE INTENSIVE
GeneralPrep MaximalStrength
Endurance MaximalPower
Hypertrophy MxStrEndurance
Metabolic MxPwrEndurance

A mix of both Extensive and Intensive themes


should be incorporated across programming
to elicit a progressive training response

UndulatingPeriodization Model
VOLUME

INTENSITY

TECHNIQUE

General (GPP) Special (SPP) Pre Comp. Comp. Trans.

Ext I Int I Ext II Int II Ext III Int III Comp. Trans.

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Undulating:SummatedMicrocycles 5x6-8

4x7-9

ThemeTrack
Hypertrophy 3x10-12

UME LOAD
3x4-6
Hypertrophy
VOLU
Hypertrophy

Unload

Extensive Emphasis
(Stone et al., 2007, Plisk and Stone, 2003) W1 W2 W3 W4

Undulating:SummatedMicrocycles 6x2-3

5x3-4

ThemeTrack
Maximal Strength 4x4-6
UME LOAD

3x2-3
Maximal Strength
VOLU

Maximal Strength

Unload

Intensive Emphasis
(Stone et al., 2007, Plisk and Stone, 2003) W1 W2 W3 W4

Undulating:SummatedMicrocycles
6x3-4

ThemeTrack 4x3-4 OPTION 1

Maximal Power
3x2-3
UME LOAD

Maximal Power 2x2-3

Maximal Power
VOLU

Unload

Intensive-Peaking Emphasis
(Stone et al., 2007, Plisk and Stone, 2003) W1 W2 W3 W4

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Undulating:SummatedMicrocycles
6x3-4 OPTION 2

ThemeTrack 4x2-3

Maximal Power
3x3-4

UME LOAD
Maximal Power 2x2-3

Maximal Power VOLU

Unload

Intensive-Peaking Emphasis
(Stone et al., 2007, Plisk and Stone, 2003) W1 W2 W3 W4

Undulating:DailyHeavy/Light
>85-90% >85-90%
ngth (UB)
ngth (LB)

<65-70% <65-70%
ENSITY

Maximal Stren

Maximal Stren

REST
INTE

REST
Mx Power (UB)

Mx Power (LB)

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

Undulating:DailyHeavy/Light
>85-90%

>75-85%
Maximal Strength (Mix)

<65-70%
ENSITY

Hypertrophy (Mix)

REST REST
INTE

REST
Mx Power (LB)

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

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Undulating:DailyHeavy/Light
>85-90% >85-90% >85-90%

Maximal Strength (UB-Push) >75-85%


ngth (LB-Push)

ngth (LB-Pull)
<65-70% <75-85%

Hypertrophy (LB-Split)
ENSITY

Pwr-End (UB-Pussh)

Str-End (UB-Push)
Maximal Stren

Maximal Stren
INTE

REST

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

ResearchSupport:

Weeks 14(Ext) 58(Int) 912(Ext) 1316(Int) 1720(Ext)

Reps 810 34 68 23 46

Sets 3 5 4 5 4

%1RM 7580% 8590% 8085% 9095% 8590%

#Lifts 2430 1520 2432 1015 1624

First paper to identify Undulating Periodization as a preferred method of


planning for highly trained individuals

ResearchSupport:

Subjects: 14FFinTrainedState(FFAcademy)
StudyDesign: 12weeksLinearandDaileyUndulating
Periodization(3xperweek)
d ( k)
Results: Bothgroupsimprovedwithgreaterimprovement
inallstrength,powerandFFspecificmeasureswithindaily
undulatinggroup
Conclusion: Dailyundulatingperiodizationproduces
superiorresultsintrainedFFcomparedtoalinearapproach

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Advanced:ConjugateSequenceModel
Originally:CoupledSuccessiveSystem
YuriVerkhoshansky
BlockPeriodization
AccumulationBlocks:Developmentofspecific
strengthqualitieswithlimitedvolumeload
associated with the concurrent development of
associatedwiththeconcurrentdevelopmentof
supportingmotorabilities
RestitutionBlocks:Developmentofspecific
technicalmotorabilitieswithlimitedvolumeload
associatedwiththeconcurrentdevelopmentof
supportingstrengthqualities
(Issurin, 2010, Verkhoshansky and Siff, 2009, Stone et al., 2007, Plisk and Stone, 2003)

Advanced:ConjugateSequenceModel
UnidirectionalConcentratedLoading
Saturatethesystemwithonespecificqualitywithlimited
concurrentdevelopmentofothermotorabilitiesthatmay
haveanegativeaffectonperformance
Isolateddevelopmentofonestrengthqualitycanhavea
potentiationaffectonthemotorabilitiesdevelopedinthe
ne t seq ence of blocks thro gh the concept of dela ed
nextsequenceofblocksthroughtheconceptofdelayed
transformation
Increasedconcentrationofloadingallowsforheightened
stressofspecificsystems,whichisneededtocreate
furtheradaptationinadvancedindividuals

(Issurin, 2010, Verkhoshansky and Siff, 2009, Stone et al., 2007, Plisk and Stone, 2003)

ConjugateSequence:PowerSport
DT DT
Explosive Maximal
Strength Power

Explosive Speed Maximal Speed


Strength Emphasis Power Emphasis

Accumulation I Restitution I Accumulation II Restitution II


(Stone et al., 2007, Plisk and Stone, 2003)

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ConjugateSequence:EnduranceSport

DT DT
Maximal MxPower
Power Endurance

Maximal VO2peak Maximal VT


Power Aerobic Power Anaerobic
Power Endurance Power

Accumulation I Restitution I Accumulation II Restitution II


(Stone et al., 2007, Plisk and Stone, 2003)

Subjects: 15m/6f3yrsTrainingEliteJuniorSkiers
StudyDesign: HITGroup15(4x4min)sessionsover11daysandCT
mixed endurance/strength
mixedendurance/strength
Results: HITgroupsignificantlyimprovedrelativeVO2max(6%),PPOat
VT,andrepeatedjumptestcomparedtoCT
Note:HITPPOonCMJ/SJwithnochangeinJumpHeight
Conclusion:IsolatedperiodsofHITwithinablockperiodizationmodel
maybemoreadvantageousinimprovingVO2maxvaluescomparedtoa
mixedapproachinelitetrainedalpineskiers

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Considerationsfor LTAD
Athletes PerformanceTrainingSystem

LTAD: ActiveStart(06)
ActiveStart(0
NonPeriodized
Non
(DiverseSkillandPlay FUNdamentals(6
FUNdamentals(68)
Focused)
LearningtoTrain(8
LearningtoTrain(811)

TrainingtoTrain(12
TrainingtoTrain(1216)
Periodized
1Novice TrainingtoCompete(16
TrainingtoCompete(1623+)
2Intermediate
3Advanced TrainingtoWin(19+)
+Sport
ActiveforLife
(Adapted from Istvan Balyi, 2009)

PeriodizationExample
Athletes PerformanceTrainingSystem

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CONCLUSION:
Optimizeathleticperformancethroughtheuseof
specificperiodizationmodelsbasedontheprofile
thatyourathletefallsunder.
QUESTIONS?

nwinkelman@athletesperformance.com
@NickWinkelman

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16
Periodization- Theory and Application

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Periodization- Theory and Application
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ProgramDesignWorksheet

M T W T F S S Events Focus Strength ESD Mvt/Plyo/MB


Playoffs/ActiveRest Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Interval None
Playoffs/ActiveRest Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Interval None
Jan

Playoffs/ActiveRest Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Interval None


Playoffs/ActiveRest Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Interval None
Building:ExtI GenPrep Interval NCM(Stab)
Feb

Building:ExtI GenPrep Interval NCM(Stab)


Building:ExtI GenPrep Interval NCM(Stab)
Downloading GenPrep Interval NCM(Stab)
Building:IntI MxStr Linear CM/DC
March

Building:IntI MxStr Linear CM/DC


Building:IntI MxStr Linear CM/DC
Downloading MxStr Linear CM/DC
Building:ExtII HYP Interval DC/CONT
Apr

Building:ExtII HYP Interval DC/CONT


Building:ExtII HYP Interval DC/CONT
Downloading HYP Interval DC/CONT
Building:IntII MxStr Linear DepthJump
May

Building:IntII MxStr Linear DepthJump


Building:IntII MxStr Linear DepthJump
Downloading MxStr Linear DepthJump
Building:ExtIII HYPMxStr Multi NCM(Stab)
June

Building:ExtIII HYPMxStr Multi NCM(Stab)


Building:ExtIII HYPMxStr Multi NCM(Stab)
Downloading HYPMxStr Multi NCM(Stab)
Building:IntIII ExpStr SportSpec. DepthJump
July

Building:IntIII ExpStr SportSpec. DepthJump


Building:IntIII ExpStr SportSpec. DepthJump
Downloading ExpStr SportSpec. DepthJump
PreSeason Peaking MxPwr SS/Comp. Peaking
Aug

PreSeason Peaking MxPwr SS/Comp. Peaking


PreSeason Peaking MxPwr SS/Comp. Peaking
PreSeason Peaking MxPwr SS/Comp. Peaking
NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
Sept

NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None


NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
Oct

NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None


NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
Nov

NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None


NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
Dec

NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None


NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None
NFLSeason Maintenance MxStr/Pwr SS/Comp. None