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Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293

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Construction and Building Materials


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Review

Iron-based shape memory alloys for civil engineering structures:


An overview
A. Cladera a,, B. Weber b, C. Leinenbach b, C. Czaderski b, M. Shahverdi b, M. Motavalli b
a
University of Balearic Islands, Department of Physics, Ctra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma, Spain
b
Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, berlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dbendorf, Switzerland

h i g h l i g h t s

 The development of iron-based SMAs is presented, focusing on features for civil engineering.
 Differences between the martensitic transformation in NiTi and FeMnSi SMAs are highlighted.
 High recovery stresses, which are necessary for prestressing, can be obtained for FeMnSi alloys.
 Pilot experiences on the application of FeMnSi alloys are presented.
 This paper collects unsolved aspects for future research.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Iron-based shape memory alloys (SMAs), especially FeMnSi alloys, are materials that have great
Received 20 December 2013 potential in civil engineering structures, but their application is still in a pioneer stage. Recent develop-
Received in revised form 12 March 2014 ments in alloy composition and manufacturing envisage new perspectives, especially in the eld of
Accepted 2 April 2014
repairing structures as well for new structures, when using these SMAs as prestressing tendons. This
paper presents the fundamentals of the martensitic transformation from an engineering perspective as
well as some key properties, such as recovery stress, corrosion resistance, weldability and workability.
Keywords:
Finally, some unsolved aspects are collected, and new perspectives for the use of these SMAs are
Iron-based shape memory alloy
Shape memory effect
presented.
Civil engineering 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martensite
Austenite
Structural concrete
Recovery stress
Prestressing
Strengthening
Damping

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
2. The martensitic transformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
3. Material properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
3.1. Recovery stresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
3.2. Corrosion resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
3.3. Weldability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
3.4. Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
3.5. Workability at room temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
4. Pilot experiences on the application of FeMnSi alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
4.1. Shape memory effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
4.2. Damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

Corresponding author. Address: Mateu Orla Building, Ctra. Valldemossa km


7.5, 07122 Palma, Spain. Tel.: +34 971 17 1378; fax: +34 971 17 3426.
E-mail address: antoni.cladera@uib.es (A. Cladera).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.04.032
0950-0618/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
282 A. Cladera et al. / Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293

5. Research needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290


6. Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

1. Introduction structures and the actions of relatively high forces, low cost SMAs
were needed.
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are unique materials that have the The repairing of structures using the SME for prestressing ten-
ability to achieve great deformations and to return to a predened dons is a promising eld for the use of iron-based SMAs, as well
shape after unloading or upon heating [1]. This shape memory as their use in new structures. If iron-based SMAs can be used
effect is the result of the reversible phase transformation that for prestressing applications, they have several advantages com-
SMAs undergo, the so-called martensitic transformation. The mar- pared to the traditional prestressing/posttensioning technologies,
tensitic transformation can be produced by changes in tempera- for example, there are no friction losses, no anchor heads or ducts
ture or by the action of stresses. In the former case, the are required, and no space is necessary for applying the force with
martensitic transformation takes place at dened temperatures a hydraulic device. The reason is that the prestressing of the SMA
(Fig. 1). The martensitic transformation, or forward transformation, tendons is not performed mechanically, as in conventional pre-
is induced upon cooling the austenite phase (stable at high temper- stressing steel, but with heating, as will be explained later in this
atures), and consists of the appearance of the martensite phase paper.
(stable at low temperatures). In the absence of applied stresses, There are two different groups of iron-based SMAs [6]. The rst
the temperature at which the process begins is known as Ms (mar- group contains alloys such as FePt, FePd and FeNiCo, which
tensite start), whereas Mf (martensite nish) is the temperature at exhibit the typical characteristics of thermoelastic martensitic
which the transformation nishes (Fig. 1). If the material is in mar- transformations similar to NiTi, with a narrow thermal hysteresis.
tensite (T < Mf), then the reverse transformation can be induced by However, in spite of extensive studies, no pseudoelasticity at room
heating the material. The formation of austenite will start at tem- temperature has been reported with FePt or FePd alloys. In 2010,
perature As (austenite start) and will nish at temperature Af (aus- Tanaka et al. [7] presented an Fe29Ni18Co5Al8Ta0.01B
tenite nish). The transformation shows thermal hysteresis, in (mass %) SMA that shows a recovery strain of over 13% at room
other words, the forward and reverse transformations do not take temperature and a very high tensile strength of 1200 MPa, placing
place at the same temperature [2]. it at the cutting edge of knowledge as far as new materials are con-
The rst discovery of a material with shape memory was docu- cerned [8,9]. This iron-based SMA could be very useful for applica-
mented by Chang and Read, who observed a reversible phase tions that are related to pseudoelasticity and damping capacity.
transformation in an AuCd alloy [1]. Buehler et al. discovered in Additionally, good superelastic properties at room temperature
1962 the shape memory effect in a NiTi alloy [3], a fact that led have been found in an Fe36Mn8Al8.6Ni (mass %) alloy [10],
to the boom in international research in this eld and the appear- with a recovery strain of over 5% and a fracture tensile strain of
ance of the rst real applications of these alloys. Since then, differ- over 8%. However, these two new alloys still need further develop-
ent types of alloys with the shape memory effect have been ment to be able to produce them in large amounts for real-scale
discovered. NiTi alloys, in some cases having a third component, elements in the construction industry, and the cost of the material
are the ones that, to date, hold the rst position in the industrial would most likely be too high for construction standards because
market. The main drawback of these alloys for their application they should be cast in special conditions due to their composition.
in civil engineering structures is their cost. In 1982, the shape The second group is a group of alloys such as FeNiC and Fe
memory effect (SME) in an FeMnSi alloy was discovered [4], MnSi, which have a larger thermal hysteresis in transformation
and since then, new iron-based SMAs with improved SME proper- but still exhibit the SME. The FeMnSi SMAs have received con-
ties have been developed. It is assumed that this progress will con- siderable attention over the past two decades due to their low cost,
tribute to lowering the price of these materials and to making them good workability, good machinability and good weldability [11],
much more competitive for civil engineering applications. although the real applications are still limited except for some
Janke et al. [5] presented possible applications of SMAs in civil remarkable exceptions, i.e., large size joining pipes for tunnel con-
engineering structures: passive vibration damping and energy dis- struction and crane rail joint bars [6].
sipation, active vibration control, actuator applications and the uti- The SME of the FeMnSi alloys is attributed to the stress-
lization of the SME for tensioning applications or sensors. However, induced martensite transformation from a parent c-austenite (fcc
these authors stated that due to the size of the civil engineering face-centered cubic) phase to an e-martensite phase (hcp hex-
agonal closed-packed) (Fig. 2) at low and intermediate tempera-
ture and the reverse transformation (e- to c-phase) at high
temperature. In fact, it had long been known that FeMn alloys
could undergo this transformation, but the desired SME had not
been obtained [12]. The problem was that for high amounts of
Mn, c-austenite was stabilized, making it difcult for the stress-
induced martensitic transformation to occur. On the other hand,
for lower amounts of Mn, when the alloy was subjected to stress,
not only e-martensite but also a0 -martensite (bct body-centered
tetragonal) was generated (Fig. 2c). This phase is irreversible. The
occurrence of a0 -martensite induces dislocations markedly, pre-
venting the SME from developing [12]. Sato and his co-workers dis-
covered that the addition of Si allowed having the SME [4]. It was
also observed that Cr, among other elements, was effective to a
Fig. 1. Schematic denition of the forward and reverse martensitic transformation
temperatures. minor extent. This nding suggested that Cr was suitable as a
A. Cladera et al. / Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293 283

Fig. 2. Crystal lattices: (a) c-Austenite (fcc face-centered cubic); (b) e-Martensite (hcp hexagonal close-packed structure); (c) a0 -Martensite (bct body-centered
tetragonal).

fourth element to be added to an FeMnSi alloy to improve its Table 2


corrosion resistance [12]. If the amount of Cr exceeds 7%, the brittle Representative FeMnSi based SMAs developed in the second stage, all containing
ne precipitates.
r phase intrudes in the alloy, impeding the SME. It was found that
Ni was the most effective component in restraining the formation Composition in mass% Year References
of r phase and, therefore, Ni had to be added for increasing Fe28Mn6Si5Cr0.5(Nb, C) 2001 [18,23]
amounts of Cr [12]. The research at the materials level has been Fe28Mn6Si5Cr1(V, N) 2004 [24]
principally focused on anti-corrosion, training effects, cyclic defor- Fe14Mn5Si8Cr4Ni0.16C 2007 [25,26]
Fe17Mn5Si10Cr4Ni1(V, C) 2009 [27,28]
mation and strengthening [13].
Fe16Mn5Si10Cr4Ni1(V, N) 2013 [29]
The development of these FeMnSi alloys can be summarized
by having two distinct stages. The most signicant alloys of the
rst stage are summarized in Table 1. The main components that
differentiate them are the amount of Mn and Cr. With these alloys, In this paper, the current state-of-the-art related to iron-based
an excellent recovery strain has been achieved by means of cyclic shape memory alloys for their application in civil engineering
thermo-mechanical treatments, the so-called training [14]. In structures will be presented, focusing on FeMnSi alloys because
general, the recovery strain due to the SME in these alloys without they are the most promising candidates for fast development in the
training is limited to only 12.5%, but the training improves the construction industry. The paper will highlight the differences
recovery strain, enabling very good shape recovery and enhancing between these alloys and other SMAs, i.e., NiTi alloys, and it will
the recovery strain by up to 4% [14]. Other more simple heat treat- collect unsolved aspects that can be a starting point for future
ments combined with different rolling conditions have been research in this eld. Moreover, based on the unique properties
recently reported [1517]. The second stage of the development of iron-based SMAs, new perspectives for the use of these SMAs
of FeMnSi alloys started when Kajiwara and his co-workers will be presented.
observed, in 2001, that the recovery strain and stress of iron-based
alloys could be improved, without any training, by introducing ne 2. The martensitic transformation
NbC precipitates into the microstructure [18]. Several alloys were
later developed that contained other precipitates, such as VN, The forward phase transformation in SMAs is a martensitic
Cr23C6 or VC, as seen in Table 2. In general terms, the key point transformation. The martensitic transformation is, in general, a dif-
for the improvement of the recovery strain is related to the forma- fusionless solid state transformation in which the atoms move in
tion of a large elastic strain eld in the vicinity of the precipitates, an organized manner relative to their neighbors. This homoge-
which provides a preferential nucleation site for the stress-induced neous shearing of the parent phase creates a new crystal structure
transformation from the c-austenite to the e-martensite phase that does not have any compositional change (no diffusion).
[18]. However, different opinions are still found in the technical lit- Although the variation in the relative position of the atoms is very
erature. Stanford and Dunne [19] propose that the improved recov- small, the coordinated movement of all of the atoms leads to
ery strain that is attributed to precipitation is likely to be the result changes in the volume and can bring about signicant macroscopic
of the thermo-mechanical processing that is used in those experi- deformations. The martensitic transformation can be induced by a
ments because they obtained the same shape recovery properties temperature change, e.g., during quenching and/or by mechanical
in precipitate-free alloys that underwent a similar thermo- deformation.
mechanical treatment. Fig. 3a shows schematically the atomic arrangement in a hypo-
thetic lattice after mechanically induced martensitic transforma-
tion. The lattice is distorted without reorganization of the atoms
(neighbors stay neighbors). This martensitic transformation is
Table 1 sometimes called thermoelastic and is typical for NiTi-alloys,
Representative FeMnSi based SMAs developed in the rst stage. Adapted from [13]. and it usually shows a small hysteresis. In a plastic deformation,
Composition in mass% Year References on the other hand, the atoms are rearranged by slip, as shown in
Fe30Mn1Si (single crystal) 1982 [4]
Fig. 3b. In this case, the neighbors are changed, but the lattice
Fe30Mn6Si (single crystal) 1984 [20] structure remains intact. This transformation can occur in a general
Fe32Mn6Si 1986 [21] alloy or in an SMA and cannot be reversed by a temperature change
Fe28Mn6Si5Cr 1990 [22] because the crystal structure is identical to the original state.
Fe20Mn5Si8Cr5Ni 1990 [22]
The martensitic transformation in FeMnSi-based alloys is also
Fe16Mn5Si12Cr5Ni 1990 [22]
achieved by slip, but in contrast to plastic transformation, the
284 A. Cladera et al. / Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293

Fig. 5. Shockley partial dislocation in transformation of fcc to hcp structure in Fe


MnSi-based alloys. Burgers vector shows the magnitude and direction of the
lattice distortion of dislocation.

that is involved in the transformation is responsible for the large


Fig. 3. Different atomic behaviors of: (a) stress-induced martensitic transformation hysteresis.
by distortion in NiTi; (b) plastic deformation by slip. Adapted from [6]. In an fcc structure, there are four possible slip planes. These can
easily be visualized by rotating the fcc cube in Fig. 4 around the
vertical axis in steps of 90. Each of them contains three shear
atoms are rearranged into a different lattice structure, namely from directions, which leads to twelve possible martensite variants in
face-centered cubic (fcc) to hexagonal close packed (hcp) (see the FeMnSi alloys. If only one variant is generated in a single
Fig. 2). This transformation cannot be visualized in a simple 2D pic- crystal, then the corresponding mode is called a monopartial
ture and instead must be explained in a 3D setup. To this end, the stacking [11]. An SMA alloy is normally a polycrystalline material
fcc and hcp lattice structures are represented by close-packed consisting of several crystals or grains. In such a material, the dif-
spheres, whose centers correspond to the position of the atoms. ference in grain orientation as well as in the internal stress distri-
The correspondence can easily be veried by looking at the cells bution will cause the conditions for monopartial stacking to not be
shown in Fig. 4 on the right. Alternatively, the two lattice struc- fullled, and several variants will be activated. At these variant
tures can be represented by three layers of close-packed spheres intersections, other phases can be formed [30].
arranged in two different ways as shown in Fig. 4 on the left. In Experimentally, the generation and propagation of the partial
the rst case, the third layer is arranged exactly above the rst dislocations in the fcc matrix has been enhanced by lowering the
layer. This arrangement can be denoted as ABA and corresponds stacking fault energy (SFE) [31,32]. It has been demonstrated that
to the hexagonal close-packed lattice structure. In the second case, adding alloying elements such as Ti and Cu increase the SFE [33],
all of the three layers are in a different position, which is denoted whereas elements such as N, Ta, Ce or Sm lead to a decrease in
by ABC. This arrangement corresponds to the face-centered cubic the SFE [33,34].
lattice when rotated in such a way that the center layer (B) coin- The mechanically induced martensitic transformation occurs
cides with a plane that intersects three diagonally opposite vertices not only in shape memory alloys; it is also a well-known transfor-
in the fcc cell. The fcc structure can thus be transformed into the mation in carbon steel, stainless steel and many other alloys. For
hcp structure by moving the top layer from the C-position to the example, high Mn steels (1530% mass) are used in the automotive
A-position (Fig. 5). industry. Due to their high ductility with strains at failure up to
The martensitic transformation from the c-austenite (fcc struc- 8090% and quite high ultimate strengths, they offer very good
ture) to the e-martensite (hpc structure) by translating one atomic conditions for the crash resistance of structural car body parts.
plane as described above and shown in Fig. 5 is called partial The amount of Mn plays a signicant role in the behavior of these
Shockley dislocation. Partial dislocations are movements of an steels [35]. Ultra high manganese steels exhibit the formation of
atomic layer with less than one atomic distance, which therefore mechanical twins, specically, stress-induced e- and a0 -martensite
change the lattice structure. For an FeMnSi SMA, this martensitic in the c-austenite matrix (Fig. 2) under internal or external
transformation can be reversed by a temperature change. The slip stresses. These steels are commonly called TWIP (twin induced

Fig. 4. The hcp and fcc lattices built from three close-packed layers of equal spheres in FeMnSi-based alloys.
A. Cladera et al. / Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293 285

plasticity) steels. The TWIP effect is dominant when the manga- shape change is negligible, which results in twinned martensite
nese content is equal to or higher than 25%. TWIP steels (i.e., Fe (path 1 in Figs. 6a and 7). If the twinned martensite is deformed
25Mn3Si3Al) exhibit a total elongation of approximately 92% due to external forces, its crystal structure changes to the variant,
and an ultimate tensile strength of 650 MPa at room temperature or variants, which enable(s) it to accommodate the maximum
[35]. For steel alloys that have lower amounts of manganese con- elongation and, as such, allow permanent deformations (detwin-
tent, approximately 1520%, the alloy has a so-called TRIP (trans- ned martensite), as can be schematically seen in path 2 of
formation induced plasticity) effect. TRIP FeMn steels offer a Figs. 6a and 7. In this step, the applied stress must be sufciently
slightly lower elongation than TWIP steels but a higher ultimate large (rs) to start the detwinning process. The total detwinning
strength. For example, an Fe20Mn3Si3Al steel exhibited a total of martensite is reached with the detwinning nish stress (rf).
elongation of approximately 82% and an ultimate tensile strength After unloading (path 3 in Figs. 6b and 7), the martensite remains
of approximately 830 MPa at room temperature [35]. The TRIP detwinned. The change in the phase from detwinned martensite to
effect is due to the formation of a0 -martensite (Fig. 2c), which austenite can be brought about by raising the temperature (path 4
enhances the tensile elongation due to a retardation of the slipping. in Figs. 6b and 7), and the SMA regains its cubic crystal structure,
Ding et al. [36] showed that alloys that have an intermediate returning to its original shape if the deformations are uncon-
amount of Mn (23.8%) show simultaneously both effects. There- strained or generating recovery stresses otherwise, as will be seen
fore, the very high ultimate strains in the TRIP/TWIP steels are in detail later in this paper.
due to the martensite transformation, but without SME, since the For an FeMnSi alloy, it is also possible to create thermal mar-
a0 -martensite formation prevents the SME in the TRIP/TWIP steels. tensite without an external apparent shape change (path 1 in
Figs. 6 and 7 show some schematic phase diagrams (stress Fig. 6d). During path 1, the full austenitemartensite transforma-
temperature) and stressstrain curves for different thermome- tion is not reached in an FeMnSi alloy, in contrast to alloys that
chanical paths, for a NiTi alloy in Fig. 6ac and for an FeMnSi show the typical thermoelastic martensitic transformation (Fig. 1).
alloy in Fig. 6df. As discussed above, SMAs have two different Moreover, the temperature-induced martensite variants cannot be
crystalline phases: austenite and martensite. Austenite is com- easily changed by applying a stress (monopartial stacking), and it is
posed of a highly symmetric cubic phase, with the existence of only not generally interesting for engineering applications to conduct
one single possible structure in this case, whereas martensite has a path 2 from a temperature that is lower than Ms or Mf, as shown
structure that has a lower symmetry, which allows, in the case of in Fig. 6d. The reorientation of different variants can hardly be acti-
NiTi for example, up to 24 different congurations or variants. vated in FeMnSi alloys, due to the high level of the barrier
The assembly of martensitic variants can exist in two forms in energy between the martensite variants, and plasticity, or the TRIP
alloys that have a thermoelastic martensite transformation, i.e., effect, is activated before this type of energy level can be reached.
NiTi: twinned martensite, which is formed by a combination of If the initial temperature of an FeMnSi alloy is higher than Ms
self-accommodated martensitic variants, and detwinned martens- but not too close to As, then stress-induced martensite (path 2 in
ite, in which a specic variant is dominant. When an SMA with a Fig. 6e) is recoverable. However, the full austenitemartensite
thermoelastic martensitic transformation is cooled below Mf in transformation is still not reached for this stress-induced path.
the absence of an applied load, the crystal structure changes from For an FeMnSiCr alloy, the percentage of stress-induced e-mar-
austenite to martensite (forward transformation, see Fig. 1). The tensite has been reported to be 30% or less [12] and approximately
arrangement of variants occurs such that the average macroscopic 48% for an FeMnSiCrNi [38]. Plasticity (or irreversible slip) as

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

Fig. 6. Schematic phase diagrams for NiTi alloy (ac) and FeMnSi alloy (df), showing: (a) the detwinnning of NiTi with an applied stress; (b) the unloading and
subsequent heating to austenite under no deformation constraint for NiTi; (c) pseudoelastic loading path for NiTi; (d) creation of thermal martensite in an FeMnSi alloy;
(e) stress-induced martensite and subsequent heating to austenite under no deformation constraint for FeMnSi alloy; and (f) plastic deformation with an irreversible slip in
the FeMnSi alloy.
286 A. Cladera et al. / Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293

Fig. 7. Typical stressstraintemperature diagrams for NiTi. For FeMnSi alloys, the pseudoelastic curve disappears, passing from the shape memory effect to an ordinary
plastic deformation. Adapted from [37].

well as the formation of a0 -martensite can give rise to an incom- must be highlighted that the phase diagrams shown in Fig. 6 for
plete shape memory. At high temperatures, irreversible slip is eas- an FeMnSi alloy will change considerably depending on the
ier to activate and does not require a high mechanical loading level. composition of the alloy and the thermomechanical treatments
Consequently, only plasticity occurs at high temperatures, while at that are conducted. Specic phase diagrams for the FeMnSi
low temperatures, phase transformations occur rst, followed by alloys can be found elsewhere [39,40,42,43].
plasticity [39]. At moderate temperatures, both mechanisms are Fig. 8 schematically shows the generation of recovery stresses
coupled. It must be highlighted that the limits between the plastic- for three different alloys: Fig. 8a for a narrow hysteresis alloy
ity and the phase transformations related to the TRIP/TWIP effects (i.e. NiTi), Fig. 8b a wide hysteresis alloy (i.e. NiTiNb) and
are still not clearly reported in the scientic literature for these Fe Fig. 8c for an FeMnSi alloy. In the two rst cases, the prestraining
MnSi alloys. In a recently published paper [40], the authors follows path 2 from Fig. 6a, starting with the material being
reported a study on scanning electron microscopy and optical twinned martensite and evolving with an almost horizontal pla-
microscopy images of an FeMnSi alloy in undeformed samples teau, in which the detwinning process takes place (Fig. 8a and b).
and after a 4% tensile deformation at 45 C and 100 C. When For NiTi alloys, the recovery stress increases during heating
the strain was applied at 45 C, the microstructure mostly con- but decreases during subsequent cooling (Fig. 8a). The recovery
sisted of the c- and e-phase. However, in the case of the sample stress during heating may exceed the detwinning stress value
that was deformed at 100 C, a signicantly lower amount of the (rs) because the energy (or stress) needed to detwin the martensite
e-phase appeared, and on the other hand, a larger amount of the is signicantly lower than the energy (temperature) needed to
a0 -phase was found. Because the formation of the a0 -phase does carry out the reverse transformation. However, when cooling, the
not contribute to the SME in FeMnSi alloys, it is clear that the recovery stress may drop down almost to zero because of forward
strain-induced transformation must be kept at temperatures that transformation. To avoid any loss of recovery stress, the Af temper-
are not too high. ature is often chosen to be below the ambient temperature (situa-
During unloading (path 3 in Fig. 6e), no reverse transformation tion not represented in Figs. 8 or 9). In this case, the SMA is
(e-martensite to c-austenite) takes place in the region in which typically cooled down below the Mf temperature for prestraining
both phases are stable. This region extends over a broad tempera- and stored at a temperature below As, by liquid nitrogen if needed.
ture range due to the very large hysteresis of these FeMnSi Throughout the service life, the SMA then remains in the high-tem-
alloys, although some pseudoelastic effect has been reported perature austenitic phase where it keeps the high recovery stress
depending on the temperature, which indicates that the reverse [44]. For NiTiNb alloys (Fig. 8b), which have a larger hysteresis,
transformation takes place partially during unloading [40]. Heating the prestraining is still done at cooled conditions but storage can
above As (path 4 in Fig. 6e) will denitely activate the reverse be at ambient temperature, if it is below As [45].
transformation, which is the key point for the recovery strain For an FeMnSi alloy, prestraining (Fig. 8c) is typically done at
and the generation of recovery stresses. When the temperature ambient temperature following path 2 in Fig. 6e. The transforma-
reaches the austenite nish temperature Af, a part of the strain is tion takes place directly from austenite to martensite without
recovered (not all due to trapped martensite plates retained by twinning and detwinning. The unloading process for the FeMn
various defects). Si alloys, a straight line in Fig. 8c, is sometimes curved, which dem-
In Fig. 6, the slopes of the lines, or boundaries, that dene the onstrates some pseudoelasticity [40,42].
transformation temperatures are known as stress inuence coef- Fig. 9 shows the evolution of the recovery stress in the phase
cients. It is typically assumed that each pair of lines for the diagrams during heating and cooling. During the heating step,
two transformations shares a characteristic slope [41], although the elastic stress in the SMA rst decreases due to the suppressed
this assumption is not necessarily the case for FeMnSi alloys. thermal expansion. Once the stress-temperature path crosses the
Moreover, in these alloys, the Ms boundary for stress-induced mar- As boundary, a reverse transformation to the austenite phase
tensite crosses the x-axis (zero-stress level) of the phase diagram occurs. This transformation activates the SME, which generates
for a temperature below the measured Ms for thermally induced tensile stresses in the SMA, because the contraction is inhibited.
martensite. This property is an indication of the non-thermoelastic However, some of the stress is lost due to thermal expansion.
character of its stress-induced martensitic transformation [42]. It The thermal expansion effect is recovered by thermal contraction
A. Cladera et al. / Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293 287

Fig. 8. Schematic stressstrain diagrams of prestraining and generation of recovery stresses during the activation of the reverse transformation in a constrained SMA: (a)
Narrow hysteresis alloy, i.e., NiTi; (b) Wide hysteresis alloy, i.e., NiTiNb; (c) FeMnSi alloy.

Fig. 9. Schematic thermomechanical paths during the activation and cooling of a constrained SMA: (a) Narrow hysteresis alloy, i.e., NiTi; (b) wide hysteresis alloy, i.e., NiTi
Nb; (c) FeMnSi alloy.

during subsequent cooling [46]. The slope of the stress variation Figs. 6c and 7. In this case, only variants with an intrinsic change
due to pure thermal expansion/contraction varies depending on of shape in the direction of the applied stress will appear (detwin-
the alloy. For example, for an FeMnSi alloy, considering an elas- ned martensite). The stressstrain diagram would show pseudo-
tic modulus that is equal to 200 GPa and a coefcient of thermal elasticity (or superelasticity when referring to engineering
expansion (CTE) of 13  106/C, this slope would be 2.6 MPa/C. applications). This is made up of an initial elastic branch (path 5
For a NiTi alloy in the austenite phase, considering an elastic in Fig. 7), with the initial elastic modulus of the austenite, a hori-
modulus that is equal to 60 GPa and a CTE of 11  106/C, the zontal branch, in which the phase transformation from austenite
slope would be 0.66 MPa/C, which is much lower than the slope to martensite is produced by mechanical induction, and another
for the FeMnSi SMA, as seen in Fig. 9. elastic branch, which has the initial modulus of the martensite.
The behavior during cooling back to ambient temperature (AT) After unloading (path 6 in Figs. 6c and 7), the material will return
depends mainly on the width of the hysteresis. For a NiTi SMA to the origin of the diagram without permanent deformations and
with a narrow hysteresis, the recovery stress drops down due to by performing a hysteresis loop that dissipates energy, producing a
forward transformation (Figs. 8a and 9a). For a wide hysteresis damping effect. For higher initial temperatures (T > Md, where Md is
NiTiNb alloy, the austenite remains stable as long as the AT is the threshold temperature above which martensite induced by
above the Ms boundary, maintaining a high recovery stress external forces is not produced), the SMA would undergo an initial
(Figs. 8b and 9b). For an FeMnSi alloy, the recovery stress drops elastic deformation followed by a plastic slip deformation at high
down slightly (Figs. 8c and 9c) or even increases due to thermal stresses, similar to the deformation that occurs in ordinary steel
contraction. An alloy with AT between Ms and As and a narrow tem- (path 7 in Fig. 7, effect not shown in Fig. 6 for NiTi).
perature hysteresis (Fig. 9a, i.e., NiTi) is not appropriate for acting For FeMnSi alloys, it is not possible to have the superelastic-
as permanent prestressing because the recovery stresses decreases ity effect because when applying stresses at a temperature that is
considerably after heating and cooling back to the AT. The recovery higher than Af, the alloy will suffer plasticity with an irreversible
stresses would even become negligible if the martensite nish slip (path 7 in Fig. 6f). However, new ndings reveal that some
temperature, Mf, was higher than the AT, a situation that is not iron-based alloys, i.e., Fe29Ni18Co5Al8Ta0.01B (mass %) or
shown in Fig. 9. Fe36Mn8Al8.6Ni (mass %) alloys, show superelasticity at room
In the absence of heating or cooling, the SMA is at AT. Therefore, temperature, although as was mentioned in the introduction sec-
this temperature denes the phase in which the alloy should be tion, these alloys still require further development to be produced
stable in civil engineering. Janke et al. [5] proposed that, for exter- at the scale that is needed for civil engineering applications, and
nal applications in structures, the ambient temperature can be their cost would probably be very high.
assumed to be situated between 20 C in winter and 60 C under
intense solar radiation in summer. For this reason, high hysteresis 3. Material properties
SMAs are required for structural applications.
Going back to SMAs with thermoelastic martensitic transforma- The mechanical properties of each FeMnSi alloy will strongly depend on its
composition, heat treatments and the hot and cold work that is performed. For this
tions, i.e., NiTi, it is also possible to induce martensitic transforma-
reason, only some trends can be commented on in this section. Table 3 shows, as an
tion through the application of an external mechanical stress on an example, the fundamental properties of a solution treated Fe28Mn6Si5Cr SMA
SMA that is in the austenite phase (T > Af), as seen in path 5 of after hot working [6].
288 A. Cladera et al. / Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293

Table 3 inuenced by the thermo-mechanical pre-treatment of the alloy. Table 4 presents


Fundamental properties of an Fe28Mn6Si5Cr SMA. Adapted from [6]. the recovery stresses that are reported for different FeMnSi alloy compositions
and different thermomechanical procedures. For an Fe28Mn6Si5Cr SMA, the
Property Unit Values recovery stresses vary from approximately 130 MPa to 180 MPa, without and with
Stress at 0.2% deformation MPa 200 300 a cycle of thermomechanical training. However, the recovery stresses are substan-
Ultimate tensile strength MPa 6801000 tially higher for alloys that contain small VN or VC precipitates, up to values of 500
Maximum strain % 1630 and 580 MPa, respectively. Values of 460 MPa and 565 MPa were also reported for
Hardness (HV) - 190220 alloys that are deformed by equal channel angular pressing (a thermomechanical
Density (25 C) kg/m3 72007500 procedure that has been successfully applied to produce various ultra-ne grained
Melting point C 13201350 materials) and subsequent annealing as well as cold rolling and annealing [49,50].
Thermal expansion (0500 C) C1 16.5  106 No data on the long-time relaxation of the recovery stresses is reported in the
Thermal conductivity W/m C 8.4 literature, although good creep and stress relaxation characteristics for high stress
Specic heat J/kg C 540 levels have been reported for FeMnSi SMAs [51], the relaxation being lower for
Specic resistance X cm 100  130  106 the alloys that contain VC precipitates compared to that of alloys without such pre-
Youngs modulus GPa 170 cipitates [52].
Shear modulus GPa 65 For structural concrete applications, it is also very important to consider the
Poisson ratio 0.359 temperature at which the transformation occurs because high temperatures inside
Ms C 20+25 the concrete could cause micro-cracking, deteriorating the mechanical properties of
Af C 130185 the surrounding concrete. In this sense, the reported Fe17Mn5Si10Cr4Ni1(V,
Recovery strain no training % 2.5 C) [28] reached the recovery stresses of 580 MPa after heating to only 130 C
Recovery strain after training % 4.5 (Table 4). The heating temperature is limited in internal prestressing applications
Recovery stress no training MPa 130 by the bond strength reduction due to the increased temperature in the surround-
Recovery stress after training MPa 180 ing concrete. Pull-out tests with ribbed reinforcing bars reported in the literature
Magnetic property Paramagnetism suggest a reduction in the bond strength of 1020% for a concrete temperature of
up to 200 C [5355], although this reduction varies depending on the concrete
compressive strength and the ratio between the concrete cover depth and the rebar
diameter [56].

3.1. Recovery stresses


3.2. Corrosion resistance
The key factor for the use of iron-based SMAs as prestressing tendons in civil
engineering structures is the recovery stress. As seen in Table 3, shape recovery The corrosion resistance of FeMnSi SMAs has been studied for different alloy
properties for this Fe28Mn6Si5Cr SMA increase signicantly after thermome- compositions in aggressive environments such as H2SO4 and NaCl solutions [57
chanical training. However, as different authors note, this treatment requires addi- 66]. To the authors best knowledge, the corrosion characteristics under the alkaline
tional processing steps, which increases the production cost and is applicable only environment of concrete (pH of 1213) that surrounds embedded bars have not yet
to components that have simple geometries [28,29]. been reported.
The modulus of elasticity of the Fe28Mn6Si5Cr alloy considered in Table 3 is In highly oxidizing environments, i.e., H2SO4, FeMnSiCrNi(Co) alloys that
170 GPa, which is much higher than that reported for NiTi alloys, which varies contain from 8.8 wt% to 12.80 wt% of Cr exhibit a similar or better corrosion resis-
from 30 to 98 GPa in austenite to 2152 GPa in martensite [47]. Other authors have tance than stainless steel 304 in spite of the lower amount of Cr. This behavior is
reported a modulus of elasticity in the range between 160 and 200 GPa for an Fe attributed to the high amount of Si in the iron-based SMAs [63,65,66].
17Mn5Si10Cr4Ni1(V, C) alloy [28,40]. The corrosion behavior of the FeMnSi alloys in NaCl solution is a key point
Most of the research that has been conducted to date with FeMnSi alloys has that is still unclear, with some contradictory results in the available literature
been focused on studying the SME and on having the maximum recovery strain, [66]. On the one hand, Fe15Mn7Si9Cr5Ni did not show passivation or localized
paying secondary attention to the recovery stresses. However, for prestressing in pitting behavior in a 3.5% NaCl solution and showed the best behavior when tested
civil engineering applications, the recovery stress is a fundamental property. The as single-phase austenite [60]. However, the training process or the cold rolling
alloy with the maximum recovery strain does not enjoy the maximum recovery reduced the corrosion resistance of the alloys [57]. On the other hand, a recent
stress, as was observed for an FeMnSiCrNi alloy with varying amounts of C study reports that FeMnSiCrNi(Co) alloys that contain from 8.8 wt% to
[48]. The carbon in this alloy increases the plastic yield strength and thus favors 12.80 wt% of Cr show poor corrosion resistance in a 3.5%NaCl solution compared
the production of stress-induced martensite during prestraining. A moderate addi- to that of stainless steel 304 and that these SMAs are prone to pitting corrosion
tion of carbon (0.12%) can thus improve the recovery strain. However, an excessive in chloride environments due to their high manganese content [66]. In any case,
addition of carbon (0.18%) will shift the Ms temperature much below room temper- the higher the Cr content is, the higher the corrosion resistance [58]. The addition
ature and thus diminish the amount of martensite that is produced during pre- of Cu or Rare Earths, mainly La and a small quantity of Ce, could improve the cor-
straining, which leads to a lower recovery strain. For the recovery stress, on the rosion resistance in NaCl solutions [59,61].
other hand, a low Ms temperature will prevent the austenite that was produced dur-
ing heating from transforming back to martensite during cooling. The recovery 3.3. Weldability
stress in the FeMnSiCrNi alloys therefore increases with increasing carbon
content [48]. The welding characteristics of FeMnSi alloys have been studied while consid-
The recovery stresses are not only dependent on the alloy composition but also ering different welding technologies, such as tugsten-inert gas (TIG), laser beam
on the microstructural features such as the grain size or the presence, size and (LB) and electron beam welding (EB) [6771]. Although some researchers report
distribution of ne second-phase particles. These features have an inuence on only the welding optimization parameters, only a few of them focus on shape
the mechanical properties of the alloys on the one hand, but also on the stacking recovery strain or stress after welding. The methodology of the tests was, in general
fault energy or the transformation temperatures on the other hand. They are terms, as follows: welding two small pieces of a specied FeMnSi alloy in the

Table 4
Recovery stresses and transformation temperatures reported for different FeMnSi alloys.

Composition in mass% Comments Recovery stress (MPa) Temperature (C) Reference


Fe28Mn6Si5Cr Without training 58% pre-strain 130 350 [6]
With training 58% pre-strain 180 350 [6]
Fe28Mn6Si5Cr0.5(Nb, C) Non pre-rolled 145 400 [23]
6% pre-rolled 255 400 [23]
14% pre-rolled 295 400 [23]
70% pre-rolled 200 400 [23]
Fe19Mn5Si8Cr5Ni Equal channel angular pressing and 4.5% pre-strain at RT 460 500 [49]
Fe16Mn5Si10Cr4Ni1(V, N) 4% pre-strain at 45 C 500 225 [29]
4% pre-strain at RT 440 160 [29]
Fe15Mn4Si8Cr4Ni0.012C Cold-drawn alloy 6% pre-strain at RT Annealing temperature 650 C 520 [50]
Fe15Mn4Si8Cr4Ni0.12C Cold-drawn alloy 8% pre-strain at RT Annealing temperature 650 C 535 [50]
Fe15Mn4Si8Cr4Ni0.18C Cold-drawn alloy 4% pre-strain at RT Annealing temperature 750 C 565 [50]
Fe17Mn5Si10Cr4Ni1(V, C) 4% pre-strain at RT 580 130 [28]
A. Cladera et al. / Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293 289

c-austenite phase, and after that, predeforming the sample and obtaining the shape 4.1. Shape memory effect
recovery strain or stress. After the welding, the phase structure of the weld zone is
still austenite, which is the same as that of the base alloy but includes dendrite crys-
tals. There is no obvious change in the microstructure of the heat-affected zone
A bridge in Michigan was strengthened through external post-
except for some degree of growth of austenite grains. In general terms, the variation tensioning that was performed with FeMnSiCr SMA rebars in
in the shape recovery strain due to welding is within 10% for the small tested 2001 [87], after a laboratory research study on the possibilities of
pieces [67,68]; as a result, insignicant changes would be produced for a complete external reinforcement of shear cracks. In this case, an Fe28Mn
element in which the heat-affected zone is signicantly small compared to the
6Si5Cr alloy was used that could develop recovery stresses of
overall dimension of the element. However, the corrosion resistance of the welded
zones is worse than that of the base materials, due to the micro-segregation and 255 MPa after heating it to 300 C. The alloy was manufactured
welding stress that occurs within the welded zones. The recovery stresses that by Nippon Steel Corporation. The effect of extreme environmental
are generated in small 10 mm long samples, including the weld zone of an Fe temperatures on the restrained recovery stresses of the selected
28Mn6Si5Cr0.53Nb0.06C alloy, were 250 MPa, independent of the welding
iron-based alloy was studied, and the conclusion was that the vari-
technique used (TIG, LB or EB), compared to the 300330 MPa reported for the
non-welded material [68]. The dendrite structures that formed during the welding
ations in the stress were relatively small. The study showed that
procedure disappeared after an annealing treatment of the welded pieces, improv- post-tensioning with SMAs enabled the shear crack to be closed
ing the corrosion resistance. Finally, a manufacturing process for shaft and pipe to a large extent, recovering the load capacity of the rehabilitated
coupling by forming and welding of an Fe15Mn5Si9Cr5Ni shape memory alloy beam.
was recently proposed [72]. The results showed that welding affects mechanical
Watanabe et al. [88] worked on the reinforcement of an 80 mm
and shape memory properties: the material fractured in the welded zone and the
degree of shape recovery decreased 15%. However, the couplings manufactured long plaster prism specimen with a 1 mm diameter prestressed
with this new procedure could develop sufcient coupling force and this manufac- wire of Fe27Mn6Si5Cr0.05C alloy. The wires were subjected
turing procedure should be more studied [72]. to pretensile strain at room temperature (1%, 2% and 3%), and they
were embedded into a plaster matrix. The specimens were then
3.4. Production heated up to 250 C to generate a compressive stress in the matrix.
Three-point bending tests were performed for mechanical property
In general, FeMnSi based SMAs are produced by melting and subsequent
characterization as well as pull-out tests. These tests showed that
casting under high vacuum (or in air) followed by thermo-mechanical processing
[73]. The composition of FeMnSi alloys is very similar to a high-Mn stainless the fracture toughness of plaster could be improved by the wires
steel. For that reason, some authors think that these alloys could probably be con- and that the bending strength of the composite specimen increased
veniently melted and processed by utilizing the production facilities of steels or with increasing levels of prestrain in the SMA wires.
stainless steels [6]. However, a mass production electric furnace cannot be adopted Small mortar prisms were reinforced with square Fe28Mn
for the melting of any SMA that contains a large amount of Mn elements and that
has a high heat capacitance [6]. As Maruyama and Kubo remark in the case of an
6Si5Cr1(NbC) bars by Sawaguchi et al. [89] (Fig. 10). As was pre-
SMA that contains over 20% Mn, the impurities that are contained in the raw Mn viously mentioned in this paper, Kajiwara et al. had reported that
materials give rise to fatal faults in the mechanical properties of the SMA. For this the shape memory properties of FeMnSi based SMAs could be
reason, decreasing the amount of Mn would be better for a mass production furnace improved by the ne dispersion of NbC carbides [18]. The mortar
and would decrease the total cost reasonably [6]. In fact, the alloy Fe17Mn5Si
specimens, with embedded SMA square bars (2  2 mm square
10Cr4Ni1(V, C), which has a relatively low Mn content, has already been pro-
duced under normal atmospheric conditions [28,40]. A recent research has high- section), or with steel bars with the same dimensions, or without
lighted that FeMnSi alloys with the Mn content above 13 mass% exhibit a good any reinforcement, were rst cured for two days. The hardened
shape recovery strain of more than 2% with Ni and Cr substitutes, while the alloys mortar prisms were extracted from the mold, and a high-temper-
with the Mn content below 13 mass% indicate a sudden decrease in the shape ature curing was performed in an autoclave. The rst stage of the
recovery strain with all the substitutes [74].
An alternative production methodology for the FeMnSi SMAs by mechanical
autoclave curing was performed at 87 C (360 K) for 24 h, to
alloying and subsequent sintering has been explored [73]. This mechanical alloying increase the compressive strength of the mortar matrix. The sec-
is a synthetic technique involving solid state reaction among powders due to high ond stage of the curing was intended to generate the prestress in
energy collisions. Powder metallurgy may offer several advantages for manufactur- the SMA, for which two conditions, i.e., 177 C for 6 h and 247 C
ing industrial products, as it enables the production of alloys in near net shape, min-
for 30 min, were applied. The mechanical properties of the mortar
imizing the additional machining required to form the nal product. The results
showed that the mechanical properties and the shape memory effect could be com- increased with the 177 C curing, but they worsened for the 247 C
parable to that alloys manufactured by conventional casting [73]. treatment, except for the surprising results they got from prisms
strengthened with steel subjected to the high temperature curing
3.5. Workability at room temperature (Fig. 10). The authors concluded that the iron-based SMAs were
usable for producing prestress in the mortar because the bending
Although many authors refer to the good workability of FeMnSi SMAs, not strength increased signicantly in the specimens with the SMA
much specic research has been conducted on this topic. As Sato et al. [13] note,
respect to the specimens reinforced with steel or the non-rein-
it is fortunate that these FeMnSi SMAs are quite similar to the TRIP/TWIP steels,
which have good workability at room temperature. However, it is sometimes nec-
forced specimens. Sawaguchi et al. also highlighted that further
essary to prevent the SMA from breaking when heavy deformation is needed. strengthening could be achieved by lowering the reverse transfor-
Superposition of either a hydrostatic pressure or a proper constraint is effective mation temperatures of the SMAs, thus avoiding signicant ther-
[13]. Finally, it must be taken into account that the addition of C or N could produce mal damage to the mortar matrix.
carbide and nitride, respectively, which reduce workability [22].
Watanabe et al. [90] investigated the fabrication method and
mechanical properties of smart composites that were reinforced
4. Pilot experiences on the application of FeMnSi alloys with Fe28Mn6Si5Cr SMA machining chips. These chips are a
by-product of the fabrication of one of the main industrial applica-
The application of iron-based SMAs in civil engineering struc- tions of iron-based shape memory alloys: the pipe joining of steel
tures is still in a pioneering stage, and only a few pilot applications pipes for tunneling constructions. The study was also conducted at
can be found in the literature. Nevertheless, two applications have a feasibility level, using 80 mm long plaster prims and obtaining
succeeded in other related industries: the production of crane rail good preliminary results.
shplates [75] to connect nite lengths of rail for heavy duty Lee et al. [46] studied the recovery stress behavior of an
cranes (i.e., steel factories) and pipe joints for steel pipes for a con- Fe17Mn5Si10Cr4Ni1(V, C) shape memory alloy for
struction method for tunneling work [6], with both products man- prestressing concrete structures. The prestressing effect due to
ufactured by Awaji Materia Co. Application of other SMAs in civil the shape memory effect was simulated by a series of tests that
engineering structures, i.e., NiTi or Cu-based alloys, can be found involved pre-straining the material followed by heating and
elsewhere [5,47,7686]. cooling at a constant strain. The tested SMA specimens came from
290 A. Cladera et al. / Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293

Fig. 10. Specimens tested by Sawaguchi et al. [89] and bending strength of the mortar specimens with SMA, steel and without reinforcement.

a 15 kg alloy ingot that had been induction melted under normal the vibration mitigation during the cyclic tensioncompression is
atmospheric conditions. The iron shape memory alloy used in this accomplished by the reversible motion of the c/e interfaces.
research is very promising because it shows a very wide hysteresis The hypothetical use of the superelastic FeNiCoAlTaB
from 60 C to 103 C that is determined from a differential scan- alloy developed by Tanaka et al. [7] in a wire-based smart natural
ning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. The authors conducted tests for rubber bearing was recently investigated [98]. The authors con-
different heating temperatures and initial pre-strains, obtaining ducted a study that was based on nite element modeling of differ-
the highest recovery stress at 400 MPa, for a pre-strain of 4% and ent congurations of bearings. They concluded that the ferrous
a heating temperature of 160 C. In this study, the behavior under superelastic SMA is a good candidate due to its high superelastic
additional loading after prestressing was also studied, both under strain range and very low austenite nish temperature (Af).
cyclic mechanical loading and under cyclic thermal loading. These
tests showed that the prestressed SMA undergoes an inelastic
deformation during the rst cycle, which leads to a reduction in 5. Research needs
the recovery stresses. However, after the rst cycle, the SMA
behaved elastically, and the level of stress remained stable on sub- A large number of researches that study the behavior of FeMn
sequent cycles. Finally, the authors experimentally showed that Si alloys have been performed, but some aspects are still not clearly
this loss could be fully recovered by reheating the SMA element. understood, and more research is needed on specic topics. For
The same alloy but from a much larger cast has recently been example, most of the research on thermomechanical treatments
used to manufacture 20 mm wide and 750950 mm long ribbed during the production process has focused on improving the recov-
Fe-SMA strips for near-surface mounted reinforcements [91]. The ery strain, whereas the recovery stresses are the true key point for
recovery stress after heating to 160 C and cooling down to room the application of the SMAs as prestressing reinforcements. There-
temperature measured in a tensile machine with climate chamber fore, a systematic study on the optimization of the recovery stres-
was in the range of 250300 MPa. The bond behavior tested in lap- ses for different alloy compositions is needed. Additionally, with
shear experiments was in the usual range of reinforcing steel. The respect to the material properties, relaxation and fatigue proper-
strips were embedded in 700 mm long mortar prisms of ties have not been studied in-depth. More information can be
35  50 mm2 cross-section and heated by a current supply with found on the corrosion behavior, although for prestressing applica-
approximately 14 A/mm2 and a voltage of approximately 15 V/m tions, it would be necessary to know the corrosion characteristics
during less than 7 s. Strain measurements on one of the prism indi- under the alkaline environment of concrete. Large-scale produc-
cated a compression stress in the concrete of more than 3 MPa. tion also needs research to allow having the large amounts of
materials that are needed in civil engineering applications. For
the development of some products or devices, it is also necessary
4.2. Damping to improve the knowledge on weldability. Different papers address
the weldability properties of the iron-based SMAs in the austenite
As far as the authors know, no real application has been phase, but it would be very useful to know the temperature-
reported to date that is related to damping in civil engineering affected zone in a welded alloy in martensite for different welding
structures when using iron-based shape memory alloys. However, technologies.
the large damping effect in the TRIP/TWIP FeMn alloys due to the At the application level, most of the research that was con-
martensitic transformation has been studied in depth [9295]. ducted during recent years for NiTi alloys exploiting the SME
More recently, based on very similar principles, studies on the and the damping capacity can be adapted for iron-based shape
vibration mitigation by the martensitic transformation in Fe-based memory alloys. In this paper, some pilot experiences on the appli-
alloys for their application as a seismic damping material has also cation of FeMnSi alloys have been highlighted, but many others
been reported [96,97]. The Fe28Mn6Si5Cr05NbC SMAs that could be conducted in the near future. For example, it is possible to
was studied by Sawaguchi et al. [96,97] showed a signicant consider concrete that is prestressed by FeMnSi alloy short
damping capacity in the large-strain amplitude region above bers, which has been already proposed for NiTi alloys [99,100],
0.1%. The specic damping capacity increased with increasing or on the connement of concrete columns, which has been
strain amplitude and reached a saturation value of approximately broadly tested with NiTi or NiTiNb alloys [101103]. For many
80% above a strain amplitude of 0.4% (Fig. 11). Their analysis concrete applications, it would be necessary to have more informa-
revealed that the tension-induced martensite reversely transforms tion about the bond strength reduction due to the temperature
into austenite by compression. The authors thus concluded that increase of the embedded SMA. In fact, the tests that were reported
A. Cladera et al. / Construction and Building Materials 63 (2014) 281293 291

(a) (b)

Fig. 11. (a) Stressstrain hysteresis loops that were tested at varying strains: 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1.0%. (b) Specic damping capacity (SDC) as a function of the
strain amplitudes. Adapted from [97].

in the literature and commented on in this paper address the heat- Furthermore, support from the Swiss Commission for Technol-
ing of the concrete and not the direct heating of the rebars. ogy and Innovation (CTI Project 14496.1 PFIW-IW) and from the
company re-Fer is highly appreciated.
6. Conclusions
References
Research on new iron-based SMAs has experienced a consider-
able boost during the past decade, developing FeMnSi alloys that [1] Otsuka K, Wayman CM. Shape memory materials. United
Kingdom: Cambridge University Press; 1998.
can generate high recovery stresses at lower temperatures com- [2] Kumar PK, Lagoudas DC. In: Lagoudas DC, editor. Shape memory alloys.
pared to the rst alloys developed in the 1980s. The current state modeling and engineering applications. Springer; 2008. p. 151 [Chapter 1].
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