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1. Identify the benefits of budgeting. The primary advantages of budgeting are that it (a)
requires management to plan ahead, (b) provides definite objectives for evaluating performance,
(c) creates an early warning system for potential problems, (d) facilitates coordination of
activities, (e) results in greater management awareness, and (f) contributes to positive behavior

2. Describe the essentials of effective budgeting. The essentials of effective budgeting are (a)
sound organizational structure, (b) research and analysis, and (c) acceptance by all levels of

3. Identify the budgets that comprise the master budget. The master budget consists of the
following budgets: (a) sales, (b) production, (c) direct materials, (d) direct labor, (e)
manufacturing overhead, (f) selling and administrative expense, (g) budgeted income statement,
(h) capital expenditure budget, (i) cash budget, and (j) budgeted balance sheet.

4. Describe the sources for preparing the budgeted income statement. The budgeted income
statement is prepared from (a) the sales budget, (b) the budgets for direct materials, direct labor,
and manufacturing overhead, and (c) the selling and administrative expense budget.

5. Explain the principal sections of a cash budget. The cash budget has three sections
(receipts, disbursements, and financing) and the beginning and ending cash balances.

6. Indicate the applicability of budgeting in nonmanufacturing companies. Budgeting may be

used by merchandisers for development of a master budget. In service enterprises, budgeting is
a critical factor in coordinating staff needs with anticipated services. In not-for-profit
organizations, the starting point in budgeting is usually expenditures, not receipts.

Components of the Master Budget:

A. Operating Budget
1. Sales Budget
2. Purchases Budget
3. Cost of Goods Sold Budget
4. Operating Expenses Budget
5. Budgeted Income Statement

B. Financial Budget
1. Cash Budget (Cash Receipts and Disbursements0
2. Capital Budget
3. Budgeted Balance Sheet

1. Budgets represent managements plans in financial terms.

2. Budgets promote efficiency and serve as a deterrent to waste.

3. A budget can be a means of communicating a company's objectives to external parties.

4. A budget facilitates coordination of activities within the business but is a poor tool for
evaluating performance.
5. A budget is more beneficial if accepted by lower level management.

6. The budget itself and the administration of the budget are the responsibility of management.

7. The most common budget period is one year.

8. The flow of input data for budgeting should be from the lowest levels of responsibility to the
highest level.

9. Budgets, by their very nature, create a negative effect on human behavior within companies
because they imply that management is trying to control.

10. A budget committee coordinates the budget activities of a company.

11. The shorter the budget period, the more reliable the estimates of future outcomes.

12. Upper level managers are responsible for preparing the entire budget.

13. The last step in the budgeting process is developing a sales forecast.

14. Budgeting and long-range planning differ in the emphasis and the time period involved.

15. Long-range plans are used primarily as an evaluation of specific results to be achieved.

16. Long-range plans reflect management's long-term plans encompassing five years or more.

17. The master budget consists of a plan of action for a specified time period.

18. Operating budgets must be completed before the financial budgets can be prepared.

19. The production budget must be completed before the materials purchases budget because
the number of units to be produced must be known to determine how much material to buy.

20. The number of direct labor hours needed for production is obtained from the direct labor

21. Companies can use either a predetermined overhead rate or a manufacturing overhead
22. The manufacturing overhead budget generally has separate sections for variable and fixed

23. A sales budget should be prepared before the production budget.

24. The direct materials budget contains only quantity data so the purchasing department knows
how much materials should be purchased.

25. The budgeted income statement indicates the expected amount of cash expected to be
acquired from operations.

26. Companies that do not prepare cash budgets have significant cash deficiencies.

27. In preparing the budgeted balance sheet, management should not be concerned if it does
not balance since it does not reflect actual results.

28. The first budget prepared should be the sales budget.

29. A merchandiser has a merchandise purchases budget, and a manufacturer has a materials
purchases budget.
30. A service company has no purchases budget.

Problem I (Sales Budget)

Chem-Tech is a wholesaler for three chemical compounds, Rev-X, Sip-X, and Tok-Y. The
following information on these products relates to the year 2010:

Product Sales (lbs) Average Selling Price(per lbs) Gross Profit

Rev-X 10,000 $30 $10
Sip-X 9,000 23 8
Tok-Y 7,500 18 5

Demand for Rev-X has greatly increased and its expected to double in 2011. Sip-X will
probably experience a 40% increase in demand, while demand for Tok-Y is expected to
remain constant. In line with the industry, sales prices for Sip-X and Tok-Y will increase
by 5%; the sale price for Rev-X will increase by 15%. Unit costs of goods sold are
expected to increase as follows: Rev-X, 25%; Sip-X, 20%; Tok-Y, 10%.
Prepare a schedule presenting budgeted sales revenue and gross profit, by product, for 2011.

Problem II (Sales, Production, and Purchases Budget)

The Wilton Company manufactures and sells products: J, C, and P. In September 2010, the
companys budget department gathered the following forecast data for operations of the coming
Projected Sales for Fourth Quarter
Product Quantity Price
Product J 4,000 $12
Product C 2,000 25
Product P 3,000 20

Beginning Desired Ending
Product J 600 900
Product C 500 400
Product P 400 500
Material A 2,000 2,500
Material B 1,500 2,000
Material C 2,500 2,000

Material Production Requirements for Each Unit of Product

Product Material A Material B Material C
Product J 3 1 2
Product C 2 2 4
Product P 1 3 2

There is no beginning or ending inventory of work in process. Budgeted unit costs for materials A, B,
and C are $0.50, $2.00, and $1.50, respectively.

1) Prepare a sales budget that includes quantities and revenues for each of the three
2) Prepare a production budget for all three products.
3) Prepare a material usage budget.
4) Prepare a materials purchases budget.
Problem III ( Operating Budget, Budgeted Income Statement)
Ladderton Electronics, Inc., manufactures three models for electric power supply units, Economy,
Standard, and Deluxe. They are sold in four different markets, Eastern United Sates, Western
United States, Europe, and Asia. Each unit converts electric current from AC to DC for use in
various types of electronic equipment ranging from radios and televisions to computers. The three
different units produce DC output at different wattage levels. The product is manufactured in two
producing departments, Assembly and Testing. Estimates for the coming year follow:

a) Sales Forecast by territory:

Model Eastern US Western US Europe Asia Sales Price/Unit
Economy 60,000 50,000 75,000 25,000 $50.00
Standard 40,000 45,000 60,000 35,000 70.00
Deluxe 20,000 25,000 35,000 30,000 90.00

b) Inventories:
Beginning (Units) Unit Cost Desired Ending (Units)
Boxes 10,000 $1.50 5,000
Transformers 15,000 4.50 10,000
Diode Rectifiers 25,000 0.70 25,000
Filters 25,000 1.75 20,000
Resistors 10,000 0.20 50,000
Wire (in feet) 30,000 0.50 40,000

Work in process: None at the beginning and end of the period.

Finished Goods (FIFO):

Beginning (Units) Unit Cost Beginning Desired Ending (Units)
Economy Model 15,000 $25.00 20,000
Standard Model 15,000 38.50 15,000
Deluxe Model 15,000 55.25 10,000

c) Material requirements for products and estimated material costs:

Economy Standard Deluxe Estimated Cost
Model__ Model__ Model_ Per Unit of Material
Boxes 1 1 1 $1.50
Transformers 1 2 3 4.50
Diode Rectifiers 2 4 5 0.70
Filters 2 3 6 1.75
Resistors 5 8 10 0.20
Wires (in feet) 5 6 8 0.50

d) Estimated labor time requirements and rates in hours

Assembly Dept. Testing Dept.
Economy Model 0.50 0.05
Standard Model 0.75 0.05
Deluxe Model 1.00 0.05
Direct labor per hour $10 $12

e) Estimated machine time in Testing Department:

Hours Required
Economy Model 0.15
Standard Model 0.25
Deluxe Model 0.35
f) Budgeted factory overhead
Assembly Department Testing Department
Fixed Cost Variable/LH Fixed Cost Variable/MH
Indirect Materials $158,000 $1.50 $157,000 $0.35
Indirect labor 350,000 0.50 250,000 1.00
Payroll taxes 382,500 0.05 55,000 0.10
Employee fringe benefits 347,500 -- 114,000 --
Equipment depreciation 65,000 -- 215,000 --
Repairs and Maintenance 25,000 0.40 35,000 1.50
Allocated building costs 12,000 -- 9,000 --
Allocated gen. factory costs 241,125 -- 82,700 --

Overhead is allocated to production on the basis of direct labor hours in the Assembly Department
and on the basis of machine hours in the Testing Department.

g) Budgeted commercial expenses:

Marketing : $145,000
Administration : $2,330,500

h) Income tax rate is 40%

Required: Prepare annual budget schedules. The schedules should be designed to provide
essential data in a form that is easily understood and should include the following:
1) Sales budget by models and by sales territories
2) Production budget by models and by units
3) Direct materials budget in units by materials and by models
4) Materials purchases budget by materials and by cost
5) Cost of materials required for production by materials and by models
6) Direct labor budget by models and departments, with costs and hours
7) Budgeted machine hours in the Testing Department
8) Budgeted factory overhead and department rates
9) Budgeted unit product costs
10) Beginning and Ending inventories
11) Budgeted cost of goods manufactured and sold
12) Budgeted Income Statement

Problem IV (Production Budget)

The budget components for McLeod Company for the quarter ended June 30 appear below.
McLeod sells trash cans for $12 each. Budgeted sales of trash cans for the next four months are:
April 20,000 units
May 50,000 units
June 30,000 units
July 25,000 units
McLeod desires to have trash cans on hand at the end of each month equal to 20 percent of the
following months budgeted sales in units. On March 31, McLeod had 4,000 completed units on
hand. The number of trashcans to be produced in April and May are 26,000 and 46,000,
respectively. Seven pounds of plastic are required for each trash can. At the end of each month,
McLeod desires to have 10 percent of the following months production material needs on hand. At
March 31, McLeod had 18,200 pounds of plastic on hand. The material used in production costs
$0.60 per pound. Each trashcan produced requires 0.10 hours of direct labor.
Required: How many trashcans should McLeod produce during the month of June?

Problem IV (Purchases Budget)

The budget components for McLeod Company for the quarter ended June 30 appear below.
McLeod sells trash cans for $12 each. Budgeted sales and production of trash cans for the next four
months are:
Sales Production
April 20,000 units 26,000 units
May 50,000 units 46,000 units
June 30,000 units 29,000 units
July 25,000 units 20,000 units
McLeod desires to have trash cans on hand at the end of each month equal to 20 percent of the
following months budgeted sales in units. On March 31, McLeod had 4,000 completed units on
hand. The number of trashcans to be produced in April and May are 26,000 and 46,000,
respectively. Seven pounds of plastic are required for each trash can. At the end of each month,
McLeod desires to have 10 percent of the following months production material needs on hand. At
March 31, McLeod had 18,200 pounds of plastic on hand. The material used in production costs
$0.60 per pound. Each trashcan produced requires 0.10 hours of direct labor.
Required: Determine how much the materials purchases budget will be for the month ending
April 30.

Problem V (Manufacturing Budget)

The Hammer Division of Stanton Tool Company makes a variety of hammers. All have wooden
handles and steel heads. The division makes no distinction between types of hammers when
preparing budgets.

On average, each hammer requires a one-foot piece of wood stock and 1.5 pounds of steel. Direct
labor averages 0.25 hours per hammer and is paid $16 per hour, including fringe benefits. All
quarterly overhead costs except depreciation are paid in cash as incurred. The factory overhead
costs include:
Fixed Variable per unit
Rent $12,000 --
Indirect labor 17,000 $0.25
Depreciation 10,000 --
Supplies 4,000 0.20
Repairs and maintenance 7,500 0.05
Total overhead $50,500 $0.50
====== ====
The Hammer Division is planning for the second quarter of 2010. Projected sales are 20,000
hammers at $15 each. Half the sales are for cash, and half are on credit. On the credit sales, 75%
are collected in the quarter of sale and 25% in the following quarter. No uncollectible accounts are
anticipated. Accounts receivable at the beginning of the quarter are $25,000 (i.e. 25% of last
quarters $100,000 credit sales).

Wood stock costs $1 per foot, and the beginning inventory is 500 feet. Steel costs $2 per pound,
and the beginning inventory is 1,000 pounds. The desired ending inventory amounts are: wood
stock, 400 feet; steel, 800 pounds. Wood stock and steel are paid for in cash when they are

The beginning finished goods inventory ahs 200 hammers ($2,200), and the desired ending
inventory is 400 finished hammers. Work-in-process inventory is neglible.

Selling and administrative costs for the quarter include:

Salaries $6,000
Commissions 8% of sales revenue
Advertising $9,000
Shipping $0.20 per hammer
They are paid for in cash when incurred.
The beginning cash balance is $25,000, and the minimum desired balance is $20,000.

Required: Prepare the following budgets:

1) Sales budget
2) Manufacturing budget (including production budget, direct materials usage and
purchases budget, direct labor budget, and factory overhead budget)
3) Cost of goods manufactured and sold budget
4) Selling and administrative expenses budget
5) Budgeted income statement
6) Cash budget. Assume that there are no financing activities to be shown on the cash

Problem VI (AICPA, Cash Budget)

A. Prepare a statement of cash receipts and disbursements for October 2011 for the Rourk
Company, which sells one product. On October 1, 2011, part of the trial balance showed:
Cash $ 6,000
Accounts Receivable 19,500
Allowance for bad debts $2,400
Merchandise Inventory 12,000
Accounts payable, merchandise 9,000

The companys purchases are payable within ten days. Assume that one-third of the purchases of
any month are due and paid for in the following month.

The unit invoice cost of the merchandise purchased is $10. At the end of each month it is desired to
have an inventory equal in units to 50% of the following months sales in units.

Sales terms include a 1% discount if payment is made by the end of the calendar month. Past
experience indicates that 60% of the billings will be collected during the month of sale, 30% in the
following calendar month, 6% in the next following calendar month. Four percent will be
uncollectible. The companys fiscal year begins August 1.
Unit selling price $15
August actual sales $15,000
September actual sales 45,000
October estimated sales 36,000
November estimated sales 27,000
Total sales expected in the fiscal year 450,000

Exclusive of bad debts, total budgeted selling and general administrative expenses for the fiscal
year are estimated at $68,500, of which $21,000 is fixed (inclusive of a $9,000 annual depreciation
charge). These fixed expenses are incurred uniformly throughout the year. The balance of the
selling and general administrative expenses varies with sales. Expenses are paid as incurred.

B. Markus Corporation's sales of gizmos are 25% for cash and 75% on credit. Past collection
history indicates that credit sales are collected as follows:
30% in the month of sale
60% in the month following sale
10% in the second month following sale
In January, sales were $42,000 and February sales were $45,000. Projected sales for March are
3,000 gizmos at $10 each. Projected sales for April are 4,500 gizmos at $12 each. The cash
balance at March 1 was $5,785.

Markus expects to purchase $24,000 of materials in February and $21,000 of materials in March.
Three-quarters of all purchases are paid for in the month of purchase, and the other one-fourth are
paid for in the month following the month of purchase. In addition, a 2% discount is allowed for
payments made in the month of purchase. All other fixed expenses are $7,000 per month and are
paid in the month of purchase.

A. Prepare a cash budget for March.
B. Why is the cash budget important?

Problem VII (Master Budget)
The Loebl Company wants a master budget for the next three months, beginning January 1,
2011. It desires an ending minimum cash balance of $4,000 each month. Sales are forecasted
at an average selling price of $4 per unit. Inventories are supposed to equal to 125% of the next
months sales in units except for the end of March. The March 31 inventory in units should be
75% of the next months sales. Merchandise costs are $2 per unit. Purchases during any given
month are paid in full during the following month. All sales are on credit, payable within thirty
days, but experience has shown that 40% of current sales is collected in the current month,
40% in the next month, and 20% in the month thereafter. Bad debts are negligible.

Monthly operating expenses are as follows:

Wages and salaries $12,000
Insurance expired 100
Depreciation 200
Miscellaneous 2,000
Rent 100 + 10% of sales

Cash dividends of $1,000 are pad quarterly, beginning January 15, and are declared on the
fifteen of the previous month. All operating expenses are paid as incurred, except insurance,
depreciation, and rent. Rent of $100 is paid at the beginning of each month, and the additional
10% of sales is paid quarterly on the tenth of the following quarter. The next settlement is due
January 10.

The company plans to buy some new fixtures, for $2,000 cash, in March.

Money can be borrowed and repaid in multiples of $500, at an interest rate of 18% per annum.
Management wants to minimize borrowing and repay rapidly. Interest is computed and paid when
the principal is repaid. Assume that borrowing takes place at the beginning, and repayment is at the
end, of the months in question. Money is never borrowed at the beginning and repaid at the end of
the same month. Interest is computed to the nearest dollar.

The abridged balance sheet as of December 31, 2010 is as follows:

Cash $4,000
Accounts receivable 16,000
Inventory 31,250
Unexpired Insurance 1,200
Fixed Assets, net 10,000
Total Assets $62,450

Accounts Payable (merchandise) $28,750

Dividends Payable 1,000
Rent Payable 7,000

Recent and forecasted sales:

October - $30,000 December - $20,000 February $60,000
November - 20,000 January - 50,000 March - 30,000
April - 36,000
1. Prepare a master budget, including a budgeted income statement, balance sheet,
statement of cash receipts and disbursements, and supporting schedules.
2. Explain why there is a need for a bank loan and what operating sources provide the cash
for the repayment of the bank loan.

Problem VIII (Case of Hospital)

Voorhees Hospital provides a wide range of health services in its community. Voorhees board of
directors has authorized the following capital expenditures:
Inter-aortic balloon pump $1,100,000
CT Scanner 700,000
X-ray Equipment 600,000
Laboratory Equipment 1,400,000

The expenditures are planned for October 1, 2010, and the board wishes to k now the amount of
borrowing, if any, necessary on that date. Marc Kelly, hospital controller, has gathered the following
information to be used in preparing an analysis of future cash flows.

1. Billings, made in the month of the service, for the first six months of 2010 are:
January $4,400,000
February 4,400,000
March 4,500,000
April 4,500,000
May 5,000,000
June 5,000,000
Ninety percent of Voorhees billings are made to third parties such as Blue Cross, federal/state
governments, and private insurance companies. The remaining 10% of the billings are made directly
to patients. Historical patterns of billing collections are:
Third Party Billings Direct Patient Billings
Month of Service 20% 10%
Month following service 50% 40%
Second Month following service 20% 40%
Uncollectible 10% 10%

Estimated billings for the last six months of 2010 are listed next. The same billing and collection
patterns that have been experienced during the first six months of 2010 are expected to continue
during the last six months of the year.
Month Estimated Amount
July $4,500,000
August 5,000,000
September 5,500,000
October 5,700,000
November 5,800,000
December 5,500,000

2. The purchases that have been made during the past three months and the planned
purchases for the last six months of 2010 are presented in the following schedules.

Month Purchases
April $1,100,000
May 1,200,000
June 1,200,000
July 1,250,000
August 1,500,000
September 1,850,000
October 1,950,000
November 2,250,000
December 1,750,000
All purchases are made on account, and accounts payable are remitted in the month
following the purchase.

3. Salaries for each month during the remainder of 2010 are expected to be $1,500,000 per
month plus 20% of that months billings. Salaries are paid in the month of service.
4. Voorheess monthly depreciation charges are $125,000
5. Voorhees incurs interest expense of $150,000 per month and makes interest payments
of $450,000 on the last day of each calendar year.
6. Endowment fund income is expected to continue to total $175,000 each month.
7. Voorhees has a cash balance of $300,000 on July 1, 2010, and has policy of maintaining
a minimum end-of-month cash balance of 10$ of the current months purchases.
8. Voorhees Hospital employs a calendar-year reporting period.

1. Prepare a schedule of budgeted cash receipts by month for the third quarter of 2010.
2. Prepare a schedule of budgeted cash disbursements by month for the third quarter of 2010.
3. Determine the amount of borrowing, if any, necessary on October 1, 2010, to acquire the
capital items totaling $3,800,000.

Problem IX (AICPA, Adapted- University Budgeting)

Suppose you are the controller of Northern Alaska University. The university president, George
Klobuchar, is preparing his annual fund-raising campaign for 2010-2011. To set an appropriate
target, he has asked you to prepare a budget for the academic year. You have collected the
following data for the current year 2009-2010;

(1) Undergraduate Division Graduate Division

Average salary of faculty member $40,000 $40,000
Average faculty teaching load in semester
credit hours per year (eight undergraduate
or six graduate courses) 24 18
Average number of students per class 30 20
Total enrolment (full-time and part-time
Students) 3,000 1,200
Average number of semester credit hours
Carried each year per student 25 20
Full-time load, semester hours per year 30 24

For 2010-2011, all faculty and staff will receive a 5% salary increase. Undergraduate enrolment is
expected by 10%, but no change in graduate enrolment is expected.

(2) The 2009-2010 budget for operation and maintenance of facilities is $450,000, which includes
$220,000 for salaries and wages. Experience so far this year indicates that the budget is accurate.
Salaries and wages will increase by 5% and other operating costs by $10,000 in 2010-2011.
(3) The 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 budgets for the remaining expenditures are:

2009-2010 2010-2011
General and Administrative $455,000 $475,000
Acquisitions 136,000 140,000
Operations 172,000 180,000
Health Services 43,000 45,000
Intramural athletics 51,000 55,000
Intercollegiate athletics 218,000 220,000
Insurance and Retirement 475,000 510,000
Interest 10,000 10,000
(4) Tuition is $60 per credit hour. In addition, the state legislature provides $700 per full-time
equivalent student. (A full-time equivalent is 30 undergraduate hours or 24 graduate hours) Tuition
scholarships are given to 30 full-time undergraduates and 50 full-time graduate students.
(5) Revenues other than tuition and the legislative apportionment are:

2009-010 2010-2011
Endowment income $180,000 $190,000
Net income from
Auxiliary services 295,000 305,000
Athletic receipts 260,000 270,000

(6) The chemistry/physics classroom building needs remodeling during 2010-2011 period. Projected
cost is $500,000.

1. Prepare a schedule for 2010-2011 that shows, by division, a) expected enrolment, b)total
credit hours, c) full-time-equivalent enrolment, d) number of faculty members needed.
Assume that part time faculty can be hired at the same salary per credit hour as full time
2. Calculate the budget for faculty salaries for 2010-2011 by division
3. Calculate the budget for tuition revenue and legislative apportionment for 2010-2011 by
4. Prepare a schedule for President Klobuchar showing the amount that must be raised by
the annual fund raising campaign.