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Literature review

PREVIOUS RESEARCH: There is a substantial amount of research done on the post-peak

behavior of reinforced concrete beams and different parameters has been analyzed. The existing
literature on post-peak behavior of beams are reviewed in this.

J. C. M. HO (2003) has developed a new method of analysing the

post-peak flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams and that method
has been applied to normal and high-strength concrete beams. It was found
that at the post-peak stage, the depth of neutral axis keeps on increasing,
and at a certain point the strain in the tension reinforcement starts to
decrease, even though there is monotonic increase in curvature. Such strain
reversal in the tension reinforcement occurs in all concrete beams and has
significant effects on the post-peak behaviour and flexural ductility of
concrete beams. Therefore, the stress path dependence of the tension
reinforcement needs to be taken into account in the analysis. By means of a
parametric study, the variation of ultimate concrete strain with tension steel
ratio and the effects of various structural parameters on flexural ductility
have been studied. Based on the numerical results, design values of ultimate
concrete strain that are independent of tension steel ratio have been
recommended and a simple
formula for predicting the flexural ductility of reinforced normal- and high-
strength concrete beams has been developed.

The study led to the following conclusions. (1) At the post-peak stage, the
neutral axis depth keeps
on increasing and beyond a certain point the strain in the tension
reinforcement starts to decrease,
causing strain reversal, which, if not properly accounted for, may cause
significant errors in the
evaluation of the flexural ductility of under-reinforced beam sections. (2) For
given materials, there is
a balanced steel ratio at which the tension reinforcement just yields before
strain reversal. The
balanced steel ratio increases with the concrete strength but not in direct
proportion because the
percentage increase in balanced steel ratio is generally smaller than the
percentage increase in concrete
strength. (3) The ultimate concrete strain varies with the tension steel ratio,
but for practical
applications the design values of ultimate concrete strain listed in Table 3,
which are independent of
the tension steel ratio, may be used. (4) The flexural ductility is dependent
on both the concrete grade
and the tension steel ratio. At a given concrete grade, the ductility decreases
as the tension steel ratio

Wu Yi (2006)

This thesis investigates the post-crack and post-peak behavior of reinforced

concrete members by using finite element analysis. In the investigation of
the post-peak behavior of reinforced concrete beams, it
is found that beyond the ultimate strength, the strain reversal history of
reinforcement has significant effects on the load-deflection behavior of the
member. It is shown that
the phenomenon of curvature reversal occurs at the post-peak stage for
concrete sections in a simply supported beam that is subjected to
concentrated load at mid-span.

a finite element program is developed in this study that

takes into account the bond-slip effect between concrete and reinforcement.
Based on
it, rigorous nonlinear finite element analyses for a number of reinforced
beams have been carried out to study the completed load-deflection
behavior, crack
pattern, tension-stiffening effect and stress path dependence of
reinforcement at the
post-peak stage.

Hyo-Gyoung Kwak (2002) Material nonlinear analyses of reinforced concrete (RC) beams
considering the tension softening branch and bond
slip have been conducted. Instead of adopting the sophisticated layer approach which has some
limitations in application
to large structures with many degrees of freedom, we have used the momentcurvature relationships
of RC
sections previously constructed through section analysis. To reduce numerical instability according to
the finite element
mesh size used, a relation simulating the tension softening branch has been taken into consideration.
For the purpose of
removing the imprecision in calculation of ultimate resisting capacity, we have included the plastic
hinge length in finite
element modeling. In addition, governing equations describing the bond-slip behavior in beams have
been derived.
Unlike the conventional bond elements using double nodes, the proposed model has used beam
elements representing
the structural response by two nodes at both ends, and has simplified the finite elements modeling
and analytical
process, besides effectively describing the bond-slip behavior. Moreover, the developed algorithm has
been reflected in
the momentcurvature relationship of RC section. Finally, correlation studies between analytical and
results have been conducted with the objective to establish the validity of the proposed algorithms.

Based on the momentcurvature relations of RC

sections including the bond-slip and tension softening
branch, an analytical model for the material nonlinear
analyses of RC beams has been introduced. In addition,
the plastic hinge length has been taken into consideration
with the purpose of removing imprecision in calculations
of ultimate resisting capacity. The introduced
model has been verified by comparison between experimental
results and numerical examples.
The representative RC beams were analyzed with the
purpose of investigating the relative effects of bond slip,
tension softening and plastic hinge length and the
following conclusions were obtained: (1) the plastic
hinge length must be considered to predict the ultimate
strength of RC beams where the plastic deformation is
concentrated at any location with narrow range; (2) for
under-RC beams, the tension softening and bond slip
have the dominant influences at the cracked range, while
the tension softening can be negligible for over-RC
beams; (3) the numerical results for over-RC beams
indicate that the bond-slip effect can also be ignored.
However, this result seems to be caused by using the
beam element. That is, there are some restrictions in
modeling the over-RC structure with the beam element;
(4) the simplified numerical analysis with the moment
curvature relation still can be effectively used in the
nonlinear analysis of RC beams.