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2014ENG 4.

5 – BUILDING STRUCTURES – IV

CONTACT PERIODS: 3 (LECTURE) PER WEEK
DURATION OF EXAM: 3 HRS VIVA MARKS:75 PROGRESSIVE
MARKS :75

OBJECTIVE: Gain understanding of Steel Structural Systems including
composite construction; Fundamental principles and structural behavior
of steel buildings in withstanding gravity loads. Understand the process
of the design of structural steel systems and to learn how to design
simple steel structures.

OUTLINE
1) Structural Steel: Different kinds of Steel, their Basic characteristics of Steel & Light Gauge Steel
materials.
2) Concepts of design of Steel Structures: Introduction to the concept of Working Stress Design and Load
and Resistance Factor Design.
3) Steel Structural Systems: Introduction to Rigid Portal Frames design of a one story industrial building
18M X 48m with two-bay mezzanine office floor. Project work to include a framing plan for both the industrial
building and the mezzanine, an approximate design of structural frame elements, columns and beams.
Introduction to available sections in structural steel used in the design of frame elements.
4) Introduction to National Building Code: IS 800: Criteria & Design to satisfy Building Codes and
Standards, Dead and Live load calculations as per IS875 (Part1&2). Determine the general loads to be
considered in the design of the structure, based on the type of occupancy for each area specified.
5) Rigid Frames design-1: Properties of Indian standard rolled steel section and general framing
arrangement of beams and columns for the one story 18M X 48m industrial building.
6) Rigid Frames design-2: Design of Rigid frame including selection of frames according to the span spacing
and frame configuration using steel manuals.
7) Composite Flooring Systems: Discussion on steel-concrete composite construction using steel beams,
metal decking and concrete, including the role of shear connectors’ attachment to the beam for composite
action.
8) Composite flooring systems design for mezzanine: Loading and Analysis (Moment diagram to be
provided) and design of composite steel decking with concrete topping.
9) Rigid frame elements design-1: Steel Structural Column design using IS special publication for the
design of steel structures [SP-6 (1)]
10) Rigid frame elements design-2: Steel Structural Beams and trusses design using IS special publication
for the design of steel structures [SP-6 (1)]
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria, including loads
used, calculations, drawings and detailing, and steel tonnage calculation.
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site: The structure for site visit shall be similar to the one
discussed in the semester and project work to include documentation and a report about the observations,
learning and findings at Site

Introduction Structural Steel :

Structural Steel: .

Structural Steel: .

Structural Steel: .

Structural Steel: .

 One of the ways brain processes information is that when brain sees new forms. Passion & Emotion Concepts .  The brain makes judgments by comparing present visualized form and arranging with past forms in memory. The brain has the capacity to mix. .Immediate data of seeing. merge.Thinking of Forms  New forms cannot be conceived because forms are universal and it is only thinking or ideas of forms. i.e. Thinking according to British Philosopher David Hume is divided into two: Impressions . and sort forms. these visualized forms are matched against past forms in memory and judgments are made. Immediate sensation.  The basics of thinking or concept of forms Rationally and Empirically are to reproduce a form in the brain by pattern matching or pattern recognition. shift. which is new.Concepts are copies of faint images of impression by thinking about or recalling of impressions. match.

.1) Structural Steel: Basic Characteristics of Steel & Light Gauge Steel Materials.

08 0.01-0.05-0.006 max 0.07 - Molybdenum (Mo) 0.04-0.45-0.65-1.20 0.10-1.20 max Phosphorus (P) 0.40-0.50 0.65 - Vanadium (V) 0.40-0.20 min (when specified) Nickel (Ni) 0.08 0.08 max 0.30-0.015 max 0.25-0.40 0.40 0.35 0.15-0.70 0.29 Manganese (Mn) 1.11 max 0.00 - Chromium (Cr) 0.015 max .05 max Silicon (Si) 0.04 max Sulfur (S) 0.02-0.020 max 0.40 Copper (Cu) 0.50 1.04 . - Nitrogen (N) 0.Sructural Steel – Typical Composition HPS* : High Performance Steel Composition % Element HPS* HPS* Mild Steel A36 50W and 70W 100W Carbon (C) 0. - .005 max 0.40 max 0.90-1.25-0.25-0.65 - Aluminum (Al) 0.90-1.

000 Mpa) .Structural Steel .Properties Elastic Limit: Transition from elastic to inelastic behavior Yield Point: Stress Fy at the elastic limit Elastic Modulus: Slope of elastic part of curve E~29.000 ksi (200.

Tens.Structural Steel . Str: Fu is the maximum stress developed in the inelastic zone .Properties Yield Point: Stress Fy at the elastic limit Ult.

Properties Residual Strain: Permanent deformation after unloading .Structural Steel .

2% Method Draw line parallel to elastic part 0.2% Strain .Properties If Yield Point not Clearly Defined 0.Structural Steel .

Structural Steel .Characteristics Elasticity: Ability of metal to return to its original shape after loading and subsequent unloading Fatigue: Cycling loading and unloading stresses material above its endurance limit and leads to failure Ductility: Deformation without fracture beyond the elastic limit (ineleastic behavior) High Ductility Toughness: Combination of strength and ductility High toughness .

Characteristics Maintenance: Susceptible to Corrosion when exposed to air and water Use paints. or weathering steels Fireproofing: Strength reduces with increased temperature - Fireproofing required . Structural Steel .

Structural Steel .Sections See IS-800 Section Properties and other shapes .

Sections Typical Cold-Formed Light Gage Steel Shapes . Structural Steel .

Available steel grade in India per IS 2062. .

.2)Philosophies of Design of Steel Structures: Introduction to the concept of Working Stress Design and Load and Resistance Factor Design.

) •Other unforeseen situation (calculation errors. Allowable Stress and Factor of Safety Every material has a certain capacity to carry load. but unsafe to load a material to full capacity — it would have no reserve strength. The method basically assumes that the structural material behaves as a linear elastic manner.67 for tension members and beams. etc) Factor of safety = Yield stress/ Allowable stress Factor of safety is 1.5 to 3 for connections . This is dangerous because: • May experience a load greater than anticipated •Material may be defective •Construction may be faulty (fabrication / erection / workmanship.Design Philosophies Allowable Stress Design Method (ASD): This was the traditional method of design for structural steel and timber design. etc. As the specified permissible stresses are kept well below the material strength. 1. the assumption of linear elastic behavior is considered justifiable. and that adequate safety can be ensured by suitably restricting the stresses in the material induced by the expected “working loads” on the structure.92 for long columns and 2.

design theory. .0 depending on the type of resistance (tension. LL...75 to 1. It considers the safety at the ultimate load and serviceability at the working load LRFD –Load and Resistance Factor Design • A member is selected such that its factored strength is more than the factored loads.Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD): This philosophy is an advancement over the traditional design philosophies. compression.)has a different load factor which its value depends on the combination of loads under consideration. . • Each load effect (DL.) • These factors account for uncertainties in material properties. and fabrication and construction practices. Resistance Factor • The resistance factors range in value from 0. . bending.

Typical Section . Students at the end will succeed in have a framing plan for both the industrial and mezzanine. and the approximate design of structural frame elements. Also students shall be introduced to available section in structural steel for used in the design of frame elements.3) Steel Structural Systems Design Plan Introduction to Rigid Portal Frames design of a one story industrial building 18M by 48m with two bay mezzanine office floor. column and beam.

4) Structural Analysis and Design to satisfy Building Codes and Standards. . Introduction to National Building Code and IS800: calculation of dead weight and live loads on structure.

Structural Analysis and Design to Satisfy Building Codes and Standards : IS:800:2007 IS:875:1987(Part-1) IS:875:1987(Part-2) .

Superimposed Dead Load: It is the load supported by a structural member. Example: Flooring .Design Dead Loads as per IS:875:1987(Part-1) Dead Load Self Load: It is the load of structural member due to its own weight.

Design Dead Loads as per IS:875:1987(Part-1) .

Design Live Loads as per IS:875:1987(Part-2) Live Load: “Live loads consist chiefly of occupancy loads in buildings” .

.5) Rigid Frames design: Loading and Analysis (Moment diagram to be provided) and design of Rigid frame using steel manuals.

75 KN/sqm reducible by 2/3 (slope of 10deg) . Live Load: 0. 10) Rigid Frames System IS 875-2 (1987): Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other.5mm Thick Roofing Sheet. Than Earthquake) For Buildings And Loading (Gravity Loads Only): Structures. Part 2: Imposed Loads Dead Load: Self weight of Truss or Beam plus 0.

Rigid Frame System .

.6) Review of design of rigid framing.

7) Composite flooring systems design for mezzanine: With steel decking and concrete topping .

Composite construction is when two different materials are bound together so strongly that they act together as a single unit from a structural stand point. During recent years. Steel-concrete composite construction uses steel beams. metal decking and concrete in a very efficient way so that the best properties of each material can be used to optimize construction techniques. Steel-concrete composite design has been widely applied in building construction. Then the composite section is available to carry all loads upon removal of the shores. Steel beams are shored (supported at intervals) during the pouring of slab and the shores remain in place until the concrete has attained a reasonable amount of its 28-day strength (usually 75%).Composite Flooring System The use of steel-concrete composite construction began around 1926. .

creating a reinforced concrete slab that serves the dual purpose of permanent form and positive reinforcement. .Structural Design Concept Composite construction is when two different materials are bound together so strongly that they act together as a single unit from a structural stand • Composite Steel Floor Deck has a ribbed profile point. •The composite action would reduce the steel used in Composite flooring system and also reduce deflection. with embossments designed to interlock with concrete slabs. •The composite action will reduce the buckling problems of the compression top chord members and will increase the stiffness of the structure. • The shear studs that are welded on to the double angle top chord provides composite action between the concrete deck slab and the double angle chord.

It is also possible to increase column spacings to provide larger usable space within a structure. Kit-of-parts construction of floor system with standardization of members and connections with simplified erection provides for fastest and quality construction. Greater stiffness. Beam spans of 6 to 12 m can be created giving maximum flexibility and division of the internal space. Customized composite flooring design can be employed for any given load and serviceability requirements. Advantages of Floor System 1. Efficient use of material. The cost of fireproofing can be reduced in addition to the cost reduction of steel beams. 3. Extra usable space. Weight savings resulting from the efficient composite design and member design of floor system will reduce overall building costs. The use of shallow beams can reduce building heights. 2. For the last 30 years. steel deck has been used as the forming material for building construction. The stiffness of the composite section can be increased. 6. As a result of composite design. 5. This reduces the deflection of the member as compared with the noncomposite beam. Large column free areas give the architects the maximum flexibility when selecting a floor layout plan. 4. the size and weight of steel beams can be reduced by as much as 15 to 30%. . Saving in labor and other because the construction was usually done with wood forming and the slab was reinforced with bars.

.8) Review of design of mezzanine framing.

Composite Floor System Building Application .8) Review of design of mezzanine framing.

. it is the tallest skyscraper in the city of Dallas. at Bank of America Plaza Standing at a structural height of 921 ft (281 m). Texas. Construction began in 1983 and finished in 1985.Composite Floor System Bank of America Plaza is a 72-story late-modernist skyscraper located in the Main Street District of downtown Dallas.

585 m2). Rising 619 feet (189 m).708 square @ One Detroit Center feet (155. the 43-story tower is the tallest office building in Michigan State. is a skyscraper which overlooks the Detroit Composite Floor System Financial District. .674. One Detroit Center. Construction began in 1991 and finished in 1993. Its floor area is 1.

Designed by architectural firm Lloyd Jones Brewer and Associates. Four Allen Center now called 1400 Smith Street is Composite Floor System a 691 ft (211m) tall postmodern skyscraper located in downtown Houston. . the building was completed in 1983. The building has 50 @ Four Allen Center floors and is the 11th tallest building in the city.

is the third-tallest building in Minneapolis. it is 774 feet (235.Composite Floor System @ The Wells Fargo Center The Wells Fargo Center. Construction began in 1986 and finished in 1988. . Minnesota.6 m) tall. It is a 57 storied tower completed in 1988. formerly known as Norwest Center. Norwest Center was designed with a modernized art deco style by César Pelli.

California. a local landmark. Composite Floor System @ Fox Plaza Fox Plaza is a 492 feet (150 m)-high skyscraper with 35 floors in Century City. Completed in 1987 . Los Angeles.

completed in 1995. Composite Floor System @ MTA Headquarters The MTA Building is a 398 ft (121 m) high rise office tower in Los Angeles. . with 25 floors.

Composite Floor System @ Bank of America Plaza Bank of America Plaza is a skyscraper located in Atlanta. At 312 m (1.024 ft) the tower is a 55 stories of office space completed in 1992 . Georgia.

it was also the tallest building in a major active seismic region. It consists of 73 stories above ground and two parking levels below ground. .Composite Floor System @ Bank of America Plaza U. Construction began in 1987 with completion in 1989. formerly Library Tower and First Interstate Bank World Center. It is the tallest building in California. Bank Tower. it is also the tallest building in the world with a roof-top heliport.S. its structure was designed to resist an earthquake of 8. is a 310.3 on the Richter scale.018 ft) skyscraper at downtown Los Angeles.3 m (1. Until the construction of Taipei 101.

Developed in 1991. the building contains approximately 1.000 sq ft (95. . 52- story office building designed by César Pelli in Downtown Los Angeles. California.200 m2) and a three-story Italian marble lobby. Composite Floor System @ 777 Tower 777 Tower (also known as the Pelli Tower) is a 221 m (725 ft). The exterior is clad with sculpted white metal and glass.025.

9)Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Column design using IS handbook for Structural Engineers Structural Steel SP6 (1)] Why Working Stress Method and SP6 (1)? .

9)Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Column design using IS special
publication for the design of steel structures[SP-6 (1)]

Loading (Gravity Loads Only):

Dead load:
a)Self weight of beam & column
b) 50mm thick steel deck plus 75mm concrete.

Live load: 5 KN/sqm

9)Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Column design using IS special
publication for the design of steel structures[SP-6 (1)]

10) Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Beams or trusses
design using IS special publication for the design of steel structures[SP-6 (1)]

IS 875-2 (1987): Code of Practice for Design Loads
(Other. Than Earthquake) For Buildings And
Loading (Gravity Loads Only): Structures, Part 2: Imposed Loads
Dead Load: Self weight of Truss or Beam
plus 0.5mm Thick Roofing Sheet.
Live Load: 0.75 KN/sqm reducible by 2/3 (slope of 10deg)

25mm Thick Roofing Sheet + 75MM Concrete Live Load: 5 KN/sqm .10) Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Beams or trusses design using IS special publication for the design of steel structures[SP-6 (1)] Loading (Gravity Loads Only): Dead Load: Self weight Beam plus 52MM1.

10) Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Beams or trusses design using IS special publication for the design of steel structures[SP-6 (1)] .

drawings and detailing. calculations. . and steel tonnage calculation.11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria. including loads used.

and steel tonnage calculation. calculations.11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria. . including loads used. drawings and detailing.

and steel tonnage calculation. including loads used. calculations.11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria. drawings and detailing. .

including loads used. . and steel tonnage calculation. drawings and detailing.11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria. calculations.

. including loads used. drawings and detailing. and steel tonnage calculation.11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria. calculations.

12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site. The building for site visit shall be similar to the building discussed in the semester and students at the end shall document and submit a report about the learnings and findings at Site .

.12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.

12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site. .

12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site. .

.12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.

at approximately 60.The Cloud The cloud project is one of the first large-scale cable supported spaceframe projects in the United States.000 square feet of covered area on each face .

Fabrication • Pipe storage • Welding • Shipping .

ST10 & ST12) The failure load was well over the allowable load. ST7. ST5.Strut Test Five strut type (ST3. The effect of bending moment due to self-weight on the smallest strut ST3 type was minimum. giving us great confidence in the strut design. . However the bending moment had effect on the ST5 strut type even in this case the safety factor was higher than the theoretical.

Installation Procedure • Foundation • Towers • Rings • Cables • Spaceframe Segments .

Connecting the north and south segments • Spaceframe sections were completed around each of the column towers first • The center sections were placed between the column sections • This created a stable system of space frame. cables. and the tower columns . connector struts.

Cladding Installation • The nosing frame sections were first installed • Later the cladding framing and cladding was installed .

with the eccentric cable supported nature of the design • The final result is a mammoth sized.Project Remarks • There were numerous difficult engineering issues to solve on this problem. shade and sign structure that provides visual impact for both the day and night times . sleek looking.

drawings and detailing. deck slab etc. 4) Sketch a typical structural steel drawing showing: Structural design criteria. 2) Calculation of total dead weight and live loads on the mezzanine structure as per IS875 (Part1&2). including structural framing and frame element (columns. include a framing plan for both the industrial building. beam.) arrangements with dimensions for all the different elements? Describe the behavior of the structural system used? 2) Draw plan. elevation and details for a one story mezzanine office floor occupying two-bay in an industrial building 18M X 48m. Determine the live and dead loads on roof. Framing elements as per IS- 800 Section and note all available steel grades with strengths? . including structural framing and frame element (columns. calculations. roof beam and column to be considered in the design of the structure. elevation and details for a one story industrial building 18M X 48m. Determine the mezzanine floor loads on a typical column and design column using IS special publication for the design of steel structures [SP-6 (1)] based on the type of occupancy as office. 3) Calculation of total dead weight and live loads on the mezzanine typical beam as per IS875 (Part1&2) and design beam using IS special publication for the design of steel structures [SP-6 (1)] based on the type of occupancy as office. and steel tonnage calculation for a one story industrial building 18M X 48m with two-bay mezzanine office floor.) arrangements with dimensions for all the different elements? Describe the behavior of the structural system used? Part B question 1) Calculation of total dead weight and live loads on factory structure as per IS875 (Part1&2). purlins etc. beam. including loads used. 5) Describe the use of Steel as a structural material: Basic characteristics of Steel including the stress strain curve and note all available steel grades with strengths? 6) Describe the concepts of design of Steel Structures: Working Stress Design and Load and Resistance Factor Design? 7) Draw and sketch the available sections in structural steel used in the design of. Questions aid for teaching Part A question 1) Draw plan.