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CAD Package for Electromagnetic and Thermal

Analysis using Finite Elements

Flux 2D Application
Tutorial of Magnetostatics

Copyright August 2009


Flux is a registered trademark.

Flux software : COPYRIGHT CEDRAT/INPG/CNRS/EDF


Flux tutorials : COPYRIGHT CEDRAT

This tutorial was edited on 18 August 2009

Ref.: K205-10-EN-08/09

CEDRAT
15 Chemin de Malacher - Inovalle
38246 Meylan Cedex
FRANCE
Phone: +33 (0)4 76 90 50 45
Fax: +33 (0)4 56 38 08 30
Email: cedrat@cedrat.com
Web: http://www.cedrat.com
Foreword

About the The objective of this document is to discover and master the various
tutorial functionalities of the software using the example of a simple device.
This tutorial contains the general steps and all the data needed to describe the
physics and the computation of the sensor model. Geometry and mesh of the
sensor model are already described in the Flux 2D Generic Tutorial of
Geometry and Mesh.

Required Before proceeding with this tutorial, the user must understand the
knowledge functionalities of the Flux software. The user can gain this knowledge by
initially completing the Generic tutorial. The Flux 2D Generic Tutorial of
Geometry and Mesh explains in detail all actions to build the geometry and
mesh of the study domain.

Path The files corresponding to the different cases studied in this tutorial are
available in the folder:
\DocExamples\Examples2D\MagnetostaticApplication\

Command files The files provided for this tutorial are:


and Flux files command files,
come in handy to build the Flux projects
Flux files
already built project files
The use of files is explained in the table below.

the user can


To describe execute the
follow recover the Flux file*
command file
the geometry 2D Generic Tutorial GeoMesh_2D.py
SENSOR_2D.FLU
and mesh
the physics 2.1of this tutorial GeoMeshPhys.py GEO_MESH_PHYS.FLU
Case 1 3. of this study Case1.py CASE1.FLU
Case 2 4. of this study Case2.py CASE2.FLU

* Flux files are ready to be meshed and then solved.


Flux10 Table of Contents

Table of Contents
1. General information .................................................................................................................1
1.1. Overview .......................................................................................................................................3
1.1.1. Description of the studied device....................................................................................4
1.1.2. Studied cases .................................................................................................................5
1.2. Strategy to build the Flux project ..................................................................................................6
1.2.1. Main phases for physical description..............................................................................7
2. Construction of the Flux project ...............................................................................................9
2.1. Physical description process.......................................................................................................10
2.1.1. Define the physical application .....................................................................................11
2.1.2. Create materials ...........................................................................................................12
2.1.3. Create face regions ......................................................................................................13
2.1.4. Create measuring coils: coil conductors components and coil conductor regions.......14
2.1.5. Assign face regions to faces.........................................................................................15
2.1.6. Orient material for face region ......................................................................................16
3. Case 1: static study ...............................................................................................................17
3.1. Case 1: solving process ..............................................................................................................18
3.2. Case 1: results post-processing..................................................................................................19
3.2.1. Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux density on volume regions ........20
3.2.2. Compute and display arrows of the magnetic flux density in faces region...................21
3.2.3. Create 2D grid for computation and display isovalues of the magnetic flux
density...........................................................................................................................22
3.2.4. Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux density on a 2D grid ..................23
3.2.5. Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic field strength on a 2D grid................24
3.2.6. Compute the magnetic flux density on a point .............................................................25
3.2.7. Plot a 2D curve of the magnetic field strength along a path.........................................26
3.2.8. Compute the magnetic force on face regions...............................................................28
4. Case 2: parametric computation............................................................................................29
4.1. Case 2: solving process ..............................................................................................................30
4.1.1. Create sensors .............................................................................................................31
4.1.2. Define the solving scenario and solve the project ........................................................32
4.2. Case 2: results post-processing..................................................................................................33
4.2.1. Display a color-shaded plot of the magnetic flux density (alpha=120) .......................34
4.2.2. Display arrows of the magnetic flux density (alpha=120) ...........................................35
4.2.3. Plot a 2D curve of the flux through coil conductors versus an I/O parameters (for
alpha=120) ..................................................................................................................35

PAGE A
Flux 10 General information

1. General information

Introduction This chapter contains the presentation of the studied device and the Flux
software.

Contents This chapter contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Overview 3
Strategy to build the Flux project 6

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 1


General information Flux10

PAGE 2 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 General information

1.1. Overview

Introduction This section presents the studied device (a variable reluctance speed sensor)
and the strategy of the device description in Flux.

Contents This section contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Description of the studied device 4
Studied cases 5

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 3


General information Flux10

1.1.1. Description of the studied device

Studied device The device to be analyzed is a variable reluctance speed sensor.


The studied device consists of:
a cogged wheel (made of steel) with three teeth
two probes with a magnet (made of ferrite) and a coil around each
The physical model of the studied device is presented in the figure below.

COIL 1+

MAGNET 1 PROBE 1
WHEEL
COIL 1-

COIL 2+

MAGNET 2 PROBE 2

COIL 2-

Operating The rotation of the cogged wheel near the tip of the probes changes the
principle magnetic flux, creating an analog voltage signal that can be measured in
probes.

PAGE 4 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 General information

1.1.2. Studied cases

Studied cases Three cases are carried out in a Magneto Static application:
case 1: static study
case 2: multi-parametric computation

Case 1 The first case is a static study.


This study is a very easy problem of Magneto Statics. In this study, a magneto
static analysis of the sensor is performed in a medium position: the two
probes between two teeth. A geometric parameter , which allow us to
control the angle of the wheel around Z axis, has a fixed value = 75 The
coils are not current supplied (=measuring coils)

Case 2 The second case is a parametric computation.


The angle of the cogged wheel will vary. In this parameterized study, the
geometric parameter is the angle that varies in the range [75, 195] with a
step of 3.

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 5


General information Flux10

1.2. Strategy to build the Flux project

Introduction This section presents outlines of physical properties description process of the
sensor.

Contents This section contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Main phases for physical description 7

PAGE 6 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 General information

1.2.1. Main phases for physical description

Outline An outline of the physical description process of the sensor is presented in


the table below.

Stage Description
Definition of the
Magneto Static 2D
application and
1 (solved with Flux 3D solver)
definition of the
2D plan (6mm)
depth of the domain
FERRITE magnet with a linear B(H)
Creation of two characteristic
2
materials STEEL ferromagnetic material with a
non linear B(H) characteristic
AIR_EXT region, corresponding with the
air surrounding the device
AIR_WHEEL region, corresponding with
Creation of four face the air in the cogged wheel
3
region MAGNET1 region corresponding with the
first magnet of the device
MAGNET2 re region corresponding with
the first magnet of the device
COIL_CONDUCTOR1
COIL_CONDUCTOR2
COIL1N region, corresponding with the
Creation of two negative part of the first coil
4
coils: COIL1P region, corresponding with the
Two components positive part of the first coil
Four face regions COIL2N region, corresponding with the
negative part of the second coil
COIL2P region, corresponding with the
positive part of the second coil

Continued on next page

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 7


General information Flux10

Main phases for physical description, Continued

Outline (continued)

Stage Description
COIL1P

AIR_EXT
MAGNET1

COIL1N
WHEEL

COIL2P
Assignment of face
5
regions
MAGNET2
AIR WHEEL

COIL2N
INFINITE

6 Material orientation

PAGE 8 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Construction of the Flux project

2. Construction of the Flux project

Introduction This chapter contains the physical description of the sensor. For a more
detailed description of the basic geometry of the sensor, the user should
reference the Flux 2D Generic Tutorial of Geometry and Mesh. The user must
have good understanding of all functionalities of the Flux preprocessor.

Starting Flux The starting project is the Flux project GEO_MESH.FLU.


project This project contains:
the geometry description of the contactor
the mesh of the computation domain

New Flux The new Flux project is GEO_MESH_PHYS.FLU.


project

Contents This chapter contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Physical description process 10

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 9


Construction of the Flux project Flux10

2.1. Physical description process

Introduction This section presents the definition of the physical properties materials and
regions.

Contents This section contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Define the physical application 11
Create materials 12
Create face regions 13
Create measuring coils 14
Assign face regions to faces 15
Orient material for face region 16

PAGE 10 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Construction of the Flux project

2.1.1. Define the physical application

Goal First, the physical application is defined. The required physical application is
the Magneto Static 2D application.

Data The characteristics of the application are presented in the table below.

Magneto Static 2D application


Definition Coils
Solver
2D domain type Depth of the domain Coefficient
2D plane 6 mm Flux3D solver Automatic
Coefficient

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 11


Construction of the Flux project Flux10

2.1.2. Create materials

Goal Two materials are created directly for the physical description of the sensor;
the two materials are characterized by their magnetic properties:
the first material is FERRITE defined for the coiled magnets
the second material is STEEL defined for the cogged wheel

Data The characteristics of the materials are presented in the tables below.

B(H) linear magnet described in the Br module


Name Remanent flux density (T) Relative permeability
FERRITE 0.8 1

B(H) isotropic analytic saturation (arctg 2 coef.)


Saturation magnetization
Name Initial relative permeability
(T)
STEEL 5000 1.9

PAGE 12 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Construction of the Flux project

2.1.3. Create face regions

Goal Five face regions are necessary for the physical description of the sensor.
Five following face regions will be created:
the AIR_EXT region, corresponding with the air surrounding the device
the AIR_WHEEL region, corresponding with the air in the cogged wheel
the MAGNET1 region, corresponding with the first magnet of the device
the MAGNET2 region, corresponding with the second magnet of the device
the WHEEL region, corresponding with the cogged wheel
The INFINITE region, already created during the infinite box creation, will be
edited to activate its physical properties.

Data The characteristics of the face regions are presented in the table below.

Face region
Name Type Material Color
AIR_EXT Air or vacuum region Turquoise
AIR_WHEEL Air or vacuum region Turquoise
INFINITE* Air or vacuum region Turquoise
MAGNET1 Magnetic non-conducting region FERRITE Magenta
MAGNET2 Magnetic non-conducting region FERRITE Magenta
WHEEL Magnetic non-conducting region STEEL Cyan

*The region already created and assigned during the creation of the infinite box,
however the user need to enter the type of the region.

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 13


Construction of the Flux project Flux10

2.1.4. Create measuring coils: coil conductors components


and coil conductor regions

Goal Two coils are created to measure the flux density.

About coil In magnetic applications, a coil is represented by one face region or by a


group of face regions of the coil conductor type.
The value I of the current in a wire (or turn) of the coil is set by means of
an electric component (of coil conductor type) associated to the coil.

Data (1) The characteristics of the electric components (of coil conductor type) are
presented in the table below:

Stranded coil conductor with imposed current (A)


Name comment Value
COIL_CONDUCTOR1 Coil conductor on the first coil 0
COIL_CONDUCTOR2 Coil conductor on the second coil 0

Data (2) The characteristics of the regions (of coil conductor type) are presented in the
table below:

Coil conductor type region


Component Series or
Face region Orientation Turn number Color
parallel
COIL1N COIL_CONDUCTOR1 negative 1000 series red
COIL1P COIL_CONDUCTOR1 positive 1000 series red
COIL2N COIL_CONDUCTOR2 negative 1000 series red
COIL2P COIL_CONDUCTOR2 positive 1000 series red

the COIL1N region, corresponding with the negative part of the first coil
the COIL1P region, corresponding with the positive part of the first coil
the COIL2N region, corresponding with the negative part of the second coil
the COIL2P region, corresponding with the positive part of the second coil

PAGE 14 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Construction of the Flux project

2.1.5. Assign face regions to faces

Goal The INFINITE region has been already assigned during the creation of the
infinite box. The nine regions (AIR_EXT, AIR_INT, WHEEL, COIL1P,
COIL1N, MAGNET1, COIL2P, COIL2N, and MAGNET2) are assigned to
faces.

Outline The region assignment is presented in the figure below.

COIL1P
AIR_EXT
MAGNET1

COIL1N
WHEEL

COIL2P

MAGNET2
AIR_WHEEL

COIL2N

INFINITE

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 15


Construction of the Flux project Flux10

2.1.6. Orient material for face region

Goal An orientation of the material region is needed to describe physics.

Data The orientation of the material region is related in the table below

Orient material for face region


Name Oriented type Coordinate system Angle
MAGNET1 Direction PROBE_CS 0
MAGNET2 Direction PROBE_CS001 0

PAGE 16 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Case 1: static study

3. Case 1: static study

Case 1 The first case is a static study.


This study is a very easy problem of Magneto Statics. In this study, a magneto
static analysis of the sensor is performed in a medium position: the two
probes between two teeth. A geometric parameter , which allow us to
control the angle of the wheel around Z axis, has a fixed value = 75 The
coils are not current supplied (=measuring coils)

Starting Flux The starting project is the Flux project GEO_MESH_PHYS.FLU. This
project project contains:
the geometry description of the device
the mesh and computation domain
the initial physical description of the contactor

Project name The Flux project is saved under the name of CASE1.FLU

Contents This chapter contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Case 1: solving process 18
Case 1: results post-processing 19

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 17


Case 1: static study Flux10

3.1. Case 1: solving process

Introduction This section explains how to solve case 1.

Flux module The Flux module is Preflu2D.

Action Case 1 is solved using the default scenario with reference values.

PAGE 18 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Case 1: static study

3.2. Case 1: results post-processing

Introduction This section explains how to analyze the principal results of case 1.

Contents This section contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux density on 20
volume regions
Compute and display arrows of the magnetic flux density in 21
faces region
Create 2D grid for computation and display 22
Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux density on 23
a 2D grid
Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic field strength 24
on a 2D grid
Compute the magnetic flux density on a point 25
Plot a 2D curve of the magnetic field strength along a path 26
Compute the magnetic force on face regions 28

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 19


Case 1: static study Flux10

3.2.1. Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux


density on volume regions

Goal The scalar quantities of the magnetic flux density are computed on the
selected volume region and displayed via isovalue plot of color shadings.

Data The characteristics of the isovalues are presented in the table below:

Isovalues on face region


Face region Formula
AIR_EXT
COIL1P
COIL1N
COIL2P
Mod(B)
COIL2N
MAGNET1
MAGNET2
WHEEL

Result The following chart shows the magnetic flux density on the AIR_EXT,
COIL1P, COIL1N, COIL2P, COIL2N, MAGNET1, MAGNET2, and
WHEEL face regions.

PAGE 20 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Case 1: static study

3.2.2. Compute and display arrows of the magnetic flux


density in faces region

Goal The vector quantities of the magnetic flux density are computed in the
selected face regions and displayed in the form of arrows.

Data The characteristics of the arrows are presented in the table below.

Arrows in Face regions


Volume region Formula
AIR_EXT
COIL1P
COIL1N
COIL2P
(B)
COIL2N
MAGNET1
MAGNET2
WHEEL

Result The following arrows show direction and magnitude of the magnetic flux
density in the AIR_EXT, COIL1P, COIL1N, COIL2P, COIL2N, MAGNET1,
MAGNET2 and WHEEL face regions.

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 21


Case 1: static study Flux10

3.2.3. Create 2D grid for computation and display isovalues


of the magnetic flux density

Goal One 2D grid is created midpoint of the second stranded coil

Data The characteristics of the 2D grid are presented in the table below.

Rectangular 2D grid in XY plane: definition


2D grid origin coordinates
Name Comment Coordinate system
First Second
GRID_ONMAGNET For the magnet PROBE_CS 0 0

Rectangular 2D grid in XY plane: definition


Characteristics along X Characteristics along Y
Number of Number of
Positive X Negative X Positive Y Negative Y
disc. elements disc. elements
12 12 30 6 6 20

Rectangular 2D grid in XY plane: appearance


Visibility Color
visible green

PAGE 22 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Case 1: static study

3.2.4. Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic flux


density on a 2D grid

Goal The scalar quantities of the magnetic flux density are computed on the 2D
grids and displayed via isovalue plots of color shadings.

Data The characteristics of the isovalues are presented in the table below.

Isovalues on 2D grid
2D grid Formula
GRID_ONMAGNET Mod(B)

Result The following chart shows the magnetic flux density on the
GRID_ONMAGNET grid

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 23


Case 1: static study Flux10

3.2.5. Compute and display isovalues of the magnetic field


strength on a 2D grid

Goal The scalar quantities of the magnetic flux density are computed on the 2D
grids and displayed via isovalue plots of color shadings.

Data The characteristics of the isovalues are presented in the table below.

Isovalues on 2D grid
2D grid Formula
GRID_ONMAGNET Mod(H)

Result The following chart shows the magnetic field strength on the
GRID_ONMAGNET grid

PAGE 24 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Case 1: static study

3.2.6. Compute the magnetic flux density on a point

Goal The magnetic flux density is computed on the selected point.

Data The characteristics of the point are presented in the table below.

Quantities computation on points


Name Comment Formula
POINT1 Center of the magnet B

Point defined by its coordinates


Coordinates localization Coord. system Region
first second
0 0 no constraint PROBE_CS001 MAGNET2

Result The following values show the X and Y components of the magnetic flux
density at the above-described point.

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 25


Case 1: static study Flux10

3.2.7. Plot a 2D curve of the magnetic field strength along a


path

Goal The variation of the magnetic flux density is computed along the selected path
and displayed as curve.

Data (1) The characteristics of the path are presented in the table below.

Path defined by 2 points


Name Comment Definition Discretization
SEGMENT Along the magnet by coordinates 50

Path defined by coordinates


Path points
Starting point Ending point
Coordinates Coordinates
Coord. system Coord. system
First Second First Second
PROBE_CS001 -15 0 PROBE_CS001 15 0

Data (2) The characteristics of the curve are presented in the table below.

2D curve (XYZ path)


Name Comment Path Formula
Magnetic field strength along
CURVE SEGMENT H
the segment in magnet

Continued on next page

PAGE 26 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Case 1: static study

Result The following curves show the components of the magnetic field strength
along the X and Y -axes.

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 27


Case 1: static study Flux10

3.2.8. Compute the magnetic force on face regions

Goal The value of the magnetic force is computed on the selected volume region
and the result of computation is displayed in the dialog box.

Data The characteristics of the magnetic force computation are presented in the
table below.

Predefined magnetic force


Name Face region
FORCE_MAGNET MAGNET2

Result The following dialog box shows the result of computation of the magnetic
force on the MAGNET2 face region.

PAGE 28 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Case 2: parametric computation

4. Case 2: parametric computation

Case 2 The second case is a parametric computation.


The angle of the cogged wheel will vary. In this parametric study, the
geometric parameter is the angle that varies in the range [75, 195] with a
step of 3.

Starting Flux The starting project is the Flux project GEO_MESH_PHYS.FLU. This
project project contains:
the geometry description of the device
the mesh and computation domain
the initial physical description of the contactor

Project name The new Flux project is saved under the name of CASE2.FLU.

Contents This chapter contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Case 2: solving process 30
Case 2: results post-processing 33

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 29


Case 2: parametric computation Flux10

4.1. Case 2: solving process

Introduction This section explains how to prepare and solve case 2.

Flux module The Flux module is Preflu_2D.

Contents This section contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Create sensors 31
Define the solving scenario and solve the project 32

PAGE 30 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Case 2: parametric computation

4.1.1. Create sensors

Goal Two sensors are created to compute the magnetic flux through the coils

Data The characteristics of the sensors are defined in the table below.

Predefined sensor : Flux through a coil conductor


Name Coil Conductor
FLUX_PROBE1 COIL_CONDUCTOR1
FLUX_PROBE2 COIL_CONDUCTOR2

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 31


Case 2: parametric computation Flux10

4.1.2. Define the solving scenario and solve the project

Goal The scenario with the controlled geometrical parameter is defined for a
varying solving process.

Data The characteristics of the solving scenario are presented in the tables below.

Solving scenario
Name Comment Type
SCENARIO1 study using a geometrical parameter multi-values

Solving scenario
Parameter control
Interval
Controlled
Type Lower Upper
parameter Method Step value
endpoint endpoint
step
ALPHA Multi-values 75 195 3
value

Action Solve CASE 2 using the scenario 1 with parametric study.

PAGE 32 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Case 2: parametric computation

4.2. Case 2: results post-processing

Introduction This section explains how to analyze the principal results of case 2.

Contents This section contains the following topics:

Topic See Page


Display a color-shaded plot of the magnetic flux density 34
Display arrows of the magnetic flux density 35
Display arrows of the magnetic flux density 35

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 33


Case 2: parametric computation Flux10

4.2.1. Display a color-shaded plot of the magnetic flux


density (alpha=120)

Goal First, the computation step of the geometrical parameterized study is selected
(alpha=120). Then, the scalar quantities of the magnetic flux density are
computed on the selected face regions and displayed via isovalue plots of
color shadings.

Data (1) The characteristics of the scenario and computation step selection are
presented in the table below.

Scenario and computation step


Computation step
Scenario
Parameter name Value
SCENARIO1 ALPHA 120

Data (2) The characteristics of the isovalues are presented in the table below.

Isovalues on face region


Face region Formula
AIR_EXT
COIL1N
COIL1P
COIL2N
Mod(B)
COIL2P
MAGNET1
MAGNET2
WHEEL

Result The following chart shows the magnetic flux density on the selected regions.

PAGE 34 Tutorial of Magnetostatics


Flux 10 Case 2: parametric computation

4.2.2. Display arrows of the magnetic flux density


(alpha=120)

Goal First, the computation step of the geometrical parameterized study is selected
(alpha =120). Then, the scalar quantities of the magnetic flux density are
computed on the selected face regions and displayed via arrows.

Data (1) The characteristics of the scenario and computation step selection are
presented in the table below.

Scenario and computation step


Computation step
Scenario
Parameter name Value
CASE2 ALPHA 120

Data (2) The characteristics of the arrows are presented in the table below.

Arrows on face region


Face region Formula
AIR_EXT
COIL1N
COIL1P
COIL2N
(B)
COIL2P
MAGNET1
MAGNET2
WHEEL

Result The following chart shows the magnetic flux density on the selected regions.

Tutorial of Magnetostatics PAGE 35


Case 2: parametric computation Flux10

4.2.3. Plot a 2D curve of the flux through coil conductors


versus an I/O parameters (for alpha=120)

Goal The values of the flux through the two coil conductor versus the angular
position of the cogged wheel are computed and displayed in a curve

Data The characteristics of the curve are presented in the table below

2D curve (I/O parameter)


Parameter Formula
Name Comment Name Lower Upper sensors
endpoint endpoint
Flux_probe1
CURVE Flux through coil conductor ALPHA 75 195
Flux_probe2

Result The following curves show the variation of flux through coil conductor in
function of the angle variation of the cogged wheel.

PAGE 36 Tutorial of Magnetostatics