BA SH RE E F RENCE

CONTE S NT
A la ng............. isi ............. .............6 ............ ............ A rt mei E a ai n........ 8 ih tc v l to ........ u ........ ........ ........ A ras.............. 3 r y ............. 1 ............. ............. ............. Br c E p nsi n.......... 6 ae x a o .......... .......... .......... ......... Bul- Co i I t n mma s ......... 1 nd ......... 6 ......... ......... ........ Co mma L neA r u nt ....... 3 nd i g me s ...... ...... ...... ...... Co mmadSu stt to ........ 8 n b iui n........ ........ ....... ....... Co ii n lE p e o ........ 5 ndto a x r ssi ns ....... 1 ....... ....... ....... Co r lCo nto mma s ......... 1 nd ......... 4 ......... ......... ........ Dei to ............ f i ns ............ ni ............ ............2 ........... E e ui nOr e .......... 1 x c to d r.......... 3 .......... .......... ......... FedSpitng ........... 8 il l i ........... t ........... .......... .......... F nci ns ............ 1 u to ............ 2 ............ ............ ............ H i o y b iui n......... 5 st r Su st t to ......... ......... ........ ........ Ip t Ou p t........... 1 n u / t u ........... 3 ........... ........... .......... Iv c to a St ru ........ n o a n nd at p ........ i ........3 ....... ....... J bIs adJ bCo rl........ o d n o nto........24 ....... ....... ....... Op i ns T to ose ........... t...........22 .......... .......... .......... Op i ns T h p .......... 23 to os o t.......... .......... ......... ......... Op i ns T e ........... to ot st .......... 21 .......... .......... .......... P t e s............. at r ............. n .............9 ............ ............ Pe f dVa a l s ........ 1 r- i De ne r be ........ 0 i ........ ........ ........ P o e Su stt to ......... 8 r c ss b iui n ......... ........ ........ ........ Po tng............ rmp i ............ ............ ............4 ........... Qu tng............. o i ............. .............6 ............ ............ R a lne............. e di ............. ............ 25 ............ ............ R a lneDietv s ......... 25 e di rci e ......... ......... ......... ........ R a l Ke Bi i s ........ 25 e di ne y ndng ........ ........ ........ ....... R a lneVa a l s .......... e di r be ......... 26 i ......... ......... ......... R st it db sh.......... 2 e r e a ........... c .......... .......... .......... Si nas a T a s .......... 3 g l nd r p .......... ......... 1 ......... ......... Sp caChrce ......... 24 e i l a t r ......... a s.......... ......... ......... Ti eSu st t to .......... 6 l d b iui n.......... ......... ......... ......... Va a l Assi nme ......... 9 r be i g nt......... ........ ........ ........ Va a l Na s .......... 9 r be me .......... i .......... .......... .......... Va a l Su st t to ......... 7 r be b iui n ........ i ........ ........ ........ Th r fr n ec r w a w rte b A r l R b i W e i eeec ad s s it n y nod o bns. t a Ch tR me (a ’ ma a r frh h l . h nk e a y b sh s i i )o i e nt ne s p

DE I T ONS FNII
Th c r d sc i e v r o 2. 0 f a . i ad e rb s esi n 0 o b sh s 2. Se eat p fc s aeu dt caiy h me ni : v r l y eae r se o lrf t e a ng • Seia odi u dfrc mp t rn u . rf B l s se o o u e ip t • Sei I l i u d t i iae u r ip t ad fr ra t i s se o ndc t se n u n o f ac sy atcpae od r su h s v r be r md nt ci l c h l es, c a aal o c . i • Seia o n i u dfre pa t r t x. r R ma s se o xl nao y et f bak ln o mo e sp c s ad o t b c aat r I a dto , r r a e n / a h rc es. n d ii n r w o d ae t r na e b a rs r emi t d y ny o t e fl w i f h ol ng o c aat r h r ces: ; ) <>sp c ta n w lne &( | ae b e i c mmad o n w od r s. l i st pp l e Ca b se aa e b , , ien s. n e p r t d y; & i & , a o to ay et r na db ;& & | nd pi n l b emi te y, . | l n n me a k w od e r y b sh l ng a e a a u g. Kew o d ae sp ca o yat ra;o n w l , f r y rs r e i l nl f e r e i at ne e a t e k w o d adi c ra o h rc nt xs. no h r e r , n n et i t e o et y n pt a b sh at r. e aens. a p ten Se P t r t pp l iene i b a ie(. y pp | ) stig r n sustt to b iuin c mma l o nd i w ih df rn t x,eg rpai a ne t if et et ., el cng e . v r be w ih is v l e b sh p ro ms ma ai l a t t a . a u efr ny s u stt to Th c r l s t e i t eo d rt e a b iui ns. i ad i s st h m n h r e h y r e p rome . efr d w od r ne e r i i c nt i s sp cac aat r c ssayft o a n e i l h r ces.

COM A ND L NEA RGUM N T M I E S
b sh a cp s t e o e lt e oto t se, nd t e a c e t h n et r pi ns o t a h a dto lo l te a G N U- y l n o to sh w n d ii na ne et r nd st l o g pi ns o e b lw . eo $ a o to s] a s] b sh[pi n [r g c md e s o to p o e ng nd p i n rc ssi e s o to p o e ng nd p i n rc ssi e e ue c xc t md (ea l ra s d fut e d c mma f m fe na d i o nd r o i l me n f st e r o a s a fu va i r nt y f r nd o nd i g p t s e rh ah ac ) p i a d u l q o e st i s r nt l o be u t d rng l t a ae p e e e b a $t ht r r c d d y o st o t d u.Ths i l s i mpi e ,no c mma s ae x c t d o nd r e e ue se i eatv mo e t nt r cie d se r st it dmo e te r e c d r a cmma s fo ed o nd r m st i dn (ea l) d fut sa a me s ,u o t u i G N U b t up t n g te tfr t et x o ma sa a me s ds pa a epme g a e i i ly hl ssa e nd x t su c ssfl c e ul y atlk a o i s h l c ie l g n el d no u et er a lnel rr o t s h e di i ay b t o r a c mma s ed o nd w hn e i eatv nt r ci e d no r a a o t e d ny o t e f h i taz to nii l ai n i fe i s. l Se e Iv c t nAn St r p b l w n o ao i d a u ,e t o d o no t ra e d ˜b shc i / r . a f i eatv . eIv c t n And nt r ci e Se n o ao i St r p b l w at ,eo u fl w t e I E P X 1 3. ol o h E E OSI 0 2 0 st nd r a ad u fe i t a o / shc i se i ns e d f˜b r f l . a i eatv nt r ci e sa a me s sa a me s pi r nt v r o i o mai n o esi n nfr to n st o ta e i su c ssfl d u nd xt c e ul y

I NVOCATI A ND ST RTUP c ntnu d ON A ( i e) o 3.n o e a sh n eatv l g s h ls r a a Iv kd s :It r cie o i n el e d nd e e ue/cp o iea / o iei t e e i . e x c t e / fl nd˜p fl f h y x t r . r st Th se fe ae sk p d i is r l i e f p i u e . n eatv s s d It r ci e sh l e p nd $N V ad e e uet a f ei i ei s. el xa s E n xc t ht i f t x l st No i eatv sh l d no r a a st ru fe n- r cie el o t e d ny at p i s. nt s l A f rt est ru fe aee eue ,a t h a p i s r x ct d b she es P X e t l nt r OSI mo e d.
4 P X mo e W h n st r e w ih . OSI d : e at d t , eatv i r ci e nt sh l e p nd $N V ad e e ue t e g e fe N o el xa s E n x ct h i n i . v l o hrst r u f l s a r a. t e at p i e r e d e 5.v kdva sh :f u f m r da no iv kda I o e i r d Ir n r n o sh nd t n o e s o to sk s t i pi n i hs p sh b shr a s ˜b shc Th ,a e d / r . e . a st p a t e e ,nd h o to c a e t efe b tr d pi n h ngs h i ,u sh l u u lyd e no p ss t e o to o t t esh l i s a l os t a h se p i ns n o h el t iv ks. noe I SH E f$ LLOP e i s i t ee io TS x st n h nvr nme a st ru , nt t at p b she be t eg e o to a na l s h i n p i ns. v

P ROM TI P NG
W h n i eatv ,b sh ds pas t e p i r a e nt r cie a i ly h r may nd se o ay p o t st i s,$ c nd r r mp r ng P S1 a nd $ P S2.b sh a e p nd t efl w i e aese u nc s i t ev l e xa s h ol ng sc p o qe e n h a s u o t e sti s. f h se r ng

RE STRI D b sh CTE a
p i n, s t I b shi iv kda r a , r iht e o to i i f a s n o e s b sh o w t h rst it d Th fl w i ato ae n t ao e i a e r e. e ol ng ci ns r o l w d n c o l rst it dsh l: e rce el c a i drco y ih d h ng ng iet r w t c setng ruset ng SH E o $ATH ti o n t i $ LL r P u ngp th a s frc mma s t a c nt i / si a n me o o nd h t o a n u nga ahna t a c nt i /r h c mma si pt me h t o a ns f t e. o o nd i o tngfnci ns fo t ee io mp ri u to r m h nv rnme nt p r ng SH E asi $ LLOP a st ru TS t at p r drci o t u w ih ny f ,|< ,& & ,r > e ietng up t t a o > >,> > , > o > u nge e or n a i ee t c mma si x ct u df r n o f nd a dng rd ltngb i - c mma s w ih na l d i o eei ul i o tn nd t e be u ng si t b p ss ae rce P o y a rst it d$ATH u ngse + r t+ r st it d si t ro se o e rce Th se rst ito e e rci ns ae i efc ae e e ui r n f t f r x c tng a e t l l st ru i s,l w i t ea t o o t est ru fe fl at pfe ao ng h uh r f h a p i s ul l l t l c nto i setng u t e rst it d e io o r l n ti p h e rce nvr nme .I nt ( n p atc ,e r t d sh l ae n t u dmu h a t e r cie rst i e c el r o se s c ,s hy aed f utt se u c rety r i i l o t p orcl . fc )

OTHE SSC P R RODUCTS: Sp caz dSy e Co ut nt I . e il e i st ms ns la s, c n ( 6) OR- X/ 6)8 7 33 20 F UNI ( 7220 7 F AX:20 72- 9 ( 6)8 7 1 1 E ma: l s@ sscc m - i sa l e . o URL h p/w w. .m : t :w t / sscc o L nu J una i xor l —Th P e e Lnu M g zne e r mi r i x a ai Teh c lB o s a CDs c ni a o k nd SA M :nt g t ngUNI adW i o s BA I e r i a X n nd w Sh l T t r l KSH Reee e el uo i s, a fr nc VI E c Reee e VI uo i l & mas fr nc s, T t r a

\ a a A SCIBE c aat r o t l0) n I L h r ce ( a 7 c \ d t e aen ‘ e ka Mo hDa’fr t h d t i ‘ e d y nt W y o ma ’ \ e a A SCI e aec aat r o t l 33) n I sc p h r ce ( a0 c \ h t e o na u t t ef std t( h h st me p o h i r o . ) \ H t e ul o na h f l h st me \ n a wl ne i ne \ r a ar g rt r c ri e eu n a \ s t e meo t esh l (a n meo $ h na f h el b se a f0 ) \ t t etmei 24h u H H : h i n -o r MM: fr t SS o ma \ T t etmei 1 h u H H : h i n 2-o r MM: fr t SS o ma fe i l \ u t eu r u r me h se’ sena s \ v t e esi no b sh(. 2. h vro f a e .0 g , 2) \ V t e esi nadp t he e o b sh( g 2. 0 h v r o n ac l v l f a e . 0 ) . , 2. \ w t e ur ntw o k drcoy h c re ri ng ietr \ W t e a na o t ec re w o k drcoy h b se me f h ur nt r i ng iet r \ ! t eh o y mb r f hs c mma h i r nu e o t i o st nd \ # te o h c mma nu e o t i c mma nd mb r f h o s nd \ $ a i t e f ci eUI i 0o h r i a # h ef tv f e D s ,t ew se $ I NVOCATI A ND S T RTUP ON A @ t e i i 1 h u a p fr t h tme n 2- r m/ o ma o m Th r aefv w as t a a u no ma i eatv , \ ee r i e y h tb shr ns: r l nt r cie \ a ak a b c sl sh no ma n n- eatv ,a sh n P SI mo e o r l o i r ci e s nt ,i O X d, r \ \n nn t ec aat rcre o d t o t l a en n h h r c e or sp n i o c av l ng u n iv kdva sh . noe ir d \ [ st r se u nc o n n- i i c aat r ata q e e f o p ntng h r ces r 1No ma i eatv :Lo i s h ls r n c mma s i . r l nt r ci e g n el u o nd n \ ] e da q e eo n n- i i c aat r n se u nc f o p ntng h r ces r /cp o ie Th f st o / shp o ie ˜b shl gn, e / fl . e i t r r f˜b _r fl , . _o i . a / a Th h o ynu e i t enu e o t ec mma i e i r st mb r s h mb r f h o nd n a ˜p o iet a i f ud i e e u e. i st g i nd / fl h t s o n s xc t d Th . r s ae s t eh o yl , hc ma i l d c mma s r st r d h i r i w ih y ncu e o st st nd e o e i ue. s s d sk p di i e f p f m t e h o y fe Th c mma nu e i t e r o h i r i. e o st l nd mb r s h Up n l g u,a r ns ˜b shl g u ftei s. o o o t b sh u /a _o o ti i x . st nu e o t i c mma mb r f hs o nd st ri atng f m t e f st r o h i r o nd u y h ur nt n o a n f h el i I eatv n n- g s h l e eue ˜b shc f i nt r cie o l i o n el xc t /a r ,i t c mma r n b t ec re iv c to o t esh l. s . e i s. h x st T e il pi n c a e t efet a i feo to h ngs h i ht s i l ’ ’ . Th d futv l eo P i ‘ e ea l a u f S1 ‘ s ue. s d 2. r l n n- eatv :No i eatv sh ls d No ma o i r ci e nt n- r cie e nt l o v r be cmma , n aih tcsu st t to o t e ai l , o a nd ad rt mei b iui n n h v l e o $ SH _ NV,a i t e rsut na s a a u f BA E nd f h e l me n e i i fe t a fei e e u e . x ng i , t i s xc t d st l h l

E r r p r ng ro Re o t i
I y uf a erri t i r fr n eadaet e istt fo i nd n ro n hs eeec n r h f r o © Co yi h 1 9 e i l e Sy e Co ut nt I . r p r i, ew i sed yu af ec p o a o o r p r t 9 Sp caz d st ms g 9 i ns la s, , e ot t w nc l n l o r e o y f ny f u P Bx . o 5554 , ate W A 9 1 0 9 O. 9Setl , 8 55- . 54 r f r n e P a w rt , r s e d eeto c ma t eeec s. l se ie o e n l cr ni i o l A l R g t R sev d l i hs e r e . bg u s@sscc m. . o 1 2

3

4

H I ORY SUBSTIUTI ST T ON
H i o ye p nsi n i si lr t c ’ I s e be b st r xa o s mi a o sh s.ti na l d y \ c d fut i i eatv sh ls. H i o y e p nsi n ea l n nt r cie el st r xa o `. . . ` h p e b fr t eshl b e k t eip ti o w o d a p ns eo e h e r as h n u nt l rs, ". . . " a h u h q oi i r c g z d a q o e t x i l og t utng s e o nie nd u t d et s te te a o eh o y‘ o d . ra d s n i r ‘ r ’ st w ’

QUOTI NG
q o e ng c aat r u t si l h r ce c e ods t l c mma s u stt to l y o e nd b iui n t x t e t d s a ng ag me ,o be et rae a si l r u nt d u l e q oe r mo e ; ai be cmma a u t s e v d vra l ,o nd nd aih tcsu stt to p ro me ; rt mei b iui ns efr d u se\ oq oe$ , a t u t , ` nd" \, l e".b tl c l t aslto d n i .,u o a r n ai n o e k . " e t x t e t d s a ng ag me , ng et rae a si l r u nt si l e e q o e r mo e ;e tb t e n q o e u t s e v d t x ew e u t s l f a ne c n o i l d et l ,an t ncu e´ o t x t e t d s a ng ag me , a et rae a si l r u nt $ nd e si l q o e r mo e ; os u stt to s ng u t s e v d n e b iui n p ro me ; N SI a a dto l efr d A C nd d ii na e aese u nc s p o e d sc p q e e r c sse :

VA RI BLESUBSTIUTI A T ON
$ me n a r f r n e oshl v r ben me eeec t e aal a l i $a } { me n u eb ae t d lmi sh l v r ben me s r c s o ei t el a a l a i $a { me w od} n r u ev r ben mef t ese sew od s a a l a i se,l u i r $ a =w od} { me n r a a o eb ta se a t od s bv u l so tn me ow r $ a ? od} { me w r n u a i se,t ew i p i sen mef t o hr se r ntw oda r nd e i ( eatv sh l d no ei) xt i r cie el o t xt nt s $ a + od} { me w r n u sew odi n mes se, t ew i u r f a i t o hr se se no h ti ng $ a [] { me } n n e me l e ntni ar y a n ra n me $ n me { a } # l ngh f elv r ben me e t o sh l a a l a i $ n me ] nu e o ee nt i ar y a { a [ } # * mb r f l me s n ra n me $ n me } nu e o ee nt i ar y a { a [ # @] mb r f l me s n ra n me $ a # t r mo esh re l a i s u sti { mep } n a e v o t st e dng b r ng o n me h tmac e p t fa ta t hs a $ a #p t r mo e o e l a i s u sti { me# } e v l ng st e dng b r n a ng o n me h tmac e p t fa ta t hs a $ a %p t r mo esh re ta i s u sti { me a} e v n o t st r i ng b r l ng o n me h tmac e p t fa ta t hs a $ a %%p t { me n a} r mo e o e t ai s u sti e v l ng st r i ng b r l ng o n me h tmac e p t fa ta t hs a $ a :a} { me r n st t $ a :a: n t } { me r l gh n st t e ln t c aat r o n me atnga egh h r ces f a st ri t str c u i f m 0 u e e o a o ntng r t( o ) s r st f ; v l ei noln t .e ai estr a f egh N g tv a u t c u s fo t ee . n mes * r o nt r m h nd I a i o @ f o a ar y nd x db * r str r n r a i e e y o @, a t a egh ndc t t e ra i e a ndln t i iae h ar y nd x nd c u o ee nt str ndln t c n o nt f l me s.a ta eg a h b aih tce p e o s e rt mei x r ssi n $ a /ten/ ig { mep t r st n } n a r v l eo n me ih istmac o p ten a u fa w t f r th fa r t r pae w ih r g e l c d t sti n $ a /ten} { mep t r n a v l eo n me ih istmac o p ten a u fa w t f r th fa r t d lt d eee $ a /a en/ ig { me/t r st n } n p t r v l eo n me ih v r mac o a u f a w t e ey t h f p ten r pae w ih r g a r e l c d t sti t n $ a / a en/ ig { me# t r st n } n p t r v l eo n me ih t ho p ten a u f a w t mac f a r t r pae w ih r gmac mu to c r e l c d t sti ; t h s c u n a b g ng t ei nni $ a / a en/ ig { me%p t r st n } n t r v l eo n me ih t ho p ten a u f a w t mac f a r t r pae w ih r gmac o c r a e e l c d t sti ; t h c u s t nd n = ?a , si a :i ed fn me No e fr , , , nd + u ngn me nst a o a t :o t st w h t e a es eh rn mei se a n n- L u ngn me s t nd o NUL ; si a t st o l w h t e n mes se. e s ny eh r a i t F r## %, o ,# %%,,/#a %, h n n me s * r@ , / , ,nd/ w e a i o // o a ar y i e e b * o @,t e s u sti o r n r a nd x d y r h b r ng r s u stt to o eai ni a pi dt ec e me . b iui n p rt o s p l e o ah l e nt

A RIH M TI E T E C VALUAT ON I
A rt mei e a ai n i d ne w ih t e l t b i ih tc v l to s o u t h e ul i tn c mma , t e (. c mma o nd h (. o . ) ) nd a nd t e $. h (. (. ) ) e p nsi nfrp o u i t ersuto a e p e o xa o o r d cng h e l f n x r ssi n. A l aih tcu s l l rt mei se ongnt gr Use i ees. t gt o e i ee v ra l s.n ee c n at l o l e[a # nt gr ai be It gr o st n s o ki b se] k n w h r a s ad cma nu e b t e n t o a 64 eeb sei e i l mb r ew e w nd , a ndn i i t a b se Th dgt ae0 ,- A -, a s n h t a . e i is r - a , Z _ nd 9 z @. l a i 0 r xd no eot l rhx d cma A e dng o 0 e t cao e ae i l . Th flo i o eao s b se o C, ih t e sa e ol w ng p rt r a d n w t h me p e e ec ada cai iyaeaaa l . r c d n e n sso itvt ,r vi be l !˜ * * */ % < > < > << >> = = = ! = = & ˆ | & & | | ? : u r pu a mi s nay l s nd nu l g aa bt i ne ai n o i l nd iw se g to c e p ne ito ( ti C) x o ntai n no n mutpydvd , d l s li l,i i e mo uu a dto su tato d ii n, b rci n l f s h t r h sh t et i , g t i f i f c mp r ns o ai so e u l no e u l q as, t q a s bt i A N D iw se bt i XOR iw se bt i OR iw se l g aA N D, o tcrut oi l c sh r ic i l g aOR, o tcrut oi l c sh r ic i i l c ndto l ni o ii na ne a g ssi nme o ea r nt p rt s o Isi el t (. a n d e, . ,nd$. ,a a l na s d no ne d () . ) (. v r be me o t e (. ) ) i a t gtt e v l e $o e hi a s. r u

H i o y s u stt to i p ro me o hst r ee s, st r b iui n s efr d n i o y vnt $. ". . " w hc c n i o a eetd si n t r w hc p e i u l ih o s st f n vn e ga ( ih r vo s i o ne ´. . . ´ t st r ih, odd si n t r( hc w odfo t a o atw t ) aw r e ga w ih r rm h t o l i t u ,st ri w ih z r ) ad o e o moe ne o se atng t e o , n n r r o to lmo ies ( hc p rs o t e w o d t u ) pi na d ir w i h at f h f r s o se. $. ´´ . . Coo se a t t e t r e p rs, lh u h t e c l n l ns p r e h he at a o g h oo a t b t e n t e ee d si nao ad w o d d si nao ew e h v nt e g t r n r e g tr ma b o te w h n t ew o dd si nao b g w ih y e mit d e h r e g t r ei ns t ˆ$ ,,r E c mo i e i se a t dfo t e x ,, * o %.ah df r s p r e rm h ne t i a \ a a r b l) l t(e e l \ v v ria a e tc lt b o ew ihac l n. ehst h r v r besp c i s t e n t oo Th i c as a a l i ei e h f \ b b c sp c ak ae \d dd o t l a ed d c av l u d st r--i o ya q ik b iui n c aat r a ato hst r nd uc su stt to h r ces, n f d \ f fr fe om e d \ hh h x a ehh xh e vl u h a t ec mme c aat rt a i iae t a t er st l h o so nt h r ce h t ndc t s h t h e \ n ne l w i ne \ \ b c sl sh ak a o al i acmme . ep e i u c mma i t e f i s ne o nt Th r vo s o nd s h \ r c ri g rt r ar e eun \ a e e ae no i A N SI sc p , t n C d fute e i n e e d si na ri su pi d ea l v nt f o v nt e g t s p l . o e \ t h rz nt lt b o io a a Th e e d si na r ae e v nt e g t s r : o ! st r hst r s u stt to ata i o y b iui n ALI SI A NG ! n c mma l o nd i nen ai s n me v l e. la a = a . u . n c re lnemi s n ( p e i u ur nt i nu n r vo s) ! ! t ep e i u c mma h r vo s o nd A l se ae e p nd d w h n ac mma i r a , o i s r xa e a e o nd s e d n t !r st mo r c nt c mma l st ri w ih w h n e e u e. la na s c n c nt i a nonst e e o nd i ne atng t e x c t d A is me a o a n ny st r sp ca c aat r no js t a h nu rc e c p fr= e i l h r ce, t u l a meis, xe t o . p !st[] ? r? mo r c ntc mma l c nt i ngst st e e o nd i o a ne ni r A la e p nsi n i d neo t ef stw odo acmma . i s xa o s o n h i r r f o nd ! # t ee iec mma lnet p dsofr h ntr o nd i ye a I t el st c aat ro t er pae ntt x i abak f h a h r ce f h el c me e t s ln , ˆl ˆe ˆ odn w q ik b iui n:rp a l st c mma uc su stt to e e t a o nd t e t ene tw o di t ec mma lnei c e k fr hn h x r n h o nd i s h c e o d c a i odt e h ng ng l on w aa e p nsi n. la s c n e e b u d t r df l s xa o A ise a v n e se o ee ne i i sh l ky o d ,u no i P X mo e el e w r s b t t n OSI d. Th w o dd si na r ae e r e g t s r: o 0 t ez r ’ w o d(o h eot h r c mma d n me n a ) n w odn r BRA CEE A NSI XP ON ˆ t ef stagme ,e, odo h i r r u nt i . r ne .w Br c e p n o i si lr t c ’ ae xa si n s mi a o sh s.A w o d mu r st $ t el sta u nt h a r me g c nt i a l a o euq ot dl f b aea dc mma o o a t e st n n u e et r c n o n t % t e w o d mac e b t e mo r c nt b e p nd d b sh e p nd t e c mma p r t d h r t hd y h st e e e xa e . a xa s h o - aae se !st?se rh ? r ac ie t ms i o d r h r sut i no so t d B ae n r e,t e e l s t r e. r c w od x h o g . i sh r o r s t r u hy s o tfr xy e p nsi ns ma b ne e . r x mpe xa o y e st d F e a l : o * w o d 1ho g t ea ( e r s t ru h h l st l i k ) $ d r/ /nul c l/ cbn, } mki u { , a} { ,i lb sr g o sr i n* w od nt r u h h l st( en ) rs h o g t ea l i k n w od nt r u h h n x t l st rs ho g t e et o a Th mo i es ae e df r r : i e r mo e l b tt es uf o a i na e v a u h fx f fe me l i l g ma e c a e g b l , u e w ih s k h ngs l ay s o l t mo i e,e w df rb l i o h r mo e t e l st p r o a fe me e v h a at f i na , l l a i t e‘ e d’ e vng h ‘ a ’ h p p i t ec mma b td no eeu et r h o nt nd u o t xc t i q q o e h gn r t dt x u t t e eeae et r r mo e h l stsuf o a i na e v t ea fx f fe me i l s/ /w / s u stt t e frod i t e t x. ny odn l e b iuen w o l n h e t A d l t r ma b u d A n & i t e ei e mi y e se . n h r pae ntme ns t e a eo od W ih e l c me a h vl u f l. t e t od u l stod o t emo r c nt mp y l , se a l,r h st e e !st?se rhi t ee a n p e iu od ? r ac f h r w s o r vo s l t r mo ea b tt el stp r o a i na , e v l u h a at f fe me l l l a i t e‘a’ e vng h ‘ i’ t l x q o et egn r t dt x, u b eknt u t h eea e et b t r a i o w o d a ln s a ne lne r s tbak nd w i & r p a t ea su st t to ee t h l st b iui n

COM A ND SUBSTIUTI M T ON
$o ( mmad ne fr c n) w om `o c mmad n ` odfr l om Ru c mmad s u stt t t e rsut a ag me s. n o n , b iu e h e ls s r u nt T a i ne lne ae rmo e . a ces i $ S r i ng w i s r e v d Ch r t r n I l a F se aaew o d ( eFe Spii ) Th p rt rs se il d lt . ene fr i tng w om s p eer d o si l rq o i r l s. r f re fr mpe u tng ue $ep e o )aih tcsu stt to ( xrssin) rt mei b iui n ( Th xrssini e a ae, n t e e l i u da a eep e o s v l t d ad h r sut s se s n u agme t t e u r n c mmad r u nt o h c r et o n.

T L SUBSTIUTI I DE T ON
˜ ˜ r u se ˜ + ˜ n s u stt t H OM b iue$ E s u stt t se’ h medrco y b iueu r o s iet r s u stt t P D b iue$W s u stt t OL P D b iue$ D W s u stt t { R A CK[] A l a i b iue$ ST DI n} . e dng+ o r i ao e :ne ai e v l e c u s lw d l g tv a s o nt u f m t ee o t est c r o h nd f h ak

P ROCE SUBSTIUTI SS T ON
c md<l 1 ( 2) ( ) l i >i st st Ru l 1a l 2 a n h oo s l , ih st i a ns i st nd i st syc r n u y w t dn nd st o t r sp c i e c nnet dvapp s u ngfo o d u e e tv l o c e i i e si y is r f fe i / v f . e fena s b c meag me s t i s n d / Th se i l e d l me e o r u nt o c , hc e p c s t r a is fr agme adw rt md w ih xe t o e d t ist r u nt n ie is se o . i o y o ki y uh v d v f rffs. t c nd Th nl w r s f o a e/ / s e do i o

Ti es u stt to h p e at raa e p nsi n.t i l d b iui n a p ns f e l s xa o I s i d ne fr w od t a b g w ih ˜a fr v r be o o rs h t e i n t nd o a a l i a g ssi nme . nt I v r bea g n ai l ssi nme s,ti a d neat ra:n t e a nt i s l so o f e i h v l e Tl e s u stt to i d ne a p r o w od a .i u d b iui n s o s at f r e p nsi n. i me ns fr$ a o w od w odw i b xa o Th s a o { me p r }, r n l e l c e kdfrtl es u stt to b t o l i t eo eai n hce o i d b iui n, u n y f h p rt o r q ie t ev l eo t er h- n sie e urs h a u f h i th d d . g a

FE SP T I ILD LIT NG
Qu t d t x b cme o oe et eo s ne w o d Ot ew i , r. h r se o c re e o a c aat ri $ S se aaew o d c ur nc s f ny h r ce n I F p rt r s. Mutpew ht sp c c aat r t a a i $ S d n t li l ie ae h r ces h t r n I e F o o d l t e t w o d w hl mutpe n n- ht sp c ei mi mp y r s, i e li l o w ie ae c aat r d . h n $ S i no t e d fut v l e h rc es o W e I F s t h ea l a , u se u nc s o l a i a ta i $ S w ht sp c q e e f e dng nd r ing I l F ie ae c aat r ae rmo e , nd p i al c aat r i h r ces r e v d a r be h r ces n nt $ S s ur u e b a jc nt $ S w ht sp c I F ro nd d y dae I F ie ae c aat r d l t f l s.f$ S i NULL, a h rc es ei mi i d I I e F s b shd e os no d f l s pitng t oi d l i . e t 8

5

6

7

P ATTE NS R
? * [h r ] c as mac si l c aat rn fe me t h ng h r ce i i na e l mac 0 rmo e hr ces i fe me th o r caat r n i na l mac a o c as t h ny f h r (a se aa e b a mac e a a g) pi p rt d y r t hs r n e mac ay xe tc as t h n e c p hr mac ay xe tc as t h n e c p hr $ n $} { n $ * $ @ "* $ " " @" $ $ #

P - FNE VA RI BLE RE DE I D A S

P - FNE VA RI BLE ( ntnu d RE DE I D A S c i e) o
hst r nu e o t e c re i oy mb r f h ur nt c mma o nd $I H STCONTROL w ihav l e o g r sp c , o n t t a u fi no e ae d o e e lne t a b g w ih s p c s nt r i s h t e i n t ae i o t eh o yfe W ihav l eo nt h i r i . t st l a u f i no e u s, o no et ral t a g rd p d t ne i ne h t mac e t e p e i u lne Use t hs h r vo s i . i no e o ht c mbneb t o to s g rb t o o i o h pi n $I I E H STF L w h r c mma hst r i st r d ee o nd i o y s o e $I I E Z mai m nu e o lne t ke i H STF L SI E x mu mb r f i s o e p n $I I E H STF L $I G N ORE c l n- p rt dl o p t en i t e H STI oo se aae i f at rs;f h st c re lnemac e ayo t e t e ur nt i t h s n f h m, h l i no e ee i t ehst r fe i s ne t nt r d n h i o y i . l & r pe n s t e lst hst r lne er set h a i oy i . P ten mu mac t e h l l at r s st t h h w oe i ne $I H STSI E Z nu e o p e i u c mma s t mb r f r vo s o nd o ke a aa l w hl b sh s r nni e p v i be i a i u ng l e $OM H E h medrco yfrc c mmad a o iet r o d o n nd v l eu dfrtlee p nsi n a u se o i d xa o $OSTF LE H I fei fr t o ech st t u fr i n o ma f/ / s o se o l t o h st mec mpei n o na o lto $OSTNA ME H na o t ec re h st me f h ur nt o $OSTTYP H E st i d sci i t ec re h st r ng e r ng h ur nt o b $S I F f l s e a t r ( ae t b ne lne i d p r o s sp c ,a, w i ) e a $ N OREEOF fr i eatv sh ls, h nu e o I G o nt r cie e t e mb r f l c nse ui e E s t a mu o c tv OF ht st b e e ee b fr a at ay xt nt r d eo eb sh cu l e is l $ UTRC I NP na me o r a lne st ru f e di at p fe i, l o er e ˜i p tc v ri s / ur d . n $ LANG na o c re l c l me f ur nt o a e $ ALL LC_ c re l c l ;oerd s $ ur nt o a e v rie LANG a nd o hr LC_ ai be t e $ v r ls a $ COLLATE c re l c l fr c aat rc l to LC_ ur nt o a o hr ce ol i n, e a i l d s sotng r sut o fe me ncu e ri e ls f i na l e p nsi n xa o $ CTYP LC_ E c re l c l fr c aat r ca ur nt o a e o hr ce l ss fnci ns ( eP t r u to se aens) t $ M LC_ ESSA G E c re lc l fr t asltng $ . S ur nt o a o r n ai e ". . " st i s rng $ NE LI NO l nu e o lneb i e e u e i i ne mb r fi e ng x c t d n sci to f nci n r r u to p $ A CH TYP M E ast i i G N U c uc mp n - st m rng n po ay sy e fr t d sc i i o ma e rbng t e mah h ci ne r nni b sh u ng a $A I M L na o a i fe i a me f ma i , ny l l f $ A I CHE M L CK c e kfr ma e ey n se o s ( hc o i vr l c nd 60 d fut ea l) $A IP M L ATH fe me t c e ko n w ma; se i na s o h c fr e l iu s l : p rt r i n mema b fl w e se aa ;fea o l y e ol d o b ? ssae $ i me g i y me g; _ n ssae s mac e ma fe na . v rie t hd i i l l me O er s d $A I M L $ DP D OL W p e i u w o k drco y r vo s ri ng iet r $ TA RG OP v l eo l st a u nt p o e d b a u f a r me g r c sse y gt ps eo t $ TE OP RR i se t 1 ds pa err me g s f t o , i l y ro ssa e f m g t p s (ea l: ) r o eo t d fut 1 $ TI OP ND i e o lst a u nt p o e d b nd x f a r me g r c sse y gt ps eo t $I H STCMD

P - FNE VA RI BLE (o t e ) RE DE I D A S c ni d nu
$ OSTYP E $ATH P $I E P P STATUS[] * st i r ng d sci i e r ng b te h o eai p rtng sy e st m r nni u ng b sh a c mma serhp t o nd ac a h ar yv r be c nt i nge i r a ai l o a a ni x t st t s v l e fo p o e s au a s r m r c sse u i t emo r c ntye e ue n h st e e l x c t d fr g o ndpp lne o e r u i ei p o e i o sh l’p r n r c ss d f el a e t s c mma t r n b fr ec o nd o u eo e ah pi r p o t r may r mp pi r r may po t r mp st i rng ( ) se o ay r mp st i () c nd r p o t r ng > seet c mma lc o nd p o t r mp st i (? r ng # ) t ai p o tst i () rcng r mp r ng + c re w o k drcoy ur nt r i ng ietr se ec t mei’ r f r n e , t ah i ts e eec d se b t e see t a r a t y h l c nd e d c mma s o nd nu e o seo d si es h l mb r f c n s nc el iv c to noa n i na o t i sh l me f h s el c l n- p r t d l oo se aae i o t e st f h e be sh l o to f rse na l d el pi ns o t i r me e b o fre c nc e nt d y ne o ah s u - sh bb a fr t st i fr o t u o o ma rng o up t f tme i ky o d e w r . Sp ca e il c nstu t i r d c db %. o r c s nt o u e y %[] ] p[ R l %[] ] p[ U l %[] ] p[ S l %P %% ea se se s lp d c u r U se s se CP c sy e C P se s st m U c CP p re ae U ec nt g lt r l iea%

u p sii na p r mee n, 9 se o to l aa t r n u p sii na p r mee n se o to l aa t r a p sii n l aa t r l o to ap r mees l a p sii n l aa t r l o to ap r mees l e uv l ntt $$ . q ia e o"12 . . " [c as ] ! r h e uv l ntt $ "2". q ia e o"1 $ . " . [ hr ] ˆ as c nu e o p sii n lp r mees mb r f o to a aa t r I t e e t l b o to t s h p i se, h fl w i f h xgo pi n o ot s t t e ol ng o o to t sh l o b se p i ns o el r y t e te e mac i fcl i s ma b u d x nd d t h ng ai te i y e se . $ ? v l ert r db l stc mma a u eune ya o nd ?p tl ) (a i st o to l mac a o t ep te n pi na y t h ny f h at r s l $ $ p o e nu e o c re tshl r c ss mb r f ur n e l *p tl ) (a i st mac 0 rmo e f ny f h p te n th o r o a o t e at r s $ ! p o e n mb r o l st b c g o nd r c ss u e f a akr u +p tl ) (a i st mac 1rmo e f ny f h p te n th o r o a o t e at r s c md @(a l ) pti st mac eaty o a o t e at r s t h xcl 1f ny f h p t e n $ _ na o p o r m i e io me f r ga n nv rnme a nt t ! al ) ( ti pst mac a t i b t ay f h p t e n t h nyhng u n o t e at r s st ru . Va e o l st p sii na at p l u f a o to l ag me i l st cmma . meo r u nt n a o nd Na f p tl s ai o o eo mo e at r s seaae b | ai sti l f n r r p t en st p r t d y. c a e ma fei $ A I P h ng d i i n M L ATH l l Th P SI [ c ] a [ . t to frsa - eg t $ t _e me e be e O X [ = ] nd[ c] = .]no ai ns o mew i h a o rsu u na l s u se o f si l - od ng w r e c aat r ad c lai ee nt ae ac p e. e h rc es n oltng l me s r cet d Th c mma s t mac s t p e jb fr o nd o t h o p d o s o no ain [ c ss: d f s c aat r l sse t to [ l ] ei : a ] ne h r ce ca s: fr go ndng W ih v l eo e at o er u i . t a a u f x c, t e w o d mu e aty mac t e h r st x cl th h anu l m a h nu r l a mei l w e p c o r l w e c se o ra c mmad u d t st r h jb W ih o n se o a tt e o . t ah l a a h b tc p l ae p i pi rnt pi a l r be nt av l eo u st i ,h t p dw o d a u fs b rng t e ye r ba l nk sp c o t b ae r a p nc u t p ncu to u t ai n c n b as u sti o t ec mma , a e b r ng f h o nd c r nt l c nt o o rl sp c ae w ht sp c ie ae lk stig i e%? r n dgt ii d cma ei l upr upra pe p e c se $ SH BA f l fena u dt iv k a ul i l me se o n o eb sh ga h n n- a e rp o sp c s x i i h x d cma dgt e a ei l $ SH _ NV BA E i no ma n n- eatv sh l o y n r l o i r cie el nl, nt s The h p pi ns a etp t en mac i . res o to to f c at r f th ng v l e i v r be cmma a u s a al, o i nd a nd aih tc su stt t d fr p t o rt mei b iue o ah f d t lb o go i l d fe w h se me b g w ih ncu e i s l o na s e i n t . st ru fe ( e Iv c t n And at p i l Se n o ao i no a go c se l b i no ec se h n mac i g r a w e th ng St r p at ) u nul l b lgo r mo e at r t a d n’ mac e v p tens h t o t t h $ SH _ RSI BA VE ON t e esi no b sh h vro f a W h n e p ndng fe me e xa i i na s,. nd .ae i no e , $ SH _ RSI O[] l a .r g r d BA VE NF 0 t e ma r v r on nu e h j esi o mb r fe me mac i t ep ten i $LOBI N OREae i na s l th ng h at r s n G G r ( la ) r e se e a i no e a al a i l g r d nd e dng. st b s u pi d i t e $ SH _ RSI O[] so mu e pl e n h BA VE NF 1 t e mi r v r on nu e h no esi mb r p ten t mac fe me t a b g w ih . at r o t h i na s h t e i l n t . (esi v r on) H o e e, ti G LOBI N ORE e be t ed t l b $ SH _ RSI O[ w v r setng G na l s h o go BA VE NF 2] t e ac l v l h p t hee o to I l d * i G LOBI N ORE t gt t ed fut $ SH _ RSI O[ pi n. u e. n nc G o e h ea l BA VE NF 3] t eb i v r o h ul esi n d b h vo. e a ir $ SH _ RSI O[] BA VE NF 4 t er l a st t s h e se a e u $ SH _ RSI O[ BA VE NF 5] sa a $ A CH TYP me s M E $ ATH CDP se rhp t fr dc mma ac ah o c o nd VA RI BLEN A M S A E DI ST * ra a a l o a i ni h u d Va a l na s ae ma e u o lt es,d is a r be me r i d p f et r i t nd $ R A CK[] ar y v r be c nt i ng t e p s h g a ndp p iet r st c o ddrco y ak u esc r s. e nd r o e Th yma no st r ihadgt Th r i y t atw t i i. ee s E i i eatv P SI mo esh l o n nt r cie O X d el r s, n l to t el ngho av r bena ,ndt ec se $N V oi mi n h e t f ai l a me a h a w h n iv kda sh v l ei v r be e n o e s ,a s ai l , u a o l t es i si ni c nt fet r s g f a . i c mma a a ih tcsu stt t d o nd nd rt mei b iue frp t o st ru fe o ah f at p i l VA RI BLEASSI N M N T A G E $UI E D t e f ci eu r d( a o y h ef tv se i r d nl ) e e A ssi nme s t i ee v ra l s u eg a ih tc g nt o nt gr ai be nd r o rt mei $CE I F D T d fute io frt ef o ea l dtr o h cc mma (o nd n e a ai n.Vai be a g v l to u ral ssi nme s h v o nt ae ne o t e f h d futv l e ea l a ) u fl w i fr ol ng o ms. o $I N ORE FG c l n- p r t dl o s uf e g i oo se aae i f fx s i ng st i v n me od se a t od a =w r tn me ow r t e se o fe me t i no ew h n h t f i na s o g r l e n me nd x=w od a [ e] i r di ong fe me c mpei n u ng i na l o lto si se ee nti e o ar y a t od t l me nd x f ra n me ow r r a lne e di n me ( od. a =w r . . ) $LOBI N ORE c l n- p r t d i o p te n g i G G oo se aae lst f at r s i ng v se i e e ar y a t od t nd x d ra n me ow r s t e se o fe me t i no ew h n h t f i na s o g r l e n me ( m] w od. a =[ nu = r . . ) d i p t enmac i ong at r t hng se gv n i ie o ar y a t od t i e ndc s f ra n me ow r s $ROUP * G S[] r a o l ar yv r bew ih t el e d ny r a a a l i t h i st o g o p t e se b l ng t f r us h u r e o s o $i c as hst h r c aat r t a c nt o c - y h r ces h t o r l shst l e hst r (ea l: ! ) Se H i o y i o y d fut ˆ . e st r # Su st u o bitn ti

$PD PI $ROMP COMMA N D P T_ $ P S1 $ P S2 $S3 P $ P S4 $W D P $ N DOM RA $ PY RE L $E S CONDS $ E SH LL $ E SH LLOP TS $ LVL SH $M F TI E ORM T A

$ OUT TM $D UI

Op i na to lpg e t ep ei o i s h rcsi n, v t enu e o dgt at rt e h mb r f i i s fe h d cma p i ; i mu t b ei l ont t s e b t e n 0a 3. to ll ew e nd Op i na p o u e al ng r fr t i rd c s o e o ma,n t e om M h fr MmSS.s F F nu e o se o d t w a mb r f cn s o i t dr ui ng po t r mp b fr eoe t r nai emi tng t er au rd( a o y h e l se i r d nl ) e

F UNCT ONS I
F nci ns r n i t esa p o e a t ec li sci t u to u n h me r c ss s h a ng r , l p a sh r t e o e fe a c re drco y Th y nd ae h p n i s nd ur nt iet r . e l ac ss t erp r mees lk asci t va$ $ a so ce h i aa t r i e r , i 1 2 nd p , o $ o s n t c a e r t r ma b u d i d a n. 0d e o h ng .eu n y e se nsi e f nci n o . r t F nci ns sh r t as w ih t e u to r sci . u to p ae r p t h p r n sci t e c p frDEBUG . u to ma b aet rp , xe t o F nci ns y e r c r v , ndma h v lc lv r be d cae u i eusi e a y ae o a a a l s, e l r d s ng i d cae l c l o y e t F nci ns ma b e p re el r ,o a rt p se. u to , y e xot d . i ot e nvrnme w ih nt h e io nt t

9

1 0

1 1

1 2

I UT OUTP NP / UT
R drci ns ae d n l f t rg t at rpp s aese e ieto r o e et o i h, f e ie r t u . futfed sci t r aest i a p Dea l i e r o s r dn ndst o t Fl l p d u. i e d sci t r a o e2 ae r e co - e e . e r o s bv p r makd l seo x c n-

CONTROL COM A N DS M

CON DII TONA L E R SSI XP E ONS
Us e w iht e[. c mp u c mma , hc d e d t h [. o o nd o . ] ] nd w ih o s no d p te n e p n o o w o dspitng t o at r xa si n r r l i . t tu i stig s n tNUL re f r i o n L tu i fe x s ( i p eer d r e fi e i l st s r f re) tu i fe s a l c d vc r e fi i bo k e ie l tu i fe s a h r ce d vc r e fi i c aat r e ie l tu i fe s a iet r r e fi i drco y l tu i fe x s r e fi e i l st tu i fe s a e uafl r e fi i r glr ie l tu i fe a seg btse r e fi h s t i i t l d tu i fe r u i efciegd r e fi g o p s f tv i l e tu i fe s a mb l l r e fi i sy oi i l c nk tu i fe a stc y i se r e fi h s i k bt t l tu i fe s a mb l l r e fi i sy oi i l c nk tu i stig a n n- r l ngh re f r h s o z o e t n e tu i fe x s a w a mo i e si c r e fi e i l st nd s df d n e i l stra a ed o to pin tu i o to s o r e f pi ni n fe i l tu i fe w ne i efci eud r e fi o l r s f tv i e fe i l tu i fe s a i ( me pp ) r e fi i fo na d ie l f fe i l tu i fe s r aa l r e fi i e d be l fe i l tu i fe a n n- r sie r e fi h s o z o z l e fe i l tu i fe s a c e r e fi i so kt l fee i ds l tu i fee i a emi l r e fi d s s t r na l fe i l tu i fe a seu btse r e fi h s t i i t l d fe i l tu i fe s w rt be r e fi i l ia l fe i l tu i fe s e eu al r e fi i xc t be l stig r n tu i stig a z r l ngh r e f r h s eo e t n fe i 1 fe tu i fe i ne e t a fe ri 2 l i 2 r e fi 1 l l s w r h n i 2o fe l l d e n te i os o x st i2 l r e fi 1 l e t a i 2o fe l s l l fe i 1 fe tu i fe i od r h n fe r i 2 l d e n te i os o x st fe i 1 fe tu i fe a i 2aet e me i l i2 l r e fi 1ndfe r h sa fe l l l stig =p ten r = a r n t tu i stig t h s p ten r e f r mac e a r n t stig =p ten r ! a r n t tu i stig o s n tma hp ten re f r d e o n t c a r t stig <sti 2 r 1 r n ng tu i stig i b fr r 2 r e f r 1 eoesti n s ng stig >sti 2 r 1 r n ng tu i stig i at r r 2 r e f r 1 f sti n s e ng x2 r e f x1 q as x2 ep x1 ep tu i ep e u l ep ep x1 ep tu i ep d e n t e u lep x2 r e f x1 o s o q a x2 ep x1 ep tu i ep i l ss t a ep x2 r e f x1 e h n x2 s ep x1 ep tu i ep i get rt a x2 x2 r e f x1 r ae hnep s x2 r e f x1 e h n r q a oep s ep x1 ep tu i ep i l ss t a o e u lt x2 ep x1 ep tu i ep i ge t r h no x2 r e f x1 r ae t a r s e u lt x2 q a oep ( p e o ) tu i ep e o s t u , rgo png e rssin x r e f xrssini r e f r u i o ! xrssin ep e o tu i ep e o s fl r e f xrssini ase ep & x2 tu i ep A N D ep r t u x1 &ep r e f x1 x2ae r e ep |ep x1 x2 | tu i ep ORep s t u r e f x1 x2i r e stig r n fe i l fe i l fe i l fe i l fe i l fe i l fe i l fe i l fe i l fe i l fe i l stig r n fe i l

BUITI COM A N DS LN M
Th se c mma s ae e eu e drcl b t e sh l. e o nd r x ct d iety y h e l A l sta a c p mo l c e t t mak h e do o to l o r t e n f pi ns.

! iene pp l i e e uepp l .fe i st t s w a n n- r, x x c t iene I xt au i s o z o ei e t z r. ei st t s w a z r,x 1 eo I xt au f s eo ei t c sew odi [ ]a1 a2].st;]. c a r n [ p t [ t .l ;. sa ( | p .i ) . e & w od > r se ndst o ta d u ndst ert od d r ow r e e uel sso it dw ihp tt a mac e w od xc t i sta cae t a ht t hs r. > w od & r se ndst o ta d u ndst ert od d r ow r Fed s pitngi no d nefrw od p t i ab sh il lti s t o o r .a s a [ <i n]fe l u i frip t sefe o n u l p ten ( eP t r . i u e t i ia a OR at r se aens) | s s d o ndc te n t [ >i n]fe l u i fro t u sefe o up t l c ndto Us el a i (f a s i i e$) o ii n. e dng i c sei ns d ( [ >fe n]|l i l e> b to er e n co b r i ,u v ri s o l b e k d f rn mei w od ; ol d o a [ n r s] d i st; one [ > fe n]>i l l e>b t a p ndt i i i ei s i k u p e ofef t x l st se u ntaya g e c odt a q e i l ssi n ahw r on mea e e ue l nd x c t [ < fe n]>i l o e fe o r a/rt (ea l:d ) p n i fr edw ie d fut f0 l l .I i w od i mi ng u t e p sii na i st f n rs s ssi se h o to l [< m n]& d piaen u fed sci t rf o m u l t ip t i e r o r m c l p p r mees aa t r [> m n]& d piae up tf l dsci t rf o m u l t ot u i e e rpo r m c [u t o fnc({l ;} f nci n]u ) i st [ n] co ip tfed sci t r l se n u i e r o l p d f fnci n fnc b d i l se u t ns) ei u to u ,o y s i ne st( eF nc o i [ n] co o t u fed sci t r l se up t i e r o l p i l 1t e l 2[ei l 3; h n l 4 . esei 5] f fi ; h n i ; lfi st st st t e i ]. l l st . [ ; st ; i [ < w od n]< r i e e ui l 1rt rs su c ssf l e i st t s, f x c tng i st eun c e u xt au ip t c me f m t esh l sci t t e t alnew ih n u o s r o h el r ; r a i p t e e uel 2 ese . xc t i st l . . w oda E o ip t I a o w odi q o e , r s OF n n u .f ny f r s u t d no see tn mei w od ; ol d lc a [ n r s] d i st; one a dto lp o e ngi d neo ip tb t esh l. d ii na r c ssi s o n n u yh el p i a nuo w od p o tw ih P a r a a r nt me f r s,r mp t $ S3 nd e d Ot ew i : h r se lnef m st i sai i i $ PY.ft el i i r o dn, vng t n RE L I h i s ne • d a a l ,o ov r be cmma ,rt mei su st t to s i nd aih tc b iui n t e nu e o o e o t ew o d se n met i, h mb r f n f h r s, t a o t • i no e sc p dn w lne g r e ae e i s o hr i se n met NUL . x c t i .fi t ew se t a o L E e uel st I n •u se\ oq o e\ $ ,ndf stc aat ro w od t u t ,, a i ` r h r ce f r w od i mi ng u t e p sii n l p r mees. rs s ssi se h o to a aa t r r s b v ,u t e dng as g r d [ n] w od a a o e b tw ihl a i t b i no e b sha t maiayr pi s t eme a t ee o a uo tc l e r l nt h nu t h nd f Of >a & nd> ,h f st i p eer d I i euv l n t & t e i s r f re. s qi aet o r t t eo p h lo > od2> 1 w r &. pp l i tme[ ] iene i e e ue pp l ;p i e p d sy e a u r x c t iene r i nt l se , st m nd se a tme o st er i s n d r. E E X CUT ON ORDE I R p i tme i P X fr t r i s n OSI o ma nt A l s u stt to a IO r drci ns ae p rome l b iui ns nd / e ieto r efr d Th TI E ORM T v r bec nt os t efr to e$ M F A ai l o r l h o ma f a b fr a o eo e c mma i at ay x c t d nd s cu l e e u e . l t eo t u i h up t f i no u e . a s t s d b shu s t ev l e se h a u $nr a t R\ se\%3l nsy t ’ e l %3l nu rt U\ s\%3l i t eei \ \ S’f h r s b sh ma a a i i a i ena h s h t be fr c ci nt ns n nt r l a al o ah ng n v l efr TI E ORM T o au o $ M F A e t r l c mma s.nii l ,hs t be i e t . s xena o nd I tay t i a l s mp y A l ntll ; ol st st d c mma s aef udb serhngt edrco is lst d u i i 1d i 2; one o nd r o n y ac i h iet re i e lk hl b tne ae h t r nai nt st i ew ie u g t t e emi to e i $ATH , e aea d dt t e a h al . n P t y r d e o h h s t be h w hl i 1d i 2; one iel ; ol st st d Th c mma serho d r s sh l fnci ns fr , uleo nd ac r e i el u to ist b i t e e ue l 1 f l st c mma x c t i .I a st o nd i l 1h d a n i st a i c mma s se o , nde t r lc mma s (r i n o nd c nd a xena o nd f st n i su c ssfl e i st t s,eeue l 2 fl w e b c e u xt au xc t i st ol o d y t ei enah s h a l ,ndt e va P h nt r l a t be a h n i $ATH ) hr . t id l 1 R p a u i l st c mma i l 1euns a i . ee t ntl a o st nd n i rt r st n u c e u e i st t s nsu c ssfl xt au (. (. . ) ) SI N A LS A ND TRAP G S aih tce a ai n,k e ". rt mei v l to l el t . u i . " Si nah ndi i d new iht et a ul- c mma . g l a l ng s o t h r pb i i o tn nd [ xrssin ] [ pe o ] e Th od ag me d sci i c d t e eue u o ew r r u nt e r ng o e o xc t p n b e a aeep e o ,eun su c ss fle i st t s i v l t xrssin rt r u c e u xt au f r ci t o t e si na i sc nne t ie b a ;o e ee p f h g ls a d w c yb sh nc t u , u c e u i fl re nsu c ssfl f a se ( e Co io a se ndt n l i w h n t et a c mma i e eu e , n aa w h n e h rp o nd s xc t d ad gi n e E p e o frd t i x rssins o eas) l t esi na i c u h. eeoei i bst t u si ge h g l s a g t Th r fr t s e o se n l (st l ) i q o e frt et a c mma . r p ae e eue i u t s o h rp o nd T a s r x ct d n e e uel n a u - el xc t i sti s bsh l o d ro si na nu e. uc nno c a et est t s r e f g l mb r Yo a t h ng h au l } st o a g lt a w a i no e w h n t e elst r e u . {i ; f si na h t s g r d e h sh l a t d p e e uel n t ec re sh l xc t i sti h ur nt el T a s o DEBUG h p e at rc mma s aee eue . rp n ap n f e o nd r x ct d Bakr u e c mma s ( o fl w e b c g o nd d o nd t se ol h o d y& i )w l l i no et eSI I T a g r h G N ndSI QUI si na i t emo t r G T g l fh s nio o to i t r do f Ot ew i ,h yi ei t ev l e pi n s une f . h r se t e nhrt h a s u o t ep r ntb sh f h ae a .

A RRAYS
A ras i b sh h v n l t o t e nu e o ry n a ae o i s n h mi mb r f ee nt A ra ndc s st r a 0 A ra su sci t l me s. r yi ie at t . r y b r s p c n b aih tc e p e o a e rt mei x r ssi ns. ra ee nt ne d A r y l me s e no b c ntg o s. a d e no h v a cai e t e o i u u b sh o s t ae sso itv ar y r as. 1 3 1 4

.l fe i so re fe uc i l ra a e d nd e e u e cmma s fo xc t o nd r m fe I i. f l agme s,sae ad r st r p sii n l p r ms. r u nt v n e o e o to a aa Serh$ATH ;f t i fu , o i t ec re ac P i no h ng o nd l kn h ur nt o drco y iet r : nul o l c mma ; eu n 0 x st t s nd r t r s ei au t [ se e et st ai s [ ] n me= a e . la [a [ v l ]. u . ] ce t a ais.W ih no a u nt p i a r ae n la t r me s, r g nt l l aa s. ih a ,r aa v l efr a l se W t n mep i l s a i nt i u o n me p i la b fr e c aa r ntai s eo e ah l s i b j i] g[ bd o p tj i n t eb c g o n u o di h akr u d b p[ ] bnd[ ma] i bnd[ ma] i p [ fnc [ k se] u ] e q [ fnc y u ] p i l bnd[ ma] fe i bnd[ ma] ese: nc i p k qf y u ds pa a / mo i r a lne fnci n a ky i l y nd o r df e di y u to nd e bndng Th sy a i sa a f r/ p tc i i s. e nt xs me s o ˜i ur . n fe i l r a n w bndng fo fe e d e i i s rm i l l t e me o a r a lne u to s i h na s f l e di fnci n st l ma u e h ky pma p s t e e ma p lstr a lnefnci ns adbndng i e di u to n i i s fr er a i o r - dng e lstr a lnefnci ns adbndng i e di u to n i i s fnc sh w w hc ky iv k u u o ih e s n o efnc k se r mo ebndng fr ese e q e v i i s ok q y y lstr a lneky q e e a mar s i e di e se u nc s nd c o fr er a i o r - dng e lstr a lneky q e e a mar s i e di e se u nc s nd c o fnc r mo eky i i s fr u u e v e bndng o fnc lstr a lnev r bena s a v l e i e di a al i me nd a s u fr er a i o r - dng e lstr a lnev r bena s a v l e i e di a al i me nd a s u b e kn] ra [ e i f m e lsi xt r o nco ngf r w hl , ntlo l c o p o, ie u i rsee tl o . I ni su pi d e i f m n’ e l si l o f s p l ,xt r e o t nco ng o p h b itn shl b ii [ rs . uli e- ln a . l ut g . ] e e ue shlb ii w ih gv n a s a rt r xc t e- ln l ut t ie r g nd eun st t s. f lfrt eb d o a h l fnci n t a au Useu o h o y f s el u to h t r d f s a ul- eg c e e ne b i i . d i t n, . , c d[ ] dr [i] c a e c re drco y t dr( OM d fut. h ng ur nt iet r o i $ H E ea l) Dodrco y ah e rhu ng a eo $ ATH iet r p t s ac si v l u f CDP u e o iap t fr d. P D (ea l) s l g l ah o c . W c , $ d fut u ep y c l ah o c . P D s hsiap t fr d . W , $ I b t a eg e t elst o eo t ec mma l f o h r i n,h a n n h o v nd i ne wi ns c [ ] d c a e ur ntdrco y o$ DP D h ng c re iet r t OL W I fei / v f / t e i t eei no/ v f iet r , fi s d / n h n, h r s l e d , f d / rco y e dd c mma o nd[ ] a [r . n me a . g. ] fe d sci t r n i c e k .Ot ew i ,t e ra i l e r o p s hce d h r se h e l w ih u to t o r ,x c t a w ih r u nt a e e uen me t ag me s r g / v f /fei c e k . nu , r e d / n i s h c e L x F e BSD, e d l d i BSD/ (n OS ad u e d futse rhp t , o P s a ea l ac ah n t$ATH mab o h r r t r i o fr t e i i ae fe ye t es) eu n nf o h ndc t d i l p i a n w o dd sc i to o n me r nt o e r e rp i n f a d sci t r i e do t e cu l/ v f e iefe e r o, p nst a f h at a d / vc i . e dd l p i a e b se e rp i no n me r nt v r o d sc i to f a Bo h & a t & nd | ae shr crut Op r nd o | r ot ic i. e a s f c ntnu n o i e[] c mp r n o eao s u eg a ih tc e a ai n o ai so p rt r nd r o r t mei v l to . u d ne t ieai n o e lsi o x t rto f nco ngf r w hl , ntlo o, ie u i r F r= nd!,u t ayp r f a en t t et i a a o =a = q o e n ato p t r o r a t s t see tl o .fn i su pi d ie t lc op I s p l ,t r en’ e lsi e a t nco ng h st i . r ng lo op 1 5 1 6

BUITI COM A N DS (o t e ) LN M c ni d nu d cae[aF r ] ] n me= a e el r f ix [ [a [ v l ] u] t p se y e t[aF r ] ] n me v l e] f ix [ [a [ a ] = u se a r ue a t t i t s nd v l e o v r be tb a s f ai l s.I d u a nsi e fnci ns,r ae e c pe o t ev r be Usi u to c et n w o is f h ai l s. ng a +i edo t r at i u e of W ihno n me nst a f uns tr t s f b . t a s o a rb t s, p i e ey v r be na r t i ue t r nt v r a a l ’ i s me a nd a rb t s t iue t n mes a ar y a i n ra e c a i a u to ahn mes f nci n d n tsh w fnci n d f to (o is) o ’ o u to ei i ns b de ni n mes a i ee;aih tc a i n nt gr rt mei e a ai ni d neu o a g v l to s o u p n ssi nme nt mak a s r a o y r n me e d nl mak a s fr x o t r n me o e p r dr [ is ] + [n [n] ] ds pa t edrco y ak i l y h iet r st c + n s h w n’ e r f m l f, 0 o t nt y r et n h o n s h w n’ e r f m r h, 0 o t nty r h o i tn g ce r h drco y ak l a t e iet r st c p i ao e fr tl i r nt l ng r o ma i ng st p i t est c o e r p ri r h ak ne nt y e lne nt p i t est c o e r p ri , ih r h ak ne nty e lne w t nt i e nu es nd x mb r [ [ b. o . ] d so n [ ] ] j . i w w ihno o to r mo ena dj s f m t et be t pi ns,e v me o r b o h al o atv jb f ci e o s r mo e r r ( ih ) l j s e v o makw t al o b mak ahj on tr ciea G H UP r ec o bt o ee v SI w h nb sht r nae e a emi t s u ew ih t mak str nni j s s t o r j u ng o u b eh c o[ ] w od [ r s] s o ei l e h od c ow r s; i n tsp ca e p nd\e a e ( e c o1 xa - p s se eh( ) sc ) ne e e p nd\e ae v r xa - p s sc d n’o t u ta i ne l o t up t r i ng w i l ne p i fs mo ep r al rnt i r o t be e be na l [ ] fe [a . [ i ] n me. l . ] e be a na l nd dsa l sh l b i i be el ul i t ns,o la a r o d nd u o d n w b i - f m sh r d l rr fe nl a e ul i t ns r o ae i ay i s. b l Di bi ab i - a o s u o adski w iht e sa l ng ul i l w tn l se f i fe t h l sa na a a ulme me s b i i tn p i a b i - , iht er au r nt l ul i w t h i st t s l t ns d l t a ul- l ae w ih ee e b i i o d d t tn fe i l l a ane b i - n me rm fe od w ul i a f tn o i l dsa l a ,r r dsa l db i i ben meo p i i be ul i nt t ns w ih t non me a s p i e al db i r nt n be ul i t ns p i o y O X sp cab i r nt nl P SI e i l ul i t ns ea w od v l[ r s] e a aew od ade e u e e l vl t u r s n x c t r su t ee x c[ n me [ ] w od a ] [ r s] e e uew od i paeo t esh l I r drci n xc t rs n l c f h el f e ieto s . o yc a e h sh l s o e fe nl,h ng t e el p n i s ’ l u a fr r v0 sen me o ag[] ce r h e io l a t e nv rnme f st nt i r pae o ag[] l elg 1 l c a n r v0 ( o i ) i k n( ) I t ee e fi n n- eatv sh l ei, nl ss f h x c as, o i r cie el xt u e l nt s t es h p p i n e ef i s se h o to to x ca li t e i n] xt[ e i w ihrt r v l en. xt t eun au Use$ i non ?f

BUITI COM A N DS ( nt e ) LN M c i d o nu ep r x o t[ ] n me v l e . [a [ a ]. = u . ] w ih no ag me s,p i na s ad v l e o t r u nt r nt me n a s f u e p re a a l s. h r i ,x o tn me t t e x o t dv r be Ot ew see p r a s o h i e io nv rnme o c mma s nt f o nd n me r f r of n t o s a s ee t u c i n st pe p ri e c a o x o tng ahn me p i x o tb fr e c v r be r nte p r eo e ah a a l i f c[ e i r dt ] o [ ]ist lst] [r [ ] f a p i a a g o cmma s fo fstt a r m l st r nt r n e f o nd r m i olstf r o a $I H STSI Ec mma s Z o nd r n eio i s u pi d i no ,s ef sto u dt rf p l ;f t u i f e r $CE T,E TOR,rv n F DI $DI o io c mma s; xc t r suts) o nd e eu e e l( l o s t n a do t u i e do e ii i n ad r u p t nst a f dtng st d n tp i lnenu es o’ r i nt mb r r v r od ro c mma s eese r e f o nd [l = e ] c mmad od n w [o n] s u stt t e frodi c mmad(r a c mma b iuen w o l n o n o l st o nd i noc mmadade e ue h r su f o n )n x ct t e e l t f j i] g[ bd o p tj i n t efr go n u o di h o e r u d b g t p s o t r na [r . eo t psti ng me a . g. ] p r p r mees ado to ( eb sh ) ase aa t r n p i ns se a ( ) 1 [ fe [a ] i ] n me l h sh[ ] a w ihno ag me s, r t eh s ht bec nt n s, t r u nt p i h a nt al o et gvng i c u a fena i i ht o nt nd i l me fe i l e e fe o n men t e a h al nt ri fr a i h h s t be l ce r h i ena h s h al l a t e nt r l a t be A ssi nme t P g nt o$ATH a ce r t e a h al l l as h h s t be so h l p ten] ep[a r t p i h l . ihp ten, r h l a o t a t e r nt ep W t a r p i t nt ep b u l h l c mma s t a mac a en o nd h t t hp t r t hst r n] i o y[ [l] fe i hst r i o y[ ] a [. r . g . ] a . r . g[. ] w ih no o to t p i ns, r t e c mma hst r . n pi nt h o nd i o y A agme o p i s o yn l s.fs u pi d u r u nt fn r nt nl i ne I p l , se e fe nst a o $I I E i i ed f H STF L l a p n n w hst r l s t h o y i p e d e i oyi ne o i r fe st l ce r h h o y i l a t e i r lst st r a n w hst r l s i t efei ot e e d e i o yi ne n h i nt h l i ena hst r l nt r l i o y i st p ro m h o y u stt to a pi efr i r s b iui n nd r st nt t er sut h e ls r pae nt r lh o y ihc nt n s o e l c i ena i r w t o et f st hst r fe i oy i l pae h rs i ot eh o y i l c t ea nt h i r lst g st frl t ru o ae se w rt t ent r l i o y ot efe ie h i ena h r t h i st l jb [ os ]j i . [ bd. o . ] c mmad[rs . o n a . g . ] lsti o mai n a o tjb i nfr to b u o s a l p oe i l i r c ss d so st o yi st p e o e ie j s nl l st o p d r xt d o b o yi p o e g o p nl lst r c ss r u s o y i r nni j s nl l u ng o st b o y i st p e j s nl lst o p d o b r pae nyo i n t ec mma l e l c a j di h o b nd i ne w iht ec re o i p o e go pI t h orsp ndng r c ss r u D, a e e ue h c mma nd x c t t e o nd
1 8

BUITI COM A N DS (o t e ) LN M c ni d nu kl[si ]o i . i l g j d. b . kl[ si n me [ sinu j i . i l ga ] g m]o d. b . se SI TE M o g e si na t n me j i s. nd G R r i n g l o a d o d v b Si na ae n me l e i / / l d /g lh g l r a s i d n u i u esi na s st sr nc . w iho w ih u t epe x‘ G ’ St p e o s gt t r t o t h rf ‘ ’ o p djb e i SI . a SI CON T f st i si i et e SI TE M o G i r f g s ih r G R r SI H UP G [g. sis . . ] l si na na s a / nu es.I si i a i st g l me nd o r mb r f g s nu rc le i st t s,rntt esi na t a k e t e meia xt au p i h g l h t i d h l l p oe r c ss lt a . e r . g. e a ae aha s a aih tce p e o ei 0 v l t ec r u ga n rt mei x r ssi n; xt i t e l st ep e o w a n n- r, o hr i fh a xr ssi n s o z o 1 t ew se e ( e i mec v l ao ) se Arh t E a t n t i ui l c l[a [ v l e . o a n me a ]. = u . ] ce t vra l s w ih t e gv n v l e lc l t a r ae a i be t h i e au s o a o fnci n. ih no o ead , r al o l c l u to W t p r n s pi nt i f oa st v r be Mu eu di iea u to ai l s. stb se ns d f nci n a lg u o ot e i ao i s h l xt l g n el [n] ] pp o d[ ] + [n r mo e e t is f m t e drco yst c. ih no e v nr e r o h ie t r ak W t agme s,e v t e o et y ndc h r r u nt rmo e h t p n r a dt ee + n r mo e t e r f m l f, 0 e v n’ nt y r et n h o n r mo e t e r fo r h, 0 e v n’ nt y r m i t n h g d n’ c a edrcoy o t h ng ietr p i foma a . rnt f r t[r . g. ] p i o t u lk A N SI p i fw ihe t n o s r nt up t i e C rnt, t xesi n %b e p nde aese u nc s i s ti s xa sc p qe e n r ng %q p i q o e st i t a c nb r - a r nt u t d rng h t a e e e d r F r tc n esi ns aer u da n ee o ma o v r o r e se s e d d [i] p sh u d[ ] dr [ n [n] p sh u d[ ] +] a d a e r t t e drco y st c.W ih no d n nty o h iet r ak t ag me s,xh ng t et pt oe r s r u nt e c a e h o w nti e + n r t t t e ak t a t e ’h o ae h st c so ht h n t e r f m l fi at e o , 0 nt y r et s t h t p n o n r t t t e ak t a t e ’h o ae h st c so ht h n t e r f m r h i a t et p n 0 nt y r i t s t h o , o g d n’ c a edrcoy o t h ng ietr dr i p sh i o t est c a dt ee u dr n h ak ndc h r p d[ ] w p i w o k drco y me r nt r i ng iet r na p i l g ap t (ea l) r o i l ah d fut nt c p i p y c l ah r nt h siap t I b t a eg e t el st o eo t ec mma l f o h r i n,h a n n h o v nd i ne wi ns n me [ ] a ] [ p o t [a s . rmp] n me . . ] ra dn a a g t a s. I S s pis ip t e dst i nd ssi n on me $ F l n u. t $ PY i se i non megv n. xt0 nl ss e RE L s t f a i e E i u e nd o-l ec u ee ffe n o nt rd i r a w o d i oi e e ar y a e d r s nt nd x d ra n me u e di i r a i f m a emi l ser a lnef e dng r o t r na p i rmp f e dng rm a emi l r ntp o ti r a i f o t r na b fr ra i eo e e dng a e do lned e n td lne t n fi o s o o i c ntnu to o i ai n

BUITI COM A N DS ( nt e ) LN M c i d o nu r a o y[ e d nl ] n me v l e. [a = a . u . ] mak a s r a - y p i lsti non me r n me e do ; r i f nl nt a s e c a mu b a ary ahn me st e n ra e c a mu b a u to ahn me st e fnci n p i e d nl eo e ahv r be r ntr a o yb fr e c a a l i rt r [ eu n n] e i fnci no sci tw ihrt r v l en. ihno xt u to r. r p t eun au W t n, t r s t t s o l stc mma . no i fnci n r un a e u fa o nd I t n u to f o . r t p i a errme g r sci ,r p nt n ro ssa e pi n [ pi n [ r s] se t[o to s] o to ] w od se f g a o to ( eOpi n T t l s nd pi ns se a t s ose) w od se o t. r s t p sii n l aa t r o to ap r mees se +pi n [oo to ] w od t[o to s] + pi n [ r s] u tf g a o to s nse l s nd pi n a s h t[ i n] f r n mep sii n l aa t r $ 1$ . ea o to ap r mees; n = 1 . + . nd fut t 1 ea ls o ] o to . [pi n. . ] sh p o t[ p i o c a e v l e o sh l o to r nt r h ng a s f el pi ns. ih no u W t ag me s, r sh l o to i o ma o r u nt p i nt el p i n nfr t n i o y h ng nl c a e o to s pi n p i setng frr- a i r nt t i s o e e dng r q itmo e ei st t s i iae ue d ; xt au ndc t s o to st t s pi n au se (na l ) ie o to w ih t e be g n p i n; t no v o to p i t o t a aese pi ns, r h se h t r t nt u t(i be g e o to w ihno nse dsa l ) i n p i n; t v o to p i t o t a aeu se pi ns, r h se h t r n t nt ( e t ns T h p) Se Opi o os o t s u p nd[ ] s e s u p ndt esh l u i G CON T i r c ie s e h el ntlSI s ee d v fr e sp n o e e frl g s h l o c su e si n, v n o o i el n t st e e a a e c n ii n l e p e o ( e Opi n T vl t u o dto a x r ssi ns se t s o o t sta e ndCo io l x rssins) ndt naE p e o i tme i s p i ac mua dpo e tme r nt cu l te rc ss i s [ r ] sis] ta r p[ ] w od [ g e e ue w od i si na i sis r c i e . g ae xc t r f g l n g ee d sis r v nu es o si na na s w ih o w ih u ‘ G ’ mb r r g l me t r to t ‘ ’ SI . W ih no w od o g p i ta s. ih no w od t r rsis, r nt r p W t r, r se g t et yd fut I w od e tsis o n r ea ls. f r sis g t et yd fut I odi t enulst i , noe o n r ea ls.fw r s h l rng i r g sis.f g i 0o XI e e uew odo e i f m g I sis s rE T,x c t r n xt r o sh l I sis i DEBUG ,r n w od at r eey el f g s . u r f e vr c mmad o n. p i ai o si nana s a nu es r nt lst f g l me nd mb r p i ta s w ihq o i r rp nt t u tng tp y e[ ]a . n me. . d sci eh w t e eli ep es n me e r b o h sh l nt r rt a p i a p ssi l i ep eai n r nt l o be nt r rt to s l o n me fa p i t ena o t e i t e e uef r h nt me f h fe o xc t i l n mes a e t r lp o r m a i n xena r g a p i a e w o dd sc i i r nt ky r e rbngn me a

1 7

1 9

20

se t[a BCe h k b fH mnp tu x [oo to . a . P v] pi n.[r . . g. ] ] a t maiay x o t ai be u o u o tc l e p rv r l s p n l a a g ssi nme nt p i jbc mpei n me g s r o o l to nt ssa e i mme it l,o tw atfrn x p o t dae d n’ i o et r mp y e bebae xa o (ea l) na l r c e p nsi n d fut fre> t o ew rt frei i fe o c |o v r ie o x ng i s st l e i u o n n- r e i f m ac mma xt p n o z o xt r e o o nd dsa l p te n e p n i n i be at r xa s o saec mma lc to i t e v o nd o ai ns n h i en l a h al (e ut nt r ah s t be df l) a e be! y h o y d fut na l - l i r (ea l) st e st pae l v r bea g l c a a a l ssi nme s i l i nt n t ee io h nvr nme ( soee nt o l t ) b r n b c g o n jb i t er w n u akr ud o s n h i o p o e go p p i a ssae r c ss ru ,r nt me g w h n t e e i; tat maiay o e h y xt se uo tc l fr l i eatv sh ls o jbc nt o sy e nt r cie el n o o r l st ms r a c mma s w ih u e e ui t e ed o nd t o t x c tng h m ( no e i i eatv ) i r dfnt r cie g se o t o w ihnoag me s, r t p i ns; t r u nt p i nt c re setng ur nt t i s al x o t sa a le p r me s b a e xa r c e p nd sa a me s e c mas u a e c st l l se n mas- y i e ne e io (ea l) dt r d fut e r xt re i sa a me s h sh l a a l sa a me s hst x a i e p nd sa a me s hst r i oy e beh o y na l i r st i no e o l eI N OREEOF 1 g r ef i G k =0 ky o d ew r sa a me s mo t r nio sa a me s n c o b r sa a o lb e me s n ee o xc sa a me s n go o lb sa a me s no iy tf sa a me s nu t o nse sa a me s o e md nc sa a me s OP I T ONS T t st O e p y c l sa a h si a me s Th e o et stc mma , ndis syo m [. r b i - t nd a t n ny . ae ul i o . ] , tn p si o x o e t e O X 1 3. b y h P SI 0 2 0 b sh Th c mma ac p s a o t eo to l e i a . eo nd c e t l f h pi ns i d n l st st nd r a ad t eCo io l x rssins seto H o e e, n ei i h ndt naE p e o i ci n. w v rsic t s p i ie e sa a rv l g d me s ac mma , pi ns a ag me s mu b q o e t o nd o to nd r u nt st e u t d o v ro e b se sa a me s g tp o e b h vo,ndno ma p t e n e p n i n a e r p r e a ir a r l at r xa s o nd v i u e v- y lnee io s a ist l i e dt r f l s pitngaed n . ae t e s u dfrgo png id l i e t r o e P r n hse se o ru i xr c t ae sa a me s mu b q o e. rt mei e p nsi n i no d nefr st e u t d A ih tc xa o s t o o d n’ ra E V,ono t k sh l o t e d$N d t a e el nu rco eao s,ad p t en mac i i no d ne mei p rt r n at r t hng s t o fnci ns fo e io u to r m nv rnme ,ndi noe nt a g r fr =a = t stc mpis w ih OSI o = nd!.e o l e t P X. o to i $ E pi ns n SH LLOP e io TS nv rnme nt a nd o to h v t e fl w i me ni s, pi ns ae h ol ng a ng o Th e v r be a al i i e do t eo e l e i Co io l x rssins: nst a f h n s i d n ndt naE p e o st i flo t ep y c ldrco y r cue ol w h h sia iet r st u t r frc mma s t a c a e h drcoy o o nd h t h ng t e iet r l g aA N D oi l c r a a e e u eo ec mma , e d nd x c t n o nd l g aOR oi l c t e ei hn x t ma e ta errt sust t te n u t k i n ro o b iu a nse v r be a al i p i i p tlne a t e ’ ra r n u i s s h yr e d nt e

BUITI COM A N DS (o t e ) LN M c ni d nu ui t[ p ] o to s] l t lmi t e [pi n [mi y i ] se o p i p r r c ss lmis tr r nt e- o e i t p t p (ea l i b t ) ye d fut s o h: h r lmi ad i t so tlmi fi t o to s: pi n a (i pa o y l ds l y nl ) l c r fl si e oe i e z ‘ ’o d t se me ‘ ’ f aa g nt k mai m fe z x mu i sie l ‘ ’o p y c lme r ‘ ’ f h sia moy k mai m fed sci t r+ x mu i e r o 1 l p sieo pp b f r z f i e uf s e ‘ ’o st c seme ‘ ’ f ak g nt k c us e o d p cn s ma p o e s fro eu r x r c sse o n se ‘ ’o vru lme r ‘ ’ f it a k mo y i a me i n o to aegv n. esiefr s ssu d f o p i ns r i e Th z o i i 51 b t bo k t eo h r aei s ie o s n 2- e l c s; h t es r n z s f y 1 bts 0 ye 24 u sk ma [ ] ma ] [ sk se fe rai n p r ssi ns ma t c mpe nto t i cet o emi o l sko o l me f ma i o t l o sy oi v l ea i c mo . ih skf c a r mb l a , c u s n h d W t n ag me s, r c re ma . n o t lma i o r u nt p i ur nt sk A nt c a sks p r ssi ns t r mo e a sy oi ma emi o o e v, mb lc sk i s p r ssi ns t ke emi o o e p p i o t u f rr - a i r nt up t o er dng e p i c re ma i s y oi fr r nt ur nt sk n mb lc om u la [ ] n me na s i [a s] r mo e l se n me e v aa s a s i r mo e l aa s e v a l se l i [a s] u t[ ] n me nse u tv ra l s n me ( me s nse ai be a s sa a ) u tf nci n n me nse u to s a s u tv ra l s n me nse ai be a s Unsetng L N E O, M I CHE ti I N A L CK, OP TARG , OP ND,RA NDOM,SE TI CON DS,TM OUT a nd _ r mo e t er sp ca me ni , e e i u e e v s hi e il a ng v n f s d at r ad f w rs e w a ji . i o d. t[ b . ] w atfrj o i ;f o , atfra c i r n i o o bd i noj w i o l h d e bj b l l

OP I T ONS T se O t
Th ese o tc mma i c mpiae. eei asu nd s o lc t d H r s mmay r. Use + i e d o nst a f t t r o to o u n p i ns of f .W ih no t agme s, t p i s t e na s ad v l e o a r u nt se r nt h me n a s f l u l v r be ai l s. a

OP I T ONS T se (o t e ) O t c ni d nu
p i c mma s a t e ’ e e ue , r nt o nd s h yr x c t d e p e e e b e p nd dv l eo $ . r c d d y xa e a u fP S4 Ou p ti q o e fr ae r u t u s u t d o l t r ese t r o f , ,t pl o i frf as; un f s o ok o lg ng a r ma ng r s se t e ny e i ni ag t h p sii n l aa t r o to ap r mees d no c a e l g se p s ii na o t h ng f s; t o to l a p r mees fo agme lst aa t r rm r u nt i ; w ihnoag u tt e o to l t r s,nse h p sii na p r mees aa t r

OP I T ONS T s h p O ot
Th h p o es o tc mma ses o u se a u e o o to s nd t r n ts n mb r f pi n t a afc h w b shb h v s. h seto d sci e ht f t o e a e a e T i ci n e r s s b e c o to s efc w h n e be . e no e, hy ah pi n’ f t e e na l d Unl ss tdte aea dsa l db d fut r l i be y ea l. l c a l _ as d bev r te t a ag me t dt a i n tadrco ya a ra n r u nt oc h t s o iet r s v r bew h sev l ei t edrco y me ai l a o a s h iet r na u c sp l d el at mp t c ret mi r sp li t e t o o rc no el ng err i ros n agme s t c .E rr t i d ae t asp se r u nt o d ros re r rn o d c aat r a mi ng c aat r o a et a h r ces, ssi h r ce r n xr c aat r Onl o e e i i eatv sh l h r ce. y b y d n nt r cie e s l c e ka h c hsh c e kh tac mma i t eh s ht bestl e i s hc t a o nd n h a al il x st b fr t y eoe r i t e euei.fi d e n t serh ng o xc t t I t o s ’ , ac $ATH P c ek i i e h c w ns z c e kt e w i o sie at r e c cmma a hc h nd w z f e ah o nd nd u d t LI S a p ae$ NE nd$ COLUM S N c hst md i at mp t saea l s o amut- c mma i te t o v l i l ne f lil i o ne nd n t ehst r fea o lne fresy e dtng h i o y i s ne i , a r - ii l o e d t lb o go i l d fe w h se na s b g w ih.n p t ncu e i s l o me e i n t i ah e p nsi n xa o s e ef i x ca l ke no i eatv sh l fo e ii w h n e e e p n- r cie el r m xtng e x c nt s fi as l e p nd a a s x a _l se i e p nd aa s a d sci e i Al se E be xa l se s e r d n i s. na l d i b a a t maiay n i eatv sh ls u o tc l i nt r cie el l et lb xgo e be h e t nd dp t en mac i fcl i s ( e na l t e xe e at r t hng ai te se i P tens) a r t hst p e i a p nd a p ndt ec re hst r t H I I Eu o e i, p e h ur nt i o y o$ STF L p n xt i e do o ew rtng t nst a f v r ii i hst e dt i r ei i u ng e di f si r a lnea ah oy u stt to fi t e nd i r s b iui n as,h st l u rc n r - i t e i se a e dt h lne e hst eiy i vr f i u ng r a lne o d t e r sut o hst r f si e di ,l a h e ls f i oy s u stt to i or a lne o f rh re ii b iui n nt e di fr u t e dtng h st o lt o cmp ee i u ngr a lne at mp h st c mpei n o w o d f si e di ,te t o o lto n r c nt i ng o a ni @ h p ne i u o xt se ndSI H UPt a j s w h n b she is G o lo l b e a xt i eatv _o nt r ci e c mme s nt i i eatv sh ls, w o dst r i w ih# at a n nt r cie el a r atng t st rs c mme .na l db d fut o nt E be y ea l 23

OP I T ONS T s h p ( nt e ) O o tc i d o nu lt i ihst i c hst i a f md i s l so e be , sae mutna l d v lil i ne c mma s w ihne l s, tse - l n o nd t w i ne no mic o s o mal an iw r p i a an ngme g i afeb i c e kdfr r nt w r i ssa e f i e l ng h c e o ma w a ac sse s ic t e l st tme i w a i l s ce d n e h a i t s c e kd h ce no a go c se l b d a c sei n tv mac w h n e p ndng o a nse siie th e xa i p t na s ah me nul l b lgo r mo ep t en t a d n tmac a fe i t a e v at r s ht o ’ t h ny i , ed l ns o l a i t e u h ng di t e o fe vng h m nc a e n h c mma l nd i ne p o t as r mp v r d p r mee e p n o o t e p o t v ra l s o aa t r xa si n n h r mp ai be b fr pi i t e E be b d fut eo e rntng h m.na l d y ea l sh t v r o i _ e b se f p i a err me g w h n t e s h t c u i r nt n ro ssa e e h i o nt s f ge t rt a t e u e o p sii n l aa t r r ae hn h n mb r f o to ap r mees so r e ah uc pt u $ATH t fnd sh l fe g e t t e. nd se P o i el i s i n o h l v a so rec mma s. na l db d fut uc o nd E be y ea l SP CI CH A RA CTE E AL RS
# | ; & & & | | ´ " $) ( ` (. (. . ) ) $. (. () . ) \ \ e lne nw i st r f o ato cmme ;emi t db ne lne nt t r na e y w i (i e c nne t t oc mmad pp ) o cs w o ns c mma se aao o nd p rt r r n p o e i b cg o nd d futst i u r c ss n akr u ; ea l dn f m / v nuli n j c nto r o d / l f o o o rl e b o y u flo i c mma i p e iu nl r n ol w ng o nd f r vo s c mma c mpee su c ssfl o nd o l t d c e ul y o y u flo i c mma i p e iu nl r n ol w ng o nd f r vo s c mma fi d o nd ae l e l se r t b t kn l eay nco sti o e ae i rl ng t l e l se r t hv v r be cmma nco sti o ae a a l ,o ng i nd a aih tcsu stt to o y nd rt mei b iui n nl i l c mma s u stt to ( w st l ) ni o ne nd b iui n ne y e i l c mma s u stt to ( dst l ) ni o ne nd b iui n o l y e aih tce a ai n,k e ". rt mei v l to l el t . u i . " i l aih tce a ai n ni rt mei v l to ne u te tflo i c aat r ieay r a ol w ng h r ce lt rl l l c ntnu to i o i ai n ne

J OB I A N D J DS OB CONTROL
J b c nb r p e n e a fl w s: o s a e e r set d s ol o ji o d b %% %+ %? r st %n %pe rf t ej i e ii rfra o, h r : h o d ntf o jb w ee b e c re jb ur nt o c re jb ur nt o p ei u j r vo s o b j u q ey d ntf db st o ni u l i e ii b e y r j nu e o b mb rn j w h secmma l b g o b o o nd i e i ne ns w ih rf t pe

Us u ly ap o e I ma b u d i t a o aj i. a , r c ss D l y e se ns e d f o d b Co mma s t a t k aj i s et ec re jb i no nd h t a e o du b h ur nt o f j i s su pi d o di p l . b e T as o SI CH L e e u ew h ne e a o c mpee rp n G D xc t e v r j o lt s. b Th c mma s f ndb r o l aaa l o s y e eo nd ga gae n y v i be n st ms l t a su p r j c nto. i i l d s L nu , h t p o t o o r l Th ncu e i x BSD b s sy e Sy e V R l a 4 a mo UNI sy e st ms, st m ee se ,nd st X st ms. 24

21

22

R A DL NE E I
Th e di i rr i l me s c mma l e ii . er a lnel ay mpe nt o b nd i ne dtng By d fut i p o i e a e c e ii i ef c, ea l, t r vd s n mas dtng nt rae a h u h a v i ef c i aaa l .r a lne i l og t i nt rae s v i be e di l s i taz det e fo t efena d b I UTRC ( nii l e ih r r m h i i l me y$ NP i f se) o f o ˜i p tc n t a fe y u c n u t, r r m / ur .I h t i , o . n l a se c ndto a d f o ii n l s, ei ne ky bndng fr mar s ad e i i s o co n fnci ns, n se v ra l s. u to ad t ai be

R A DL NEVA RI BLE E I A S
Va a l s c nto dfee r be i o r l ifr nt a e t sp c s b h vo. use aai be ih e a i r Yo t vra l w t se aal v l e tv r b a i e u Unl ss o h r i no e ,a es h ud b et e e t ew se t d v l u o l e ih rOn o r Of. ed sci to b l w d sci et eefc w h n f Th e r i ns eo p e r b h f t e e t e v r be i On.Dea l v l e ae shw n i h ai l s a fut a s r u o n p r n hse ae t e s. o r a lne f e di ’ s

F o t eb shl v l t ebndc mma a o s yu t rm h a e e h i , o nd l w l o o a d r mo e a c a e mar ad ky bndng d , e v nd h ng co n e i i s. b l-ye(u i l ) elst l a dbe Th r aefv ip tmo ema na s t a c nto t e ee r ie n u d p me h t o rl h d f s h w r a lnes h udr t e el ei ne o e di o l i h b l: ng ato t kn fr ec i p t c aat r Th ma n me ci n a e o ah n u h r ce. e p a s a dbe uil r t e el i h bl ng aee c e c st n ad e c mea e c cl , r mas, mas-ad r , mas- t , mas- x t none ne e r t e el vri h b l ng v , ic mma , ndv- se t e c i t esa a i vo nd a ii r. mas s h n me s v si l i be f sht esce n l a h re e c st n ad a mas- ad r ,ndv s t esa a v- mma . ii h me s ic o nd c mme - gn () o ntb i # e i et t i st i ns r hs r ng fr r a lnei r- mme , o e di nsetc o nt Yo h o ew hc e io y u p ee w ih uc o s ih dt r o r fr t (o n t b u d oM-i e c mo e ndt i v mo e #n mas d a o#n i d ) o r i yu ˜b shcfe o a r n i . n o r / r i ,r t utme . a l c mp ei n- no ec se( f o lt o i r g a Of) r a lneu est n s t ecaat r n me DE , SC, e di nd r ad h h r c e a s L E i no ec se h n d i c mpei n g r a w e ong o lto s L D, W LNE R T R T R R F NE I , E , E U N, UBOUT SP CE SP a , A , C nd c mp ei n- eyi ms (0) o l t o q r -e u t 10 T B. A i t enu e o c mpei n ie i l ss t a t i fh mb r f o lto t ms s e h n hs v l e paet e i t ec mma l . h r i , a ,l c hm n h o u nd i Ot ew se ne a t eu rf h y h udb sh w n skh se i t e s o l e o R A DL NEDI CT VE E I RE I S o etmea( Die tv s i t e. ur fe p o i e c ndto l a rci e n h i p tc i r vd o ii na nd c nv r- t On) n l t e tc aat r w iht eeg t b tse a t emea r a h r ces t h i hh i t s h t i l d fcl i s si lrt t eC p e r c sso. ncu e ai te mi o h i a r po e r v r o o t ee uv l ntse e btc aat r esi n f h q i a e v n i h rc e $ ld i ue nc d sal - mp ei n ( f i bec o l t o Of) i l d a i ,. a st m- i e/ci p tcfe ncu e fe eg sy e w d e / ur i l . , t n l d no d c mpei n o t o o l to $ i f e ii - d e c dtngmo e( mas) st r a c ndto a fr t r na o a pia o at o ii n l o emi l r p l t n , c i se t e i ta e ii mo e Pssi l v l e ae t h nii l dtng d . o be a s r u sp cf setng Yo a t stt e ol w i : e i c ti s. uc n e h fl i o ng e cov mas r i a pi a on= t stt e p l a o eg b sh r d p lc t i e h a pi t n,. a o g b c i . e bekya Of) na l - p d( f e mo e d= t stt ee ii mo e e c o v e h dtng d ,mas r i at mp t e beth a pia o kya . i ma t e t o na l e p lc t n e p d Th i s y tr em= t stt et r na t p e h emi l y e b ne d dt ma e h ar w ky w ok e e e o k t e ro e s r e p nd tl e( f x a - d Of) i Th u o a pi a on=i o to a e .i Ba e se f p lc t i s p i n l . $ sh ; g, f at mp tl ee p nsi n a p ro w o dc mpei n te t i d xa o s at f r o l to $ se e l i p tmea Of) n u- t ( f st r h ‘ l ’p r f c ndto l att e ‘ se ato a o ii na e ’ mea l g( f t -a Of) f $ i e f nd e beeg tbti p t Th t ov r bena s ae na l i h i n u . e w aal i me r f s h c ndto l i ni a o ii na syo ms n ny ky p( c e ma e mas) R A DL NEKE BI DI G S E I Y N N se t ec re k ma . eR a l t h ur nt e y p Se e di o al o nefr i f st Ke s b u d t amar paet emar t x i o t e y on o co lc h c o et nt h ao e v l e Th e ii - d v r be a l w d a s. e dtngmo e a a l l l u i so ip t ky b u t au to r n t efnci n n u ; e s o nd o fnci n u h u to . afcs t e e ma f t h ky p e mak ie t re ( r - rco i s On) d Yo a u t e e aese u nc s i bndng uc n se h se sc p q e e n i i s: a p nda t c mpe ddrco y me pe / o l te ie t r na s o \ a a r b l) l t(e e l \ r c ri g rt r ar e eun a mak dfe -ne ( f r - ii dl s Of) mo i \ b b c sp c ak ae \ t h rz nt lt b(A B) o io a a T pae * tt ef nto mo i e h o y i s lc a a h r o f df d i r l i st ne c nto pe x \ o r l rf i v v ria a e tc lt b o t u- t ( f up tmea Of) \ d d lt ( L eee DE ) \ \ b c sl sh ak a p i c aat r w iht eeg t b tse drcl , t r nt h r ces t h i hh i t ietyno \ e e ae(SC) \ sc p E " l ea" i rl t a Ms x \ f fr fe om e d \ ´ l ea´ i rl t p i - mp ei ns - rz nt ly( f rntc o lt o h i o a Of) o l mea r fx t p ei \d dd o t l a ed d c av l u d ds pa c mpei ns h rz nt ly w iht emac e i l y o lto o io a , t h l t hs \ n ne l w i ne \ hh h x a e h xh e v l hh u so t da h b tc l , e do v riayd w n t e re l a ei ayi p l nst a f etc l o l h sce n re Mars a fnci n bndng l o l e co nd u to i i s o ki : k sh w - li a i u u ( f o a - mbg o s Of) l f mar : co k - q"et e se :t x y " i mme i t l l daey i w o d w ih mutpe p ssi l st rs t li l o be fnci n u to : k - qfnci nn me e se : t oy u a c mpei ns, t a o rng t e el o lto i e d f i i h b l ns ng i best t Of) s Mar s h v q o e t x o t e rg t o t e c l n c o ae u t d et n h i h f h oo ; v si l - a ( f w hn l i e i ng p ssi l c mpei ns, a p nd a st o be o lto pe fnci ns h v fnci n n me A k - q i et e a u to ae u to a s. e se s ih r y c aat r h td no e t efe t p h r ce t a e t s h i ’ y e ls si l c aat ro c aat rn me su ha ng h r ce r hr ce a ( c s e ) , o a q o e st i o c aat r (ng o d u l r u t d rng f h r ces si l r o be e q oe . u t s) 25 Moei o mai n a o tr a lnec n b fu o - a r nfr to b u e di a e o nd n l i t ne ht : w w w . .m/ / sh tp / / sscc sscb . o a 26

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful