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Wireless ad hoc networkingThe art of

networking without a network

Magnus Frodigh, Per Johansson and Peter Larsson

Today, many people carry numerous portable devices, such as laptops, data communication, which is advancing
mobile phones, PDAs and mp3 players, for use in their professional and both in terms of technology and usage/pen-
private lives. For the most part, these devices are used separatelythat etration, is a driving force, thanks to the In-
is, their applications do not interact. Imagine, however, if they could inter- ternet and the success of second-generation
act directly: participants at a meeting could share documents or presenta- cellular systems. As we look to the horizon,
we can finally glimpse a view of truly ubiq-
tions; business cards would automatically find their way into the address
uitous computing and communication. In
register on a laptop and the number register on a mobile phone; as com- the near future, the role and capabilities of
muters exit a train, their laptops could remain online; likewise, incoming e- short-range data transaction are expected to
mail could now be diverted to their PDAs; finally, as they enter the office, grow, serving as a complement to traditional
all communication could automatically be routed through the wireless large-scale communication: most man-
corporate campus network. machine communication as well as oral com-
These examples of spontaneous, ad hoc wireless communication munication between human beings occurs
between devices might be loosely defined as a scheme, often referred to at distances of less than 10 meters; also, as
as ad hoc networking, which allows devices to establish communication, a result of this communication, the two
anytime and anywhere without the aid of a central infrastructure. Actually, communicating parties often have a need to
ad hoc networking as such is not new, but the setting, usage and players exchange data. As an enabling factor,
license-exempted frequency bands invite
are. In the past, the notion of ad hoc networks was often associated with
the use of developing radio technologies
communication on combat fields and at the site of a disaster area; now, (such as Bluetooth) that admit effortless and
as novel technologies such as Bluetooth materialize, the scenario of ad inexpensive deployment of wireless com-
hoc networking is likely to change, as is its importance. munication.
In this article, the authors describe the concept of ad hoc networking In terms of price, portability and usabil-
by giving its background and presenting some of the technical challenges ity and in the context of an ad hoc network,
it poses. The authors also point out some of the applications that can be many computing and communication de-
envisioned for ad hoc networking. vices, such as PDAs and mobile phones, al-
ready possess the attributes that are desir-
able. As advances in technology continue,
Introduction these attributes will be enhanced even fur-
Numerous factors associated with technol- Finally, we note that many mobile phones
ogy, business, regulation and social behav- and other electronic devices already are or
ior naturally and logically speak in favor of will soon be Bluetooth-enabled. Conse-
wireless ad hoc networking. Mobile wireless quently, the ground for building more com-
plex ad hoc networks is being laid. In terms
of market acceptance, the realization of a
critical mass is certainly positive. But per-
haps even more positiveas relates to the
AODV Ad hoc on-demand distance IP Internet protocol
vector ISM Industrial Scientific Medical band end-useris that consumers of Bluetooth-
AP Access point (2.4 GHz) enabled devices obtain a lot of as-yet unrav-
ARQ Automatic repeat request LAN Local area network elled ad hoc functionality at virtually no cost.
BGP Border gateway protocol LAP LAN access point
CSMA/CA Carrier sense multiple access with MAC Media access control What is an ad hoc network?
collision avoidance MANET Mobile ad hoc network
DARPA Defense Advanced Research MIPMANET Mobile IP MANET Perhaps the most widespread notion of a mo-
Projects Agency MT Mobile terminal bile ad hoc network is a network formed
DSDV Destination-sequenced distance NC Notebook computer without any central administration which
vector OSPF Open shortest path first consists of mobile nodes that use a wireless
DSR Dynamic source routing PAN Personal area network
DSSS Direct-sequence spread PDA Personal digital assistant interface to send packet data. Since the nodes
spectrum PRnet Packet radio network in a network of this kind can serve as routers
FA Foreign agent QoS Quality of service and hosts, they can forward packets on be-
FEC Forward error correction RIP Routing information protocol half of other nodes and run user applications.
FHSS Frequency-hopping spread RREP Route reply
spectrum RREQ Route request
The roots of ad hoc networking can be
FTP File transfer protocol RTS Request to send traced back as far as 1968, when work on the
GPRS General packet radio service SIG Special interest group ALOHA network was initiated (the objec-
H2 See HiperLAN/2 TDD Time-division duplex tive of this network was to1 connect educa-
HA Home agent UMTS Universal mobile tional facilities in Hawaii). Although fixed
HiperLAN/2 High-performance radio LAN type 2 telecommunications system
IEEE Institute of Electrical and WCDMA Wideband code-division multiple stations were employed, the ALOHA pro-
Electronic Engineering access tocol lent itself to distributed channel-
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force WLAN Wireless LAN access management and hence provided a

248 Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000

basis for the subsequent development of dis- of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
tributed channel-access schemes that were (IEEE) replaced the term packet-radio net-
suitable for ad hoc networking. The ALOHA work with ad hoc network. Packet-radio net-
protocol itself was a single-hop protocol works had come to be associated with the
that is, it did not inherently support rout- multihop networks of large-scale military or
ing. Instead every node had to be within rescue operations, and by adopting a new
reach of all other participating nodes. name, the IEEE hoped to indicate an en-
Inspired by the ALOHA network and the tirely new deployment scenario.
early development of fixed network packet Today, our vision of ad hoc networking in-
switching, DARPA began work, in 1973, cludes scenarios such as those depicted in
on the PRnet (packet radio network)a Figure 1, where people carry devices that can
multihop network.2 In this context, multi- network on an ad hoc basis. A users devices
hopping means that nodes cooperated to can both interconnect with one another and
relay traffic on behalf of one another to reach connect to local information pointsfor ex-
distant stations that would otherwise have ample, to retrieve updates on flight depar-
been out of range. PRnet provided mecha- tures, gate changes, and so on. The ad hoc
nisms for managing operation centrally as devices can also relay traffic between devices
well as on a distributed basis. As an addi- that are out of range. The airport scenario
tional benefit, it was realized that multi- thus contains a mixture of single and mul-
hopping techniques increased network ca- tiple radio hops.
pacity, since the spatial domain could be To put ad hoc networking in its right per-
reused for concurrent but physically sepa- spective, let us make some observations
rate multihop sessions. about wireless communication, beginning
Although many experimental packet- with present-day cellular systems, which
radio networks were later developed, these rely heavily on infrastructure: coverage is
wireless systems did not ever really take off provided by base stations, radio resources are
in the consumer segment. When develop- managed from a central location, and ser-
ing IEEE 802.11a standard for wireless vices are integrated into the system. This
local area networks (WLAN)the Institute lead to the good and predictable service of

Figure 1.
At an airport, where people can access
local- and wide-area networks, ad hoc
Blutooth connections are used to inter-
WCDMA indoor connect carried devices, such as PDAs,
base station WCDMA mobile phones and notebook
HiperLAN/2 computers. For instance, a user might
access point MT retreive e-mail via a HiperLAN/2 interface
to a notebook computer in a briefcase,
but read messages and reply to them via
his or her PDA.



Bluetooth MT



Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000 249

present-day cellular systems. Figure 2 de- ternet.4 Recent development and character-
picts this two-dimensional aspect as it re- istics within this genre are the focus of this
lates to ad hoc networking. article (Figure 2, bottom right).
As we decrease, or move away from, cen-
tral management, we find ourselves moving Typical applications
in the direction of pure ad hoc operation, Mobile ad hoc networks have been the focus
which can also be classified in terms of sin- of many recent research and development ef-
gle or multiple hops. forts. So far, ad hoc packet-radio networks
Without having fully relinquished con- have mainly been considered for military ap-
trol, but given the direct mode of commu- plications, where a decentralized network
nication in HiperLAN/2, adjacent terminals configuration is an operative advantage or
can communicate directly with one anoth- even a necessity.
er. Thus, the transport of traffic is not en- In the commercial sector, equipment for
tirely dependent on the coverage provided wireless, mobile computing has not been
by access points. available at a price attractive to large mar-
Dependency on centrally administered kets. However, as the capacity of mobile
coverage is further reduced when end-user computers increases steadily, the need for
terminals relay traffic in a multihop fashion unlimited networking is also expected to
between other terminals and the base sta- rise. Commercial ad hoc networks could be
tion (cellular multihop).3 A similar ap- used in situations where no infrastructure
proach applies to commercial or residential (fixed or cellular) is available. Examples in-
wireless local loop (WLL) multihop access clude rescue operations in remote areas, or
systems, primarily conceived for Internet ac- when local coverage must be deployed
cess (Figure 2, bottom left and middle). quickly at a remote construction site. Ad hoc
Fully decentralized radio, access, and networking could also serve as wireless pub-
routing technologiesenabled by Blue- lic access in urban areas, providing quick de-
tooth, IEEE 802.11 ad hoc mode, PRnet sta- ployment and extended coverage. The access
tionless mode, mobile ad hoc network points in networks of this kind could serve
(MANET), and concepts such as the per- as stationary radio relay stations that per-
sonal area network (PAN) or PAN-to-PAN form ad hoc routing among themselves and
communicationfit more or less entirely between user nodes. Some of the access
into the ad hoc domain. The MANET ini- points would also provide gateways via
tiative by the Internet Engineering Task which users might connect to a fixed back-
Force (IETF) also aims to provide services bone network.5
via fixed infrastructure connected to the In- At the local level, ad hoc networks that
link notebook or palmtop computers could
be used to spread and share information
Figure 2 among participants at a conference. They
Various wireless networks mapped to two independent aspects of ad hoc networking: the might also be appropriate for application in
level of centralized control (horizontal), and the use of radio multihopping (vertical). home networks where devices can commu-
nicate directly to exchange information,
g such as audio/video, alarms, and configura-
Contro e of BS
Service of BS tion updates. Perhaps the most far-reaching
of BS
applications in this context are more or less

IEEE autonomous networks of interconnected


Cellular 802.11* home robots that clean, do dishes, mow the


UMTS lawn, perform security surveillance, and so

direct mode 802.11**
on. Some people have even proposed ad hoc
multihop networks (denoted sensor net-
PAN works)for example, for environmental

Cellular monitoring, where the networks could be


multihop Piconet
Bluetooth used to forecast water pollution or to pro-
scatternet vide early warning of an approaching tsuna-
Residential (WLL) MANET mi.6
PAN Short-range ad hoc networks can simplify
PAN intercommunication between various mo-
* Infrastructure mode
PRnet bile devices (such as a cellular phone and a
** Ad hoc mode PDA) by forming a PAN, and thereby elim-
inate the tedious need for cables. This could

250 Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000

also extend the mobility provided by the
fixed network (that is, mobile IP) to nodes
further out in an ad hoc network domain. The
Bluetooth system is perhaps the most LAN
promising technology in the context of per-
sonal area networking.
PANa network extension
Seen from the viewpoint of the traditional
mobile network, a Bluetooth-based PAN Internet
or corporate
opens up a new way of extending mobile net- IP network
works into the user domain. Someone on a
trip who has access to a Bluetooth PAN
could use the GPRS/UMTS mobile phone Router
as a gateway to the Internet or to a corpo-
rate IP network. In terms of traffic load in GPRS
the network, the aggregate traffic of the
PAN would typically exceed that of the mo-
bile phone. In addition, if Bluetooth PANs
could be interconnected with scatternets,
this capacity would be increased. Figure 3
shows a scenario in which four Bluetooth
PANs are used. The PANs are intercon-
Figure 3
nected via laptop computers with Bluetooth PAN scenario with four interconnected PANs, two of which have an Internet connection
links. In addition, two of the PANs are con- via a Bluetooth LAN access point and a GPRS/UMTS phone.
nected to an IP backbone network, one via
a LAN access point and the other via a sin-
gle GPRS/UMTS phone.
A PAN can also encompass several differ-
ent access technologiesdistributed
among its member deviceswhich exploit expected to operate in a network environ-
the ad hoc functionality in the PAN. For in- ment in which some or all the nodes are mo-
stance, a notebook computer could have a bile. In this dynamic environment, the net-
wireless LAN (WLAN) interface (such as work functions must run in a distributed
IEEE 802.11 or HiperLAN/2) that provides fashion, since nodes might suddenly disap-
network access when the computer is used pear from, or show up in, the network. In
indoors. Thus, the PAN would benefit from general, however, the same basic user re-
the total aggregate of all access technologies quirements for connectivity and traffic de-
residing in the PAN devices. As the PAN livery that apply to traditional networks will
concept matures, it will allow new devices apply to ad hoc networks.
and new access technologies to be incorpo- Below, we discuss some typical opera-
rated into the PAN framework. It should tional characteristics and how they affect the
also eliminate the need to create hybrid de- requirements for related networking func-
vices, such as a PDA-mobile phone combi- tions. To limit the scope of the discussion,
nation, because the PAN network will in- we will examine the case of a PAN-
stead allow for wireless integration. In other oriented ad hoc network that involves a mix
words, it will not be necessary to trade off of notebook computers, cellular phones, and
form for function. PDAs.
In all the scenarios discussed above, it Distributed operation: a node in an ad hoc
should be emphasized that close-range radio network cannot rely on a network in the
technology, such as Bluetooth, is a key en- background to support security and rout-
abler for introducing the flexibility repre- ing functions. Instead these functions
sented by the PAN concept. must be designed so that they can oper-
ate efficiently under distributed condi-
Characteristics and tions.
Dynamic network topology: in general,
requirements the nodes will be mobile, which sooner or
In contrast to traditional wireline or wire- later will result in a varying network
less networks, an ad hoc network could be topology. Nonetheless, connectivity in

Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000 251

power budget. Today, however, this can
G1 only be realized at the price of more com-
A H plex routing.
G3 Given the operating conditions listed above,
Figure 4 what can the user expect from an ad hoc PAN
This ad hoc network has three separate C E network? The support of multimedia ser-
trust groups: G1, G2 and G3. At this vices will most likely be required within and
stage, a secure exchange of data cannot D
occur between the nodesexcept with throughout the ad hoc PAN. As an example,
G2 the following four quality-of-service (QoS)
node C, which belongs to G1 and G2.
classes would facilitate the use of multi-
media applications including
conversational (voice);
the network should be maintained to streaming (video/audio);
allow applications and services to operate interactive (Web); and
undisrupted. In particular, this will in- background (FTP, etc.).
fluence the design of routing protocols. These service classes have been identified for
Moreover, a user in the ad hoc network will QoS support in the UMTS network and
also require access to a fixed network (such should also be supported in the PAN envi-
as the Internet) even if nodes are ronment. However, the inherent stochastic
moving around. This calls for mobility- communications quality in a wireless ad hoc
management functions that allow net- network, as discussed above, makes it diffi-
work access for devices located several cult to offer fixed guarantees on the services
radio hops away from a network access offered to a device. In networks of this kind,
point. fixed guarantees would result in require-
Fluctuating link capacity: the effects of ments for how nodes move, as well as re-
high bit-error rates might be more pro- quirements for node density, which would
found in a multihop ad hoc network, since inherently inhibit the notion of ad hoc oper-
the aggregate of all link errors is what af- ation. Nevertheless, when communication
fects a multihop path. In addition, more conditions are stable, the PAN infrastruc-
than one end-to-end path can use a given ture should provide the same QoS as has been
link, which if the link were to break, could defined for the access network. To further
disrupt several sessions during periods of improve user perception of the service, user
high bit-error transmission rates. Here, applications that run over an ad hoc network
too, the routing function is affected, but could be made to adapt to sudden changes
efficient functions for link layer protection in transmission quality.
(such as forward error correction, FEC, and QoS support in an ad hoc network will af-
automatic repeat request, ARQ) can sub- fect most of the networking functions dis-
stantially improve the link quality. cussed above, especially routing and mobil-
Low-power devices: in many cases, the ity. In addition, local buffer management
network nodes will be battery-driven, and priority mechanisms must be deployed
which will make the power budget tight in the devices in order to handle differenti-
for all the power-consuming components ated traffic streams.
in a device. This will affect, for instance, In the following section we elaborate more
CPU processing, memory size/usage, sig- on three of the functions briefly mentioned
nal processing, and transceiver above, namely, security, routing, and mo-
Figure 5 output/input power. The communica- bility. We believe that these functions are
Node C sends the signed public keys it tion-related functions (basically the entire good points of departure for a discussion of
received from nodes D, E and F to server protocol stack below the applications) di- the implications that ad hoc operation will
node A. In addition, node A establishes a
new trust relationship to node G.
rectly burden the application and services have on network functionality.
running in the device. Thus, the algo-
rithms and mechanisms that implement Typical ad hoc network
the networking functions should be opti-
G H mized for lean power consumption, so as functions
G3 to save capacity for the applications while
still providing good communication per- Security
formance. Besides achieving reasonable Obviously, security is a concern in an ad hoc
F network connectivity, the introduction of network, in particular if multiple hops are
D, E, F multiple radio hops might also improve employed. How can a user be certain that
OK! G2
overall performance, given a constrained no one is eavesdropping on traffic via a for-

252 Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000

warding node? Is the user at the other end
really the person he claims to be? From a
purely cryptographic point of view, ad hoc G1 A
services do not imply many new problems. B G H
The requirements regarding authentica- G3
tion, confidentiality, and integrity or non-
repudiation are the same as for many other C E
public communication networks. However, F Figure 6
in a wireless ad hoc network, trust is a cen- D
Node G sends the signed public key it
tral problem. Since we cannot trust the G2 received from node H to node A.
medium, our only choice is to use cryptog-
raphy, which forces us to rely on the cryp-
tographic keys used. Thus, the basic chal-
lenge is to create trusted relationships be- ceived from G3 via G (Figure 6). A can
tween keys without the aid of a trusted then flood the ad hoc network with all col-
third-party certification. lected signed keys. This procedure creates
Since ad hoc networks are created sponta- trusted relationships between every node
neously between entities that happen to be in G1, G2 and G3, and forms a new trust
at the same physical location, there is no group, G1 (Figure 7).
guarantee that every node holds the trusted This example can be generalized into a pro-
public keys to other nodes or that they can tocol that handles the distribution of trust
present certificates that will be trusted by in an arbitrary ad hoc network.7
other parties. However, if we allow trust to
be delegated between nodes, nodes that al- Routing in ad hoc networks
ready have established trusted relationships For mobile ad hoc networks, the issue of rout-
can extend this privilege to other members ing packets between any pair of nodes be-
of the group. comes a challenging task because the nodes
The method described below can be used can move randomly within the network. A
for distributing relationships of trust to an path that was considered optimal at a given
entire ad hoc network. The method is based point in time might not work at all a few
on a public key approach and is exemplified moments later. Moreover, the stochastic
by a small ad hoc network (Figures 4-7). We properties of the wireless channels add to the
assume that connectivity exists between all uncertainty of path quality. The operating
the nodes in the network, and that it can be environment as such might also cause prob-
maintained by, say, a reactive ad hoc routing lems for indoor scenariosthe closing of a
protocol. door might cause a path to be disrupted.
Initially, node A takes on the role of serv- Traditional routing protocols are proac-
er node in the procedure of delegating tive in that they maintain routes to all nodes,
trust. A triggers the procedure by flood- including nodes to which no packets are
ing a start message into the network. Each being sent. They react to any change in the
node that receives this message floods the topology even if no traffic is affected by the
ad hoc network with a message containing change, and they require periodic control
the set of trusted public keys. A can then messages to maintain routes to every node
establish a map of trusted relations and in the network. The rate at which these con-
identify them in the ad hoc network. In trol messages are sent must reflect the dy- Figure 7
Node A floods the ad hoc network with all
the example shown (Figure 4), three dif- namics of the network in order to maintain the signed keys. A new chain of trust is
ferent groups (G1, G2, and G3) share a valid routes. Thus, scarce resources such as thus created in a new, secure trust group,
chain of trust. power and link bandwidth will be used more G1', which comprises all the nodes in the
All the nodes in G2 share an indirect frequently for control traffic as node mobil- network.
trusted relationship to A (through node ity increases.
C). Node A can thus collect the signed An alternative approach involves estab- All OK!
keys it received from G2 via C (as illus- lishing reactive routes, which dictates that
trated in Figure 5). By contrast, the nodes routes between nodes are determined solely B
in G3 do not have a trusted relationship when they are explicitly needed to route
to A. However, a trusted relationship be- packets. This prevents the nodes from up-
tween, say, node G in G3 and A can be dating every possible route in the network, C E
created by manually exchanging trusted and instead allows them to focus either on F
keys. routes that are being used, or on routes that D
Node A can now collect signed keys re- are in the process of being set up.

Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000 253

In a simulation study, SwitchLab8 network will simply contain a large amount
(Ericsson Research) compared two reactive of stale routes in the nodes, which results in
routing algorithms (ad hoc on-demand dis- a significant loss of packets.
tance vector, AODV9, and dynamic source
routing, DSR10) and one proactive routing Mobility functions
algorithm (destination-sequenced distance In present-day cellular networks, node and
vector, DSDV11) (Box B). In every case test- user mobility are handled mainly by means
ed, the reactive algorithms outperformed of forwarding. Thus, when a user circulates
the proactive algorithm in terms of through- outside his home network any calls direct-
put and delay. Moreover, the reactive pro- ed to him will be forwarded to the visiting
tocols behaved similarly in most of the sim- network via his home network. This same
ulated cases. The main conclusion drawn forwarding principle applies to mobile
from this study is that a reactive approach IP.12, 13 A user, or actually the node with the
might well be necessary in a mobile envi- IP interface, can also continue to use an IP
ronment with limited bandwidth capacity. address outside the subnetwork to which it
The proactive approach depletes too many belongs. A roaming node that enters a for-
resources updating paths (if the route-up- eign network is associated with a c/o address
date periods are to match the mobility of the provided by a foreign agent (FA). In the
nodes). If the update interval is too long, the home network, a home agent (HA) estab-
lishes an IP tunnel to the FA using the c/o
address. Any packet sent to the roaming
nodes address is first sent to the home agent,
which forwards it to the FA via the c/o ad-
dress (tunneling). The FA then decapsulates
Destination-sequenced distance vector reaches the destination or a node that has a the packet and sends it to the roaming node
DSDV is a proactive hop-by-hop distance vec- fresh route to the destination. On its way through using the original (home) IP address. The
tor routing protocol. Each network node main- the network, the RREQ message initiates the actual routing in the fixed network is not af-
tains a routing table that contains the next hop creation of temporary route table entries for the fected by this tunneling method and can use
to any reachable destination as well as the num- reverse route in the nodes it passes. If the des-
ber of hops that will be required. Periodical tinationor a route to itis found, its availabil-
traditional routing protocols such as open
broadcasts of routing updates are used to keep ity will be indicated by a route reply (RREP) mes- shortest path first (OSPF), the routing in-
the routing table completely updated at all sage that is unicast back to the source along formation protocol (RIP), and the border
times. To guarantee loop-freedom, DSDV uses the temporary reverse path of the received gateway protocol (BGP). This forwarding
a concept that is based on sequence numbers RREQ message. On its way back to the source,
to indicate how new, or fresh, a given route is. the RREP message initiates, in the intermediate
approach is appropriate in cases where only
Route R, for example, will be considered more nodes, routing table entries for the destination. the nodes (terminals) at the very edges of
favorable than R' if R has a higher sequence Routing table entries expire after a certain time- (fixed) networks are moving.
number; whereas if the routes have the same out period. However, in an ad hoc network, this is not
sequence number, R will have the lower, or more the case, since the nodes at the center of the
recent, hop-count. Dynamic source routing
Note: in a distance vector (or Bellman-Ford) Dynamic source routing is a reactive routing
network can also moveor rather, the
algorithm, the network nodes exchange rout- protocol that uses source routing to deliver data whole network is based on the idea of de-
ing information with their neighbors. The rout- packets. The headers of the data packets carry vices that serve both as routers and hosts at
ing table in a node contains the next hop for the addresses of the nodes through which the the same time. Hence, in an ad hoc network,
every destination in the network, and is asso- packet must pass. This means that intermedi-
ciated with a distance metricfor example, ate nodes need only keep track of their imme-
mobility is handled directly by the routing
the number of hops. Based on the distance diate neighbors in order to forward data pack- algorithm. If a node moves, forcing traffic
information in the neighbors routing tables, it ets. The source, on the other hand, must know another way, the routing protocol takes care
is possible to compute the shortest-path (or the complete hop sequence to the destination. of the changes in the nodes routing table.
minimum-cost) routes to every destination in a As in AODV, the route acquisition procedure in In many cases, interworking can be ex-
finite time for a network with no topology DSR requests a route by flooding the system
changes. with an RREQ packet. A node that receives an
pected between ad hoc and fixed networks.
RREQ packet searches its route cache, where Interworking would make it possible for a
Ad hoc on-demand distance vector all its known routes are stored, for a route to the user on a trip who takes part in a laptop con-
Like DSDV, AODV is a distance vector routing requested destination. If no route is found, it for- ference but wants mobility, to be reachable
protocol, but it is reactive. This means that wards the RREQ packet after first having added
AODV solely requests a route when it needs one, its own address to the hop sequence stored in
via the fixed IP network. Moreover, since
and does not require that the nodes should the packet. The packet propagates through the the user wants to be reachable from the fixed
maintain routes to destinations that are not network until it reaches either the destination, network, mobile IP would be a convenient
communicating. AODV uses sequence num- or a node with a route to the destination. If a way of making him reachable through the
bers in a way similar to DSDV to avoid routing route is found, an RREP packet containing the fixed IP network. If the user is located sev-
loops and to indicate the freshness of a route. proper hop sequence for reaching the destina-
Whenever a node needs to find a route to anoth- tion is unicast back to the source node. Anoth-
eral radio hops away from the access point,
er node, it broadcasts a route request (RREQ) er feature of the DSR protocol is that it can learn mobile IP and the ad hoc network routing
message to all its neighbors. The RREQ mes- routes from the source routes in packets it protocol must interwork to provide connec-
sage is flooded through the network until it receives. tivity between the travelling user and his

254 Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000

units peer node, which is located in the fixed Visiting nodes
network or in another ad hoc network. Correspondent nodes

MIPMANET Transport
Mobile IP for mobile ad hoc networks (MIP-
MANET)14 is designed to give nodes in ad
hoc networks
access to the Internet; and Foreign agent Home agent
the services of mobile IP. Mobile IP
The solution uses mobile IP foreign agents
as access points to the Internet to keep track
of the ad hoc network in which any given
node is located, and to direct packets to the
edge of that ad hoc network.
The ad hoc routing protocol is used to de- IP
liver packets between the foreign agent and
the visiting node. A layered approach that
employs tunneling is applied to the outward Ad hoc network IP network
data flow, to separate the mobile IP func-
tionality from the ad hoc routing protocol Figure 8
Figure 8 illustrates how mobile IP and An overview of the MIPMANET architecture.
ad hoc routing functionality are layered. This
makes it possible for MIPMANET to pro-
vide Internet access by enabling nodes to se-
lect multiple access points and to perform
seamless switching between them. In short, the only traffic that will enter the ad hoc net-
MIPMANET works as follows: work from the Internet is traffic that is tun-
Nodes in an ad hoc network that want In- neled to the foreign agent from a registered
ternet access use their home IP addresses nodes home agent. Likewise, traffic that
for all communication, and register with leaves the ad hoc network is tunneled to the
a foreign agent. foreign agent from a registered node. This
To send a packet to a host on the Inter- results in a separation between, and thereby
net, the node in the ad hoc network tun- the capacity to control, traffic that is local
nels the packet to the foreign agent. in the ad hoc network and traffic that enters
To receive packets from hosts on the In- the ad hoc network.
ternet, packets are routed to the foreign
agent by ordinary mobile IP mechanisms.
The foreign agent then delivers the pack-
Radio layer implications
ets to the node in the ad hoc network.
Nodes that do not require Internet access Why multiple hops?
interact with the ad hoc network as though In dealing with an unreliable wireless
it were a stand-alone networkthat is, broadcast medium, special radio consid-
they do not require data regarding routes erations should be addressed in the com-
to destinations outside the ad hoc network. munication system of an ad hoc network, to
If a node cannot determine from the IP ensure reliable and efficient operation. One
address whether or not the destination is way of doing this is to employ multihop-
located within the ad hoc network, it will ping, which facilitates the reuse of re-
first search for the visiting node within sources in both the spatial and temporal do-
the ad hoc network before tunneling the mains, provided that the nodes which par-
packet. ticipate in the network are reasonably well
By using tunneling, MIPMANET can in- distributed in space.15 In contrast, single-
corporate the default route concept into on- hop networks mainly share the channel re-
demand ad hoc routing protocols, such as sources in the temporal domain. Figure 9
AODV and DSR, without requiring any shows a schematic depiction of the spatial
major modifications. Packets addressed to interference in multihopping and single-
destinations that are not found within the hopping scenarios. Each case considers an
ad hoc network are tunneled to foreign identical situation with respect to node dis-
agents. In MIPMANET, only registered vis- tribution, sources, and destinations. In the
iting nodes are given Internet access, thus multihopping scenario, packets are routed

Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000 255

Single-hop Multihop

Example of power-
controlled transmit

Figure 9
Comparison of multihop networking with Source
single-hop networking. Both examples Destination
have an identical distribution of network Relay
Other node

over intermediate relays. However, the sin- requires. In essence, the key to conserving
gle-hop network sends the data directly energy is to control the transmit power, in
from the source to destination. The circles order to compensate for path losses that
in the figure indicate a power-controlled occur when a message is sent between adja-
range of the transmitting nodes. The fig- cent nodes.
ure also depicts inactive nodesthese In a network scenario with little data traf-
nodes are not involved as sources, destina- fic, the overall power consumption can be
tions, or intermediate relays. From this fig- reduced by approximately a factor of N-1,
ure, we get the feeling that the multihop where N is the number of equidistant hops
scenario provides greater spectral efficien- between the source and the destination, and
cy (bit/s/Hz/m2). is the propagation constant. In theory,
is equal to 2 for free space propagation. But
Comparison of multiple hops and for realistic environments, it is often as-
single hops signed a value of 3 or 4. To derive the rela-
Whether multihopping is necessary, suit- tionship N-1, we first describe propagation
able or even possible depends on factors such loss (L) in terms of its relationship to dis-
as the number and distribution of terminals tance (R):
in the network, relative traffic density, radio
channel characteristics, practical communi- L=Const R
cation limitations, and reasons for optimiz- For correct reception at a given level of re-
ing certain parameters. Under some cir- ceiver noise, a minimum receiving power
cumstances, a multihop network might ac- PRX_min is required. Accordingly, the
tually degenerate into a single-hop network. transmit power for one hop over distance R
One obvious reason for employing multi- is (stated somewhat simplistically):
hopping is to provide connectivity, since
some terminals might be out of range of each PTX_1=PRX_min Const R
other, and cannot therefore form a single-
hop network. If the distance (R) is divided into N hops,
then each individual hop requires
Multihop characteristicsforwarding
In a multihop scenario, it makes sense not PTX_N=PRX_min Const (R/N)
to waste more energy than what each hop This is a factor N less than a long single

256 Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000

hop. Thus, the overall end-to-end reduction delay. By segmenting the message, several
in transmit power is packets can be transferred concurrently over
N 1 consecutive hops. Under those assumptions,
N the delay imposed by multiple hops is small
In this analysis, we have excluded many in comparison to the delay resulting from
detrimental factors, such as unequal hop the link rate and message size. In fact, end-
ranges, retransmissions, and the character- to-end delay might actually benefit from
istics of fading channels. Moreover, we have multiple hops. Because traffic can be rout-
assumed a very simple model of propagation ed concurrently over multiple links in a
loss. Notwithstanding, the results hint at multihop chain, the challenge is to alle-
potential power savings. For example, com- viate the associated interference.
pared to the single-hop case, given =3.5 Obviously, when transmit power is lim-
and N=16, the overall theoretical end-to- ited, it might not be possible to reach the
end transmit power per packet is reduced by desired station without multiple hops. On
1000 times, or 30 dB. The bad news is that the other hand, because the maximum size
in a mobile ad hoc network of messages is fixed, too many hops will in-
connectivity usually needs to be main- crease delay. This implies that a given num-
tained between neighbors; and ber of hops, N, can provide a minimum delay
routing information needs to be distrib- under transmit power constraints and a
uted. given message size.
Thus, in highly mobile situations, the con- In summary, multihopping is beneficial,
trol traffic required in a multihop network since it
might consume a noticeable amount of en- conserves tranmit energy resources;
ergy, even in the absence of data traffic. reduces interference; and
A direct benefit of controlling power over increases overall network throughput.
short-range transmissions is that it can re- Multihopping might also be a necessity, to
duce the total interference level in a homo- provide any kind of connectivity between
geneous multihop network with multiple very distant terminals.
communicating nodes and fixed traffic. In a
first approximationwithout considering
the specific interference locationthe aver-
Bluetooth networking
age level of interference is reduced by the Worldwide, the industry has shown a
same amount as the transmit power; that is, tremendous interest in techniques that pro-
by N1 . Furthermore, less interference im- vide short-range wireless connectivity. In
plies greater link capacity. Given a some- this context, Bluetooth technology is seen
what crude application of Shannons as the key component.16-18 However, Blue-
bandwidth-limited channel capacity rela- tooth technology must be able to operate in
tion, and by assuming that the interference ad hoc networks that can be stand-alone, or
is well modeled with complex Gaussian part of the IP-networked world, or a com-
noise, the individual link capacity increases bination of the two.
for large N: lg(N). This is shown below, The main purpose of Bluetooth is to re-
where B is the bandwidth and SIR1 is the place cables between electronic devices, such
signal-to-interference ratio for a link in a ref- as telephones, PDAs, laptop computers,
erence single-hop system that has been re- digital cameras, printers, and fax machines,
placed with a multihop system: by using a low-cost radio chip. Short-range
connectivity also fits nicely into the wide-
Clink=B.lg2(1+SIR1.N1) Const1.lg2(N)+Const2 area context, in that it can extend IP net-
working into the personal-area network do-
The end-to-end delay depends on the level main, as discussed earlier.
at which latency is measured and the applied Bluetooth must be able to carry IP effi-
forwarding principle. A message of reason- ciently in a PAN, since PANs will be con-
able size which is to be forwarded in the nected to the Internet via UMTS or corpo-
store-and-forward manner will experience rate LANs, and will contain IP-enabled
delay that is proportional to the number of hosts. Generally speaking, a good capacity
hops. Nonetheless, this delay is compensat- for carrying IP would give Bluetooth net-
ed for in part by an increase in the link data works a wider and more open interface,
rate. which would most certainly boost the de-
The segmenting of large messages into velopment of new applications for Blue-
multiple packets also affects the end-to-end tooth.

Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000 257

Piconet 1 between two piconets consists of a Bluetooth
unit that is a member of both piconets. A
Piconet 3
Bluetooth unit can simultaneously be a slave
member of multiple piconets, but only a
Piconet 2 master in one. Moreover, because a Blue-
tooth unit can only transmit and receive data
in one piconet at a time, its participation in
multiple piconets has to be on a time-
division multiplex basis.
The Bluetooth system provides duplex
Bluetooth unit (master)
transmission based on slotted time-division
Figure 10 duplex (TDD), where the duration of each slot
Bluetooth unit (slave)
Examples of Bluetooth piconets. is 0.625 ms. There is no direct transmission
between slaves in a Bluetooth piconet, only
from master to slave and vice versa.
Bluetooth basics Communication in a piconet is organized
Bluetooth is a wireless communication tech- so that the master polls each slave according
nology that uses a frequency-hopping to a polling scheme. A slave is only allowed
scheme in the unlicensed Industrial- to transmit after having been polled by the
Scientific-Medical (ISM) band at 2.4 GHz. master. The slave will start its transmission
Two or more Bluetooth units that share the in the slave-to-master timeslot immediate-
same channel form a piconet (Figure 10). ly after it has received a packet from the mas-
Within a piconet, a Bluetooth unit can play ter. The master may or may not include data
either of two roles: master or slave. Each pi- in the packet used to poll a slave. However,
conet may only contain one master (and it is possible to send packets that cover mul-
there must always be one) and up to seven tiple slots. These multislot packets may be
active slaves. Any Bluetooth unit can be- either three or five slots long.
come a master in a piconet.
Furthermore, two or more piconets can be Scatternet-based PANs
interconnected, forming what is called a Bluetooth networks will most likely be used
scatternet (Figure 11). The connection point to interconnect devices such as cellular
phones, PDAs, and notebook computers
in other words, via a PAN. The PAN itself
Figure 11 can be a Bluetooth-based IP networkin all
A Bluetooth scatternet. likelihood it will be based on a single piconet
topology. However, when a PAN user wants
Piconet 11 Piconet 9 to connect to one or more other PANs, Blue-
tooth scatternet capability will serve as the
Piconet 12
foundation for the IP network. Similarly, if
one or more PANs connect to an Internet ac-
cess point on a LAN (LAN access point, LAP)
Piconet 1 a scatternet will provide the underlying
Piconet 10 Bluetooth infrastructure (Figure 12).
We can expect to see a combination of
Piconet 8 PAN interconnection and Internet access.
Piconet 2
Piconet 4 In addition, Internet access to one PAN or
several interconnected PANs can be pro-
Piconet 7 vided by using a cellular phone (for exam-
Piconet 3
ple, via GPRS/UMTS) as a bridge/router
gateway (Figure 13).19
Piconet 5 Scatternets can also be rearranged to give
better overall performance. For instance, if
two slave nodes need to communicate, it
Bluetooth unit, master might be wiser to create a new piconet that

Bluetooth unit, slave solely contains these two nodes. The nodes

Bluetooth unitmaster in one Bluetooth unitmaster in one Piconet 6 can still be part of their original piconets if
piconet, slave in another piconet, slave in two traffic flows to or from them, or if they need

Bluetooth unitslave in two Bluetooth unitslave in three to receive control information. Since the
piconets piconets
frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS)

258 Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000

IP backbone


Bluetooth LAN
access point
PAN 2 Figure 12
S S A scatternet with three interconnected
piconets, in which two are PANs and one
M S is used to provide network access to the
two PANs via a Bluetooth LAN access
point. In this scenario, the letters M and S
indicate the distribution of master and
slave units.

system makes Bluetooth very robust against scatternet forming and maintenance;
interference, new piconets gain substantial- scatternet-wide packet forwarding; and
ly more capacity than they lose as a result of intra- and interpiconet scheduling.
increased interference between them.
Scatternet forming
Scatternet functionality To have an efficient infrastructure for IP net-
The concept of scatternets offers a flexible working on Bluetooth, piconets and scatter-
way of creating Bluetooth networks and in- nets must be able to adapt to the connec-
troduces a number of Bluetooth-specific tivity, traffic distribution, and node mobil-
functions. Ideally, these functions should be ity in the network. This is mainly achieved
kept in the background to keep them from by setting up new piconets or terminating
bothering the user of the Bluetooth network others, in order to attain the optimal scat-
and to facilitate applications development. ternet topology. In this context, optimal
The Bluetooth networking functions fall refers to a scatternet that, for instance, yields
into three main areas: minimum delay or maximum throughput.

Figure 13
A scatternet with three interconnected piconets. Via a GPRS/UMTS cellular phone, one
piconet provides IP network access to the other two piconets.

IP backbone




Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000 259

But it could also mean minimizing energy tion on the IP layer would thus need to
consumption in network nodes. To ensure be adapted to, or interact very closely
ad hoc operation, the function for forming with, the underlying Bluetooth layer,
and maintaining scatternets must be dis- which violates the idea of keeping the IP
tributed. layer independent of the link layer tech-
Packet forwarding in the scatternet IP routing is typically performed between
Forwardingor routingbecomes neces- networks with different link layer tech-
sary when packets must traverse multiple nologies or to separate different network
hops between the source and destination domains. Scatternets use only one tech-
nodes. Given that IP will be commonplace nologyBluetoothand typically be-
in scatternet contexts, one might conclude long to only one network domain.
that routing over the scatternet should be In summary, the best way of providing net-
handled within the IP layer (Figure 14). working in a Bluetooth scatternet is to per-
However, there are good arguments for tak- form the routing on a network layer resid-
ing another course. ing below IP (Figure 15). This layer will
The current IP dynamic host configuration be able to interact closely with the Blue-
protocols20 (DHCP) and emerging zero- tooth baseband functions during the es-
configuration methods21, 22 (IETF Zero Con- tablishment or tear-down of a Bluetooth-
figuration Networking Working Group, specific piconet; and
zeroconfig) rely on link layer connectivity. provide a broadcast segment-like inter-
These protocols are typically used to attain face to IP.
a dynamic IP address for an IP host or to se-
lect a random IP address. Generally, the Intra- and interpiconet scheduling
protocols will not work beyond an IP router, The master unit of a piconet controls the
which means that they will not reach nodes traffic within the piconet by means of
located more than one Bluetooth hop away polling. A polling algorithm determines
in an IP-routed scatternet. A scatternet that how bandwidth capacity is to be distributed
provides broadcast segment-like connec- among the slave units. The polling algo-
tivity would enable these protocols to work rithm assesses the capacity needs of the units
for Bluetooth-based IP hosts that are sepa- in the scatternet and ensures that capacity
rated by multiple hops. is shared fairly, or according to a weighted
To operate efficiently, the routing func- capacity-sharing policy.
tion should be joined with the function In a scatternet, at least one Bluetooth unit
for forming scatternets. A routing func- is member of more than one piconet. These

Figure 14
A Bluetooth scatternet where the net-
working functionality is handled within the
IP layer (that is, by IP routing).

IP hosts and

Slave 3
Slave 1

Bluetooth link and

baseband layer Slave 5
Slave 4
Master Master
Slave 2

260 Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000

interpiconet nodes might have a slave role groups. Among them, the Personal Area
in numerous piconets but can have the mas- Networking Working Group (PAN WG) is
ter role in only one of them. The main chal- responsible for developing functions and
lenge is to schedule the presence of the in- protocols that will allow IP-based applica-
terpiconet node in its different piconets, in tions to be implemented in Bluetooth de-
order to facilitate the traffic flow both with- vices. The current support provided for IP
in and between piconets. Given that the in- in the Bluetooth specification needs to be
terpiconet node is a single transceiver unit, enhanced to facilitate future IP applica-
only one of its entities (master or slaves) can tionsin order to facilitate improved per-
be active at a time. formance and functionality.
To manage scatternet traffic efficiently,
the intrapiconet scheduler must consider Other ad hoc technologies
the interpiconet scheduler when it polls the
slaves of a piconet. For instance, the in- IEEE 802.11
trapiconet scheduler in a master unit might The IEEE 802.11 specification23 is a wireless
not schedule an interpiconet node when the LAN standard that specifies a wireless inter-
latter is active in another piconet. Howev- face between a client and a base station or ac-
er, the interpiconet scheduler might sched- cess point, as well as between wireless clients.
ule this node more often, after it is once again IEEE 802.11 defines two physical char-
active in the piconet. acteristics for radio-based wireless local area
networks: direct-sequence spread spectrum
The Bluetooth SIG (DSSS), and frequency-hopping spread spec-
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), trum (FHSS), both of which operate on the
comprised of leaders in the telecommunica- 2.4 GHz ISM band.
tions, computing, and network industries, Two network architecture modes have
drives the development of Bluetooth tech- been defined in the IEEE 802.11 standard,
nology and its exposure in the market. The namely the point coordination function
Bluetooth SIG includes promoter compa- (PCF) mode and the distributed coordina-
nies (3Com, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Lucent, tion function (DCF) mode. The former uses
Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia and Toshiba) a centralized approach in which a network
and more than 2000 other companies that access point controls all traffic in the net-
have adopted Bluetooth. work, including local traffic between wire-
The work of specifying the next step in less clients in the network. The DCF mode
the development of Bluetooth technology supports direct communication between
has been delegated to a set of working wireless clients.

Figure 15
A Bluetooth scatternet where networking
is handled within a Bluetooth networking
layer, which provides a broadcast seg-
ment to the IP hosts.

IP hosts

Bluetooth networking

Slave 3
Slave 1

Bluetooth link and

baseband layer Slave 5
Slave 4
Master Master
Slave 2

Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000 261

The media access control (MAC) layer uses relative to other connections. This type of
the carrier-sense multiple-access-with- QoS support combined with high transmis-
collision-avoidance (CSMA/CA) algorithm. sion rate will facilitate simultaneous trans-
A terminal operating in DCF mode that mission of many different types of data
wants to send data: listens to make certain stream, such as video and voice.
the channel is free and then waits for a ran- H2 also provides a direct mode (DM) of
domly drawn period (backoff). If no other communication between mobile terminals,
station attempts to gain access after this pe- which means that it has some of the prop-
riod of waiting, the terminal can gain access erties that fit into the ad hoc network cate-
according to one of two modes: gory. However, the AP needs to control
Four-way handshakethe sending node communication between mobile terminals
sends a request-to-send (RTS) packet to even though the radio link is direct between
the receiving terminal. If the receiver ac- the nodes. Thus, any two given H2 mobile
cepts the request, it replies with a clear- terminals cannot communicate on an ad hoc
to-send (CTS) packet. If no collisions have basis without having an access point with-
occurred, the sender then begins trans- in reach. This differs from the IEEE 802.11
mitting its data. way of managing ad hoc communication.
The sender immediately begins sending Nevertheless, the ad hoc mode of operation
its data. This mode is used when the data of H2 is still in its early phase of develop-
packet is short. ment and the final design might deviate
In either mode, the receiver responds with from this description.24
an acknowledgement (ACK) packet if the
packet was successfully received. The
CSMA/CA mechanism is also active for the
PCF mode. However, because the access In this article we have tried to survey ad hoc
point has greater priority than terminals, it networking mainly from a technical point
has total control of the channel. of view. We have also made an attempt to
The IEEE 802.11 standard does not spec- clarify what an ad hoc network actually is and
ify a method for multihop ad hoc network- found that the definitions vary. However,
ing. However, in several experimental net- by proceeding from familiar wireless net-
works, MANET-based IP routing has been work architectures, we have allowed the
used. Nonetheless, the experiments did not level of independent operation of the net-
employ automated host configuringthat work nodes to define the notion of ad hoc
is, static IP addresses were assumed. networking. Typically, these networks op-
erate with distributed functions and allow
HiperLAN/2 traffic to pass over multiple radio hops be-
As a rule, a HiperLAN/2 (H2) network has tween source and destination.
a centralized mode (CM) in which mobile Furthermore, we have discussed some of
terminals communicate with access points the typical properties of ad hoc networks,
(AP) over the air interface as defined by the such as routing algorithms and the impli-
HiperLAN/2 standard. The user of a mobile cations of radio layers. The inherent unpre-
terminal can move around freely in the dictability in a network whose nodes move
HiperLAN/2 network, which ensures that poses a challenge to routing and mobility
the terminal, and hence, the user, gets the functions if they are to deliver data consis-
best possible transmission performance. tently between the network nodes.
The development of a high-speed trans- Nonetheless, multihop radio systems also
mission environment with controlled QoS make it possible to save battery capacity
has been the main focus regarding the de- while retaining, or even improving, perfor-
sign choices for the H2 network. The rate mance. In any case, the most attractive prop-
of the H2 network will give up to 54 Mbit/s erty of an ad hoc networking model is per-
on layer 3 and it will operate in the 5 GHz haps its independence from centralized con-
frequency band. trol and, thus, the increased freedom and
The connection-oriented nature of H2 flexibility it gives the user.
makes it easy to implement support for QoS. Ad hoc networks have mostly been used in
Each connection can be assigned a specific the military sector, where being able to es-
QoS, for instance in terms of bandwidth, tablish ad hoc communication is often a ne-
delay, and bit error rate. It is also possible cessity. On the other hand, in the commer-
to use a more simple approach, in which each cial sector, successful examples of ad hoc
connection can be assigned a priority level radio networks are few so far, if any. How-

262 Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000

ever, instead of looking at large-scale net- the current development of IP support in
works we turned to the small-scale person- Bluetooth networks is crucial.
al area networks that are emerging in re- Due to its inherent flexibility, ad hoc net-
sponse to the introduction of short-range working is easy to deploy and would fit nice-
radio technologies, such as Bluetooth. Here, ly into, say, an office setting, where users
ease of use and flexibility are fueling the de- could set up ad hoc networking groups using
mand for ad hoc operation. In addition, a cen- fewer LAN access points and potentially less
tralized network architecture would have se- transmitting power. However, the products
rious problems trying to control all PAN that apply the concepts of ad hoc network-
devices. In particular, ad hoc Bluetooth net- ing will most likely see its light in the short,
worksscatternetswill give rise to a personal area range. These products will
whole new set of business and consumer ap- mainly focus on facilitating communication
plications for small, battery-driven user de- between a users personal deviceseither
vices, such as mobile phones, PDAs, and for local traffic or as gateways to the Inter-
notebook computers. The combination of net. The ad hoc network functionality will
wide-area IP connectivity via UMTS (mo- also enable the interconnection of different
bile phone) access, and personal area con- users devicesfor instance, to facilitate
nectivity in the PAN presents new oppor- larger ad hoc working groups. The intrinsic
tunities for the user on the go. End-to-end ability to create generic, small-scale, ad hoc
IP networking is a key component in this networks in portable devices represents an
respect, providing the basis on which to de- entirely new area for future ad hoc-based ap-
velop applications for PAN products. Thus, plications.


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Ericsson Review No. 4, 2000 263