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The Heart

The heart us a hollow, cone shaped, muscular organ about the size of closed hst. Contracts about
2,5 billions time and pumps about 50 million gallons of blood in an average life time. The
bottom part, called the apex, tilts forward and down towards the body left side and rest on the
diaphragm. The top part of the heart, called the base, lies just bellow the second rib. Because of
the hearts angled position, about 2/3 of the organ lies to the left midline, and 1/3 to the right.

The Heart Wall

Three major tissues layers make up the heart wall. The endocardium, myocardium, and
epicardium. The endocardium consist of a thin inner layers of endotalium that lines the hearts
valves and chambers. The myocardium, the middle and the thickest layer of the heart wall, is the
muscle that contracts with its heart beck. The epicardium, the outer most layers of the heart
wall, forms the inner layer of the pericardium a fluid filled sac that covers the hearts entire outer
surface and protect the heart chambers from friction.

The Chambers
The interior of the heart is divided into four hollow chambers which receive the circulation
blood. The two upper chambers are called the right and left atrium and they are separated by
interatria septum. The two lowers chambers are called the right and left ventricle and these are
separated by the interventricular septum. Each atrium is separated from each respective
ventricles by a valve. Therefore it is the septa and the valve which divide the heart into four

The Valves
The valves that lie between the atria and their ventricles called the atrioventricular (AV) valve.
The AV valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle is called the tricuspid valves,
because it consists of three cusps or flasps. The AV valve between the left atrium and the left
ventricle is called the mitral or bicuspid valves because it has two cusps. When the ventricle
contract, the pressure exerted on these valve by the blood force them to close, thus preventing
back flow of blood in to the atria. The valve that lie between the ventricle and the major arteries
that leave the heart are called the semilunar valves. There are the pulmonic and aortic, its lie at
the outlets of the right and left ventricle, respectively. By closing after the ventricle empty, thede
valves prevent reflux to the heart lower chambers.

The Vessel
Cardiac Networking
A vast network of five distinct types of blood vessels transports blood throughout the body. The
review of each type are:

1. Arteries
As these vessel carry blood away from the heart, their thick muscular walls expand and
contract to accommodate the speed, pressure, and volume of blood being pumped. The
aorta, which is the largest artery, gives rise to many branches that eventually divide into
smaller vessels called arterioles.
2. Arterioles
Although arteriolar walls are thinner than those of arteries, their muscular, elastic quality
allows them to reduce the pressure and regulate the blood flow into smaller branches
called capillaries.
3. Capillaries
A single layer of endothelial cells makes up these microscopic vessels. But despite their
size, capillaries play a major role in the circulatory network by oxygenating body tissues
and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. Wastes laden blood drains from
capillaries into the venules.
4. Venules
These vessel which have thinner walls and smaller diameter than arterioles, carry
deoxygenated blood to the veins.
5. Veins
Vein carry blood back to the right side of heart. Though their walls are thinner than those
of arteries, their diameters are considerably larger. Both veins and venules are
capacitance vessels, capable of accommodating increase in cardiac output by expending
to hold greater blood volume. Among the largest veins in the body are the superior vena
cava, which return blood to the heart from the upper body; the inferior vena cava, which
return blood from the lower body; and the coronary sinus , which return body from the
heart muscle. Many veins in the extremities and neck have valves that open in the
direction of the blood flow and prevent reflux.

The Circulation
In human, as in mammals, there are two distinct circuits within the cardiovascular system known
as the systemic and pulmonary circulations. Both circulations originated and terminate in the
heart, which is it functionally divided into two pumps. The systemic circulation supplies all the
body tissues, and is where exchange of nutrient and product of metabolism occurs; all the blood
for the systemic circulation leaves the left side of the heart via the aorta. Then, this large artery
divided into smaller artery that deliver blood to all tissues and organs. These arteries divided
into smaller and smaller vessels. The smallest branch called arterioles. The arterioles themselves
branch into some of very small thin vessel called the capillary, where the exchange of gasses,
nutrient, and waste product occurs. Exchange occurs by diffusion of substance down
concentration and pressure gradient. The capillaries then unite to form larger vessels, venules
which in turn unite to form fewer and larger vessels, known as veins. The pulmonary circulation
is where oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between the blood and alveolar air occurs.

The left side of the heart supplies the systemic circulation; and the right side supplies the
pulmonary circulation. The systemic circulation is much larger than pulmonary circulation and
those force generated by the left side of the heart is much greater than the right side one.