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Nutrition 101

Mark Hargreaves
Nutrition is the science that interprets
the interaction of nutrients and other
substances in food in relation to
maintenance, growth, reproduction,
health and disease. It includes food
intake, absorption, assimilation,
biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion.
Dietary components

Protein/amino acids
Vitamins, mineral, trace elements
Energy balance and body mass

FIG. 1. BAT contributes to energy expenditure. Weight gain and obesity are caused by chronic periods of positive energy balance. Energy intake
comes from food consumption, whereas the major contributors to expenditure are exercise and basic metabolic processes. The studies reviewed
here suggest that BAT activity could impact daily energy expenditure. BAT dissipates energy as heat and can thus counteract weight gain.
Interindividual variability in the amount or function of this tissue may impact body weight. In addition, therapeutic expansion/activation of this
tissue may prove to be an effective therapy for obesity. WAT, white adipose tissue.

P. Seale & M.A. Lazar. Diabetes. 58: 1482-1483, 2009

likely plays a significant role in the regulation of body lated into 1) a better understanding of the mechanisms
weight. that work together to regulate body weight and 2) novel
Regardless of whether the BAT present in adult humans therapeutic interventions to reduce the burden of obesity
affects total daily energy expenditure, increasing the in our society.
amount and/or function of this tissue could be a safe and
Components of energy expenditure
Measurement of energy expenditure

Doubly labelled water

Oxygen consumption (VO2)
Heart rate-based estimation of VO2
Activity monitors
Population-based algorithms
Oxygen uptake is exercise intensity-dependent

P.O. strand & K. Rodahl. Textbook of Work Physiology, 1986, p. 300

B. Saltin & L.B. Rowell. Fed. Proc. 39: 1506-1513, 1980
Determinants of energy expenditure

Adrenaline, thyroid hormones

Muscle mass and oxidative capacity
Exercise/physical activity levels
Non-exercise activity thermogenesis
Shivering thermogenesis
Brown fat?
Selected pathways involved in body
mass regulation
The defence of body weight

Figure 1 Selected pathways involved in body weight regulation

CART, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript; MSH, -melanocyte-stimulating hormone. This Figure was repro-
duced from Proietto J. Why is treating obesity so difficult? Justification for the role of bariatric surgery. Med. J. Aust. 2011;
195(3): 144146.
P. Sumithran & J. Proietto. Clin. Sci. 124: 231-241, 2013
c Copyright 2011 The Medical Journal of Australia reproduced with permission.

Table 2 Physiological changes after diet-induced weight loss and appears to be largely due to increased efficiency of skeletal
muscle, particularly at low workloads [50,51]. This dispropor-
Factor Expected effect tionate decline in TEE has been shown to persist for more than 1
Energy expenditure Increase energy storage year in subjects who maintain a reduced body weight [52].
Fat oxidation
Feeding and metabolism

J.M. Friedman. Nature. 459: 340-342, 2009

Body fluid compartments
Mechanisms of heat loss during exercise

J.Werner. Persp. Exerc. Sci. Sports Med.Vol. 6, 1993, p. 55

D. Silverthorn. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach. 2009, p. 688
D. Silverthorn. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach. 2009, p. 703
D. Silverthorn. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach. 2009, p. 704
D. Silverthorn. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach. 2009, p. 705
D. Silverthorn. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach. 2009, p. 706
D. Silverthorn. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach. 2009, p. 707
Fuels for endurance sports

L.Van Loon et al. J. Physiol. 536: 295-304, 2001

Protein nutrition

Protein-based training adaptations include increased mitochondrial density, increased

contractile proteins/muscle mass and enhanced buffer capacity

B.B. Rasmussen & S.M. Phillips. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 31: 127-131, 2003