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SRM Nagar,Kattankulathur 603 203.




Sources of wastewater generation Effects Estimation of sanitary sewage flow Estimation
of storm runoff Factors affecting Characteristics and composition of sewage and their
significance Effluent standards Legislation requirements.
Q.No Questions Competence
1. Define time of Concentration. BT-1 Remember
2. 1. State the five parameters of effluent standards for sewage
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disposal into inland surface water bodies.
3. 2. Name sewage characteristics with which organic matter
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concentration is expressed.
4. List the factors influencing the fixing of Design period. BT-1 Remember
5. 3. Define a) Sullage b) MINAS BT-1 Remember
6. List out the effluent standards for any four parameters
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recommended by the pollution control board.
7. Differentiate between dry weather flow and wet weather flow. BT-2 Understand
8. Discuss about the population equivalent. BT-2 Understand
9. Differentiate sewage flow and storm water run-off. BT-2 Understand
10. Draw the BOD demand curve. BT-2 Understand
11. Illustrate the different factors which affect the characteristics
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of sewage.
12. Mention the necessity of legal requirements and effluents
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disposal of sewage.
13 State and classify the effluent standards. BT-3 Application
14.4. Compare sewage with sewerage system. BT-4 Analyse
15. Explain the significance of BOD/COD ratio. BT-4 Analyse
16. Identify the necessity of wastewater characterization. BT-4 Analyse
17.5. Generalize the typical characteristics of sewage from South BT-5 Evaluate
Indian Cities.
18.6. Why do the analyses BOD and COD usually give different BT-5 Evaluate
results for the same wastewater?
19. Summarize about sewerage system and mention the types of
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sewerage system.
20. Explain the first stage BOD. BT-6 Create

1. i) Write in detail about the characteristics and composition of
sewage. (8)
ii) BOD of a sewage incubated for 2 days at 30oc was found BT-1 Remember
to be 160 mg/l. Find the value of 5 day 20oc BOD. Assume k
(base 10) at 20oc as 0.12 per day. (8)
2. i) List out the factors influencing the dry weather flow and
explain it in detail. (8) BT-1 Remember
ii) How will you estimate storm water flow? Explain it. (8)
3. i) B.O.D. of a sewage incubated for one day at 30C has been
found to be 120 mg/l. What will be its 5 day 20C BOD, if K
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at 30C is 0.16 per day (base 10). (10)
ii) What is population equivalent? State its uses. (6)
i) Give the effluent standards for waste water disposal into
inland water bodies and ocean. (8) BT-1 Remember
ii) List the effects of sewage on environment. (8)

5. i) Discuss the significance of total solids and BOD in

determining the characteristics of sewage. (6)
ii) A city with a population of 100,000 has an area of 50 km2.
Rate of water supply is 110 litres per capita per day of which BT-2 Understand
80% turns into sewer. The average run-off coefficient is 0.5
and intensity of rainfall is 14.5 mm/hr. Estimate the quantity
of combined sewage. Take peak factor as 2.5. (10)
6. i) Classify the legal requirements and standards regarding
treatment of sewage. (8)
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ii) Discuss about the information to be collected while
planning for sewerage systems. How will you use the
corrected information? (8)
7. Discuss the Environmental Legislation requirements while
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planning sewerage system.

8. Calculate the combined flow discharge of sewage for the

given data. Area to be served is 150 hectares. Population
density is 50000. Time of entry is 5 minutes. Time of flow is
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20 minutes. Rate of water supply is 135 LPCD.
Impermeability factor = 0.45. Assume 80% of water supplied
turns into sewer and peak factor as 1.5.
9. The rainfall distribution of an area is as follows. The total area
of the distribution is 36 hectares and the maximum rainfall is
5 mm/hour. Calculate the total runoff if the population density
is 250/hectare.
Type of area % of area Run off
coefficient BT-3 Application
Roof 20 0.9
Pavement 20 0.85
Housing 5 0.80
Roads 15 0.4
Lawns 35 0.1
Wooden area 5 0.05
10. i) The BOD of sewage incubated for one day at 30C has been
found to be 400 mg/l. Calculate the 5 day 20C BOD. Assume
K10= 0.12/day at 20C. (8)
ii) A city with a population of 100,000 has an area of hectares.
Calculate the D.W.F and storm water flow for the sewer line
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for the following data:
Rate of Water supply = 200 LPCD
Average runoff coefficient for the entire area = 0.5
Time of concentration = 50 min
Assume 75% of water supplied reaches the sewer. (8)
11. i) Explain the terms BOD and COD. Differentiate between
first and second stage BOD. (8)
ii) The BOD of a sewage incubated for one day at 30 c has BT-4 Analyse
been found to be 120mg/l. what will be the 5-day BOD at
20oc. Assume BOD rate constant K = 0.21 (base e) per day at
20oc and temperature correction coefficient (8)
12. i) Explain the factors influencing sanitary sewage flow and its
estimation. (8)
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ii) State the classification of solids present in sewage and the
removal methods of each. (8)

13. i) How will you estimate the relative stability of sewage? (6)
ii) State the different sources of waste water that are produced
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from a community. Discuss the systems of sewerage with its
merits and demerits. (10)
14. Derive the first stage BOD equation and ultimate BOD. BT-6 Create


Sewerage Hydraulics of flow in sewers Objectives Design period - Design of sanitary and
storm sewers Small bore systems - Computer applications Laying, joining & testing of
sewers appurtenances Pumps selection of pumps and pipe Drainage -. Plumbing System
for Buildings One pipe and two pipe system.
Q.No Questions Competence
1. Define sewerage system. List out the components of it. BT-1 Remember
2. 1. Name the two softwares used in sewer design. BT-1 Remember
3. Define clean-outs. BT-1 Remember
4. Name the types of plumbing system for buildings. BT-1 Remember
5. Write any two empirical formulae for estimating storm water
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6. How will you examine situations where the pumping of
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sewage becomes essential in sewage management?
7. 2. Distinguish between Self Cleaning velocity and Non-scouring
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8. 3. Discuss about the inverted syphon. BT-2 Understand
9. Explain the objective of sewer design. BT-2 Understand
10. Describe the expression for finding out settling velocity. BT-2 Understand
11. Show the qualities of the good sewer pipes. BT-3 Application
12. Illustrate the various steps involved in the layout and
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construction of sewers
13. Classify the different types of pumps used for pumping the
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14. Explain the principle involved in pipe drainage. BT-4 Analyse
15. What do you understand by sewer appurtenances? BT-4 Analyse
16. Differentiate between one pipe and two pipe system. BT-4 Analyse
17. 1. How to design capacity of the wet well in a sewage pumping
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18. Formulate the hydraulic formulas for determining flow
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velocities in sewers and drains.
19. 2. A sewer has to be designed considering both minimum
velocity and maximum velocity of flows-State true or false BT-6 Create
and justify the answer.
20. 3. Reciprocating pumps is not widely in the sewage pumping-
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state true or false and justify your answer.


1. (i) The main combined sewer is to be designed to serve an

area of 12 km2 with a population density of 250 person
per hectare. The average rate of flow is 250 LPCD. The
maximum flow is 100% in excess of average together
with the rainfall equivalent of 15 min in 24 hours, all of BT-1 Remember
which are runoff. Determine the capacity of the sewer.
Taking maximum velocity of flow 3 m/s, also determine
the size of the sewer. (10)
(ii) Discuss about the objectives of sewer design. (6)
2. Enumerate and explain the various sewer appurtenances with
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neat sketches.
3. What are the systems of plumbing? With help of a neat sketch
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discuss various systems of plumbing used for drainage.
4. i) What is the need for ventilation in sewage pumping station? BT-1 Remember
How is it provided? (6)

ii) Explain the configuration of manhole with a neat sketch.


5. Describe about the various types of pumps used for lifting the
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6. i) Discuss the choice available and the factors to be considered
while selecting pumps and pipes for sewerage system and
explain. (8) BT-2 Understand
ii) With help of neat sketch explain the location and functions
of drop manhole inverted siphon. (8)
7. i) Explain the laying of sewers in the field for the designed
alignment and gradient. (8)
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ii) Describe the one pipe and two pipe plumbing systems.
Compare them. (8)

8. Calculate the diameter of a separate sewer section running half

full at maximum discharge for a town with a population of
100000. Water is supplied at a rate of 200 LPCD. Assume BT-3 Application
80% of water supply turns as sewage. Take peak factor = 2.25
and n = 0.013 at all depth. Permissible slope is 1 in 600.
9. Write down the procedure for laying and testing of sewer lines
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with neat diagram.

10. Classify the shapes of sewer pipes. Explain it in detail. BT-3 Application
11. i) Explain the laying of sewers in the field for the designed
alignment and gradient. (10)
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ii) How computer applications can be used in the sewer
design. (6)
12. Enumerate and explain the various sewer appurtenances with
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neat sketches.
13. A town has a population of 100000 persons with a per capita
water supply of 200 Lpcd. Design a sewer running 0.7 times
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full. Take n=0.013 and slope 1 in 500 and a peak factor of 3.
Assume 85% of water supply turns into sewer.
14. i) Under what circumstances pumping of sewage is needed.
Enumerate the problems faced during pumping of sewage.
(8) BT-6 Create
ii) With help of a neat sketch discuss any two pumps used for
sewage. (8)


Objective Selection of treatment processes Principles, Functions, Design and Drawing of
Units - Onsite sanitation - Septic tank with dispersion - Grey water harvesting Primary
treatment Principles, functions design and drawing of screen, grit chambers and primary
sedimentation tanks Construction, operation and Maintenance aspects.
BT Competence
Q.No Questions
1. List out the classification of treatment process of sewage. BT-1 Remember
2. 1. Quote the objectives of preliminary treatment of sewage. BT-1 Remember
3. 2. Write about the chemical precipitation. BT-1 Remember
4. Define surface loading. BT-1 Remember
5. State the objectives of grey water harvesting. BT-1 Remember
6. 3. Define on-site sanitation. BT-1 Remember
7. Differentiate between unit operations and unit processes in
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wastewater treatment. Give at least two examples in each.
8. What are the methods of onsite sanitation and compare the
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9. Distinguish between grey water and black water. BT-2 Understand
10. Outline the general layout for sewage treatment process. BT-2 Understand
11. What is meant by septic tank? Classify the methods of BT-3 Application
dispersion trenches in septic tank.
12. Illustrate how screens are classified based on moving
conditions? Show the difference between moving screen and BT-3 Application
movable screen.
13. State the purpose of using the skimming tanks in treatment
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14. Construct the design criteria for screen chamber. BT-4 Analyse
15. Compare the functions of Screen Chamber and Grit Chamber BT-4 Analyse
in sewage treatment.
16. 4. Examine how the velocity control device is necessary in grit BT-4 Analyse
chamber. Name the devices used.
17. 5. Formulate the design criteria for grit chamber. BT-5 Evaluate
18. 6. Justify why baffles are provided in the sedimentation tank in BT-5 Evaluate
sewage treatment.
19. Summarize the objectives of Sedimentation tank. BT-6 Create
20. Compare the grit chamber with Plain Sedimentation tank. BT-6 Create

1. i) Write the objectives of treatment processes. What are the
treatment processes, explain in detail? (8)
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ii) Briefly describe the operations and maintenance issues
pertaining to primary treatment of sewage. (8)
2. Describe in detail about grey water harvesting and its BT-1 Remember
3. Explain in detail about the on-site sanitation and how it is
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followed in India and other countries. Show the differences.
4 Describe the steps involved in the design of septic tank. And
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also explain the working of a septic tank with neat sketch.
5. Discuss the different methods of dispersion trenches in a
septic tank with neat sketch. And also write its advantages BT-2 Understand
and disadvantages.
6. i) Contrast the difference between the septic tank and plain
sedimentation tank. (4)
ii) Design a septic tank with dispersion pit for a hostel with a
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population of 150 and peak discharge of 205 Lit Per Min.
Take desludging period as one year. Assume suitable design
criteria and draw a neat sketch of the designed tank. (12)
7. Estimate the size of a septic tank (l/w = 2.25), liquid depth of
2 m with 300 mm free board, Desludging intervals in years,
and the total trench area (m2) of the percolation field, for a
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small colony of 300 people. Assume water supply of 100
lpcd, waste water flow of 80% of water consumption, sludge
production of 0.04 m3/cap/year and the retention time of
3 days at start up. Desludging is done when the tank is one-
third full of sludge. A percolation test indicated an allowable
hydraulic loading of 100 per m2/day.
8. i) Classify the types of screens adopted in sewage treatment
with neat sketch. (8)
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ii) Design a bar screen for a peak average flow of 30 million
lit per day. (8)
9. State the objectives of primary treatment. Examine how the
grit chambers are adopted in sewage treatment and show the BT-3 Application
processes with the neat sketch.
i) Explain the role of Screen Chamber in Sewage treatment
10. plant and write its design procedure. (6)
ii) Design a Grit chamber for an average sewage flow of 14 BT-4 Analyse
Mld. Diameter of Incoming Sewer is 500mm. Assume
suitable data if required. (10)
11. i) Determine the settling velocity of spherical particle of
specific gravity 2.65 and diameter 0.18mm. Take kinematic
viscosity of water as 1.016 x 10 2 m/s. (6)
ii) A grit chamber is designed to remove particles with a
diameter of 0.2mm, Specific gravity = 2.65. Settling velocity
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for these particles has been found to be range from 0.016 to
0.22m/s, depending on the shape factor, a flow through
velocity of 0.3m/s will be maintained by proportioning weir,
evaluate the channel dimensions for a maximum waste water
flow of 10,000cum/day. (10)
12. What is meant by sedimentation tank in a treatment system?
Explain in detail the various types of sedimentation tank with BT-4 Analyse
neat sketches.
13. i) Assess the requirement of screen for a plant treating a
maximum flow of 60 million litres per day of sewage. (8)
ii) Design a rectangular sedimentation tank for treating
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12MLD adopting L/B ratio as 2.5 and overflow rate
40m3/m2/day. Assume Detention Time as 2 hours. (8)
14. Design a circular primary sedimentation tank to treat an
average sewage flow of 5000 m3/day, suitably assuming the BT-6 Create
design criteria. Draw a neat sketch of the designed tank.


Objective Selection of Treatment Methods Principles, Functions, Design and Drawing of
Units - Activated Sludge Process and Trickling filter Oxidation ditches, UASB Waste
Stabilization Ponds Reclamation and Reuse of sewage - sewage recycle in residential
complex - Recent Advances in Sewage Treatment Construction and Operation &
Maintenance of Sewage Treatment Plants.
BT Competence
Q.No Questions
1. Describe the objectives of Secondary and Tertiary treatment BT-1 Remember
of sewage.
2. Define sludge solids retention time in ASP design. BT-1 Remember
3. Identify the modified forms of conventional ASP? BT-1 Remember
4. Quote the functions of aeration in Activated Sludge BT-1 Remember
5. When will you opt/prefer the anaerobic treatment of sewage
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over an aerobic process?
6. Define sludge age. BT-1 Remember
7. Explain the main objectives of providing advanced
treatment of sewage. How it is different from conventional BT-2 Understand
treatment system.
8. Explain with few words about the sludge volume index. BT-2 Understand
9. Discuss the term re-circulation ratio in trickling filter. BT-2 Understand
10. Distinguish between suspended growth processes and
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attached growth processes with suitable examples.
11. Examine how advanced treatment of sewage is different BT-3 Application
from conventional treatment system.
12. Illustrate the types of trickling filters? How it will be used in BT-3 Application
treatment system?
13. How do you determine hydraulic loading rate of a trickling BT-3 Application
14. Formulate the expression for finding out the final efficiency BT-4 Analyse
of two stages.
15. Contrast the uses and applications of UASB reactor. State BT-4 Analyse
an advantage of it.
16. Compare the oxidation ditch with oxidation pond. BT-4 Analyse
17. Rewrite the formula for recirculation factor. BT-5 Evaluate
18. Waste stabilization ponds are applicable for sewage
management in rural areas only. Comment on this statement BT-5 Evaluate
and justify your comment.
19. Explain the operational principle of waste stabilization BT-6 Create
20. Construct a layout of single stage of re-circulation BT-6 Create


1. Describe with neat sketch the treatment of sewage by

activated sludge process. Write the advantages and BT-1 Remember
disadvantages of the process.
2. i) Tabulate the advantages and disadvantages of ASP and
Trickling Filters. (6)
ii) What do you understand by secondary treatment of BT-1 Remember
sewage water? Explain the various methods of biological
treatment. (10)
3. i) Show the loading refers criteria of aeration tank of an
activated sludge process. (8)
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ii) Describe the operational problem of activated sludge
process. (8)
4. i) Find the size of standard rate trickling filter to treat 6
million litres of sewage per day having BOD of 160 mg/l.
Take hydraulic loading of 6m3/m2/d and organic loading of
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0.35kg/m3/d. (10)
ii) Write in detail about the operational problem of standard
rate trickling filters and list out their remedies. (6)
5. Explain in detail with neat sketches about the trickling BT-2 Understand
filters with its advantages and disadvantages.
6. Determine the size of a high rate trickling filter for the
following data:
Sewage flow = 4.5 MLD
Recirculation ratio = 1.5 BT-2 Understand
BOD of Raw sewage = 230 mg/l
BOD removal in PST = 30%
BOD of treated effluent required = 25 mg/l.
7. Discuss about the working principle of oxidation ditch with
advantages and disadvantages and draw the typical process BT-2 Understand
flow diagram.
8. Design an oxidation ditch for a design sewage flow of
50MLD. Assume suitable data wherever necessary. Show BT-3 Application
the neat sketch of the designed unit.
9. Discover how UASB is related with treatment of waste
water? Write in detail about the UASB reactor with neat BT-3 Application
sketch, advantages and disadvantages.
10. i) Explain the Reclamation and Reuse of Sewage. (8)
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ii) Discuss in detail about waste stabilization pond. (8)
11. What do you understand by waste stabilization ponds?
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Explain the working principle of aerobic stabilization pond.
12. i) Explain the algal-bacterial symbiosis with respect to
waste stabilization pond. (6)
ii) Design a high rate trickling filter for treating sewage of
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15 ML/d with a raw sewage BOD5 of 330 mg/L. Assume a
recirculation ratio of 1.5 and efficiency of the filter as 85%.
Use NRC equation. (10)
13. Design an oxidation ditch for a community of 7500 with per
capita sewage contribution of 90 Lpcd and BOD 250 mg/l, BT-5 Evaluate
the desired BOD of the treated sewage is 30mg/l.
14 Summarize the working condition of Oxidation pond with
reference to their principle, efficiency, advantages and BT-6 Create
Standards for Disposal - Methods dilution Self purification of surface water bodies
Oxygen sag curve Land disposal Sludge characterization Thickening Sludge digestion
Biogas recovery Sludge Conditioning and Dewatering disposal Advances in Sludge
Treatment and disposal.
BT Competence
Q.No Questions
1. 1. Name the different unit processes involved in sludge BT-1 Remember
2. Define sewage sickness. BT-1 Remember
3. Give the preventive methods for sewage sickness. BT-1 Remember
4. Identify the methods of disposal of septic tank effluent. BT-1 Remember
5. Define dilution factor. BT-1 Remember
6. Define percolation rate. BT-1 Remember
7. Differentiate the methods of sludge thickening and sewage
BT-2 Understand
8. 2. Summarize the objectives of sludge thickening. BT-2 Understand
9. Describe Euphotic Zone. BT-2 Understand
10. Integrate the methods of disposal of sewage by land treatment. BT-2 Understand
11. What is meant by re -oxygenation? BT-3 Application
12. Write in detail about zone of recovery. BT-3 Application
13. Briefly explain sludge density index. BT-3 Application
14. Explain the term self-purification. BT-4 Analyse
15. Classify the various zones of a polluted river. BT-4 Analyse
16. Explain Oxygen Sag Curve. BT-4 Analyse
17. How the river maintains its clearness? BT-5 Evaluate
18.3. What if, the concern in the application of sewage on to land is BT-5 Evaluate
not satisfied?
19. Explain sludge conditioning. BT-6 Create
20. Draw the oxygen sag curve and show the de-oxygenation and
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re-oxygenation curve.

1. (i) A large stream has a rate of re-aeration constant, Kr = 0.24

per day (to base 10) and de-oxygenation constant, Kd = 0.1 per
day (to the base 10).The initial deficit of the mixture of stream
and waste water at the point of reference Do = 4 mg/l and the
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ultimate 5 day BOD, Lo = 35mg/l. Find the D.O deficit and
critical time. (10)
(ii) What is sewage farming? List the methods and state its
advantages over the method of disposal of sewage dilution. (6)
2. Write short notes on
(i) Wastewater reclamation. (8) BT-1 Remember
(ii) Sewage disposal to sea water. (8)
3. Name the various actions involved in the self-purification
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process of a stream and explain briefly.
4. Explain the principle of the self-purification process of stream
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and the various stages of oxygen sag curve.
5. i) Explain the mechanism of biogas recovery from sludge. (6)
ii) A waste water treatment plant produces sludge of 1000kg
dry solids per day with a moisture content of 97%. The solids
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are 65% volatile with specific gravity 1.05 and inorganic solids
of specific gravity 2.55. Determine the sludge volume of raw
sludge, after dewatering to 70% and after incineration. (10)
6. Explain the methods available and limitations of land disposal
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of sewage.
7. Discuss the need for sludge dewatering and explain the various
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sludge dewatering methods.
8. i) Solve the Streeter Phelps equation and show its application.
ii) A town discharges 14 million litres per day sewage at a
temperature of 23C into a river having flow of 1.7 m3/sec and
BT-3 Application
water temperature of 20C. BOD at 20C for the waste water is
160 mg/l and k (base 10) is 0.1 per day. If R is 0.2 per day
what is the critical oxygen deficit and the distance at which it
occurs. Assume the stream as 92% saturated with oxygen
before sewage addition the solubility of oxygen at 20C as 9.0
mg/l and river flow velocity as 0.12 m/s. (6)
9. A waste water effluent of 600 lit/sec with a BOD = 60mg/l,
DO = 2.5mg/l and temperature of 25o C enters a river where
the flow is 30m3/sec and BOD = 3mg/l, DO= 8.5mg/l and
temperature of 16oC, de-oxygenation constant for the waste
water is 0.10 per day at 20oC. The velocity of water in the river
downstream is 0.15 m and depth of flow is 1.5m/s. Determine BT-3 Application
the following after mixing of waste water with the river water :
i) Combined discharge
ii) BOD
iii) DO
iv) Temperature
10. Determine the liquid volume before and after digestion and
percentage reduction for 600kg (dry basis) of primary sludge
having following characteristics.
Particles Primary Digested
BT-3 Application
Solids (%) 6 12
Volatile matter (%) 65 65 of fixed solids 2.5 2.5 of volatile solids 1.0 1.0
11. With the help of flow chart, Explain various process involved
in the sludge treatment and disposal. Explain the mechanism of
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anaerobic and aerobic sludge digestion with their relative
merits and demerits.
12. Secondary sedimentation tank of a waste water treatment plant
produces 1100 kg (dry basis) solids with moisture content of
95%. Solids are of 70% volatile with specific gravity of 1.05 BT-4 Analyse
and 30% being fixed with specific gravity of 2.6. Determine
the sludge volume as it is produced and after the incineration.
13. i) Explain the anaerobic sludge digestion process and also the
effects of pH and temperature on it. (8)
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ii) State the Indian standards for sewage disposal on land and
conditions favoring it. (8)
14. i) Draw a typical oxygen sag curve and explain its meaning.
ii) Determine the BOD of river water at the discharge point of
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the treated sewage from a town having a BOD of 30 mg/l
discharged at the rate of 5 m3/s into a river having a flow of
30m3/s and no BOD. (8)