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Chapter 1: Introduction

Thermodynamics is defined as the study of energy, its forms and transformations, and the
interactions of energy with matter. Hence, thermodynamics is concerned with the concept of
energy, the laws that govern the conversion of one form of energy into another, and the
properties of the working substance or the media used to obtain the energy conversion.
In engineering or applied thermodynamics, the scope is restricted to the study to heat and work
and the conversion of one into another. Thermodynamics laws are applied to work producing and
work absorbing devices in order to understand their functioning and improve their performance.

Value of Energy to Society:


Energy means ability to do work. Life is not possible without the energy. The ability of people to
harness the energy into useful forms has changed our society. The amount of energy needed for
people is not limited. Primitive people needed energy as only in the form of food. After finding
fire, they started cooking and keeping warm themselves. Wood Energy is usually used to get heat
energy which is one of the useful forms of energy. Then, they stared to cultivate land. They keep
domestic animals to work for them. Similarly, wind energy is used for ship sailing, driving wind
mills, and water energy is utilized to rotate the water wheels. These forms of energy have
simplified the life style of people. After the invention of steam engine (18th Century), there was
industrial revolution. Later development of IC engine with use of fossil fuels (diesel, petrol,
kerosene) has changed our society greatly. Therefore, the amount of energy needed for society
has increased with time.
Due to use of energy with uncontrolled way, however, it has created different problems to our
environment like air pollution, water pollution and sound pollution.
One of the major problems faced nowadays is global warming. Global warming is due to green
house effect occurring due to increased in CO2, N2.
Fossil Fuels are rapidly consuming so these are coming to an end. Therefore, people are utilizing
and harnessing renewable forms of energy. These renewable energies are Solar energy, Wind
energy, Geothermal Energy and Nuclear Energy.

Concept and Definitions:


Thermodynamics is the science of energy transfer and its effect on the physical properties of
substances. It describes the state and changes in state of physical systems. It is based upon
observation of common experience which has been formulated into thermodynamics laws.
These laws govern the principle of energy conversion. Thermodynamics generally explain the
four laws known as Zeroth, First, Second and Third law of thermodynamics. These laws are
based on experimental observations and have no mathematical proof.

Thermodynamic System: A system is defined as a particular quantity of matter or a particular


region of space upon which attention is focused for the study of energy transfer.
Surroundings: The region outside a system that has a direct bearing (effect) on the system is
called its surroundings.
Boundary: Any real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is
called the boundary. The boundary of a system can be either stationary or movable. Energy
transfer and mass transfer in and out of the system always take place through boundary.
Example: Real Boundary like wall of a vessel, Imaginary Boundary like pipe where fluid flows
through this imaginary boundary.

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Types of System
a) Closed System: A system which can exchange Weight
No mass Energy
energy with its surroundings but there is no transfer
transfer
mass transfer across the system is known as possible
closed system. In this type of system, System
boundary is real and it can be fixed or Boundary
movable. Since the mass remains constant, this
type of system is also called Control Mass
(CM) System.
Example: cylinder fitted with movable piston, refrigerator unit, pressure cooker etc.
b) Open System: An open system can exchange mass Mass Mass
with surroundings along with transfer of energy in in out
the form of heat and work. The mass within the
system doesnt necessarily remain constant; it may
change depending upon mass inflow and mass
outflow. In this type of system, the boundary is
normally imaginary. An open system can be called
System Energy
transfer
as Control Volume (CV) System. The boundary of possible
the CV system is called control surface. Example:
Pump, compressor, boiler etc.

c) Isolated System: It is a special case of a closed system. It is of fixed mass and energy. It
exchanges neither mass nor energy with the surroundings. An isolated system has no
interaction with the surroundings. When a system and its surroundings are taken together,
they constitute an isolated system. Example: The universe can be considered as an
isolated system. Thermos flask can be considered an isolated system to some extent.

Homogeneous and Heterogeneous System: A system consisting of a single phase is called


homogeneous, while a system consisting of more than one phase is known as heterogeneous
system.

Macroscopic Vs Microscopic Viewpoint


There are two points of view from which the behavior of the matter can be studied namely
macroscopic and Microscopic.

Macroscopic View point Microscopic Viewpoint


1. A certain quantity of matter is 1. The approach considers that matters is
considered, without the events occurring at composed of very large numbers of
the molecular level being taken into molecules. These molecules have different
account. In other words, the approach to velocities and energies. The behavior of
thermodynamics is concerned with gross or system is described by summing up the
overall behavior. behavior of each molecule.

2. This is also known as classical 2. Such study approach to thermodynamics


thermodynamics. is also known as Statistical
Thermodynamics.
3. It is only concerned with the effects of

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the action of many molecules and these 3. The properties like velocities, positions,
effects can be perceived by human senses. accelerations, momentum which describes
For example, the macroscopic quantity, the the molecular cannot be easily measured
pressure, is the average rate of change of by instruments. Hence, our human senses
momentum due to all the molecular cannot feel the effects.
collisions made on a unit area. These
observations can be measured by pressure 4. The behavior of system is found by
gauge. using statistical methods since large
4. The analysis of this approach requires numbers of particles is involved. Therefore,
simple mathematical methods. advanced statistical mathematical methods
are needed to explain the changes in
system.

Thermodynamic Properties
Thermodynamic property of a system is any characteristics associated with a system which we
can measure or observe. Any thermodynamic system which contains many parameters that
describe systems state (or Condition) is property of that system. The properties are mass,
elevation, pressure, temperature, viscosity, specific volume, energy (internal energy, enthalpy),
entropy, quality, moisture content.
Many properties have no significance in thermodynamics as electrical resistance and will not be
considered.
Intensive properties: If the value of the property is independent of the mass of the system, it is
called an intensive property. Such properties remain constant no matter how many times you
divide the system. Eg: temperature, pressure, density, viscosity.

Extensive properties: If the value of the property is dependent (or proportional ) to the mass of
the system, it is called extensive property. Eg. volume, surface area, energies (K.E., P.E. and
enthalpy).

Specific Property: An extensive property expressed per unit mass of the system is called
extensive property. This way, the extensive properties are converted into intensive property.

Sp. Volume v= V/m ; Sp. Energy e = E/m

Properties are dependent only on the state of the systems. It does not depend upon the path the
system follows to attain that particular state. Properties have definite unique values when the
system is in a particular state.

State: Each unique condition of a system is called a state. All the properties of a system which
are not undergoing any change can be computed or measured. These give us a set of properties
that completely describes the condition of a system, this condition is known as state. Every
equilibrium condition of a system is regarded as state and it is defined by a set of properties.
In graphical form, each state is denoted by a point.

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T
T1

S
S1
Process: A thermodynamic process may be defined as a change of a system from one
equilibrium state to another and the series of states through which a system passes during a
process is called the path of the process. The path is represented by a line in a diagram. The line
may be straight or curved or dashed line.

Cycle: If a number of processes in sequence bring back the system to P 4


its original state, the system is said to execute a cycle. In
thermodynamic cycle, the initial state and final state is identical. As the
system is restored after a cycle, the change in value of any property of 3
1
the system for a cycle/cyclic process is zero.
dp = 0 i.e. Change in any property (Px,Py) = 0 2
Pfinal (x,y)- Pinitial (x,y) = 0 V

Thermodynamic Equilibrium:
For a system, the properties describing the state of a system will be constant if the system is not
allowed to interact with the surroundings or if the system is allowed to interact completely with
unchanging. Such a state is termed as equilibrium state, and the properties are equilibrium
properties.
A system is said to be in equilibrium when it involves no change in property with time. A system
is said be in thermodynamic equilibrium if it satisfies the following conditions:
1) Mechanical Equilibrium: Uniformity of pressure or no unbalanced forces (Constant P).
2) Thermal Equilibrium: Uniformity of temperature (constant T).
3) Chemical Equilibrium: No chemical reactions; chemical composition remains same
throughout the system will time.
4) Phase Equilibrium: Mass of each phase reaches an equilibrium level and stays there.

Quasi-equilibrium/Quasi-static Process:
If a system is altered so that the state of the system moves along the surface from on equilibrium
position to another equilibrium position, the process is termed as quasi-equilibrium process. This
process proceeds in such a manner that the system remains infinitesimally close to an
equilibrium states at all times. A quasi-equilibrium process is a sufficiently slow process which
allows the system to adjust itself internally so that all properties in one part of the system do not
change any faster than those at other parts. Many actual processes closely approach a quasi-static
process.

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Let us consider a system of gas contained in a cylinder fitted with a piston upon which are placed
very small pieces of weights. The system is initially in equilibrium state identified by pressure P1,
volume V1 and Temperature T1. If all the weights are removed at once the piston will rise rapidly
until mechanical equilibrium is again stored. This would be a non-equilibrium process and the
system would not be in equilibrium any time during this
P
change of state.
If the weights on the piston are taken off one by one, then the
total process can be described by a path of intermediate 1
equilibrium states. This process is considered as quasi-
equilibrium process. 2

A quasi-static process is also called a reversible process, V


because it is possible to return to original position through
the same path of equilibrium states.

Reversible and Irreversible Process


A reversible process for a system is defined as a process that once having taken place can be
reversed so that the system and surroundings can be restored to their initial state.
An irreversible process is a process which once having taken place cant be restored to its initial
state.
The reversible process is an idealization, and all the actual processes are normally irreversible
process.

Types of irreversibility
1. Mechanical and Thermal Irreversibility
2. Internal and External Irreversibility

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Mechanical irreversibility is associated with the fluid friction among the molecules and the
mechanical friction between surfaces. Thermal irreversibility is associated with heat transfer with
finite temperature difference between the parts of system or between a system and surroundings.
Internal irreversibility is associated with fluid friction and temperature variation within the fluid.
Combustion and diffusion also cause internal irreversibility. External irreversibility is associated
with friction between the atmosphere and rotating members. All these absorb some work
developed by the system. External irreversibility occurs outside the boundary of the system.

Factors that makes process irreversible


1. Friction
2. Unrestricted Expansion
3. Heat transfer through a finite temperature difference
4. Mixing of two different fluids

Examples
Reversible Processes Irreversible Processes
1. Frictionless adiabatic expansion or 1. Free Unrestricted Expansion
compression 2. Combustion, diffusion
2. Friction less isothermal expansion 3. Electric current flow through
or compression resistor
3. Condensation or boiling of liquid 4. Mixing of two fluids
5. Heat transfer from high temperature
to low temperature
4. Process involving friction

For a process to be reversible, it should obey following conditions.


1. The process should not involve friction of any kind.
2. Heat transfer should not take place with finite temperature difference.
3. There should be no mixing.
4. There should be no free or unrestricted expansion.

The process must proceed in a series of equilibrium states. It should move at an infinitely slow
pace.

Some common properties

1. Pressure:
It is the normal force exerted per unit area on a real or imaginary surface within the system.
f F
P= = Units: In SI; 1 Pa= 1 N/m2
A A
1 bar = 105 Pa
1 atm = 101325 Pa = 760 mm of Hg

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Pressure Measurement:
1) Barometer: For measuring atmospheric pressure
2) Manometer: Gauge pressure/Vacuum
Pressure Patm

3) Bourden Pressure Gauge: Gauge Pressure

Problem: Find PA, if the fluid has a density . PA


H

2. Volume:
Specific Volume: Specific volume of a substance is defined as the volume per unit mass and is
given by symbol v.
V 1
v= = Unit: m3/kg
m

3. Temperature:
Temperature is a thermal state of a body which distinguishes a hot body from a cold body. The
temperature of a body is proportional to the stored molecular energy.
Two systems are equal in temperature if no change in any property occurs when they are brought
into contact, then it is called as equality of temperature.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics


The 'zeroth law' states that 'if two bodies (say A and B) are in thermal equilibrium with another
body C, then the bodies A and B will also be in thermal equilibrium with each other'. This law is
important as it helps in understanding the concept of temperature. It is fundamental law for
measurement of temperature.
This means that when two bodies have equality of temperature separately with the third body,
they in turn will have equality of temperature with each other.

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Measurement of temperature
1. Celcius (0-100)
2. Fahrenheit (32-212)
3. Kelvin (273.16-373.16)
4. Rankine (491.69-671.67)

Relation between temperature scales is given by;

Measuring Techniques
1. Change in volume: Mercury Thermometer
2. Change in Pressure: Constant Volume Gas Thermometer (T P at constant volume)
3. Electrical Resistivity: Platinum resistant thermometer, Thermistor
4. Electrical Potential: Thermocouple

Ideal Gas
An ideal gas is defined as a gas having no forces of intermolecular attraction. The gases which
follow the gas laws at all ranges of pressure and temperature are considered an ideal gas.
However, real gases follow these laws at low pressure or high temperature or both. This is
because the forces of attraction between molecules tend to be very small at reduced pressures
and elevated temperatures.

1
Boyles Law: V (T = Constant)
P
Charles Law: V T (P = Constant)

Ideal Gas Equation: PV = n RT ( R = Universal Gas Constant = 8.314 kJ/kg.K)


Also,
m
PV = RT
M
R
PV = m T
M
PV = mRT
Here, R = Specific Gas Constant (R = 287 J/kg.K for air)

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Chapter 3: Heat and Work

Energy and Energy transfer:


Energy can be defined as the capability to produce an effect. It is a system quantity that describes
the thermodynamics state of a system. Energy can exist in numerous forms such as thermal,
mechanical, kinetic, potential, electric, magnetic, chemical, and nuclear, and their sum
constitutes the total energy (E) of a system. The magnetic, electric, chemical, nuclear and
surface tension effects are significant in some specialized cases only and but in thermodynamic
they are usually ignored. In the absence of such effects, the total energy of a system consists of
the kinetic, potential, and internal energies.
Energy can be stored within a system and can be transferred (as heat or work) from one to
another.
The energy that a system possesses as a result of its motion relative to some reference frame is
called kinetic energy (KE). The energy that a system possesses as a result of its elevation in a
gravitational field is called potential energy (PE). Internal energy includes the microscopic
forms of energy which result from the molecular motions and it is a thermodynamic property of
the system. It is denoted by U.

Energy of a system can be categorized into two titles.


1) Stored Energy (K.E.,P.E., Internal Energy, Chemical, Nuclear):
The forms of energy already discussed, which constitute the total energy of a system, can
be contained or stored in a system.
2) Transient Energy (Heat, Work):
The forms of energy not stored in a system. These energies are recognized at the system
boundary as they cross it, and they represent the energy gained or lost by a system during
a process. The only two forms of transient energy are heat transfer and work transfer.

Hence, Total energy of a system (E) = KE + PE + U

Specific energy (e) =

Units of Energy: Joules (J), Calorie (cal), British Thermal Unit (Btu)

Energy Transfer:
Work Transfer:
Work is defined as force F acting through a distance in the direction of the force.

W=
But in Thermodynamics, Work is said to be done by a system if the sole effect on the
surroundings (external to the system) could be the raising of a weight.

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Units: J (N/m)

Sign convention: W W
System (+ve) System (-ve)

Work transfer is the mechanism by which energy is transferred across a boundary between
system, by reason of the difference in pressure (force) of the two systems, and in the direction of
the lower pressure.
Work done of a simple compressible system

Shaded Area under P-V curve as shown in diagram below.

It is possible to take a system from state 1 to state 2 along


P
many quasi-static paths such as A, B or C. Since the area
under each curve represents the work for each process, the 1 C
amount of work done during each process not only is
B
function of the end states of the process but also depends
on the path that is followed in going from on state to A
2
another. For this reason, work is a path function; or in
mathematical form denoted by , an inexact differential.
V
The properties (P, V, T, h, s) are point function.

Heat transfer:
Heat is defined as the form of energy that is transferred across boundary of a system (without
transfer of mass) by virtue of the temperature and in the direction of lower temperature.

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Sign Convention:

Similarities between Heat and Work


1) Heat and work are both transient phenomenon. Systems never possess heat or work, but
either crosses the system boundary when a system undergoes a change of state.
2) Both are boundary phenomenon. Both are observed only at the boundary of the system.
3) Both are path function.
Dissimilarities
1) Heat transfer is the energy interactions due to temperature difference but work can be
considered as energy transfer due to the reasons other than temperature difference.
2) In a stable system (no moving parts) there cant be work transfer but heat transfer is
possible.
3) The sole effect external to the system can be reduced to rise of a weight for work transfer
but other effects are observed for heat transfer.
4) Heat is regarded as disorganized transfer mechanism and low grade of energy whereas
work is considered as organized mechanism and high grade of energy.

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Chapter 2: Properties of Common Substance

Pure substance: A pure substance is one which is i) homogeneous in composition, ii)


homogeneous in chemical aggregation and iii) invariable in chemical aggregation.
Homogeneous in composition means that the composition of each part of the system is the same as
the compositions of every other part. Composition means relative proportion of the chemical
elements into which the sample can be analyzed. It does not matter how these elements are
combined.
In Figure below for example, system (i), comprising steam and water, is homogeneous in
composition, since chemical analysis would reveal that hydrogen and oxygen atoms are present in the
ratio 2:1 whether the sample be taken from the steam or from the water. The same is true for system
(ii), containing uncombined hydrogen and oxygen gas in the atomic ratio 2:1 in the upper part, and
water in the lower part. System (iii) however is not homogeneous in composition; for the hydrogen
and oxygen are present in the ratio 1:1 in the upper part, but in the ratio 2:1 (as water) in the lower
part.

Homogeneous in chemical aggregation means that the chemical elements must be combined
chemically in the same way in all parts of the system. Consideration of Figure above shows that
system (i) satisfies this condition also; for steam and water consists of identical molecules. System
(ii) on the other hand is not homogeneous in chemical aggregation since, in the upper part of the
system, the hydrogen and oxygen are not combined chemically (individual atoms of H and O are not
uniquely associated), whereas in the lower part of the system the he hydrogen and oxygen are
combined in the form of water.
Invariable chemical aggregation means that the state of the chemical combination of the system does
not change with time. Thus a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, which changed into steam during the
time that the system was under consideration, would not be a pure substance.

It may exist in more than one phase, but the chemical composition is the same in all phases.
Thus, liquid water, a mixture of liquid water and water vapor, and a mixture of ice and liquid
water are all pure substances. The figure below is an example of pure substance.

A mixture of gases, such as air, is considered a pure substance as long as there is no change of
phase. A mixture of liquid air and gaseous air is not pure substance because the composition of
the liquid phase is different from that of the vapor phase.

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Simple compressible pure substance: These are in which work mode consideration is only
mechanical work of expansion and compression. This term includes substance whose surface
effects, magnetic effects, and electrical effects are insignificant when dealing will the substances.
But expansion and compression are important.

State postulate of a pure substance (Two Property Rule)


The state of a system is described by its properties. But from experience, it is known that all
properties need not be specified in order to describe a state. The number of properties required to
fix the state of a system is given by the State Postulate.
The values of any two independent intensive thermodynamics properties are sufficient
to establish the stable thermodynamics state of a pure simple compressible substance.
Two properties are said to be independent if one can be varied while the other is held
constant.
If two independent properties are known, then all other properties can be found.

Phase change of a pure substance:


We all know from experience that substances exist in different phases. Consider a piston
cylinder device containing liquid water at 10C and 1 atm pressure (as shown below, state 1).
Under these conditions, water exists in the liquid phase, and it is called a compressed liquid, or
a subcooled liquid, meaning that it is not about to vaporize. Heat is now transferred to the water
until its temperature rises to, say, 40C. As the temperature rises, the liquid water expands
slightly, and so its specific volume increases. To accommodate this expansion, the piston moves
up slightly. The pressure in the cylinder remains constant at 1 atm during this process since it
depends on the outside barometric pressure and the weight of the piston, both of which are
constant. Water is still a compressed liquid at this state since it has not started to vaporize. As
more heat is transferred, the temperature keeps rising until it reaches 100C (as shown below,
state 2). At this point water is still a liquid, but any heat addition will cause some of the liquid to
vaporize. That is, a phase-change process from liquid to vapor is about to take place. A liquid
that is about to vaporize is called a saturated liquid. Therefore, state 2 is a saturated liquid state.
Once boiling starts, the temperature stops rising until the liquid is completely vaporized. That is,
the temperature will remain constant during the entire phase-change process if the pressure is
held constant. During a boiling process, the only change we will observe is a large increase in the
volume and a steady decline in the liquid level as a result of more liquid turning to vapor.
Midway about the vaporization line (as shown below, state 3), the cylinder contains equal
amounts of liquid and vapor. As we continue transferring heat, the vaporization process
continues until the last drop of liquid is vaporized (as shown below, state 4). At this point, the
entire cylinder is filled with vapor that is on the borderline of the liquid phase. Any heat loss
from this vapor will cause some of the vapor to condense (phase change from vapor to liquid). A
vapor that is about to condense is called a saturated vapor. Therefore, state 4 is a saturated
vapor state. A substance at states between 2 and 4 is referred to as a saturated liquidvapor
mixture since the liquid and vapor phases coexist in equilibrium at these states. This is also
known as Two-Phase region. At state 5, the temperature of the vapor is, let us say, 300C; and if
we transfer some heat from the vapor, the temperature may drop somewhat but no condensation
will take place as long as the temperature remains above 100C (for P = 1 atm). A vapor that is
not about to condense (i.e., not a saturated vapor) is called a superheated vapor. Therefore,
water at state 5 is a superheated vapor. This constant-pressure phase-change process is illustrated
on a T-v diagram.

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T-v diagram for the heating process of water at constant pressure

The P-v Diagram:

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The T-v Diagram:

The P-T Diagram:

Vapor pressure curve: For a pure substance, there is a definite relationship between saturation
pressure and saturation temperature. The curve obtained by plotting P vs T is called vapor
pressure curve.
Saturated Liquid: A liquid which is about to vaporize, or any addition of heat results in change
of phase.
Saturated vapor: A vapor which is about to condense is called saturated vapor. Any rejection of
heat results in change of phase.
Saturated temperature: The temperature at which a liquid vaporizes (or vapor condenses) is
called saturation temperature corresponding to a given pressure. For example, At pressure of 1
atm, Tsat = 100oC.
Saturation pressure: The pressure at which a liquid vaporizes (or a vapor condenses) is called
saturation pressure (vapor pressure) corresponding to a given temperature.
Superheated Vapor: If the temperature of vapor is above the saturation temperature, the vapor
is called superheated vapor, and the temperature at this state is called superheated temperature.
The difference between in the superheated temperature and the saturation temperature at given
pressure is called degree of superheat.

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Sub-cooled liquid: If the temperature of liquid is below the saturation temperature, the liquid is
called subcooled liquid. The liquid at this state is also called compressed liquid because it has a
pressure greater that the saturation pressure at the same temperature.
Sensible Heat: It is the heat absorbed or given off by a substance that is NOT in the process of
changing its physical state (i.e. no change of phase). Sensible heat can be sensed, or measured,
with a thermometer, and the addition or removal of sensible heat will always cause a change in
the temperature of the substance.
Latent Heat: It is the heat absorbed or given off by a substance while it is changing its physical
state (i.e. change of phase). The heat absorbed or given off does not cause a temperature change
in the substance. The heat is latent or hidden. In other words, sensible heat is the heat that affects
the temperature of things; latent heat is the heat that affects the change of phase of substances.
Quality: It is defined as the ration of the mass of dry vapor present in 2-phase mixture to the
total mass. The term quality shows the proportion of vapor in 2-phase mixture and it is also
called dryness factor. It is denoted by x.

In 2-phase mixture,
Dividing by total mass,

= =
= =

v=
Similarly; u=
h=
s=
Moisture Content: It is the ratio of mass of liquid present in two phase mixture to the total mass
of 2-phase mixture.

Critical Point: The critical point is the point at which the isotherm [or isobar] is tangent to the
saturation curve. The critical pressure is the pressure at critical point. The critical temperature is
the temperature at critical point. The region above the critical point is called super critical region.
For water, Pcr = 22.055 MPa; Tcr = 373.976oC
Triple point: It is defined as a state in which all three phases may be present in equilibrium. At
this point three phases coexist. The triple point is the point of intersection of fusion curve,
sublimation curve and vaporization curve. It is represented by a point on P-T diagram and a line
in P-V diagram.
For water T = 273.16 K, P = 4.5s8 mm Hg

Property diagram in common use


P-T diagram
P-V diagram
T-V diagram
P-h diagram
T-s diagram
h-s diagram
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P-V-T diagram

Property Table:
For most substances, the relationships among thermodynamic properties are too complex to be
expressed by simple equations. Therefore, properties are frequently presented in the form of
tables. Some thermodynamic properties can be measured easily, but others cannot and are
calculated by using the relations between them and measurable properties. The results of these
measurements and calculations are presented in tables in a convenient format. The steam tables
are used to demonstrate the use of thermodynamic property tables. Property tables of other
substances are used in the same manner.

Steam table
1) Table for compressed liquid
2) Table for saturated liquid ( pressure/ temperature tables)
3) Table for superheated vapor

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Chapter 4: First Law of Thermodynamics

Conservation Principles and the First law of Thermodynamics


So far, we have considered various forms of energy such as heat Q, work W, and total energy E
individually, and no attempt is made to relate them to each other during a process. The first law
of thermodynamics, also known as the conservation of energy principle, provides a sound basis
for studying the relationships among the various forms of energy and energy interactions. Based
on experimental observations, the first law of thermodynamics states that energy can be neither
created nor destroyed during a process; it can only change forms. Therefore, every bit of energy
should be accounted for during a process.

Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change forms. The above figure depicts the
law of energy conservation.

Conservation Principles
i) Principle of conservation of mass for closed System:
Mass cant be created or destroyed but may be converted from one chemical form to another.
The mass of control mass (Closed System) system never changes.
dm = 0
m2 m1 = 0
m2 = m1 i.e. m = constant

ii) Principle of Conservation of energy for Closed System:

A change in total energy of a control mass system (closed system) is equal to the net energy
transfer to (or from) the system as heat and work. [First Law of Thermodynamics for closed
system].

Energy balance for closed systems:


Change in energy = Net heat transfer to the system Net work transfer from the system
Mathematically;
dE = Q w .(1)
The total energy (dE) is the sum of the internal, kinetic, and potential energy. Thus;
dU + d(KE) + d(PE) = Q w
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U2 U1 + (KE2 KE1) + (PE2 PE1) = Q12 W12
(U+KE+PE)2 (U+KE+PE)1 = Q12 W12 .(2)

In intensive terms;

The instantaneous time rate form of the energy balance equation is

First law of thermodynamic for cyclic process undergoing closed system:


When a system undergoes a thermodynamics cycle then the net heat supplied to the system to
the surroundings is equal to the net work done by the system on its surroundings.

First law for cyclic Process,

Proof: According First law; dE = Q w


If the control mass undergoes a complete cycle that takes the control mass from state 1 back to
state 1. Therefore;

Hence, the first law of thermodynamics can also be stated as follows: If the system is carried
through a cycle then the summation of the work delivered to the surroundings is equal to the
summation of heat taken from the surroundings.

Prove that Total energy or internal energy is property of a System.


There exists a property of a closed system such that a change in its value is equal to the
difference between heat supplied and the work done during the change of state.

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page2

Other Statements of First law of Thermodynamics


1) The internal energy of a closed system remains unchanged if the system is isolated from its
surroundings.
According to 1st law of thermodynamics;

This shows that the initial energy of the system is


equivalent to final energy of the system. In other words, the energy of an isolated system remains
constant.

2) A perpetual motion machine (PMM I) of the first kind is


impossible.
A PMM I deliver work continuous without any input. The only
interaction with the surrounding is the delivery of work. It is a
device which operates in a cycle. To have such a device is
obviously impossible as it violates the first law of
thermodynamics.

It means that there is no work output without any heat input.

3) Other statement is that an extensive property exists whose increment is equal to the work
received by the system when closed system undergoes in adiabatic process.
For an adiabatic process, Q = 0 , so First law becomes as
dE = W
Therefore, the work is equal to the change in total energy for an adiabatic process.

Internal Energy: This is defined as the sum of all the microscopic forms of energy of a system.
Energy modes on the microscopic level such as energy associated with molecular binding,
nuclear spin, molecular translation, molecular vibration, and the molecular activity of the
constituent particles of the system. We are mostly concerned with the change in internal energy
not absolute value of internal energy. This internal energy is proportional to temperature of the
system.

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Application of first law to some common Process


1) Reversible Constant Volume Process (V = constant) i.e. isochoric process

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2) Reversible Constant Pressure Process (P = Constant) i.e. isobaric process

3) Reversible Constant Temperature Process( T=Constant) i.e. Isothermal Process

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4) Reversible Adiabatic Process

Relation between T and V, T and P in Adiabatic Process:

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5) Polytropic Process (PVn = Constant)

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First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume (Open System) (Control


Volume Formulation ):
Although devices such as turbines, pumps, and compressors through which mass flows can be
analyzed in principle by studying a particular quantity of matter, as it passes through the device,
it is normally simpler to adopt the control volume point of view. A control volume is a region in
space studied in a particular analysis. The surface that bounds the control volume may be called
a boundary or a control surface. The boundary, which is defined relative to a specified coordinate
frame may be fixed or may deform. Mass and energy may cross the boundary. As in the case of a
closed system, energy transfer can occur by means of work and heat. In addition, another type of
energy transfer must be accounted for: the energy accompanying mass as it enters or exits.

Conservation of Mass for Control Volume:


The conservation of mass principle for a control volume can be expressed as: The change of
mass within a control volume is equal to the mass entering minus the mass leaving.

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This is conservation of mass equation within Control Volume System.

Conservation of Energy for Control Volume System


The mass flowing into the control volume carries energy with it, and the same is true for the
outlets from the control volume. The net gain in energy from the inlets and outlets must equal the
change in energy within the control volume plus the heat transfer minus the work done. The
work term requires special attention since the fluid moving into and out of the control volume is
doing work.
The conservation of energy principle applied to a control volume states that The change in
energy within the control volume is equal to the net energy transported to the control volume
plus the heat added minus the work done by the control volume.

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The rate of work done in the control volume formulation is the sum of the shaft and flow work.

Control Volume Analysis:


The analysis of a system requires detailed consideration of the inlets and outlets to the control
volume as well as the state within the control volume.
Uniform properties are spatially constant but may vary with time. At inlets and outlets this
means that the state across the crossing boundary is described by at any time by single values of
the properties. Uniform properties within the control volume indicate that all elements within the
control volume have the same value for the properties at any time. Non-uniform properties
vary spatially. The time variation must also be addressed at the inlets and outlets as well as
within the control volume.
Steady state conditions at the inlets and outlets mean that there is no variation of the properties
with time. The density, velocity, specific internal energy, etc. have constant values for all times.
Steady state properties within the control volume indicate that there is no accumulation within
the control volume that causes the properties within the control volume to vary with time.

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Unsteady state conditions imply time variation either at the inlets and outlets or within the
control volume. In summary, uniform and non-uniform describe the spatial variation while
steady state and unsteady state describes the time variation.
Steady state Process
A steady state process is characterized by following features:
a. The control volume does not move relative to the coordinate frame.
b. The state of the mass at each point in the control volume does not vary with time.
c. The mass flow across the control surface does not vary with time (steady flow).
d. The rates at which heat and work interact with the control surface does not change with time.

This condition permits consideration of the steady state operation where no mass or energy
accumulates within the control volume. Thus;

Conservation of Energy for Control volume:

This is required energy balance equation for steady state control volume system.

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page11

Control Volume Applications:


Steady-State Work Applications:
Turbines, compressors, pumps and fans are typical steady state devices that have a work
interaction with the surroundings. These devices generally have a single inlet and a single outlet.
Also the change in potential energy from inlet to outlet is usually very small. Thus conservation
equations reduce to:

The figures are examples of the steady-state work application.

Note: for adiabatic device or insulating wall, the heat transfer is equal to the zero.
Turbine: A turbine is a rotary steady state machine whose purpose is to produce shaft work
(power) at the expense of the pressure (and/or kinetic energy) of the working fluid.

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For adiabatic Turbine, Q = 0.

Compressor, Fan and Pump requires work input.

Conservation of Energy;

Since, compressor, Fan and pump has negative work (i.e. work input)

If the compressor, fan and Pump is adiabatic wall or insulating wall, then
=0, Therefore, Conservation of energy becomes;

Steady State Flow Applications:


Heat exchangers, condensers, steam generators, diffusers, and nozzles, throttling valves, and
pipes are devices that operate at steady state and do not produce or consume work. Most
experience very small changes in potential energy, so:

Heat Exchangers: A heat exchanger is used to transfer energy from on fluid to another. There is
no work interaction with the surroundings, and the changes in potential and kinetic energies are
typically small.

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A condenser circulates cold water to condense a high-quality mixture to the liquid state.

Steam Generators (Boiler): A steam generator uses an energy source such as the burning
pulverized fuel or a nuclear reactor to create a high-temperature fluid. There is heat transfer from
this fluid to water which passes through tube banks to from a superheated vapor. Change in
potential energy is negligible.

Diffusers and nozzles are used to control the velocity of the fluid. Diffuser decreases the
velocity while increasing the pressure, and the opposite is true for a nozzle. A nozzle is a steady
state device whose purpose is to create a high-velocity fluid stream at the expense of fluids
pressure. These devices are simply area changing devices, as shown in Figure.

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page14

For Adiabatic Nozzle or Adiabatic Diffuser, The heat transfer is taken as zero.
Then, Energy equation further becomes as:

Throttling valve: A throttling process occurs when a fluid flowing in a line suddenly encounters
a restriction in the flow passage. The result of this restriction is an abrupt pressure drop in the
fluid. There is typically some increase in velocity in a throttle, but both inlet and exit kinetic
energies are usually small enough to be neglected.

This shows that in throttling process the enthalpy of system remains constant.
Simple Pipe:

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page15

5 Chapter: 5 Second Law of Thermodynamics

5.1 Necessity of Formulation of Second Law


Drawbacks of First Law of Thermodynamics
The first law of thermodynamics states that during any cycle that a system undergoes, the
cyclic integral of the heat is equal to the cyclic integral of the work. ( Q = W ) The first
law, however, places no restriction on the direction of flow of heat and work.

A cycle in which a given amount of heat is transferred from the system and an equal
amount of work is done on the system satisfies the first law just as well as a cycle in
which the flows of heat and work are reversed. However, we know from the experience
that because a proposed cycle doesnt violate the first law doesnt ensure that the cycle
will actually occur. This leads to the formulation of second law of thermodynamics.
Thus, a cycle will occur only if both the first law and second law are satisfied.

The second law tells that processes proceed in a certain direction but not in the opposite
direction.
1. A hot cup of coffee cools by virtue of heat transfer to the surroundings, but heat
will not flow from the cooler surroundings to the hotter cup of coffee.

2. Steam is kept in a chamber and other chamber is vacuum. If suddenly the partition
is removed, the steam fills up the vacuum but the reverse doesnt happen
spontaneously.

3. Two blocks at different temperature eventually come to a same temperature but


the process doesnt occur in reverse direction.

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Thus, the second law needs to describe the direction for processes, and the direction is
described in terms of a system property that characterizes the systems randomness,
disorder, or uncertainty.

Qualitative differences between heat and work


The first law of thermodynamics states that a certain energy balance will hold when a
system undergoes a change of state or a process but it doesnt give any information on
whether that change of state or the process is at all feasible or not.

Joules experiment demonstrate that energy, when supplied to a system in the form of
work, can be completely converted into heat but the complete conversion of heat into
work in a cycle is not possible. So heat and work are not completely interchangeable
forms of energy.

Work Internal Energy Heat (100% conversion)

Heat cant be converted completely and continuously into work in a cycle. Some heat has
to be rejected without conversion. The conversion of low grade of energy (heat) into high
grade of energy (work) in a cycle is impossible.

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Heat Work (100% conversion impossible)

System
Q W

Q>W

5.2 Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics for an Isolated System

Entropy
The entropy of a system is a thermodynamic property which is a measure of the degree of
molecular disorder existing in the system. It describes the randomness or uncertainty of
the system. It is a function of a quantity of heat which shows the possibility of conversion
of heat into work. Thus, for maximum entropy, there is minimum availability for
conversion into work and for minimum entropy there is a maximum availability for
conversion into work.

Characteristics:
1. It increases when heat is supplied irrespective of the fact whether temperature
changes or not.
2. It decreases when heat is removed whether the temperature changes or not.
3. It remains unchanged in all adiabatic reversible processes.
4. The increase in entropy is small when heat is added at a high temperature and is
greater when heat addition is made at a lower temperature.

Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics for an Isolated System


The microscopic disorder of a system is prescribed by a system property is called
entropy.
The entropy S, an extensive equilibrium property, must always increase or
remain constant for an isolated system.

This is expressed mathematically as,

dSisolated 0 ..eq(1)
Or,
(S Final S Initial ) Isolated 0
eq(2)
Entropy, like our other thermodynamic properties, is defined only at equilibrium states or
for quasi-equilibrium processes. Equation (2) shows that the entropy of the final state is
never less than that of the initial state for any process which an isolated system
undergoes.

Entropy is a measure of the molecular disorder of the substance. Larger values of entropy
imply larger disorder or uncertainty and lower values imply more microscopically
organized states.

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The term entropy production or entropy generation Sgen is considered in eq (1) to
eliminate the inequality sign.
(dS S gen )isolated = 0
Or
( S Final S gen S Initial ) Isolated = 0
Here, S gen is the entropy generated during a change in system state and is always
positive or zero.

5.3 Reversible and Irreversible Process


A reversible process for a system is defined as a process that once having taken place can
be reversed so that the system and surroundings can be restored to their initial state.
An irreversible process is a process which once having taken place cant be restored to its
initial state.
The reversible process is an idealization, and all the actual processes are normally
irreversible process.

5.3.1 Types of irreversibility


1. Mechanical and Thermal Irreversibility
2. Internal and External Irreversibility

Mechanical irreversibility is associated with the fluid friction among the molecules and
the mechanical friction between surfaces. Thermal irreversibility is associated with heat
transfer with finite temperature difference between the parts of system or between a
system and surroundings.
Internal irreversibility is associated with fluid friction and temperature variation within
the fluid. Combustion and diffusion also cause internal irreversibility. External
irreversibility is associated with friction between the atmosphere and rotating members.
All these absorb some work developed by the system. External irreversibility occurs
outside the boundary of the system.

5.3.2 Factors that makes process irreversible


1. Friction
2. Unrestricted Expansion
3. Heat transfer through a finite temperature difference
4. Mixing of two different fluids

5.3.3 Examples
Reversible Processes Irreversible Processes
1. Frictionless adiabatic expansion or 1. Free Unrestricted Expansion
compression 2. Combustion, diffusion
2. Friction less isothermal expansion 3. Electric current flow through
or compression resistor
3. Condensation or boiling of liquid 4. Mixing of two fluids
5. Heat transfer from high temperature
to low temperature
4. Process involving friction

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5.3.4 For a process to be reversible, it should obey following conditions.
1. The process should not involve friction of any kind.
2. Heat transfer should not take place with finite temperature difference.
3. There should be no mixing.
4. There should be no free or unrestricted expansion.

The process must proceed in a series of equilibrium states. It should move at an infinitely
slow pace.

5.4 Heat Engine and Refrigeration Cycles


Processes that return to their initial state are called cyclic processes.

Energy Reservoirs
A thermal energy reservoir (TER) is defined as a large body of infinite heat capacity,
which is capable of absorbing or rejecting an unlimited quantity of heat without suffering
appreciable changes in its thermodynamic properties. For example: River, Sea,
Atmosphere etc.

Heat Engine
A heat engine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle in which there is a net heat transfer to the
system and a net work transfer from the system. The device which executes a heat engine
cycle is called a heat engine. This device takes heat as input and converts into work as
output.

The cycles have a common feature they operate between two limiting temperatures.
The high temperature results from the combustion process in the steam generator or
within the cylinder. The low temperature results from the cooling process. The
characteristics of these two temperature cycles are shown from a general viewpoint as a
high temperature heat transfer reservoir or source (hot reservoir) at TH and a low
temperature heat transfer reservoir or sink (cold reservoir) at TL. The cycle operating
between these two temperatures is arbitrary. The general power cycle or engine is shown
schematically in figure below.

The first law for an arbitrary cycle states; Q = W .eq(1)


which is valid for an arbitrary collection of processes and for both reversible and
irreversible cycles. For the heat engine cycle shown in above figure;

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W = QH QL ..eq(2)
Second law for all heat engine cycles is:
Q
( T ) 0 ..eq(3)
For reversible heat transfer with the two heat transfer reservoirs, the equation(3) becomes
as;
QH Q L T Q
0 or L L ..eq(4)
TH TL TH QH
The efficiency of a cycle is defined as;
Desired Output (Work Output )
=
Heat Input
A power cycle or engine as shown in above figure has a work output W and an input
from the high-temperature reservoir QH. Thus, this efficiency is;
W
= eq(5)
QH
From equation (2) , the eq(5) becomes as;
Q QL Q
= H = 1 L ..eq(6)
QH QH
The ratio of heat in eq(6) can be eliminated with eq(4) as;

TL
1 ..eq(7)
TH
Where, equality applies to reversible cycle and inequality applies to irreversible cycle.
Therefore, it can be written as;
T
Irrev < Re v = 1 L .eq(8)
TH
This shows that the maximum efficiency of a heat engine operating between two heat
transfer reservoirs occurs for a reversible cycle.

Refrigerator and Heat Pump


A refrigerator is a device operating in a cycle which maintains a body, at a temperature
lower than the temperature of the surroundings.

The performance for a refrigerator is termed as the coefficient of performance (COP) and
is given as

Desired .Effect (cooling.Effect ) QL QL


COPR = = = .eq(1)
Work.Input W QH QL

First law; W = QL QH .eq(2)

Q
Second law; for cyclic process T 0

QL QH
0
TL TH
or
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Q H TH
.eq(3)
Q L TL
From eq(1) and eq(3),
QL 1 1
COPR = = .eq(4)
QH QL QH TH
1 1
QL TL
COPR , Irrev COPR ,rev
The equality applies to the reversible refrigerator and the inequality to the irreversible
refrigerator.

A Heat pump is a device operating in a cycle which maintains a body, at a temperature


higher than the temperature of the surroundings.

Coefficient of Performance of Heat Pump


Desired .Effect ( Heating.Effect ) QH QH
COPHP = = = .eq(5)
Work.Input W QH QL

5.5 Carnot Cycle

Carnot cycle is a heat engine cycle which operates between the given high-temperature
and low-temperature reservoirs such that every process is reversible. If every process is
reversible, the cycle is also reversible and if the cycle is reversed, the heat engine cycle
becomes refrigerator or heat pump. This cycle was proposed by a French engineer Sadi
Carnot (1796-1832). The working substance for Carnot cycle is air, an ideal gas.

Assumptions for Carnot cycle


1. No friction is involved.
2. The transfer of heat doesnt affect the temperature of source or sink.
3. Working medium air is perfect gas.
4. Compression and expansion are reversible.
5. Perfectly reversible adiabatic conditions are achieved.

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Process 1-2
It is a reversible isothermal process in which heat is transferred from the high-
temperature reservoir at constant temperature (T1). The source at a high temperature is
brought in contact with the bottom of the cylinder so that air expands isothermally from
V1 to V2.

V V
Q1 2 = P1V1 ln( 2 ) = mRT1 ln( 2 ) = mRT1 ln(rc )
V1 V1

Process 2-3
It is a reversible adiabatic process in which the temperature of the fluid decreases from
T1 to T2. The source is removed and the bottom of the cylinder is insulated so that the air
is allowed to expand adiabatically so that the volume increases from V2 to V3.
Q2 3 = 0

Process 3-4
It is a reversible isothermal process in which heat is rejected to the low temperature
reservoir at T2. The bottom of the cylinder is brought in contact with the sink at
temperature T2 so that air is compressed isothermally from V3 to V4.
V V
Q34 = P3V3 ln( 4 ) = mRT3 ln( 4 ) = mRT3 ln(rc )
V3 V3

Process 4-1
It is a reversible adiabatic process in which temperature of working fluid is increased
from T1 to T2 by compressing it reversibly and adiabatically. The sink is removed and the
bottom of the cylinder is insulated so that the air is allowed to compress adiabatically so
that the volume decreases from V4 to V1.

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Q41 = 0

Now,
NetWorkOutput = NetHeatInput
= Q12 Q34
= mRT1 ln(rc ) mRT3 ln(rc )
And, the efficiency of a Carnot cycle is:
Workoutput
=
HeatInput
mR ln(rc )(T1 T3 )
=
mRT1 ln(rc )
T1 T3
=
T1
T3
= 1
T1
TL
= 1
TH

It is impossible to construct an engine operating between only two heat reservoirs


which will have a higher efficiency that a reversible engine operating between the same
two reservoirs.
In other words, for the same source and sink, a reversible engine has the higher
efficiency. This is also known as Carnots Theorem.
All reversible engines (Carnot Engines) operating between the same two reservoirs
have the same efficiency.

5.6 Classical Statements of Second Law of Thermodynamics


5.6.1 Kelvin-Planck Statement
It is impossible to construct a device that will operate in a cycle and produce no effect
other than the extraction of heat from a single reservoir and the performance of
equivalent amount of work.

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5.6.2 Clausius Statement
It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and produces no effect other
than the transfer of heat from a body at low temperature to a body at high temperature
without work input.

5.6.3 Equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius Statement


It can be proved that these statements are equivalent by proving the violation of one
statement leads to the violation of other statement.

1. Violation of Kelvin-Planck statement leads to the violation of Clausius Statement:


Let us assume a cyclic Heat Pump (HP) extracting heat Q2 from a low temperature
reservoir at T2 and discharging heat to high temperature reservoir at T1 with the
expenditure of work (W). Lets assume a cyclic Heat Engine (HE) extracting heat Q1
from a high temperature reservoir and produces net work (W = Q1) without rejecting any
heat thus violating Kelvin-Planck statement. These two constitute a device extracting heat
Q2 from low temperature reservoir and rejecting to high temperature reservoir without
any work input. Thus Clausius statement is violated. So, a violation of Kelvin-Planck
statement leads to the violation of Clausius statement.

2. Violation of Clausius statement leads to the violation of Kelvin-Planck Statement:


Let us consider a Heat Pump (HP) that requires no work and thus violates the Clausius
statement. Let an amount of heat Q2 be transferred from the low temperature reservoir to
the HP, and let same amount of heat Q2 be transferred to the high-temperature reservoir.

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Let us consider a Heat Engine (HE) where an amount of heat Q1 be transferred from the
high-temperature reservoir and let the engine reject the amount of heat Q2 and does net
work (W = Q1-Q2). Because there is no net heat transfer to the low-temperature reservoir,
the low-temperature reservoir along with the HE and HP can be considered together as a
device that operates in a cycle and produces no effect other than the exchange of heat
with a single reservoir and performance of equal amount of work. Thus Kelvin-Planck
Statement is also violated. So a violation of Clausius Statement leads to the violation of
Kelvin-Planck statement.

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Chapter-7
Some Power and Refrigeration Cycles
1. Classification of Cycles
1. Based upon work producing or absorbing
a. Power Cycle: A cycle which continuously converts the heat into work is called power
cycle. This cycle is called work producing. Example: Heat Engine
b. Refrigeration Cycle: A cycle which continuously transfers heat from a lower temperature to
higher temperature region is called refrigeration cycle. This cycle is called work absorbing
because it needs work input. Example: Heat Pump, Refrigerator
2. Based upon working fluid
a. Gas Cycle: The cycle in which the phase of working fluid doesnt change during entire
process is called gas cycle. Example: Diesel Cycle, Otto Cycle
b. Vapor Cycle: If the working fluid is alternatively vaporized and condensed, then the cycle
is called vapor cycle. Example: Rankine Cycle, Refrigeration Cycle.
3. Based upon heat supplied
a. Internal Combustion Cycle (burning of fossil fuel within engine itself).
b. External Combustion Cycle (burning of fossil fuels in a boiler).

2. Components of Power/Refrigeration Cycles


1. Source: It is a thermal reservoir which is at high temperature and can supply heat energy to the
system. Example: Furnace, Combustion Chamber.
2. Sink: It is a thermal reservoir which is at low temperature and can absorb heat energy rejected by
the system. Example: Atmospheric Air, Ocean.
3. Working Fluid: The fluid within the system which absorbs heat and rejects heat while undergoing
a cycle is called working fluid. Example: Air, Water, Ammonia.

3. External Heat Transfer Cycles

3.1 Brayton Cycle


The Brayton Cycle, also called the Joule Cycle, was developed originally for use in a piston engine with
fuel injection. This cycle is the ideal cycle for the simple gas turbine. The air standard Brayton cycle is
composed of constant pressure heat transfer processes separated by isentropic expansion and compression
processes.

The closed-cycle Brayton engine is shown in figure below. The working fluid air enters the compressor in
state 1, where it is compressed isentropically until state 2 is reached and enters high temperature heat
exchanger. In this heat exchanger heat will be added to the fluid at constant pressure until state 3 is
reached. Now high temperature air enters the turbine, where an isentropic expansion occurs, producing
mechanical work. The working fluid (air) leaves the turbine at state 4 and enters low temperature heat
exchanger, where heat will be rejected from the fluid until state 1 is reached. After completing a cycle
previous processes will be repeated in same order.

Compression in compressor and expansion in turbine are assumed to be isentropic processes in the ideal
closed cycle air standard Brayton cycle. It is easier to construct compressor and turbine which operates
nearly adiabatic. However, it is difficult to approach reversibility.

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page1
Closed Brayton Cycle Open Brayton Cycle

The efficiency of Brayton cycle is given by,


QL
B = 1
QH
mC P (T4 T1 )
= 1
mC P (T3 T2 )
T
T1 ( 4 1)
T1
B = 1
T
T2 ( 3 1)
T2
Here, process 2-3 and 4-1 are constant pressure process so P2 = P3 and P1 = P4
For isentropic process 1-2,
1
T2 P2
=
T1 P1
For isentropic process 3-4,
1 1
T3 P3 P T2
= = 2 =
T4 P4 P1 T1
So,
T4 T3
=
T1 T2 .eq(1)
Now, using eq(1) above efficiency equation becomes as;

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page2
T1 T 1
B = 1 = 1 4 = 1 1
T2 T3
P2

P1
1
= 1
(r )
1
p

P2 P3
Where, rp = = is the pressure ratio.
P1 P4

* The efficiency of Brayton cycle depends upon the isentropic pressure ratio.

4. Internal Combustion Cycles


In many power producing devices, such as the automotive gasoline engine, the diesel engine, and the gas
turbine, the working fluid is a gas. Broadly speaking, these devices take in either mixture of fuel and air or
fuel and air separately, compress this charge to a high pressure and cause the fuel to burn. A part of the
energy liberated as heat as a result of combustion is converted into useful work by causing the high
pressure and temperature products of combustion to expand in the engine or turbine while the remainder is
carried away with the exhaust gas living the device.
In general, the properties of the fuel air mixture before combustion approximates closely to those of air.
The properties of the products of combustion also do not differ much from those of pure air. For this
reason, it is convenient to analyze the performance of these devices by devising the idealized cycles
known as air standard cycles.

The air-standard cycles are based on the following hypothetical assumptions:


1. The working substance consists of a fixed mass of air. This closed system undergoes a cycle of
processes so that the system is restored to its initial state at the end of each cycle.
2. The combustion process is replaced by an equivalent heat addition process from an external
source. Thus there is no change in the chemical composition of the working fluid.
3. The exhaust process is replaced by an equivalent heat rejection process.

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4. Compression and expansion processes in the cycle are reversible adiabatic processes.
5. The specific heats CP and CV of air do not vary with temperature.

4.1 Air-standard Otto Cycle


The Otto Cycle is an ideal cycle for SI (Spark Ignition) engines. In most SI engines (Petrol engine) the
piston executes the four complete strokes within the cylinder and completes a thermodynamic cycle. The
working fluid for an Otto cycle is air. Before the combustion, the working fluid is mixture of fuel and air
and after the combustion the working fluid is combustion gases. However, for approximation, property of
air is considered. An Otto cycle is completed by four processes.

Process 1-2: Isentropic Compression: Fuel-air mixture is taken into the cylinder through suction
and the mixture inside the cylinder is compressed until the piston reaches the Top Dead Center (TDC).
This process is reversible and adiabatic. The pressure and temperature of the air increase.

Process 2-3: Constant Volume Heat Addition: The compressed air-fuel mixture is burned with a
spark which makes the pressure and temperature of the combustion gases to rise. This process is assumed
to occur at constant volume.

Process 3-4: Isentropic Expansion: The piston begins to move until it reaches Bottom Dead Center
(BDC) so the expansion of gas occurs adiabatically and reversibly. This process generates work output
and the pressure and temperature of air decreases consequently.

Process 4-1: Constant Volume Heat Rejection: The exhaust valve opens and the pressure and
temperature of gas decreases at constant volume. Then the gas is removed from the cylinder by movement
of piston and the cycle is completed.

The thermal efficiency of this cycle is given as:


QH QL
=
QH
QL
= 1
QH
mCV (T4 T1 )
= 1
mCV (T3 T2 )
T
T1 4 1
= 1 1
T
T
T2 3 1
T2

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page4
3

P T
3 W

Q 4
H

QH W

QL
4 2
2
QL

1 1
Suction Exhaust

V S

TDC BDC

Stroke

Since process 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic, we can write,


1
T2 V1
= = (rc )
1

T1 V2
V
Where, rc = 1 is called compression ratio
V2
1 1
T V V T2
And, 3 = 4 = 1 =
T4 V3 V2 T1

So,
T1 1
= 1 = 1
T2 (rc ) 1
This shows that the efficiency of the otto cycle depends on the compression ratio. Efficiency of the otto
cycle increases with increase in compression ratio.

Mean Effective Pressure (MEP) is defined as the pressure that, if it acted on the piston during the entire
power stroke, would do an amount of work equal to that actually done on the piston.
Workdone WNET q H
MEP = = =
Sweptvolume Vmax Vmin v1 v 2

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page5
4.2 Air-Standard Diesel Cycle
The diesel cycle is the ideal cycle for Compression Ignition (CI) engines. In diesel cycle, air is compressed
to a higher temperature which ignites the fuel. The diesel cycle differs from Otto Cycle, in that heat is
supplied at constant pressure instead of at constant volume. The working fluid for a Diesel cycle is air.
Before the combustion, the working fluid is atmospheric air and after the combustion the working fluid is
combustion gases. However, for approximation, properties of air are considered. A diesel cycle is
completed by four processes.

Process 1-2: Isentropic Compression: Air is taken into the cylinder through suction and air inside
the cylinder is compressed until the piston reaches the Top Dead Center (TDC). This process is reversible
and adiabatic. The pressure and temperature of the air increase.

Process 2-3: Constant Pressure Heat Addition: Fuel is injected in the cylinder so that compressed
air and fuel is burned spontaneously which makes the pressure and temperature of the combustion gases to
rise. Simultaneously, the piston moves maintaining the pressure inside the cylinder. This process is
assumed to occur at constant pressure.

Process 3-4: Isentropic Expansion: The piston begins to move until it reaches Bottom Dead Center
(BDC) so the expansion of gas occurs adiabatically and reversibly. This process generates work output
and the pressure and temperature of air decreases consequently.

Process 4-1: Constant Volume Heat Rejection: The exhaust valve opens and the pressure and
temperature of gas decreases at constant volume. Then the gas is removed from the cylinder by movement
of piston and the cycle is completed.
QL

The thermal efficiency of diesel cycle is given by,

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page6
W
=
QH
QH QL
=
QH
QL
= 1
QH
mCV (T4 T1 )
= 1
mC P (T3 T2 )
T
T1 4 1
= 1 1
T
T
T2 3 1
T2

Here
V
Compression Ratio, rc = 1
V2
V
Cut-off Ratio, = 3
V2
V1

rc V2 = V1 = V4
So, =
V3 V3 V3

V2
1
T V
= (rc )
1
Process 1-2 is adiabatic compression, so, 2 = 1
T1 V2
1 1
T V r
Process 3-4 is adiabatic expansion, so, 3 = 4 = c
T4 V3
T 3 1
Or, = rc 1
T4

T3 1 T2
Therefore, =
T4 T1
T4 T3 1
So, =
T1 T2

Now,

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page7
T
T1 4 1
= 1 1
T
T
T2 3 1
T2
T3 1
1
= 1
1 T2
(rc ) 1 T3
1


T2
T3 V3
For constant pressure process 2-3, = =
T2 V2
So,
1 1 1
= 1
(rc ) 1 1
1 1
= 1
(rc ) 1 1
The compression ratio of the diesel cycle is always greater than the expansion ratio. So for a given
compression ratio rC, the diesel engine always has lower efficiency than an Otto engine operating at the
same compression ratio.

5. Rankine Cycle
Rankine Cycle is the theoretical cycle on which steam power plants work. In Rankine cycle has water as
working fluid which is used to handle the phase change between liquid and vapor. The processes involved in
a Rankine cycle are:

Process 1-2: Reversible adiabatic compression in pump


Process 2-3: Constant pressure transfer of heat in the boiler
Process 3-4: Reversible adiabatic expansion in the turbine
Process 4-1: Constant pressure transfer of heat in the condenser

In an ideal Rankine Cycle as shown in figure below, the process 1-2, a pump is used to increase the
pressure of the working fluid. The working fluid enters the pump as a saturated liquid (State 1, x1 = 0) and
exits the pump as a sub-cooled liquid (state 2). The fluid entered into boiler has relatively low temperature
is heated at constant pressure and leaves the boiler as a saturated vapor (state 3, x3 = 1). This saturated
vapor is expanded isentropically through turbine to produce the work and leave as state 4. The low
pressure saturated mixture is again condensed at constant pressure in the condenser leaving as low
pressure low temperature saturated liquid (state 1). Following condensation, the liquid enters the pump.
The working fluid is returned to the high pressure for heat addition at the higher boiler temperature, and
the cycle is repeated.

For Boiler: Heat addition qin = h3 h2


For Pump: Work Absorbed WP = h2 h1

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page8
For Turbine: work produced WT = h3 h4
For Condenser: Heat loss qout = h4 h1

So, efficiency of Rankine Cycle is:


(h3 h4 ) (h2 h1 )
=
(h3 h2 )
As compared to WT, WP is very small so in many cases we can write,
(h h )
= 3 4
(h3 h2 )

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page9
Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Rankine Cycle

1. Decreasing Condenser Pressure:


Let the exhaust pressure drop from P4 to P4, with the corresponding decrease in temperature at which the
heat is rejected. The heat transfer to the steam is increased and the net work is also increased. The net
result is an increase in efficiency.

2. Increasing Boiler Pressure:


By increasing boiler pressure, the heat rejected decreases by keeping the maximum temperature constant.
The net work tends to remain same. Hence the efficiency increases.

3. Superheating Steam in Boiler:


W W
The work increases and the heat transfer in boiler also increase. Since the ratio is greater than ,
QH QH
the efficiency of the cycle increases.

6. Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle


The most common method of providing air-conditioning and chilling as well as heat pumping is the vapor
compression cycle. In this cycle, the working substance changes phase during the cycle, in a manner
equivalent to that of Rankine cycle. The basic operation involved in vapor compression refrigeration cycle
is shown in figure below. It consists of four processes.

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page10
1. Compression: At state 1, the fluid is a saturated or superheated vapor. This fluid is compressed
reversibly and adiabatically in process 1-2 by the compressor. As a result, the pressure and
temperature of vapor increases.

2. Condensation: The vapor is then condensed in process 2-3 through the condenser. In this process,
the vapor rejects heat to the surroundings at constant pressure and is converted into saturated
liquid.

3. Expansion: The saturated liquid is allowed to expand adiabatically in the throttling valve in
process 3-4. In this process, the pressure and temperature of the fluid decreases but enthalpy
remains constant. At state 4, the fluid is in two-phase mixture.

4. Evaporation: The two-phase mixture, then, absorbs heat from the surroundings and is converted
to saturated vapor in the evaporator. This process 4-1 occurs at constant pressure. This saturated
vapor is passed to compressor and the cycle completes.

QL h1 h4
The performance of a refrigeration system is defined as COPR = =
Win h2 h1
QH h2 h3
Similarly, for the heat pump COPHP = =
Win h2 h1

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina] Page11
Chapter 8: Heat Transfer

1.) Basic Concepts and Modes of Heat Transfer


Heat Transfer may be defined as the transmission of energy from one region to another as
a result of temperature gradient, and is governed by the second law of thermodynamics
which dictates that free flow of heat is possible only from a body of higher temperature to
that at a lower temperature. There are three basic modes of heat transfer.
a. Conduction: Conduction is the transfer of heat between two bodies or two parts
of the same body in physical contact with it, through molecules without
appreciable displacement of molecules. In solids, as copper wire, the energy
transfer arises because atoms at a higher temperature vibrate more excitedly;
hence they transfer energy to neighboring atoms. In metals, the free electrons also
contribute to the heat conduction process. In liquids or gas, the molecules are also
mobile, and energy is conducted by molecular collisions.

b. Convection: Convection is the transfer of heat within a fluid by the mass


movement of fluids. When a temperature difference produces a density difference,
which results in mass movement of the fluids and thus causes convection heat
transfer, the process is called free or natural convection. When the mass
movement is caused by an external device like pump, fan etc, and then the process
is called forced convection.

c. Radiation: Radiation is the transfer of heat through space or matter by means of


electromagnetic waves or photons. All bodies radiate heat, so a transfer of heat by
radiation occurs because hot body emits more heat than it receives and a cold
body receives more heat than it emits. Heat transfer through radiation requires no
medium for propagation and will pass through a vacuum.

2.) Conduction: Conduction Rate Equation and Heat Transfer Coefficient

2.1 Fouriers Law of Conduction


It states that the rate of flow of heat through a single homogeneous solid along one
dimensional is directly proportional to the area of the section and temperature gradient
along the length of the path of heat flow. Mathematically,
dT
Q& A.
dx
.eq(1)
& dT
Q = KA
dx
Where, K = constant of proportionally or thermal conductivity of the body. This eq(1) is
also called as conduction rate equation. (-) negative sign indicates that heat naturally flow
from high temperature to low temperature

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina]HeatTransfer Page1
Thermal Conductivity is the property of material which determines how much heat can
be conducted through the material and is given by the rate of heat transfer through a body
of unit area and unit thickness on a unit temperature difference.

2.2 One-dimensional heat transfer through slab:

Consider the transmission of heat through normal cross-sectional area A of a wall of


thickness x. The temperature at two ends of slab be T1 and T2 (T1 > T2). Then,
& = kA dT
Q
dx
(T T )
= kA 2 1
x
Q& T T2
q= =k 1 .eq(2)
A x
Electrical Analogy for thermal resistance:
According to fouriers law, the heat flow rate is due to temperature difference which is
very similar to current flow due to potential difference.

T1 T2 T1 T2
Q= = eq(3)
x Rth

kA
E E2
I= 1 eq(4)
R
The heat flow rate equation (3) is quite like to ohms law equation (4).
Therefore, here Rth = x/kA for slab, is known as thermal resistance. The resistance to
flow of heat transfer from conduction is known as Thermal resistance. This is inversely
proportional to the thermal conductivity (K) of the solid. The unit for the thermal
resistance is 0C/W.

2.3 One-dimensional heat transfer through Composite Wall (Series)


Figure below shows a system consisting of two layers of different materials placed in
series so as to make a composite plane structure.

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina]HeatTransfer Page2
x1 x2

T1
A
T
Q
T2
K1 K2

T T2
T1

R1 R2
Q
The temperature gradients in the two materials are also shown, and the heat flow may be
written as
T T
Q = k1 A 1
x1
eq(5)
x1
T1 T = Q.
k1 A

T T2
Q = k2 A
x2
eq(6)
x2
T T2 = Q.
k2 A
From above equations,
T1 T2 = (T1 T ) + (T T2 )
x x
= Q. 1 + Q. 2
k1 A k2 A
x x
= Q. 1 + 2
k1 A k 2 A
So,
(T1 T2 ) (T1 T2 )
Q= = .eq(7)
x1 x R1 + R2
+ 2
k1 A k 2 A
In eq(7), thermal resistances are added like the addition of resistance in series of electric
circuit.

2.4 One-dimensional heat transfer through Composite Wall (Parallel)


Figure below shows a system consisting of two layers of different materials placed in
parallel so as to make a composite plane structure. Here, heat flow rate Q divides into the
individual walls as Q1 and Q2.

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina]HeatTransfer Page3
The temperature gradients in the two materials are also shown, and the heat flow rate
through individual walls may be written as
T T2
Q1 = k1 A1 1
x
T1 T2
Q2 = k 2 A2
x
So the net heat transfer would be,
Q = Q1 + Q2
T1 T2
= (k1 A1 + k 2 A2 )
x
T1 T2
=
x
(k1 A1 + k 2 A2 )
T1 T2
=


1
1 1
+
R1 R1
T T2 ..eq(8)
= 1
R1 R2

R1 + R2
In eq(8), thermal resistances are added like the addition of resistances in parallel of
electric circuit.

2.5 Radial Heat Conduction through Tubes (Cylinder)


Let us assume the inside and outside surface of the cylinder are maintained at
temperatures T1 and T2 respectively (T1 > T2). Let us assume that heat is flowing, under
steady state, only in the radial direction, and there is no heat conduction along the length
of the cylinder i.e. longitudinal direction. Take a small annular section with thickness dr
at a radius r.
Area of small annular section A = 2rL,
The heat transfer rate through the small annular section of thickness dr is given by,

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina]HeatTransfer Page4
dT
Q = kA
dr
dT
Q = k .2rL
dr
Where, L is the length of the cylinder.

Q dr
dT =
2kL r
T2 R
Q 2 dr

T1
dT =
2kL R1 r
Q R
(T2 T1 ) = ln 2
2kL R1
(T1 T2 )
Q=
R2
ln
R1

2kL


R2
ln
R
Here, Rth = 1 , this is thermal resistance for cylinder having outer radius R2 and
2kL


inner radius R1, thermal conductivity K and length L.

3.) Convection:
The appropriate rate equation for the convective heat transfer between a surface and an
adjacent fluid is prescribed by Newton's Law of cooling:
Newtons Law of cooling is defined as heat flow rate is directly proportional to area
exposed to heat transfer and temperature difference between the surface and fluid
temperatures.
Q& A(Tw T )

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina]HeatTransfer Page5
The transmission of heat per unit time from a surface by convection is given by
Q& = hA(Tw T ) ..eq(9)
Q& = rate of quantity of convective heat transferred
h = coefficient of convective heat transfer
A = area of surface exposed to heat transfer
Tw = temperature of surface
T = temperature of fluid

Consider the heated plate shown in figure. The temperature of the plate is Tw , and the
temperature of the fluid T . The velocity of the flow will appear as shown, being zero at
the plate as a result of viscous action. Since the velocity of the fluid layer at the wall will
be zero, the heat must be transferred only by conduction at that point. The temperature
gradient is dependent on the rate at which the fluid carries away the heat. A high velocity
produces a large temperature gradient.
The coefficient of convective heat transfer h may be defined as the rate of heat
transmitted for a unit temperature difference between the fluid and unit area of surface.
The value of h depends on the fluids, their velocity and temperature.
Q = hA(Tw T )
(Tw T ) .eq(10)
=
1
hA
1
Here, Rth = is the convective resistance for convective medium.
hA

3.1 Overall heat transfer coefficient:


Consider the plane wall having thermal conductivity K and thickness x shown exposed
to a hot fluid A with convective heat transfer coefficient h1 and temperature TA on one
side and a cooler fluid B with convective heat transfer coefficient h2 and temperature TB
on other side.

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina]HeatTransfer Page6
x

TA

h1 T1 h2

Q T2
K
TB

T1 T2 TB
TA

Q
The heat transferred is expressed by:
kA
Q = h1 A(T A T1 ) = (T1 T2 ) = h2 A(T2 TB )
x
T A TB
So, Q =
1 x 1
+ +
h1 A kA h2 A

A(T A TB )
Q= eq(11)
1 x 1
+ +
h1 k h2
The overall heat transfer by combined conduction and convection is frequently expresses
in terms of an overall heat transfer coefficient U, and defined by the relation;

Q = UA(T A TB ) eq(12)
Comparing eq(11) and eq(12) we get the overall heat transfer coefficient U as;
1
U= is known as overall heat transfer coefficient.
1 x 1
+ +
h1 k h2
1
U=
Rvalue
Similarly, for a hollow cylinder exposed to a convection environment on its inner and
outer surfaces. Let the TA and TB be the inner and outer fluid temperatures, and hi and Ai
are the inner fluid convective heat transfer coefficient and inner surface area of cylinder.
Likewise, ho and Ao are for outer fluid convective heat transfer coefficient and outer
surface area.
(T A TB )
Q=
r
ln( o )
1 ri 1
+ +
hi Ai 2kL ho Ao

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina]HeatTransfer Page7
3.2 Introduction to Boundary Layer
Consider a heated wall surface temperature Ts over which a fluid with undisturbed
velocity U and temperature T . The particles of fluid in intimate contact with the plate
tend to adhere to it and a region of variable velocity builds up between the plate surface
and the free fluid stream as indicated in Figure.
The fluid velocity decreases as it approaches the solid surface, reaching to zero in the
fluid layer immediately next to the surface. This thin layer of stagnated fluid has been
called the hydrodynamic boundary layer. The quantity of heat transferred is highly
dependent upon the fluid motion within this boundary layer, being determined chiefly by
the thickness of the layer. The boundary layer thickness is arbitrarily defined as the
distance y from the plate surface at which the velocity approaches 99% of free stream
velocity.
Reynolds Number (Re): Reynolds number is a ratio of the inertia force to the
viscous force. It indicates the relative importance of inertial and viscous effects in a fluid
motion. At low Reynolds number, the viscous effects dominate and the fluid motion is
laminar. At high Reynolds number, the inertial effects lead to turbulent flow and the
associated turbulence level dominates the momentum and energy flux.
V 2 VL
Re = =
V / L
Prandtl Number (Pr): It indicates the relative ability of the fluid to diffuse
momentum and internal energy by molecular mechanisms.
C P VC P
Pr = =
K K
Nusselt Number (Nu): Nusselt Number establishes the relation between
convective film coefficient h and the thermal conductivity of the fluid K and a significant
length parameter length l of the physical system.
hL
Nu =
K
Stanton Number (St): It is the ratio of heat transfer coefficient to the flow of heat
per unit temperature rise due to the velocity of the fluid.
h hL / K Nu
St = = =
VC P (VL / )(. C P / K ) Re . Pr
Forced Convection:
a. Laminar Flow over a Flat Plate ( Re < 4 10 5 )
Local heat transfer Coefficient:
Nu x = 0.332(Pr)1 / 3 (Re)1 / 2
Average heat transfer Coefficient:
Nu = 0.664(Pr)1 / 3 (Re)1 / 2
b. Turbulent Flow over a Flat Plate ( Re > 5 10 5 )
Local heat transfer Coefficient:
Nu x = 0.0292(Pr) 0.33 (Re) 0.8
Average heat transfer Coefficient:
Nu = 0.036(Pr) 0.33 (Re) 0.8

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina]HeatTransfer Page8
4) Radiation:
The maximum rate of radiation that can be emitted from a surface at an absolute
temperature T (in K or R) is given by the StefanBoltzmann law as the maximum
emissive power of a black body is directly proportional to fourth power of its absolute
temperature and area.
Qmax AT 4
..eq(13)
Qmax = AT 4
Here, is the Stefan Boltzmann constant = 5.669 * 10-8 W/m2.K4
The idealized surface that emits radiation at this maximum rate is called a blackbody, and
the radiation emitted by a blackbody is called blackbody radiation. The radiation emitted
by all real surfaces is less than the radiation emitted by a blackbody at the same
temperature, and is expressed as;
Q = AT 4 eq(14)
where is the emissivity of the surface. The property emissivity, , whose value is in the
range 0 1, is a measure of how closely a surface approximates a blackbody for which
= 1.

The radiant heat-exchange between two grey bodies at temperature T1 and T2 depends on
how the two bodies view each other (Shape Factor F1-2) and their emissivities, and is
given by
Q = AF1 2 (T14 T24 ) .eq(15)

4.1 Radiation Properties


When radiant energy strikes a material surface, part of the radiation is reflected, part is
absorbed and part is transmitted. We define reflectivity ( ) as the fraction reflected, the
absorptivity ( ) as the fraction absorbed, and the transmissivity ( ) as the fraction
transmitted.
where E is the radiation energy incident on the surface, and Eabs, Eref, and Etr are the
absorbed, reflected, and transmitted portions of it, respectively. The first law of
thermodynamics requires that the sum of the absorbed, reflected, and transmitted
radiation energy be equal to the incident radiation. That is,
Eabs+ Eref + Etr = E
Dividing each term of this relation by E yields Thus,
+ + =1.eq(16)
Incident Radiation

Most solid bodies dont transmit thermal radiation i.e. opaque, so that for many applied
problems the transmissivity may be taken as zero. So,

[RGnyawali/PTimilsina]HeatTransfer Page9
+ =1
The emissive power (E) of a body is defined as the energy emitted by the body per unit
area and per unit time.

4.2 Black and Grey Bodies


A black body is defined as the body which absorbs all the incident radiation.
=1, = =0
Eb = T 4
Real bodies are not black and radiate less energy than the black body. To account this
emissivity ( ) is defined in terms of emissive powers of real body and the black body,
both evaluated at same temperature. Thus,
E
=
Eb
The emissive power of a body to the emissive power of a black body at the same
temperature is equal to the absorptivity of body. So, = . The emissivity of a material
varies with temperature and the wavelength of radiation.

Radiation of all frequencies is emitted from a hot surface. The emissive power E,

therefore has contributions at all frequencies, and we write E = E d .
0

The term black and grey do not necessarily refer to the color of the body; they merely
describe its effectiveness as a radiator. A black body is a perfect radiator; a grey body is
not perfect radiator.

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