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Slant range to Ground Range of SAR DATA

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conversion

srogr_cubic_conv_2d.m (cubic convolution interpolation)

Functions used : -

Input : \module_7\multilooked_azi.dat

Description :

The SLC and multi-looked images have slant range geometry i.e. it is based on the actual

distance between target and radar (in a direction which is at an angle/slant to the ground) not the

distance measured along the earths surface. We need to convert the slant range measurement

into the true ground range measurement so that all the features are in their proper planimetric

(x,y) position relative to one another in the final radar image. This is done by resampling in range

direction. In the program given in the module, sr2gr.m, both range and azimuth pixels are

resized and resampled to get aground range image. Run sr2gr.m to perform slant range to

ground range image conversion on SLC or azimuth multi-looked image along with bilinear

interpolation. Run srogr_cubic_conv_2d.m to perform slant range to ground range conversion

and interpolation by cubic convolution method.

Explanation :

Slant range to ground range conversion is also done in patch-wise manner. Azimuth

resampling: azimuth resampling is done by forming indices in azimuth direction using the

following relation.

az lookup (r index )=new r /(line spacemult lk )

index

Where r_index is the corresponding existing index, az_lookup is the new index array that

extends from zero to number of azimuth lines in one patch. The new_size specified can be

changed to vary the size in azimuth direction and also decides the size of az_lookup.

r g * Re

r g / Re

1 / 2

cos 2 sin 2

Radius of the Earth Re

a2 b2

Range resampling: using the cosine law, the ground range can be determined by using the

relation

htht + roro

rg=acos ( 2ht )

Where ht is distance of sensor from the center of the earth, re is the radius of the earth and ro is

that slant range distance. This is calculated for the initial slant range. From this value of rg, the

new_size required is added and slant range and corresponding ground range are iteratively

calculated. Slant range calculation for a given ground range is done using the following relation

(

rp= htht+ 2.0htcos ( ))

rg

The new range lookup index is created iteratively using the relation

gr lookup (c index )=(rpro)1000/ pixelspace

several ways like bilinear interpolation, cubic convolution interpolation, cubic spline

interpolation etc. Bilinear interpolation is used for resampling the input slant range image to get

ground range image. Using bilinear interpolation, the output pixel value can be written as

4

zk

P i=

k=1 ( )

D2k

4

1

k=1 ( )

D2k

Where zk is the value of the neighboring pixel and D k is the distance to that pixel. This results

in weighting of the pixels according to the distance from the resampled point. The output pixel

value will depend on four neighboring pixels.

based on convolution. The weighting is done in 4 x 4 window in contrary to the 2 x 2 in bilinear

interpolation. The third order cubic convolution kernel is given below.

3 3 5 2

|x| |x| +1 if 0 x 1

2 2

1 3 5 2

|x| + |x| 4|x|+2 if 1 x 2

2 2

0if 2x

cc 3=

achieved by applying this window in two dimensions. To determine each pixel value, weighting

is applied for each of the 4 rows and then the same window is applied to the 4 values obtained.

Results:

Ground Range Image

100

200

300

400

Azimuth bin

500

600

700

800

900

1000

200 400 600 800 1000

Range bin

Ground range image for new size in range and azimuth direction - 20

Ground Range Image of Mumbai

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

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