MD Nastran 2010

Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700)
User’s Guide
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Main Index
Cont ent s
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Contents
1 Introduction
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) 16
Defining the Model 16
Implicit and Explicit Methods 17
Implicit Methods 17
Explicit Methods 18
Typical Applications 24
Principles of the Eulerian and Lagrangian Processors 24
Feature List 26
How SOL 700 Solves Explicit Problems 27
Input and Output 27
This User’s Guide 28
Additional Documentation for SOL 700 28
2 MD Nastran Data Files
The MD Nastran Input Data File 32
Input Conventions 33
Section Descriptions 33
Running Existing Models with SOL 700 34
Supported SOL 700 Entries 35
Supported Case Control Cards 35
Supported Bulk Data Entries 37
Supported Material Models in SOL 700 50
Supported Materials in SimXpert 51
Unsupported Materials in MD Patran Preference 51
Supported Parameters in SOL 700 51
Supported Parameters in SimXpert 52
Supported Parameters in MD Patran Preference 52
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide 4
Preprocessing with MD Patran 52
Generating the Bulk Data File 52
Editing the Bulk Data File 53
Output Requests 53
Files Created by SOL 700 53
Postprocessing with MD Patran 56
Preprocessing with SimXpert 56
Generating the Bulk Data File 56
Postprocessing with SimXpert 57
3 Modeling
Coordinate Systems 60
User-defined Coordinate System 60
Nodal Coordinate Systems 61
Element Coordinate Systems 61
Material Coordinate Systems 62
Nodes 63
Degrees of Freedom 63
Elements 64
Modeling in MD Patran 65
Creating Geometry in MD Patran 65
Creating Finite Element Meshes in MD Patran 67
Example using MD Patran 69
Description of the Problem 69
Solution Type 70
Specifying the Solution Type 70
References 70
Defining the Solution Type in MD Patran 71
Input and Output Files Created During the Simulation 81
Simulation on Windows Platforms 81
Postprocessing 83
Running a Batch Job 87
How to Tell When the Analysis is Done 87
Main Index
5 Contents
How to Tell if the Analysis Ran Successfully 87
Running a Parallel Job 88
Examples using SimXpert 89
4 Special Modeling Techniques
Artificial Viscosity 92
Bulk Viscosity 92
Hourglass Damping 93
Mass Scaling 97
Problems Involving a Few Small Elements 97
Problems Involving a Few Severely Distorted Elements 97
Time Domain NVH 99
Time Domain NVH Example – Plate Subjected to a Pulse Loading 100
Prestress (Implicit to Explicit Sequential Simulation) 109
Comparative Study between Nastran and MD Nastran SOL 700 Implicit
Element Formulations 109
Time Step Control 116
Time Step Calculations for Solid Elements 116
Time Step Calculations for Beam and Truss Elements 117
Time Step Calculations for Shell Elements 117
Time Step Calculations for Solid Shell Elements 118
Time Step Calculations for Discrete Elements 119
5 Constraints and Loadings
Constraint Definition 122
Single-Point Constraints 122
Multi-Point Constraints 122
Specifying Explicit MPCs 123
Contact in SOL 700 123
Contact Bodies 124
Rigid Walls 125
Contact Detection 125
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide 6
Lagrangian Loading 126
Concentrated Loads and Moments 126
FORCE, FORCE2, or DAREA – Fixed-Direction Concentrated Loads 126
Pressure Loads 127
Initial Conditions 128
Eulerian Loading and Constraints 129
Loading Definition 129
Flow Boundary 129
Rigid Wall 129
Initial Conditions 130
Detonation 135
Body Forces 135
Hydrostatic Preset 135
Speedup for 2-D Axial Symmetric Models 135
Viscosity and Skin Friction in Euler 136
Boundary and Loading Conditions - Theoretical Background 137
Pressure Boundary Conditions 137
Kinematic Boundary Conditions 139
Displacement Constraints 139
Prescribed Displacements, Velocities, and Accelerations 140
Body Force Loads 140
6 Elements
Elements Overview 142
Element Types 142
Preliminaries 146
Governing Equations 147
CHEXA Solid Elements 150
Volume Integration 152
Hourglass Control 153
Fully Integrated Brick Elements and Mid-Step Strain Evaluation 157
CTETRA - Four Node Tetrahedron Element 158
CPENTA - Six Node Pentahedron Element 159
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam 160
Co-rotational Technique 160
Belytschko Beam Element Formulation 163
Calculation of Deformations 164
Calculation of Internal Forces 165
Main Index
7 Contents
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam 169
Geometry 169
Fiber Coordinate System 173
Strains and Stress Update 175
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell 178
Co-rotational Coordinates 178
Velocity-Strain Displacement Relations 180
Stress Resultants and Nodal Forces 182
Hourglass Control (Belytschko-Lin-Tsay) 183
Hourglass Control (Englemann and Whirley) 184
CQUAD4 DYSHELLFORM = 10, Belytschko-Wong-Chiang Improvements
187
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 4, C0 Triangular Shell 190
Co-rotational Coordinates 190
Velocity-Strain Relations 191
Stress Resultants and Nodal Forces 194
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 3, Marchertas-Belytschko Triangular Shell
(BCIZ) 196
Element Coordinates 196
Displacement Interpolation 198
Strain-Displacement Relations 200
Nodal Force Calculations 201
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell 203
Geometry 203
Kinematics 206
Fiber Coordinate System 207
Lamina Coordinate System 208
Strains and Stress Update 210
CQUAD4, DYSHELLFORM = 6, 7, Fully Integrated Hughes-Liu Shells
213
Element Mass Matrix 216
Accounting for Thickness Changes 217
Transverse Shear Treatment for Layered Shell 217
CROD, Truss Element 222
CQUAD4 - DYSHELLFORM = 9, Membrane Element 223
Co-rotational Coordinates 223
Velocity-Strain Displacement Relations 223
Stress Resultants and Nodal Forces 224
Membrane Hourglass Control 224
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide 8
CELAS1D, Discrete Elements and CONM2, Masses 225
Orientation Vectors 226
Dynamic Magnification “Strain Rate” Effects 228
Deflection Limits in Tension and Compression 229
CDAMP2D, Linear Elastic or Linear Viscous 230
Eulerian Elements 231
Element Definition 231
Solid Elements 231
Graded Meshes 232
Requirements for Gluing Meshes 232
Gluing Meshes 233
Using Graded Meshes 234
Visualization with MD Patran 234
7 Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700 238
Material Model 1: Elastic 245
Material Model 2: Orthotropic Elastic 245
Material Model 3: Elastic Plastic with Kinematic Hardening 247
Material Model 5: Soil and Crushable Foam 251
Material Model 6: Viscoelastic 252
Material Model 7: Continuum Rubber 253
Material Model 9: Null Material 253
Material Model 10: Elastic-Plastic-Hydrodynamic 253
Material Model 12: Isotropic Elastic-Plastic 256
Material Model 13: Isotropic Elastic-Plastic with Failure 257
Material Model 14: Soil and Crushable Foam With Failure 257
Material Model 15: Johnson and Cook Plasticity Model 258
Material Model 16: Pseudo Tensor 259
Material Model 18: Power Law Isotropic Plasticity 263
Material Model 19: Elastic Plastic Material Model with Strain Rate Dependent
Yield 264
Material Model 20: Rigid 265
Material Model 22: Chang-Chang Composite Failure Model 265
Material Model 24: Piecewise Linear Isotropic Plasticity 267
Material Model 26: Crushable Foam 268
Material Model 27: Incompressible Mooney-Rivlin Rubber 272
Material Model 28: Resultant Plasticity 273
Material Model 29: FORCE LIMITED Resultant Formulation 274
Material Model 30: Shape Memory Alloy 281
Main Index
9 Contents
Material Model 31: Slightly Compressible Rubber Model 285
Material Model 32: Laminated Glass Model 286
Material Model 34: Fabric 286
Material Model 36: Barlat’s 3-Parameter Plasticity Model 287
Material Model 37: Transversely Anisotropic Elastic-Plastic 289
Material Model 38: Blatz-Ko Compressible Foam 291
Material Model 39: Transversely Anisotropic Elastic-Plastic With FLD 291
Material Model 53: Low Density Closed Cell Polyurethane Foam 292
Material Models 54 and 55: Enhanced Composite Damage Model 293
Material Model 57: Low Density Urethane Foam 295
Material Model 58: Laminated Composite Fabric 297
Material Model 62: Viscous Foam 299
Material Model 63: Crushable Foam 300
Material Model 64: Strain Rate Sensitive Power-Law Plasticity 301
Material Model 65: Modified Zerilli/Armstrong 301
Material Model 67: Nonlinear Stiffness/Viscous 3-D Discrete Beam 302
Material Model 68: Nonlinear Plastic/Linear Viscous 3-D Discrete Beam 303
Material Model 69: Side Impact Dummy Damper (SID Damper) 304
Material Model 70: Hydraulic/Gas Damper 306
Material Model 71: Cable 306
Material Model 73: Low Density Viscoelastic Foam 307
Material Model 74: Elastic Spring for the Discrete Beam 307
Material Model 76: General Viscoelastic 308
Material Model 77: Hyperviscoelastic Rubber 309
Material Model 78: Soil/Concrete 311
Material Model 79: Hysteretic Soil 313
Material Model 80: Ramberg-Osgood Plasticity 313
Material Model 81 and 82: Plasticity with Damage and Orthotropic Option 314
Material Model 83: Fu-Chang’s Foam With Rate Effects 317
Material Model 87: Cellular Rubber 319
Material Model 89: Plasticity Polymer 321
Material Model 94: Inelastic Spring Discrete Beam 321
Material Model 97: General Joint Discrete Beam 321
Material Model 98: Simplified Johnson Cook 322
Material Model 100: Spot Weld 322
Material Model 116: Composite Layup 324
Material Model 119: General Nonlinear Six Degrees of Freedom Discrete
Beam 325
Material Model 124: Tension-Compression Plasticity 326
Material Model 126: Modified Honeycomb 326
Material Model 127: Arruda-Boyce Hyperviscoelastic Rubber 329
Material Model 130: Special Orthotropic 330
Material Model 147: FHWA Soil Model 330
Material Model 158: Rate Sensitive Composite Fabric 337
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide 10
Material Model 163: Modified Crushable Foam 338
Material Model 170: Resultant Anisotropic 339
Material Model 181: Simplified Rubber Foam 340
Material Model 196: General Spring Discrete Beam 342
Grunseisen Equation of State (EOSGRUN) 343
Tabulated Compaction Equation of State (EOSTABC) 344
Tabulated Equation of State (EOSTAB) 344
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700 345
Shear Models 345
Yield Models 346
Equations of State 356
Material Failure 359
Spallation Models 360
Material Viscosity 361
8 Contact Impact Algorithm
Overview 364
Notes on Rigid Body Modeling in SOL 700: 364
SOL 600 Contact Limitations that do not apply to SOL 700 365
Penalty Methods 365
Preliminaries 365
Slave Search 366
Contact Force Calculation 370
Improvements to the Contact Searching 371
Bucket Sorting 373
Bucket Sorting in Single Surface Contact 374
Accounting For the Shell Thickness 376
Initial Contact Penetrations 377
Contact Energy Calculation 378
Friction 378
Main Index
11 Contents
9 Fluid Structure Interaction
General Coupling 382
Fluid-structure Interaction 382
Closed Volume 383
Porosity 384
Multiple Coupling Surfaces with Multiple Euler Domains 388
Coupling Surface with Failure 388
Coupling Surfaces with Porous Holes 388
Flow Between Domains 389
Deactivation 389
Output 390
Fluid- and Gas Solver for the Euler Equations 391
Modeling Fluid Filled Containers 392
Hotfilling 393
10 Eulerian Solvers
The Standard Euler Solver 396
Fluid-structure Interaction 397
The Numerical Scheme 398
The Time Step Criterion 400
Euler with Strength 401
The Multi-material Solver 402
Approximate Riemann Euler Solver 406
Euler Equations of Motion 406
Numerical Approach 407
Entropy Fix for the Flux Difference Riemann Scheme 410
Second Order Accuracy of the Scheme 410
Time Integration 411
11 Airbags and Occupant Safety
Introduction 414
Airbag Definition 415
Inflator Models in Airbags 417
Constant Volume Tank Tests 420
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide 12
Porosity in Airbags 420
Initial Metric Method for Airbags 423
Heat Transfer in Airbags 424
Seatbelts 425
Seatbelt Pretensioner 426
Seatbelt Retractor 428
Seatbelt Sensor 431
Seatbelt Slipring 431
Occupant Dummy Models 433
Pre- and Postprocessing 434
12 System Information and Parallel Processing
Introduction 436
General Information 436
Release Platforms 436
MPI for MD Nastran SOL 700 437
Hardware and Software Requirements 438
Compatibility 438
Definition 439
User Notes 439
Specification of the Host file for Windows 439
Specification of the Host file for UNIX and LINUX 439
How to Run MD Nastran SOL 700 in Parallel 440
How to Run Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) in Parallel 441
Additional information of Different Platforms 441
Windows XP and 2000 444
Extra MPIch information 445
13 Examples
Crash 448
Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash 448
Train-barrier Impact 457
Airbags and Occupant Safety 464
Simulation of Multi-compartment Airbag 464
Airbag with Dummy 470
Main Index
13 Contents
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO) 479
Bird Strike Simulation on Composite Glass Panel 479
Bird Strike on Rotating Fan Blades with Prestress 486
Multiple Bird-strikes on a Box Structure 499
Chained Analysis - Fan Blade Out to Rotor Dynamics 510
Drop Test 530
Drop Test Simulation of a Computer Package 530
Wheel Drop Test 538
Defense 544
Rod Penetration 544
Shaped Charge, using IG Model, Penetrating through Two Thick Plates 550
Mine Blast 558
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker 568
Time Domain NVH 575
Chassis 575
Prestress 584
Simulation of Prestress and Impact on Rotating Fan Blades 584
Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) 596
Ball Penetration using SPH Method 596
Sheet Metal Forming 602
Square Cup Deep Drawing using Forming Limit Diagram 602
PART 2. Square Cup Deep Drawing using Implicit Spring Back 611
Miscellaneous 616
Paper Feed 616
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide 14
Main Index
Chapter 1 Introduction
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
1
Introduction

MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) 16

Implicit and Explicit Methods 17

Principles of the Eulerian and Lagrangian Processors 24

Feature List 26

How SOL 700 Solves Explicit Problems 27

This User’s Guide 28
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700)
16
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700)
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) offers a powerful explicit solution to simulate complex Fluid
Structure Interaction (FSI) problems and analyze dynamic events of short duration with severe geometric
and material nonlinearities.
MD Nastran SOL 700 allows users to work within one common modeling environment using the same
Bulk Data interface. The Nastran models can be used for explicit applications such as crash, crush, and
drop test simulations. This dramatically reduces the time spent to build different models for implicit and
explicit analysis and prevents you from making mistakes because of unfamiliarity between different
programs.
Defining the Model
A finite element model consists of a geometric description given by the elements, their nodes, and a set
of properties associated with the elements describing their attributes. These properties include material
definitions, cross-section definitions in the case of structural elements like beams and shells, and other
parameters for contact bodies, springs, dashpots, etc. There may also be constraints that must be included
in the model - RBE elements, multi-point constraints, or equations (linear or nonlinear equations
involving several of the fundamental solution variables in the model), or simple boundary conditions that
are to be imposed throughout the analysis. Nonzero initial conditions, such as initial displacements and
velocities, may also be specified.
The model is described and communicated to MD Nastran in the form of a text file (MD Nastran Input
file). You can generate this file using a variety of preprocessor programs such as MD Patran or any text
editor. It must adhere to MD Nastran conventions for the ordering and format of the model information.
User Interface
The user interface is the familiar MD Nastran card image interface comprised of executive control, case
control, and bulk data cards. In most cases, they are identical to input formats defined for the MD Nastran
Implicit Nonlinear module SOL 600 (and other solution sequences). The main differences involve the
use of the SOL 700 materials and rigid joints (cylindrical, spherical, and revolute.) for various
MD Nastran solution sequences. These materials and rigid joints may only be accessed using the
SOL 700,129 executive control card. Additionally, in some specialized cases, some familiar MD Nastran
cards may need small modifications and others might need to be added to specify items for defining new
concepts such as moving coordinates.
Using GUIs with SOL 700
The amount of information that needs to be conveyed in the MD Nastran Input file is extensive for even a
modest size model. The amount of information and the complexity of most models makes it virtually
impossible to generate the MD Nastran Input file with a text editor alone. Typically, you benefit from
using a preprocessor such as SimXpert or MD Patran. Both SimXpert and MD Patran provides a
graphical user interface, an extensive line of model building tools that you can use to construct and view
your model, and generate a MD Nastran Input file.
Main Index
17 Chapter 1 Introduction
Implicit and Explicit Methods
If you are using MD Patran as a preprocessor, you are required to specify an analysis code. Selecting MD
Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) as the analysis code under the Analysis Preference menu,
customizes MD Patran in five main areas:
• Material Library
• Element Library
• Loads and Boundary Conditions
• MPCs
• Analysis forms
The analysis preference also specifies that the model information be output in the MD Nastran Input
File format.
If you are using SimXpert, your workspace (WS) has to be changed to “Explicit WS” to work in the
MD Nastran SOL 700 environment
Chapter 3: Modeling includes examples of forms and templates of the MD Patran Preference for
SOL 700. Detailed examples for using SimXpert for SOL 700 can be found in the MD User Guide.
Implicit and Explicit Methods
A detailed theory of explicit analysis is outside the scope of this section. However, it is important to
understand the basics of the solution technique, since it is critical to many aspects of using MD Nastran,
SOL 700. If you are already familiar with explicit methods and how they differ from implicit methods,
then you may disregard this section.
Implicit Methods
Many finite element programs use implicit methods to carry out a transient solution. Normally, they use
Newmark schemes to integrate in time. If the current time step is step , a good estimate of the
acceleration at the end of step will satisfy the following equation of motion:
where
= mass matrix of the structure
= damping matrix of the structure
= stiffness matrix of the structure
= vector of externally applied loads at step
= estimate of acceleration at step
n
n 1 +
Ma'
n 1 +
Cv'
n 1 +
Kd'
n 1 +
+ + F
n 1 +
ext
=
M
C
K
F
n 1 +
ext
n 1 +
a'
n 1 +
n 1 +
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Implicit and Explicit Methods
18
and the prime denotes an estimated value.
The estimates of displacement and velocity are given by:
or
where is the time step and and are constants.
The terms and are predictive and are based on values already calculated.
Substituting these values in the equation of motion results in
or
The equation of motion may then be defined as
The accelerations are obtained by inverting the matrix as follows:
This is analogous to decomposing the stiffness matrix in a linear static analysis. However, the dynamics
mean that mass and damping terms are also present.
Explicit Methods
The equation of motion
= estimate of velocity at step
= estimate of displacement at step
v'
n 1 +
n 1 +
d'
n 1 +
n 1 +
d'
n 1 +
d
n
v
n
At 1 2| – ( )a
n
At
2
( ) 2 |a'
n 1 +
+ At
2
+ + =
v'
n 1 +
v
n
1 ¸ – ( )a
n
At ¸a'
n 1 +
At + + =
d'
n 1 +
d
n
*
|a'
n 1 +
At
2
+ =
v'
n 1 +
v
n
*
¸a'
n 1 +
At + =
At | ¸
d
n
*
v
n
*
Ma'
n 1 +
C v*
n
¸a'
n 1 +
At + ( ) K d*
n
|a'
n 1 +
At
2
+ ( ) + + F
n 1 +
ext
=
M C¸At K|At
2
+ + | |a'
n 1 +
F
n 1 +
ext
Cv
n
*
– Kd
n
*
– =
M*a'
n 1 +
F
n 1 +
resi dual
=
M*
a'
n 1 +
M*
1 –
F
n 1 +
resi dual
=
Ma
n
Cv
n
Kd
n
+ + F
n
ext
=
Main Index
19 Chapter 1 Introduction
Implicit and Explicit Methods
can be rewritten as
where
The acceleration can be found by inverting the mass matrix and multiplying it by the residual load vector.
In SOL 700, like any explicit finite element code, the mass matrix is lumped which results in a diagonal
mass matrix.
Since is diagonal, its inversion is trivial, and the matrix equation is a set of independent equations for
each degree of freedom, as follows:
The Leap-frog scheme is used to advance in time.
The position, Forces, and accelerations are defined at time level , while the velocities are defined at time
level . Graphically, this can be depicted as:
The Leap-frog scheme results in a central difference approximation for the acceleration, and is second-
order accurate in .
Explicit methods with a lumped mass matrix do not require matrix decompositions or matrix solutions.
Instead, the loop is carried out for each time step as shown in the following diagram:
= vector of externally applied loads
= vector of internal loads (e.g., forces generated by the elements and hourglass forces)
=
= mass matrix
Ma
n
F
n
ext
F
n
i nt
– =
a
n
M
1 –
F
n
resi dual
=
F
n
ext
F
n
i nt
F
i nt
Cv
n
Kd
n
+
M
M
a
ni
F
ni
resi dual
M
i
=
n
n 1 2 +
n 1 – n 1 2 – n n 1 2 + n 1 +
time
d F a . . d F a . . d F a . . v v
v
n 1 2 +
v
n 1 2 –
a
n
At
n 1 2 +
At
n 1 2 –
+ ( ) 2 + =
d
n 1 +
d
n
v
n 1 2 +
At
n 1 2 +
+ =
At
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Implicit and Explicit Methods
20
Explicit Time Step
Implicit methods can be made unconditionally stable regardless of the size of the time step. However, for
explicit codes to remain stable, the time step must subdivide the shortest natural period in the mesh. This
means that the time step must be less than the time taken for a stress wave to cross the smallest element
in the mesh. Typically, explicit time steps are 100 to 1000 times smaller than those used with implicit
codes. However, since each iteration does not involve the costly formulation and decomposition of
matrices, explicit techniques are very competitive with implicit methods.
Because the smallest element in an explicit solution determines the time step, it is extremely important
to avoid very small elements in the mesh.
Courant Criterion
Since it is impossible to do a complete eigenvalue analysis every cycle to calculate the timestep, an
approximate method, known as the Courant Criterion, is used. This is based on the minimum time which
is required for a stress wave to cross each element:
where
= Timestep
= Timestep scale factor (<1)
Grid-Point Accelerations
Grid-Point Velocities Grid-Point Displacements
Element Stain Rates
Element Stresses
Element Forces at Grid-Points
+ External Forces at Grid Points
Leap-frog Integration in Time
Element Formulation and Gradient Operator
Constitutive Model and Integration
CONTACT, Fluid-Structure Interaction, Force/Pressure boundaries
Element Formulation and Divergence Operator
t A SL/ c =
At
S
Main Index
21 Chapter 1 Introduction
Implicit and Explicit Methods
For 1-D elements, the speed of sound is defined as:
where,
When to use Explicit Analysis
The time step for implicit solutions can be much larger than is possible for explicit solutions. This makes
implicit methods more attractive for transient events that occur over a long time period and are dominated
by low frequency structural dynamics. Explicit solutions are better for short, transient events where the
effects of stress waves are important. There is, of course, an area where either method is equally
advantageous and may be used.
Explicit solutions have a greater advantage over implicit solutions if the time step of the implicit solution
has to be small for some reason. This may be necessary for problems that include:
• Material nonlinearity. A high degree of material nonlinearity may require a small time step
for accuracy.
• Large geometric nonlinearity. Contact and friction algorithms can introduce potential
instabilities, and a small time step may be needed for accuracy and stability.
• Those analyses where the physics of the problem demands a small time step (e.g. stress wave
effects as in crash, crush, and impact analyses).
• Material and geometric nonlinearity in combination with large displacements. Convergence
in implicit methods becomes more difficult to achieve as the amount of nonlinearity for all
types increases.
Explicit methods have increasing advantages over implicit methods as the model gets bigger. For models
containing several hundred thousands of elements and including significant nonlinearity, SOL 700 may
provide the most cost-effective solution even for problems dominated by low-frequency structural
dynamics (see Figure 1-1).
= Smallest element dimension
= Speed of sound in the element material
= Young’s modulus
= density
L
c
c E p =
E
p
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Implicit and Explicit Methods
22
Figure 1-1 Efficiency and Cost
Another case where explicit solutions may have advantages is in extremely large linear or nonlinear
problems where implicit solvers may be limited to the number or parallel domains. There is no limit to
the number of SOL 700 explicit parallel domains. Therefore, if you have more than 256 or so processors
available, the explicit analysis may be faster even for linear static analyses.
SOL 700 should normally be used for structural components that may undergo large, sudden
deformation, and for which the dimensions, deformed geometry, and residual stress state are of major
importance. Table 1-1 summarizes the areas of overlap as well as the differences between the implicit
and explicit analyses.
Table 1-1 Implicit and Explicit Technology Comparison
Material Nonlinearity Implicit Explicit
Linear isotropic elastic (metals)
Nonlinear isotropic elastic (rubber materials)
Linear orthotropic elastic (composites)
Elastic-perfectly plastic (limit analysis)
Elastoplastic, strain hardening (metals)
Viscoelastic (polymers)
Cost
(CPU Time)
Implicit
Explicit
Problem Size
Cost
(# of Matrix)
Implicit
Explicit
Number/Extent of
Nonlinearities
Main Index
23 Chapter 1 Introduction
Implicit and Explicit Methods
Restricted orthotropic (metal-forming)
Damage accumulation and failure
Tearing and failure
Explosive detonation
Deformation Nonlinearity Implicit Explicit
Infinitesimal strains and rotations
Infinitesimal strains and finite rotations
Finite strains and rotations
Large strains (100% plus) and large rotations
(Multi) Material flow
Contact Nonlinearity Implicit Explicit
Small displacement gaps
Gaps with friction
Large displacement gaps
Contact surfaces
Single surface contact
Fluid-structure interaction
Motion
Implicit Explicit
Static (infinite)
Quasi-static (noninertial)
Vibration, fundamental modes
Shock and vibration
Stress wave propagation
Shock wave propagation
High Frequency Dynamics
Detonation waves
Table 1-1 Implicit and Explicit Technology Comparison (continued)
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Principles of the Eulerian and Lagrangian Processors
24
Typical Applications
Some of the typical structural applications which are well suited for the SOL 700 explicit analysis are:
• Automotive and Aircraft crash worthiness
• Crash/Crush simulations
• Drop testing
• Ship Collision
• Projectile penetration
• Bird Strike Simulation with structural Bird
• Metal forming, stamping, and deep drawing
• Jet engine blade containment
• Golf Club simulation
• Rollover events
Principles of the Eulerian and Lagrangian Processors
MD Nastran Nonlinear Explicit (SOL 700) features two solving techniques, Lagrangian and Eulerian.
The code can use either one or both and can couple the two types to produce interaction.
The Lagrangian method is the most common finite element solution technique for
engineering applications.
When the Lagrangian solver is used, grid points are defined that are fixed to locations on the body being
analyzed. Elements of material are created by connecting the grid points together and the collection of
elements produces a mesh. As the body deforms, the grid points move with the material and the elements
distort. The Lagrangian solver is, therefore, calculating the motion of elements of constant mass.
Main Index
25 Chapter 1 Introduction
Principles of the Eulerian and Lagrangian Processors
The Eulerian solver is most frequently used for analyses of fluids or materials that undergo very
large deformations.
In the Eulerian solver, the grid points are fixed in space and the elements are simply partitions of the space
defined by connected grid points. The Eulerian mesh is a “fixed frame of reference.” The material of a
body under analysis moves through the Eulerian mesh; the mass, momentum, and energy of the material
are transported from element to element. The Eulerian solver therefore calculates the motion of material
through elements of constant volume.
It is important to note that the Eulerian mesh is defined in exactly the same manner as a Lagrangian mesh.
General connectivity is used so the Eulerian mesh can be of an arbitrary shape and have an arbitrary
numbering system. This offers considerably more flexibility than the logical rectangular meshes used in
other Eulerian codes.
However, you should remember that the use of an Eulerian mesh is different from that of the Lagrangian
type. The most important aspect of modeling with the Eulerian technique is that the mesh must be large
enough to contain the material after deformation. A basic Eulerian mesh acts like a container and, unless
specifically defined, the material cannot leave the mesh. Stress wave reflections and pressure buildup can
develop from an Eulerian mesh that is too small for the analysis.
Eulerian and Lagrangian meshes can be used in the same calculation and can be coupled using a coupling
surface. The surface acts as a boundary to the flow of material in the Eulerian mesh, while the stresses in
the Eulerian material exerts forces on the surface causing the Lagrangian mesh to distort.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Feature List
26
Feature List
The complete features of MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) Phase I are:
1. MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) solves nonlinear (material, contact and/or geometric)
static and transient dynamic structural finite element problems.
2. MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) supports the following elements/bodies:
• 3-noded triangular shell/membrane/plane stress/(generalized) plain strain elements.
• 4-noded quadrilateral shell/membrane/plane stress/(generalized) plain strain elements.
• 4-noded solid tetrahedral elements.
• 6-noded solid wedge elements.
• 8-noded solid hexahedral elements.
• 2-noded beam element.
• 2-noded bar element.
• spring elements.
• damper elements.
• Rigid and deformable contact bodies.
• Point Mass element.
• RBE elements and multi-point constraint equations are supported to tie specific nodes or
degrees-of-freedom to each other. Special MPC entities are supported, (e.g. rigid links) which
can be used to tie two nodes together or equate the motion of two degrees of freedoms.
3. MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) supports the following loads and boundary conditions:
• Constrained nodal displacements (zero displacements at specified degrees of freedom).
• Enforced nodal velocities (nonzero velocities at specified degrees of freedom)
• Forces applied to nodes
• Pressures applied to element faces
• Inertial body forces. Linear acceleration and rotational velocity can be applied
• Contact between two bodies can be defined by selecting the contacting bodies and defining
the contact interaction properties.
4. MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) supports isotropic, orthotropic, and anisotropic
material properties. Nonlinear elastic-plastic materials can be defined by specifying piecewise
linear stress-strain curves, material failure can be specified.
5. Physical properties can be associated with MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) elements
such as the cross-sectional properties of the beam element, the area of the beam and rod elements,
the thickness of shell, plane stress, and membrane elements, spring parameters, and masses.
6. Laminated composite shell elements are supported in MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700)
through the PCOMP card of the materials capability. Each layer has its own material, thickness,
and orientation and may represent linear or nonlinear material behavior. Failure index
calculations are also supported.
7. Analysis jobs consisting of complex loading time histories are available. All loading must be
applied in a single subcase. The applicable subcase for a particular analysis may be chosen from
many subcases if so desired.
Main Index
27 Chapter 1 Introduction
How SOL 700 Solves Explicit Problems
8. MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) jobs are submitted using text-based input decks that
may be generated manually with a text editor, or by a variety of pre/post processing programs such
as MD Patran. The input file is read in and a number of output files, such as the .f06, .log, f04,
.dytr.dat, .dytr.d3hsp, .dytr.d3plot files are generated.
9. Results can be requested in several output formats such as .dytr.d3plot,
.dytr.d3thdt, .f06 files. These files are typically read back into the pre/postprocessing
programs for the purpose of evaluating the results with plots such as deformed shape plots,
contour stress/strain plots, or X-Y history plots. MD Nastran native output files such
as .xdb, .op2, and punch will be supported in the MD Nastran 2006r2 release.
10. Nodal displacements, velocities and accelerations, element stresses, element strains, element
plastic strains, nodal reaction forces, contact interface force values, and element strain energy
are output when applicable. These may be visualized with results visualization tools such as MD
Patran. Composite element results are returned for individual layers of the composite,
as requested.
11. Crash, impact is supported by the Phase I release. Dynamic loading described by time histories as
well as static loading is also supported.
How SOL 700 Solves Explicit Problems
SOL 700,ID solution resembles SOL 600,ID and uses the standard MD Nastran DMAP for solution ID.
It is written so that there is not an effect on other solution sequences. The primary features are as follows:
1. Read MD Nastran Input File in IFP (input file processor) as in other MD Nastran
solution sequences and translate executive control, case control, and bulk data to SOL 700
input formats.
2. Read SOL 700 input formats into explicit solver.
3. Run the model.
4. Write MD Nastran output result files.
Input and Output
Once the solver is finished, the native output files are written out. You can request the type of outputs
desired on the OUTR portion of the SOL 700 executive control card and by various parameters. If the
OUTR options are omitted, standard outputs are available unless a request is made to delete the files.
Currently, MD Nastran native output files, .xdb, op2, and punch are not supported. Instead d3plot,
d3thdt, and d3hsp are generated. They consist of displacements, velocities, accelerations, stress tensors,
strain tensors and plastic strain. The geometry blocks are generated as usual using PARAM,POST,-1 or
PARAM,POST,0. In addition, .ARC files are added for FSI results.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
This User’s Guide
28
The example below shows the files that are generated in the working directory:
This User’s Guide
This manual provides a complete background to SOL 700 and fully describes using SOL 700 within the
MD Nastran environment. The theoretical aspects of explicit analysis methods, types, and techniques are
included as well as descriptions for explicit material models.
Additional Documentation for SOL 700
MD Nastran Reference Manual - provides supporting information that relates to MD Nastran input
formats, element libraries, and loads and boundary conditions.
MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide (QRG) - contains a complete description of all the input entries for
MD Nastran. Within each section, entries are organized alphabetically so they are easy to find. Each entry
provides a description, formats, examples, details on options, and general remarks. Within the QRG, you
will find the full descriptions for all of the SOL 700 input entries.
The MD Patran library includes three key books which will be of assistance in running SOL 700:
• MD Nastran Users Guide - provides examples and tutorials for SOL 400 and SOL 700. The
SOL 700 examples cover many explicit structural and FSI applications and a fewof these
examples include SimXpert tutorials.
Input file:
filename.bdf Input deck for MD Nastran
filename.dytr.dat
filename.dytr.str
Intermediate internal files generated for checking input errors
Output file:
filename.dytr.d3hsp Contains model summary, calculation process, CPU time, etc.
filename.dytr.out Contains time step summary and CPU timing information.
filename.dytr_prep.d3hsp
filename.dytr_prep.out
Contains translation summary of the preparation phase.
filename.f06 Nastran native output that contains summary of model.
Binary Result file:
filename.dytr.d3plot Contains complete model, used for plotting deformed shape
and stress contour.
filename.dytr.d3thdt Contains subset of the model, used for time history plots.
binout000 Contains additional time-history data.
filename.ARC Contains complete Fluid model and its results.

Main Index
29 Chapter 1 Introduction
This User’s Guide
• MD Patran User’s Guide - gives the essential information needed to immediately begin using
MD Patran for SOL 700 projects. Understanding and using the information in this guide requires
no prior experience with CAE or finite element analysis.
• MD Patran Reference Manual - gives complete descriptions of basic functions in MD Patran,
geometry modeling, finite element modeling, material models, element properties, loads and
boundary conditions, analysis, and results. It is the counterpart to the MD Nastran
Reference Manual.
• MD Nastran Preference Guide - gives specific information that relates to using MD Patran with
MD Nastran as the intended analysis code. All application forms and required input are tailored
to MD Nastran.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
This User’s Guide
30
Main Index
Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
2
MD Nastran Data Files

The MD Nastran Input Data File 32

Supported SOL 700 Entries 35

Preprocessing with MD Patran 52

Output Requests 53

Postprocessing with MD Patran 56

Preprocessing with SimXpert 56

Postprocessing with SimXpert 57
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
The MD Nastran Input Data File
32
The MD Nastran Input Data File
The MD Nastran Input File, usually given the extension .dat or .bdf, is made up of three
distinct sections:
1. Executive Control - describes the problem type and size.
2. Case Control - defines the load history.
3. Bulk Data - gives a detailed model description.
Input data is organized in (optional) blocks. Key words identify the data for each optional block. This
form of input enables you to specify only the data for the optional blocks that you need to define your
problem. The various blocks of input are “optional” in the sense that many have built-in default values
which are used in the absence of any explicit input from you.
A typical input file setup for the MD Nastran program is shown below.
• Executive Control Statements
Terminated by a CEND parameter
• Case Control Commands
Terminated by the BEGIN BULK option
• Bulk Data Entries
Model data starting with the BEGIN BULK option and terminated by the ENDDATA option
Bulk
Data
Case
Control
Executive Control
Element and
Material Properties
Fixed Displ,
Etc.
Load Incrementation,
Applied Loads,
Applied Displacements
Etc.
Title, Job Control,
Solution Sequence,
Etc.
M
D

N
a
s
t
r
a
n

E
x
p
l
i
c
i
t

N
o
n
l
i
n
e
a
r
C
o
m
p
l
e
t
e

I
n
p
u
t

D
e
c
k
C
o
n
t
r
o
l

I
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
M
o
d
e
l

D
a
t
a

-

g
r
i
d
s
,
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
,

e
t
c
.
Main Index
33 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
The MD Nastran Input Data File
Input Conventions
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear performs all data conversion internally so that the system does not abort
because of data errors made by you. The program reads all input data options alphanumerically and
converts them to integer, floating point, or keywords, as necessary. MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear issues
error messages and displays the illegal option image if it cannot interpret the option data field according
to the specifications given in the manual. When such errors occur, the program attempts to scan the
remainder of the data file and ends the run with a FATAL ERROR message. For SOL 700, certain entries
generate Warning or Severe Warning messages and, in some cases, the run is terminated immediately
after the message is written.
Two input format conventions can be used: fixed and free format. You can mix fixed and free format
options within a file.
The syntax rules for fixed fields are as follows:
• Give floating point numbers with or without an exponent. If you give an exponent, it must be
preceded by the character E or D and must be right-justified (no embedded blanks). If data is
double precision, a D must be used.
The syntax rules for free fields are as follows:
• Check that each option contains the same number of data items that it would contain under
standard fixed-format control. This syntax rule allows you to mix fixed-field and free-field
options in the data file because the number of options you need to input any data list are the same
in both cases.
• Separate data items on a option with a comma (,). The comma can be surrounded by any number
of blanks. Within the data item itself, no embedded blanks can appear.
• Give keywords exactly as they are written in the manual.
• Enter data as uppercase or lowercase text.
• Limit to 8 columns per field for small field format whether using fixed-field or free-field. Large
field is 16 columns; see the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide for more details.
Section Descriptions
Executive Control
This group of entries provides overall job control for the problem and sets up initial switches to control
the flow of the program through the desired analysis. This set of input must be terminated with a CEND
parameter. See “Executive Control Statements” in Chapter 3 of the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide
for additional descriptions on input formats.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
The MD Nastran Input Data File
34
Case Control
This group of options provides the loads and constraints. Case Control options also include blocks which
allow changes in the initial model specifications. Case Control options can also specify print-out and
postprocessing options. See “Case Control Commands” in Chapter 4 of the MD Nastran Quick Reference
Guide for additional descriptions on input formats.
Bulk Data Entries
This set of data options enters the loading, geometry, and material data of the model and provides nodal
point data, such as boundary conditions. This group of options must be terminated with the ENDDATA
option. See “Bulk Data Entries” in Chapter 8 of the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide for additional
descriptions on input formats. Multiple BEGIN entries and superelements are not allowed.
Running Existing Models with SOL 700
MD Nastran SOL 700 supports the following solution sequence:
• SOL 129 - Nonlinear Transient Dynamic Analysis
Some users may have existing models that have been developed and analyzed using MD Nastran
Solution Sequences mentioned above. These models may be run through MD Nastran Explicit
Nonlinear (SOL 700) by changing the SOLUTION procedure input to MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear
(SOL 700) input.
The following is an example of the change required to run existing models through SOL 700. The first
line shows an existing MD Nastran SOL 129 Executive Control Statement and the second shows its
revision for MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700):
SOL 129
SOL 700,129
By changing the Solution Sequence, there is no guarantee that the job will run. A successful run depends
on the nature of the problem and the extent that the input entries are supported for a SOL 700 analysis.
SOL 700 supports only the input entries that are relevant for an explicit simulation (see Section 2 for
supported entries for details). All other entries that are unique to a certain Solution Sequence, are ignored
and warning messages will be printed out in the output files as the user information. You are advised to
check your models for accuracy and completeness before starting the simulation. In many occasions, it
is wise to check the model in the preprocessor for “poor modeling” to flag out the skewed or small
elements. The CPU time in the explicit analysis is directly controlled by the smallest element dimensions
in the model. Small or poor elements may not abort a dynamic analysis but they certainly cause an
explicit simulation to run infinitely longer.
It is recommended that proper material models with well-defined properties are prescribed in the model
to accurately predict the material behavior as the model undergoes severe deformations and failure. For
example, defining a suitable material failure criteria for the model, ensures that the distorted elements
actually fail and are taken out of the calculation once they reach their failure limits. Otherwise, the
smallest length in the distorted elements causes the time step to fall infinitely low, resulting in the
premature termination of the job.
Main Index
35 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Supported SOL 700 Entries
Supported SOL 700 Entries
Supported Case Control Cards
1. The following summarizes the Case Control Commands for SOL 700:
(Only those which are supported or produce fatal errors are listed)
Item Available in SOL 700
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
$ Y Y Y
ACCELERATION Y Y Y
BCONTACT Y Y Y
BEGIN BULK Y (other BEGIN forms are not allowed) Y Y
DEFAULT Y
DISPLACEMENT Y Y Y
DLOAD Y Y Y
ECHO Y Y
ELFORCE (see FORCE) Y
ENDTIME Y (new)
FORCE & ELFORCE Y (automatically produced in d3plot files; no
user control)
GROUNDCHECK Y (Nastran f06 only)
IC Y Y Y
INCLUDE Y Y Y
LABEL Y (Nastran f06 only)
LINE Y (Nastran f06 only)
LOAD Y (for dynamic pseudo-statics only)
LOADSET Y Y Y
MAXLINES Y (Nastran f06 only) Y Y
MPC Y Y
NLPARM Y (pseudo static analysis only)
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Supported SOL 700 Entries
36
NLSTRESS Y (changed to STRESS)
PAGE Y (Nastran only)
PARAM Y (only applicable parms are used) Y Y
PRESSURE
SET Y Y Y
SET – OUTPUT(PLOT) N
SKIP Y (required if multiple subcases are present)
SPC Y Y Y
STRAIN Y Y Y
STRESS Y Y Y
SUBCASE Y
Note: Only one subcase can be selected for a particular
SOL 700 analysis. Many subcases may be
entered in the input deck, but the one to be used
must be selected using the SKIP ON and SKIP
OFF Case Control commands. If the SKIP
ON/OFF commands are not found or are in the
wrong place, the first subcase encountered is
used and the others are ignored.
Y Y
SUBTITLE Y Y Y
SURFACE Y
TITLE Y Y Y
TSTEP Y (same as TSTEPNL) Y Y
TSTEPNL Y Y Y
VELOCITY Y Y Y
WEIGHTCHECK Y (Nastran only)
Item Available in SOL 700
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
37 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Supported SOL 700 Entries
Supported Bulk Data Entries
The following bulk data entries are the most significant common entries used in SOL 700 and
MD Nastran. They do not reflect the complete bulk data entries that exist in MD Nastran.
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
ABINFL Y Y
ACCMETR Y Y
AIRBAG Y Y Y
AXIC N Y
AXIF N Y
AXSLOT N Y
BARRIER Y Y Y
BAROR Y Y N
BCBODY Y Y Y
BCBOX Y Y Y
BCGRID Y Y Y
BCHANGE N Y
BCMATL Y Y N
BCONP N
BCPROP Y Y Y
BCPROP1 Y
BCSEG Y Y Y
BCTABLE Y (revised) Y Y
BEAMOR Y Y N
BIAS Y (new) Y
BJOIN Y Y
BLDOUT Y (new)
BLSEG N Y
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Supported SOL 700 Entries
38
BSURF Y Y Y
CBAR Y Y Y
CBEAM Y Y Y
CBELT Y Y Y
CBEND N Y
CBUSH N Y
CBUTT Y Y N
CCONEAX N Y
CCRSFIL Y Y N
CDAMP1 Y Y Y
CDAMP2 Y Y N
CDAMP1D Y Y Y
CDAMP2D Y Y N
CELAS1 Y Y Y
CELAS2 Y Y Y
CELAS1D Y Y Y
CELAS2D Y Y Y
CFILLET Y Y N
CFLUID N Y
CGAP N Y
CHACAB N Y
CHACBR N Y
CHEXA Y (8 nodes only) Y Y
CMARKB2 Y
CMARKN1 Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
39 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Supported SOL 700 Entries
COMBWLD Y Y N
CONM2 Y Y Y
CONROD Y Y Y
CONSPOT Y
CORD1C Y Y
CORD1R Y Y
CORD1RX Y
CORD1S Y Y
CORD2C Y Y
CORD2R Y Y
CORD2RX Y Y
CORD2S Y Y
CORD3G N Y
CORD3R Y Y N
CORD3RX Y Y
COUOPT Y Y Y
COUP1FL Y Y
COUPINT Y Y
COUPLE Y Y Y
CPENTA Y (6 nodes only) Y Y
CQUAD4 Y Y Y
CQUAD8 Y (4 nodes only) Y Y
CQUADR Y Y Y
CQUADX N Y
CREEP N Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Supported SOL 700 Entries
40
CROSSSEC Y (new)
CROD Y Y
CSHEAR Y
CSPH Y Y Y
CSPOT Y Y Y
CSPR Y Y Y
CTETRA Y (4 or 10 nodes only) Y
CTQUAD Y Y
CTRIA3 Y Y Y
CTRIA6 Y (3 nodes only) Y Y
CTRIAR Y Y Y
CTRIAX N Y
CTRIAX6 N Y
CTTRIA Y Y
CTUBE Y Y Y
CVISC Y Y Y
CWELD N Y
CYLINDR Y Y
D2R0000 Y Y Y
D2RAUTO Y Y Y
D2RINER Y Y Y
DAMPGBL Y Y Y
DAMPMAS Y Y Y
DAMPSTF Y Y Y
DAREA Y Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
41 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Supported SOL 700 Entries
DBEXSSS Y
DBREG Y Y
DELAY Y Y
DETSPH Y Y
DLOAD Y Y Y
DYCHANG Y
DYDELEM Y Y
DYFSISWS Y (new)
DYPARAM Y Y
DYRELAX Y Y
DYRIGSW Y Y
DYTERMT Y Y
DYTIMHS Y Y N
ENDDATA Y Y Y
ENDDYNA Y
EOSGAM Y Y Y
EOSGRUN Y Y Y
EOSIG Y Y Y
EOSJWL Y Y Y
EOSMG Y Y
EOSPOL Y Y Y
EOSTAB Y Y Y
EOSTABC Y Y Y
EOSTAIT Y Y Y
EULFOR Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Supported SOL 700 Entries
42
FAILMPS Y Y
FAILJC Y Y Y
FFCONTR Y
FLOW Y Y Y
FLOWDEF Y Y Y
FLOWSPH Y
FLOWT Y Y
FORCE Y Y Y
FORCE1 N Y
FORCE2 Y N
FORCEAX N Y
GBAG Y Y Y
GBAGCOU Y Y
GENEL N Y
GRAV Y Y
GRDSET Y Y N
GRIA Y Y Y
GRID Y Y Y
HEATLOS Y Y
HGSUPPR Y Y Y
HTRCONV Y Y
HTRRAD Y Y
HYDSTAT Y Y Y
INCLUDE Y Y N
INFLCG Y Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
43 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Supported SOL 700 Entries
INFLFRC Y Y
INFLGAS Y Y
INFLHB Y Y
INFLTNK Y Y
INFLTR Y Y
INITGAS Y Y
ISTRESS N Y
IPSTRN N Y
ISTRNSH Y (new)
ISTRNO Y (new)
ISTRSBE Y Y Y
ISTRSSH Y Y Y
ISTRSSO Y Y Y
ISTRSTS Y Y Y
ISTRSSS Y
LEAKAGE Y Y Y
LOAD Y Y Y
LSEQ Y Y Y
MAT1 Y Y Y
MAT2 Y Y Y
MAT3 Y Y Y
MAT8 Y Y Y
MATDxxx Y (see Supported Material Models in
SOL 700 in this chapter)
Y Y
MATDERO Y Y Y
MATDEUL Y Y Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Supported SOL 700 Entries
44
MATDMG (new)
MATEP N Y
MATF Y Y
MATG N Y
MATHE N Y
MATHED N Y
MATHP Y Y Y
MATM Y (new)
MATORT N Y
MATRIG Y Y
MATS1 Y Y Y
MATVE N Y
MATVORT N Y
MATVP N Y
MESH Y Y Y
MFLUID N Y
MOMAX N Y
MOMENT Y Y Y
MOMENT2 Y Y N
MPC Y Y Y
MPCAX N Y
NLPARM Y (for pseudo statics) Y Y
NLRGAP N Y
NOLINi N Y
NTHICK N Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
45 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Supported SOL 700 Entries
PANEL N Y
PBAR Y Y Y
PBARL Y Y Y
PBCOMP N Y Y
PBDISCR Y Y
PBEAM Y Y Y
PBEAM71 Y Y
PBEAMD Y Y
PBEAML Y Y
PBELTD Y Y
PBEND N Y
PBSPOT Y Y Y
PBUSH N Y
PCOMP Y Y Y
PCOMPA Y Y
PCOMPG N Y
PCOMPLS Y
PDAMP Y Y Y
PDAMP5 N Y
PELAS Y Y Y
PELAS1 Y Y
PELAST N Y
PERMEAB Y Y Y
PERMGBG Y Y
PEULER Y Y Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Supported SOL 700 Entries
46
PEULER1 Y Y Y
PGAP N Y
PHBDY N Y
PINTC N Y
PINTS N Y
PLOAD Y Y N
PLOAD1 N Y
PLOAD2 Y Y N
PLOAD4 Y Y Y
PLOADX1 N Y
PLPLANE N Y
PLSOLID Y Y
PMARKER Y Y
PMASS N Y
PMINC Y Y Y
PORFCPL Y Y Y
PORFGBG Y Y
PORFLOW Y Y Y
PORFLWT Y Y Y
PORHOLE Y Y Y
PORHYDS Y Y
PRESTRS Y Y Y
PRESPT N Y
PROD Y Y Y
PSHEAR Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
47 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Supported SOL 700 Entries
PSHELL Y Y Y
PSHELL1 Y Y Y
PSHELLD Y Y
PSOLID Y Y Y
PSOLIDD Y Y Y
PSPH Y Y Y
PSPRMAT Y Y
PTSHELL Y Y
PTUBE Y Y Y
PVISC Y Y Y
RBAR Y Y Y
RBE1 N Y
RBE2 Y Y Y
RBE2A Y
RBE2D Y
RBE2F Y
RBE3 Y Y Y
RBE3D Y Y
RBJOINT Y Y N
RBJSTIFF Y Y N
RCONN Y Y
RESTART Y
RFORCE Y (CID, METHOD, continuation line
not supported)
Y Y
RLOADi N Y
RROD N Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Supported SOL 700 Entries
48
RSPLINE N Y
RTRPLT N Y
SBPRET Y Y
SBRETR Y Y
SBSENSR Y Y
SBSLPR Y Y
SEQROUT Y
SHREL Y Y Y
SHRPOL Y Y
SLOAD N Y
SPC Y Y Y
SPC1 Y Y Y
SPCADD Y Y Y
SPCAX N Y
SPCD Y Y Y
SPCD2 Y Y Y
SPHDEF Y Y Y
SPHERE Y Y Y
SPHSYM Y Y
SPRBCK Y Y
SPWRS Y
SUPAX N Y
SURFINI Y Y Y
TABISTR Y (new)
TABLED1 Y Y Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
49 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Supported SOL 700 Entries
TABLED2 Y Y N
TABLED3 Y Y N
TABLEDR Y Y Y
TABLES1 Y Y Y
TEMP N Y
TEMPD N Y
TIC Y Y Y
TICD Y Y
TIC3 Y Y
TICEL Y Y Y
TICEUL1 Y Y Y
TICREG Y Y Y
TICVAL Y Y Y
TIMNAT Y Y
TIMNVH Y Y
TIMSML Y Y
TLRE1 Y
TLOAD1 Y Y Y
TLOAD2 Y Y N
TODYNA Y
TSTEP Y (changed to TSTEPNL) Y
TSTEPNL Y Y Y
WALL Y Y Y
YLDHY Y Y Y
YLDJC Y Y Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Supported SOL 700 Entries
50
Supported Material Models in SOL 700
In addition to the MD Nastran material models listed in the table above, the following material models
are supported in SOL 700:
MATD001, MATD2AN, MATD2OR, MATD20M, MATD003, MATD005, MATD006,
MATD007, MATD009, MATD010, MATD012, MATD013, MATD014, MATD015,
MATD016, MATD018, MATD019, MATD020, MATD022, MATD024, MATD025,
MATD026, MATD027, MATD028, MATD029, MATD030, MATD031, MATD032,
MATD034, MATD036, MATD037, MATD039, MATD040, MATD053, MATD054,
MATD055, MATD057, MATD058, MATD059, MATD062, MATD063, MATD064,
MATD066, MATD067, MATD068, MATD069, MATD070, MATD071, MATD072,
MATD72R, MATD073, MATD074, MATD076, MATD077, MATD77M, MATD77O,
MATD078, MATD080, MATD081, MATD083, MATD087, MATD089, MATD093,
MATD094, MATD095, MATD097, MATD098, MATD099, MATD100, MATD112,
MATD114, MATD116, MATD119, MATD0121, MATD123, MATD126, MATD127,
MATD130, MATD139, MATD145, MATD147, MATD158, MATD159, MATD163,
MATD170, MATD181, MATD190, MATD193, MATD196, MATDB01, MATDS01,
MATDS02, MATDS03, MATDS04, MATDS05, MATDS06, MATDS07, MATDS08,
MATDS13, MATDS14, MATDS15, MATDSW1, MATDSW2, MATDSW3, MATDSW4,
MATDSW5
YLDMC Y Y Y
YLDMSS Y Y
YLDPOL Y Y Y
YLDRPL Y Y Y
YLDSG Y Y Y
YLDTM Y Y Y
YLDVM Y Y Y
YLDZA Y Y Y
Item Available in Sol 700
Fatal
Error
SimXpert
Support
Patran
Support
Main Index
51 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Supported SOL 700 Entries
Supported Materials in SimXpert
All the material models listed above are supported.
Unsupported Materials in MD Patran Preference
All the material models listed above are supported with the exception of the following:
MATD018, MATD034, MATD036, MATD037, MATD039, MATD040, MATD053,
MATD066, MATD072, MATD071, MATD72R, MATD087, MATD089, MATD093,
MATD094, MATD095, MATD097, MATD112, MATD114, MATD116, MATD119,
MATD0121, MATD123, MATD139, MATD147, MATD158, MATD181, MATD196
Supported Parameters in SOL 700
PARAM,BLADEDEL, PARAM,BLADESET, PARAM,BLDRSTRT, PARAM,BLDTHETA,
PARAM,COPOR, PARAM,COSUBCYC, PARAM,COSUBMAX, PARAM,CWLDIGNR,
PARAM,DAMAGET, PARAM,DELCLUMP, PARAM,DWINVERS, PARAM,DYBEAMIP,
PARAM,DYBLDTIM, PARAM,DYBULKL, PARAM,DYBULKQ1, PARAM,DYCMPFLG,
PARAM*,DYCONECDT, PARAM*,DYCONENMASS, PARAM*,DYCONIGNORE,
PARAM*,DYCONORIEN, PARAM*,DYCONPENOPT, PARAM*,DYCONRWPNAL,
PARAM*,DYCONSKIPRWG, PARAM8,DYCONSLSFAC, PARAM*,DYCONTHKCHG,
PARAM,DYCOWPRD, PARAM,DYCOWPRP, PARAM,DYDCOMP,
PARAM,DYDEFAUL, PARAM,DYDTOUT, PARAM,DYDYLOAD, PARAM,DYELAS1C,
PARAM,DYELAS1F, PARAM,DYELAS1R, PARAM,DYELPLET, PARAM,DYELPLFL,
PARAM,DYELPLSY, PARAM,DYENDTIM, PARAM*,DYENERGYHGEN,
PARAM,DYENGFLG, PARAM,DYHRGIHQ, PARAM,DYHRGQH, PARAM,DYIEVERP,
PARAM*,DYINISTEP, PARAM,DYLDKND, PARAM,DYMATS1, PARAM,DYMAXINT,
PARAM*,DYMAXSTEP, PARAM*,DYMINSTEP, PARAM,DYN3THDT,
PARAM,DYNAMES, PARAM,DYNEIPH, PARAM,DYNEIPS, PARAM,DYNINT,
PARAM,DYNINTSL, PARAM,DYNLOADS, PARAM,DYNRBE23, PARAM,DYNREAL,
PARAM,DYPBM71, PARAM,DYPRMSPC, PARAM,DYRBE3, PARAM,DYRBE3TY,
PARAM,DYRLTFLG, PARAM*,DYSHELLFORM, PARAM,DYSHGE,
PARAM,DYSHNIP, PARAM*,DYSHTHICK, PARAM,DYSIGFLG, PARAM,DYSTATIC,
PARAM*,DYSTEPFCTL, PARAM,DYSTRFLG, PARAM,DYSTSSZ,
PARAM*,DYTERMNDTMIN, PARAM*,DYTERMNENDMAS,
PARAM*,DYTSTEPDT2MS, PARAM*,DYTSTEPERODE, PARAM,EULBND,
PARAM,EULBULKL, PARAM,EULBULKQ, PARAM,EULBULKT, PARAM,EULSTRES,
PARAM,EUSUBCYC, PARAM,FBLEND, PARAM,FMULT,, PARAM,GRADMESH,
PARAM,MICRO, PARAM,MTDYMAT9, PARAM,RKSCHEME, PARAM,ROHYDRO,
PARAM,ROMULTI, PARAM,ROSTR, PARAM,S700NVH, PARAM,S700NVH1,
PARAM,SBOLTZ, PARAM,SCALEMAS, PARAM,STEPFCT, PARAM,STEPFCTL,
PARAM,UGASC, PARAM,VELCUT, DYPARAM,AXIALSYM, DYPARAM,COHESION,
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Preprocessing with MD Patran
52
DYPARAM,ELDLTH, DYPARAM,EULERCB, DYPARAM,EULERPR,
DYPARAM,EULTRAN, DYPARAM,EUSUBMAX, DYPARAM,FASTCOUP,
DYPARAM,HYDROBOD, DYPARAM,LIMITER, DYPARAM,LSDYNA,
DYPARAM,VELMAX
Supported Parameters in SimXpert
All the parameters listed above are supported.
Supported Parameters in MD Patran Preference
DYBEAMIP, DYBLDTIM, DYBULKL, DYCMPFLG, DYCONECDT, DYCONENMASS,
DYCONIGNORE, DYCONPENOPT, DYCONRWPNAL, DYCONSLSFAC,
DYCONSKIPRWG, DYCONTHKCHG, DYCOWPRD, DYCOWPRP, DYDCOMP,
DYDTOUT, DYENERGYHGEN, DYENGFLG, DYEPSFLG, DYHRGIHQ, DYHRGQH,
DYIEVERP, DYINISTEP, DYLDKND, DYMAXINT, DYMAXSTEP, DYMINSTEP,
DYN3THDT, DYNEIPH, DYNEIPS, DYNINTSL, DYRLTFLG, DYSHELLFORM,
DYSHGE, DYSHTHICK, DYSIGFLG, DYSTATIC, DYSTRFLG, DYSTEPFCTL,
DYSTSSZ, DYTERMNENDMAS, DYTSTEPDT2MS, DYTSTEPERODE,
PARAM,S700NVH1
Preprocessing with MD Patran
MD Patran offers a MD Nastran interface that provides a communication link between MD Patran and
MD Nastran. It provides for the generation of the MD Nastran Input file and customization of certain
features in MD Patran. The interface is a fully integrated part of the MD Patran system.
Generating the Bulk Data File
Selecting MD Nastran as the analysis code preference in MD Patran ensures that sufficient and
appropriate data is generated for the MD Nastran. Specifically, the MD Patran forms in these main areas
are modified:
• Materials
• Element Properties
• Finite Elements/MPCs and Meshing
• Loads and Boundary Conditions
• Analysis Forms
Using MD Patran, you can run a MD Nastran analysis or you may generate the MD Nastran Input
File to run externally. For information on generating the MD Nastran Input file from within MD Patran,
see “Analysis Form” in Chapter 3 of the MD Patran MD Nastran Preference Guide, Volume 1:
Structural Analysis.
Main Index
53 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Output Requests
Editing the Bulk Data File
Once the bulk data file has been generated, you can edit the file directly from MD Patran.
1. Click the Analysis Application button to bring up the Analysis Application form.
2. On the Analysis form set the Action>Object>Method combination to Analyze>Existing Deck>Full
Run and click Edit Input File.
MD Patran finds the bulk data file with the current database name and displays the file for editing in a
text editing window.
Output Requests
The SOL 700 default output file is the d3plot file which is a binary file including the displacements,
stresses and strain output results. The file d3plot can be postprocessed with a number of commercially
available tools such as MD Patran, ETA/Femb, Hypermesh, CEI/Ensight and LS-POST.
In addition to d3plot, other output files are optionally available for output request.
Files Created by SOL 700
SOL 700 creates a number of files during the analysis.
In the main sections of this manual, generic names are used when referring to a particular MD Nastran
SOL 700 file. These generic reference names and the actual generic file names are given below:
File
Generic
Reference Name SOL 700 Name
Input (ASCII) dat or bdf Filename.dat (or .bdf)
Output/d3hsp (ASCII) d3hsp Filename.dytr.d3hsp
Result Output (Binary) d3plot Filename.dytr.d3plot
Time History (Binary) d3thdt Filename.dytr.d3thdt
Result Output (Binary) ARC Filename.dytr.ARC
Result Output (Binary) binout Filename.dytr.binout
Result Output (ASCII) ssstat Filename.dytr.ssstat
Restart Dump file (Binary) d3dump Filename.dytr.d3dump
Execution Summary file (ASCII) log Filename.dytr.log
Warnings and Errors (ASCII) f06 Filename.f06
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Output Requests
54
Input File
The input file contains all the input data and must be present in order to run MD Nastran SOL 700. It is
a text file with up to 80 characters on each line. The primary input file may reference one or more
include files.
Output (d3hsp) File
The output (d3hsp) file is a text file suitable for printing purposes or viewing with a standard editor. It
contains messages produced by explicit solver in SOL 700, which contains summary of model input,
calculation status at every 100 cycles and error messages This file is normally also included in the f06
file. The quantities that are placed on this file are controlled by PARM statements.
d3plot
MD Nastran can create any number of output files containing results at times during the analysis. The
d3plot files are binary files generated by explicit solver in SOL 700. They contain a complete
description of the geometry and connectivity of the analysis model and the requested results. MD Patran
can read d3plot files for postprocessing.
ARC
MD Nastran outputs the fluid structure interaction (FSI) results in the *ARC file. The ARC files are binary
files and are consistant with Dytran output. To postporcess the FSI results by Patran, both d3plot and
ARC files have to be read.
binout
The binout file is the file generated by SOL 700 and is consistent with the LS-DYNA native binout file.
It includes the time history results in binary format.
ssstat File
The sstat file is generated by SOL 700 and contains the information of the subsystem. The
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,DATABASE,SSTATM and DBEXSSS bulk data entries can be activated to generate
the sstat file. The information of the sstat file is useful for FBO-RD chaining analysis.
MD Nastran Result file (Binary) op2 Filename.op2
MD Nastran Result file (Binary) xdb Filename.xdb
MD Nastran Punch file (ASCII) pch Filename.pch
File
Generic
Reference Name SOL 700 Name
Main Index
55 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Output Requests
Time-History (d3thdt) Files
SOL 700 can also create any number of time-history files containing results for particular grid points and
elements during the calculation. They are also binary files. Time-history files only contain results, no
geometry or connectivity.
Restart Files
SOL 700 supports the three kinds of restart. These are named simple, minor (or small) and full. Simple
restarts are jobs that for some reason did not finish (for example the computer went down) and involve
no changes in the original Nastran input deck. They can use either the running restart file
(jid.dytr.runrsf) or the d3dump file (jid.dytr.d3dumpxx where xx is a numerical value such as
00, 01, 02 ...). Minor restarts involve simple changes to the Nastran input deck such as deleting contact
surfaces, changing the run time or output time intervals, switching rigid bodies to deformable or visa
versa. These require a Nastran input deck with the executive control, case control and only the changes
as well as the jid.dytr.d3dumpxx file. The full restart normally involves massive changes to the
Nastran deck where the complete executive control, case control and bulk data are input as well as
restarting with the jid.dytr.d3dumpxx file.
Error File
SOL 700 produces an f06 file containing a summary of all warnings and errors issued during reading
and subsequent data processing. SOL 700 has five levels of messages below:
1. Informative messages.
An example of a Level 1 message is a message that indicates that a new processor has begun
execution. These message provide job information.
2. Nonfatal warning message of something that could affect the results.
An example of a Level 2 message is one indicating that the aspect ratio is greater than 15. This
may or may not be a serious problem.
3. Serious warnings.
An example of a Level 3 message is a warning about a highly distorted element.
4. Fatal error (all occurrences will be found before aborting).
An example of a Level 4 message is the warning “undefined node used in rigid element.”
5. Immediately fatal errors.
An example of a Level 5 message is “Unable to open file” message. The job is
immediately aborted.
MD Nastran Native Result Files
In addition to d3plot which is native result file, SOL 700 optionally outputs MD Nastran native result
files such as op2, xdb, and pch files for postprocessing in version 2006r2 and subsequent versions.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Postprocessing with MD Patran
56
Postprocessing with MD Patran
The results from an MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear Analysis can be read into and postprocessed by MD
Patran. Typically, you will get the most complete set of results if you use the d3plot results options (see
Section 14.1 “Output from the Analysis” on how to select which output files will be created), but you
can also postprocess using an .xdb or .op2 formatted file.
The Results application in MD Patran provides the capabilities for creating, modifying, deleting, posting,
unposting, and manipulating results visualization plots and viewing the finite element model. In addition,
results can be derived, combined, scaled, interpolated, extrapolated, transformed, and averaged in a
variety of ways which are controllable by you.
Control is provided for manipulating the color/range assignment and other attributes for plot tools, and
for controlling and creating animations of static and transient results.
Results are selected from the database and assigned to plot tools using simple forms. Results
transformations are provided to derive scalars from vectors and tensors and to derive vectors from
tensors. This allows for a wide variety of visualization tools to be used with all of the available results.
If the job was created within MD Patran such that a MD Patran jobname of the same name as the
MD Nastran jobname exists, you only need to use the Results tools and MD Patran imports or attaches
the jobname.xxx file without you having to select it. If you did not create the job in MD Patran, you
can still import the model and results and postprocess.
For more information, see MD Patran Reference Manual, Part 6: Results Postprocessing.
Preprocessing with SimXpert
SimXpert offers a MD Nastran interface that provides a communication link between SimXpert and MD
Nastran. It provides for the generation of the MD Nastran Input file and customization of certain features
in SimXpert. The interface is a fully integrated part of the SimXpert system.
Generating the Bulk Data File
Selecting MD Explicit* as the analysis workspace in SimXpert ensures that sufficient and appropriate
data is generated for the MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700). Specifically, the SimXpert forms in
these main areas are modified:
• • Material and Properties
• • LBC’s
• • Assemble
• • Safety
• • Job Parameters
• • Results
Main Index
57 Chapter 2: MD Nastran Data Files
Postprocessing with SimXpert
Using SimXpert, you can run a MD Nastran analysis or you may generate the MD Nastran Input File to
run externally.
For information on generating the MD Nastran Input file from within SimXpert, see the
MD Users Guide.
Postprocessing with SimXpert
The results from an MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear Analysis can be read into and postprocessed by
SimXpert Explicit Workspace. The following result files are supported in SimXpert:
• • D3plot result files
• • ARC result files, except for the Adaptive Euler result files.
For information on postprocessing of the MD Nastran Result files with SimXpert, see the
MD Users Guide.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Postprocessing with SimXpert
58
Main Index
Chapter 3: Modeling
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
3
Modeling

Coordinate Systems 60

Nodes 63

Elements 64

Modeling in MD Patran 65

Example using MD Patran 69

Input and Output Files Created During the Simulation 81

Postprocessing 83

Running a Batch Job 87

How to Tell When the Analysis is Done 87

How to Tell if the Analysis Ran Successfully 87

Examples using SimXpert 89
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Coordinate Systems
60
Coordinate Systems
The basic coordinate system in MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear is a right-handed rectangular coordinate
system as shown in Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1 Basic Coordinate System
User-defined Coordinate System
MD Nastran provides six Bulk Data entry options for defining coordinate systems. The new coordinate
system is directly or indirectly related to the basic coordinate system. The ten options are:
The CORD1R, CORD1C, and CORD1S entries define coordinate systems by referencing three defined
grid points. The CORD2R, CORD2C, and CORD2S entries define coordinate systems by specifying the
location of three points.
X
Y
Z
CORD1R
CORD2R
Rectangular
CORD1C
CORD2C
Cylindrical
CORD1S
CORD2S
Spherical
CORD3R
CORD1RX
CORD2RX
CORD3RX
Main Index
61 Chapter 3: Modeling
Coordinate Systems
Nodal Coordinate Systems
Each grid point refers to two coordinate system. One system is used to locate the grid point (CP in field 3)
and the other is used to establish the grid point’s displacement coordinate system (CD in field 7). The
displacement coordinate system defines the direction of displacements, constraints and applied loads.
The basic (default coordinate system) is indicated by a zero or blank in the CP and CD fields. CD and CP
do not have to be the same coordinate system.
The grid point output is with respect to basic coordinate system.
Element Coordinate Systems
The connectivity of the CQUAD4s defines the element coordinate system. It is a rectangular coordinate
system and the direction of axes depends on the order of the grid points in the connectivity entry. The
z-axis is normal to the shell as shown in the figure below. The x-axis is a vector from grid point1 to grid
point 2. The y-axis is perpendicular to both the x-axis and the z-axis and is the direction defined by the
right-hand rule.
The counter clockwise node numbering determines the positive z-direction and is the top surface of the
shell element and the bottom surface is the negative z-direction.
By default, shell stresses/strains written to d3plots are in the basic coordinate system and shell
stresses/strains written to elout (time history element output) are in the element local
coordinate system.
The local coordinate system of CBAR/CBEAM is explained in the Remarks of PBAR and PBEAM entries
respectively in the quick reference guide. By default, stresses/resultants for beams are written to d3plot
and elout (time history element output) in the element coordinate system.
The output of solid elements in d3plot and elout (time history element output) is always with respect
to the basic coordinate system.
G1
G4
G3
G2
X
elem
Z
elem
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Coordinate Systems
62
Material Coordinate Systems
For shell elements of anisotropic material, there are three options for defining the initial direction of the
material axes, AOPT = 0, 2, and 3 (see MATD2AN, MATD022, MAT054, MATD059). During the solution,
the element coordinate system rotates and transforms with the element, so the angle between the element
system and material system can be assumed to remain constant. In other words, the material direction is
constantly updated as the element rotates and deforms. It is, therefore, sufficient to define the material
coordinate system in the undeformed geometry.
For this discussion, the material coordinate system is called the a-b-c system to be consistent with the
user's manual. For shell elements, the c-axis coincides with the element normal, the a-axis is in the plane
of the shell, and the b-axis is determined by the cross product, b = c x a. Actually, for warped elements,
the a-axis is not exactly in the element plane, but is projected along the c-axis such that it is orthogonal
to c. This projection is also done for the local element system, so a simple 2-D transformation between
the two systems is possible.
For reasons discussed in the last paragraph, the three available shell element options for defining the a-
b-c system boil down to defining the a-axis.
For AOPT = 0, the a-axis is assumed to be equal to the local element system x-axis.
For AOPT = 2, the a-axis is defined as the user-defined vector , projected onto the surface of the
element. Note that the user-defined vector is not used at all. Also, note that the user-defined vector ,
is not equivalent to the a-axis of the material unless is orthogonal to the element normal.
For AOPT = 3, the a-axis is defined by the cross product of a user-defined vector with element normal;
i.e., a = v x c. Given the same user-defined vector, AOPT = 3 defines a material coordinate system that is
rotated exactly 90 degrees from coordinate system defined by AOPT.
The material axes as defined by the AOPT option in the material input are rotated by the THETA element
(in CQUAD4) angle to get the reference direction for the element. The material axes for the element
integration points are then rotated by the integration point THETA angles in PCOMP option. In summary,
AOPT, THETA in CQUAD4, and the integration point THETA angles in PCOMP go into defining the
material directions at each integration point.
a
d a
a
v
Main Index
63 Chapter 3: Modeling
Nodes
Nodes
Model geometry is defined in MD Nastran with grid points. A grid point is a point on or in the structural
continuum which is used to define a finite element. A simple model may have only a handful of grid
points; a complex model may have many hundreds of thousands. The structure’s grid points displace with
the loaded structure. Each grid point of the structural model has six possible components of displacement:
three translations (in the x-, y-, or z-directions) and three rotations (about the x-, y-, or z-axes). These
components of displacement are called degrees of freedom (DOFs).
Degrees of Freedom
The degrees of freedom in MD Nastran Nonlinear are always referred to as:
MD Nastran only activates those degrees of freedom needed at a node. Thus, some of the degrees of
freedom listed above may not be used at all nodes in a model, because each element type only uses those
degrees of freedom which are relevant. For example, two-dimensional solid (continuum)
stress/displacement elements only use degrees of freedom 1 and 2. The degrees of freedom actually used
at any node are thus the envelope of those variables needed in each element that uses the node.
1 x-displacement
2 y-displacement
3 z-displacement
4 Rotation about the x-axis
5 Rotation about the y-axis
6 Rotation about the z-axis
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Elements
64
Elements
Once the geometry (grid points) of the structural model has been established, the grid points are used to
define the finite elements.
MD Nastran has an extensive library of finite elements covering a wide range of physical behavior. Some
of these elements and their names are shown in figure below. The C in front of each element name stands
for “connection.”
• Point Element (not a finite element, but can be included in the finite element model)
• Spring Elements (they behave like simple extensional or rotational springs)
• Line Elements (they behave like rods, bars, or beams)
• Surface Elements (they behave like membranes or thin plates)
• Solid Elements (they behave like bricks or thick plates)
CONM2 (Concentrated mass)
CELAS1, CELAS2, CELAS1D, CELAS2D
CROD, CBAR, CBEAM, CONROD
CTRIA3 CQUAD4
CHEXA CPENTA CTETRA
Main Index
65 Chapter 3: Modeling
Modeling in MD Patran
• Rigid Bar (infinitely stiff without causing numerical difficulties in the mathematical model)
Structural elements are defined on Bulk Data connection entries that identify the grid points to which the
element is connected. The mnemonics for all such entries have a prefix of the letter C, followed by an
indication of the type of element, such as CBAR and CROD. The order of the grid point identification
defines the positive direction of the axis of a one-dimensional element and the positive surface of a plate
element. The connection entries include additional orientation information when required. Some
elements allow for offsets between its connecting grid points and the reference plane of the element.
The coordinate systems associated with element offsets are defined in terms of the grid point
coordinate systems. For most elements, each connection entry references a property definition entry.
If many elements have the same properties, this system of referencing eliminates a large number of
duplicate entries.
Details for each element type are described in Chapter 6: Elements.
Modeling in MD Patran
In MD Patran, geometric models are the foundation on which most finite element models are built.
Geometric curves, surfaces, or solids provide the base for creating nodes, elements, and loads and
boundary conditions; the geometric model also serves as the structure to which material properties, as
well as element properties, may be assigned even before any mesh is actually generated.
Creating Geometry in MD Patran
Model geometry may be constructed in MD Patran, accessed directly from a CAD application, or
imported in specially formatted translator files. Whatever the source of the geometry, a single geometric
model will be maintained throughout all geometric and finite element operations. Geometric entities,
even if obtained from external files, retain their original mathematical representation without any
approximations or substitutions.
Accessing the Geometry Application
In MD Patran you can create, modify, and delete points, curves, surfaces, and solids. MD Patran assigns
a default color to the display of all geometric entities.
Pick the Geometry icon in the MD Patran Main Form to access the Geometry application.

RBAR
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MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Modeling in MD Patran
66
The Geometry form controls all processes in the Geometry application. The top portion of the form
contains three keywords, Action, Object, and Method; these remain the same throughout all activities.
The rest of the entries will vary depending on the requirements posed by the specified action, object,
and method.
There are hundreds of action, object, method combinations available for creating geometric entities in
MD Patran. For complete descriptions on creating geometry models, see the MD Patran Reference
Manual, Part 2: Geometry.
Utilizing External Geometry (CAD) Files
MD Patran can make use of geometry created in databases outside of MD Patran by either accessing
geometric data directly from one of several CAD systems, or importing geometry using special files.
Geometry access, performed through the unique Direct Geometry Access (DGA) feature, does not
require any translation. MD Patran accesses the original geometry and uses the geometric definitions of
all entities.
On the other hand, when geometry is imported, MD Patran first evaluates the mathematical definition of
entities in their originating CAD system, and then formulates the information to be appropriate for MD
Patran operations.
Imported geometry comes to MD Patran via IGES, Express Neutral files, or MD Patran Neutral files.
IGES (Initial Graphic Exchange Specification) is an ANSI standard formatted file that makes it possible
to exchange data among most commercial CAD systems. Express Neutral files are intermediate files
created during a Unigraphics or CV CAD model access. MD Patran Neutral files are specially formatted
for the purpose of providing a means of importing and exporting model data.
Action Names the operation to be performed; for example Create, Edit, or Delete.
Object Identifies the geometric entity upon which the action is performed, for
example, Solid. In this case, if the Action is Create, then the command
requests that a solid be created.
Method Specifies the procedure which perform the action. Taking the above
example one step further, if the Method is Surface, a solid is created by one
of the techniques that utilize surfaces.
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67 Chapter 3: Modeling
Modeling in MD Patran
Geometry received into the database, whether through direct access or import, is treated as if it had been
built in MD Patran; meshing, load and boundary condition assignments, element and material properties
definitions are all performed as if on MD Patran’s own “native” geometry.
Creating Finite Element Meshes in MD Patran
Finite elements themselves are defined by both their topology (i.e., their shape) and their properties. For
example, the elements used to create a mesh for a surface may be composed of quadrilaterals or triangles.
Similarly, one element may be a steel plate modeling structural effects such as displacement and rotation,
while another may represent an air mass in an acoustic analysis.MD Patran provides numerous ways to
create a finite element mesh.
At this stage of using MD Patran, where you are creating a finite element mesh using the Finite Elements
application form, elements are defined purely in terms of their topology. Other properties such as
materials, thickness and behavior types are then defined for these elements in subsequent applications,
and discussed in Chapter 6: Elements of this guide.
The most rudimentary method of creating a finite element mesh is to manually generate individual nodes,
and then to create individual elements from previously defined nodes. Individual nodes can be either
be generated from the geometry model or directly created using node creation tools that bypass the
need for point definitions. A finite element model created manually supports the entire MD Patran
element library and where applicable, MD Patran automatically generates midedge, midface and
midbody nodes.
MD Patran contains many capabilities to help you manually create the right kind of finite element mesh
for your model, and capabilities that automate the process of finite element creation. MD Patran provides
the following capabilities for finite element modeling (FEM):
• Mesh seeding tools to control specific mesh densities in specific areas of your geometry.
• Several highly automated techniques for mesh generation.
• Equivalencing capabilities for joining meshes in adjacent regions.
• Tools to verify the quality and accuracy of your finite element model.
• Capabilities for direct input and editing of finite element data.
Automatic Meshing Tools
There are four basic mesh generation techniques available in MD Patran: IsoMesh, Paver Mesh, Auto
TetMesh, and 2-1/2D Meshing. Selecting the right technique for a particular model must be based on
geometry, model topology, analysis objectives, and engineering judgment.
Isomesh
Creates a traditional mapped mesh on regularly shaped geometry via simple subdivision. This method
creates Quad and Tria elements on surfaces and brick elements on solids. The resulting mesh supports all
element configurations in MD Patran.
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Modeling in MD Patran
68
Paver
The Paver is an automated surface meshing technique that you can use with any arbitrary surface region,
including trimmed surfaces, composite surfaces, and irregular surface regions. Unlike the IsoMesh
approach, the Paver technique creates a mesh by first subdividing the surface boundaries into mesh
points, and then operates on these boundaries to construct interior elements.
TetMesh
Arbitrary solid mesher generates tetrahedral elements within MD Patran solids defined by an arbitrary
number of faces or volumes formed by collection of triangular element shells. This method is based on
MSC plastering technology.
2-1/2D Mesher
Transforms a planar 2-D mesh to produce a 3-D mesh of solid elements, using sweep and
extrude operations.
Accessing the Finite Element Application
All of MD Patran’s finite element modeling capabilities are available by selecting the Finite Element
button on the main form.
Like the Geometry Application, the top portion of the Finite Element form contains three keywords,
Action, Object, and Method; these remain the same throughout all activities. Finite Element (FE)
Meshing, Node and Element Editing, Nodal Equivalencing, ID Optimization, Model Verification, FE
Show, Modify and Delete, and ID Renumber, are all accessible by setting the Action/Object/Method
combination on the Finite Elements form.
For complete descriptions on creating geometry models, see the MD Patran Reference Manual, Part 3:
Finite Element Modeling.
Caution: In all finite element simulations, the size and shape of the elements is one aspect that
controls the accuracy. In explicit simulations, small elements will also result in the need
to reduce the time step or increase the mass scaling. See Chapter 4: Special Modeling
Techniques.
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69 Chapter 3: Modeling
Example using MD Patran
Example using MD Patran
The objective of the following example is to highlight the templates and forms that are used in
MD Nastran SOL 700 Preference to set up the model, define the material, boundary conditions, type of
output files generated and post processing.
Description of the Problem
The figure below is an example of a tapered beam which impact a rigid wall at 10,000 inches/seconds.
The beam is 40 inches in length and is made of steel with the following properties:
Density = 0.000783 lbm/in
3
Elastic Modulus = 2.1E9 psi
Yield Stress = 1.4E7 psi
Poisson’s ratio = 0.3
The example is designed to make the user familiar with the following objectives:
1 – How to define a Contact Body and Contact Table.
2 – How to define the initial velocity for the tapered beam.
3 – How to define elastoplastic material properties using MAT24 material model.
Beam Tip = 2x2 in
Rigid Plate = 6x6 in
Beam End = 4x4 in Beam Length = 40 in
Impact Velocity = 10,000in/sec
Impact of a Tapered Beam to a Rigid Wall
Steel Properties
Density = 0.000783 Ibm/in
3
Elastic Modulus = 21E9 psi
Yield Stress = 1.4E7 psi
Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3
Y
X
Z
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Example using MD Patran
70
Solution Type
MD Nastran can simulate many different types of structural response. In general an analysis type can be
either static or dynamic. In a static analysis, loads and boundary conditions are applied to a model and
the response is assumed to remain constant over time. In dynamic analysis the response changes over
time. In MD Nastran, both static and dynamic analysis may simulate linear response or nonlinear
response. SOL 700 incorporates the formulations and functionality to simulate nonlinear dynamic
structural responses. The specific procedure MD Nastran uses is specified on the Executive Control
Statement by the ID entry.
Specifying the Solution Type
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) is designated with the following Executive Control Statement
in the MD Nastran Bulk Data file, where the ID entry indicates which analysis procedure is to be run.
References
• “SOL 700,ID” in the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide. In this release, ID = 129 indicates
a nonlinear dynamic analysis.
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71 Chapter 3: Modeling
Example using MD Patran
Defining the Solution Type in MD Patran
Prior to selecting a Solution Type, check to see that under Analysis Preferences the Analysis Code is set
to MD Nastran, and then set the Analysis Type to Explicit Nonlinear.
Open a new data base and name it tapered_beam:
a. Open File and click New. c. Type tapered_beam under File name and click OK.
b. Select MD Nastran for Analysis Code. d. Select Explicit Nonlinear for analysis and click OK.
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Example using MD Patran
72
Defining Material Model
Define material properties using MAT24 constitutive material model:
a. Materials: e. Enter
Action: Create Density = 0.000783
Object: Isotropic (lsdyna) Elastic Modulus = 2.1E9
Method: Manual Input Poisson Ratio = 0.3
b. Material Name: steel Yield Strength = 1.4E7
c. Click Input Properties f. Click OK
d. Constitutive Model: Elastop lastic g. Click Apply
Implementation: Piecewise Linear (MAT24)
Curve Type Bilinear
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73 Chapter 3: Modeling
Example using MD Patran
Defining the Initial Velocity
Define a group called “beam” and proceed with creating the beam finite element model. Post group beam
and define an impact velocity of 10000 in/sec in positive Z direction for the beam.

a. Group: Post h. Click OK
b. Select beam i. Click Select Application Region
c. Click Apply and then Cancel j. Click FEM
d. Loads/Boundary Conditions k. Select Nodes: Select all beam nodes
Action: Create l. Click ADD
Object: Initial Velocity m. Click OK
Method: Nodal n. Click Apply
e. Enter
New Set Name initial_velocity
f. Click Input Data
g. Enter
Trans Veloc = <0 0 10000>
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Example using MD Patran
74
Defining the Rigid Plate
Create a group called rigid_plate and proceed with constructing the finite element model of the
rigid plate. Post group rigid_plate and define a constraint on the plate.

a. Group: Post g. Enter
b. Select rigid_plate Translations: <0 0 0>
c. Click Apply and then Cancel Rotations: <0 0 0>
d. Loads/Boundary Conditions h. Click OK
Action: Create i. Click Select Application Region
Object: Displacement j. Select Nodes: Select all the nodes on the plate.
Method: Nodal k. Click ADD
e. Enter l. Click OK
New Set Name
fix_plate
m. Click Apply
f. Click Input Data
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75 Chapter 3: Modeling
Example using MD Patran
Defining the Contact Between the Beam and the Rigid Plate
Post both group beam and rigid_plate and define a contact between the plate and the beam.

a. Loads/Boundary Conditions: f. Click OK
Action: Create g. Click Apply
Object: Contact h. New Set Name: beam
Type: Element Uniform i. Target Element Type: 3D
Option: Deformable Body j. Click Select Application Region
b. New Set Name: rigid_plate k. Choose beam elements and click ADD
c. Target Element Type: 2D l. Click OK
d. Click Select Application Region m. Click Apply
e. Choose plate elements and click ADD
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Example using MD Patran
76
Defining the Simulation End Time and Contact Table
Now, we are ready for analysis.
a. Analysis: d. Available Subcases: Default
Action: Analyze e. Available Load Cases: Default
(Subcase Default is related to Load Case Default)
Object: Entire Model f. Click Subcase Parameters
Method: Full Run g. Enter
b. Job Name: tapered_beam End Time 0.005
c. Click Select Application Region h. Click Contact Table
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Note: Only when “Contact Table” in Solution Parameter is clicked in MD Patran is the Bulk Data
Input BCTABLE written to the input deck. Otherwise, BCONTACT - ALLBODY is written in
the Case Control section of the input file.
Main Index
77 Chapter 3: Modeling
Example using MD Patran
i. Global Contact Detection: First-> Second l. Click Apply
j. Click OK m. Click Cancel
k. Click OK
l m ll m
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Example using MD Patran
78
Defining the Time Step for Output Files
Specify the time step for the output files.
a. Analysis:
Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run
b. Enter in Direct Text Input
Bulk Data Section: PARAM, DYDTOUT, 0.0001
c. Click OK.
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79 Chapter 3: Modeling
Example using MD Patran
Running the Model
Now you are ready to write the input deck.
a. Analysis:
Action: Analyze
Object: Entire Model
Method: Full Run
b. Click Apply
b
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Example using MD Patran
80
Examine the MD Nastran Input File
$ NASTRAN input file created by the MSC MSC.Nastran input file
$ translator ( MSC.Patran 13.1.073 ) on February 14, 2005 at 15:15:28.
$ Direct Text Input for Nastran System Cell Section
$ Direct Text Input for File Management Section
$ Explicit NonLinear Analysis
SOL 700,NLTRAN STOP=1
$ Direct Text Input for Executive Control
CEND
TITLE = MSC.Nastran job created on 14-Feb-05 at 15:01:47
$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data
..
..
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
PARAM POST 0
PARAM LGDISP 1
PARAM PRTMAXIM YES
TSTEPNL 1 100 .00005 1 ADAPT 2 10
..
..
BCTABLE 1 3
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 3
SLAVE 3 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 3
$ Direct Text Input for Bulk Data
PARAM, DYDTOUT, 0.0001
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : steel_beam
PSOLID 1 1 0
$ Pset: "steel_beam" will be imported as: "psolid.1"
CHEXA 1 1 1 2 5 4 10 11
$ Referenced Material Records
$ Material Record : steel
$ Description of Material : Date: 14-Feb-05 Time: 14:52:07
MATD024 1 7.83-4 2.1+9 .3 1.4+7
-1.
$ Loads for Load Case : Default
SPCADD 2 1
$ Initial Velocities of Load Set : initial_velocity
TIC 1 1 3 10000.
TIC 1 2 3 10000.
TIC 1 3 3 10000.
TIC 1 4 3 10000.
TIC 1 5 3 10000.
TIC 1 6 3 10000.
..
..
TIC 1 368 3 10000.
TIC 1 369 3 10000.
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : fix_plate
SPC1 1 123456 370 THRU 418
$ Deform Body Contact LBC set: contact_mid
$ Deform Body Contact LBC set: plate
BCBODY 3 3D DEFORM 3 0
BSURF 3 161 162 163 164 165 166 167
168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175
..
..
$ Deform Body Contact LBC set: beam
BCBODY 4 3D DEFORM 4 0
BSURF 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
This section describes
the Explicit Nonlinear
Solution Sequence.
This TSTEPNL describes
simulation. The actual
number of Time Steps
and Time Increment
is determined by
SOL 700 during the
analysis.
This PARAM entry
describes the time
interval of d3plot outputs.
This section of describes
the contact table definition,
as well as the master body
and the slave body in each
contact relation.
This section describes
the Elastic-Plastic
Material definition.
This section describes
the initial velocity to the
tapered beam and fixed
boundary condition for
the plate.
This section describes
the contact bodies of
the tapered beam and
the plate.
the End Time of the
Main Index
81 Chapter 3: Modeling
Input and Output Files Created During the Simulation
Input and Output Files Created During the Simulation
Simulation on Windows Platforms
The following files are created in your working directory:
Input file:
tapered_beam.bdf Input deck for MD Nastran
tapered_beam.dytr.dat
tapered_beam.dytr.str
Intermediate input files
Output file:
tapered_beam.dytr.d3hsp Contains model summary, calculation process, CPU
time, etc.
tapered_beam.dytr.out Contains time step summary and CPU
timing information
tapered_beam.dytr_prep.d3hsp
tapered_beam.dytr_prep.out
Contains translation summary of the preparation phase
tapered_beam.f06 MD Nastran analysis output that contains
model summary
Binary Result file:
tapered_beam.dytr.d3plot Contains complete model used for plotting deformed
shape and stress contour.
tapered_beam.dytr.d3thdt Contains subset of the model used for time history
plotting of element and grid point data.

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MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Input and Output Files Created During the Simulation
82
Examine the Output file tapered_beam.dytr.out for Errors and Debugging
1 t 0.0000E+00 dt 4.35E-07 flush i/o buffers
1 t 0.0000E+00 dt 4.35E-07 write d3plot file
239 t 9.9943E-05 dt 4.11E-07 write d3plot file
488 t 1.9964E-04 dt 3.86E-07 write d3plot file
740 t 2.9994E-04 dt 3.86E-07 write d3plot file
:
:
12088 t 4.7999E-03 dt 3.85E-07 write d3plot file
12341 t 4.9000E-03 dt 3.85E-07 write d3plot file
12593 t 5.0000E-03 dt 4.09E-07 write d3plot file
Warning: Airbag data not written to full restart file
******** termination time reached ********
12593 t 5.0004E-03 dt 4.09E-07 write d3plot file
N o r m a l t e r m i n a t i o n
:
:
C P U T i m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n
Processor Hostname CPU(seconds)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# 1 RWC-DYTRAN 9.4844E+00
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
T o t a l s 9.4844E+00
Start time 02/14/2005 15:15:31
End time 02/14/2005 15:15:40
Elapsed time 9 seconds ( 0 hours 0 minutes 9 seconds)
N o r m a l t e r m i n a t i o n
This section (*.dytr.out)
describes increment (740)
and time step (3.86E-07)
at this increment.
This section describes
successful completion of
the analysis.
This section describes CPU
time and Elasped Time of
the job.
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83 Chapter 3: Modeling
Postprocessing
Postprocessing
The MD Nastran output the results in the binary native file d3plot and d3thdt for X-Y plots. The
MD Nastran native output files *.op2 and *xdb will be supported in the future releases.
Read in the results by attaching the d3plot file where the analysis results are stored.
a. Analysis: d. Click OK
Action: Access Results e. Click Apply
Object: Attach d3plot
Method: Result Entries
b. Click Select Results File
c. Click tapered_beam_dytr.d3plot
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MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Postprocessing
84
Let’s have a Quick Plot of the Deformed Shape of the last cycle.
a. Results: e. Select Deformation Result
Action: Create Select Displacement
Object: Quick Plot f. Click on Deform Attributes
b. Select Results Cases g. Scale Interpretation
Click ...:Time 0.005 Click True Scale
c. Select Fringe Result h. Deactivate Show Undeformed
Click Stress Components i. Click Apply
d. Position ...((NON-LAYERED))
Quantity: von Mises
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85 Chapter 3: Modeling
Postprocessing

a. Results: f. Scale Interpretation
Action: Create Click True Scale
Object: Deformation g. Deactivate Show Undeformed
b. Select Results Cases h. Click on Animation Options
Select all cases i. Animation Graphics
c. Select Deformation Result Click 3D
Select Displacement Components j. Number of Frames 52
d. Click Animate k. Click Apply
e. Click Display Attributes
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Postprocessing
86
a. Results: c. Position ...((NON-LAYERED))
Action: Create Quantity: von Mises
Object: Fringe d. Enable Animate
b. Select Fringe Result e. Click Apply
Stress Components
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87 Chapter 3: Modeling
Running a Batch Job
Running a Batch Job
After the generation of the input file is complete, it is submitted for execution as a batch process. Once
the input file has been submitted, you have no additional interaction with MD Nastran until the job is
complete except that you can terminate the job prior to completion if it becomes necessary and monitor
several keys files such as: .f06, .out, etc. MD Nastran is executed with a command called nastran.
(Your system manager may assign a different name to the command.) The nastran command permits
the specification of keywords used to request options affecting MD Nastran job execution. The format of
the nastran command is:
nastran input_data_file [keyword1 = value1 keyword2 = value2 ...]
where input_data_file is the name of the file containing the input data and keywordi=valuei
is one or more optional keyword assignment arguments. For example, to run an a job using the data file
example1.dat, enter the following command:
nastran example1
See “The nastran Command” in MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
The details of submitting an MD Nastran job are specific to your computer system — contact your
computer system administrator or your MD Nastran Installation and Operations Guide for
further information.
How to Tell When the Analysis is Done
If you submit the job from the MD Nastran icon (i.e., outside MD Patran), as long as the parent window
the job was run from is active, the analysis is still running. If you submit the job from within MD Patran
and use -stdout when you execute MD Patran, you can look in the MD Patran parent window and it
will tell you when it submits the Nastran job, and also when the Nastran job is completed. Of course, you
can always use the Analysis Manager. Once the job is complete look in the parent window to see what
files were generated.
How to Tell if the Analysis Ran Successfully
Look in the working directory and you will see the typical jobname.f06, jobname.out. If these files
are there, you successfully submitted the Nastran job. If you submitted a job with SOL 700, there will
also be some jobname.dytr.xxx files in the subdirectory. To see if the run was successful, open
jobname.dytr.out and search for errors. If you see “Normal termination” at the end of the file, it
means the run was successful.
It is always a good practice to monitor the time step of the calculation. If you noticed that your job has
taken a long time to be completed, check the time step and if it is too small (E-08 to E-09 seconds or
smaller), you should investigate the model to determine the causes of the small time step. Post processing
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MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
How to Tell if the Analysis Ran Successfully
88
the results can give you clues as to what is happening to the model during the simulation and which
elements are controlling the timestep. See Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques to control small
timesteps.
Running a Parallel Job
When Not Connected to the Network
If you disconnect a PC system from the network and want to run a parallel job on that system, you will
have to install the Microsoft Loopback Adapter. Follow these steps:
Go to Control Panel, Add/Remove Hardware.
Select the hardware task you want to perform:
Add/Troubleshoot a device
Choose a Hardware Device:
Add a new device
Do you want Microsoft Windows to search for your new hardware?
No, I want to select the hardware from a list
Select the type of hardware you want to install:
Network adapters
Select Network Adapter:
Manufacturers: Microsoft
Network Adapter: Microsoft Loopback Adapter
It will now install the loopback adapter. You will have to enable/disable the loopback adapter as you
remove/connect your machine to the network.
On Windows XP System When Not a Member of a Domain
If you will be running a parallel job on a Windows XP system that is not a member of a domain, you will
have to modify a registry entry.
Using regedt32, look for the following key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa
"forceguest" : REG_DWORD : 00000001
If you find this key, change the REG_DWORD value to 0. The name may also appear as ForceGuest.
If you do not have this registry entry, your system will function properly.
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89 Chapter 3: Modeling
Examples using SimXpert
On Windows XP SP2
After you install or upgrade to Windows XP SP2, the RPC protocol does not permit anonymous requests
to the RPC Endpoint Mapper but requires client requests be authenticated.
To workaround this problem, do the following:
From a command prompt, run gpedit.msc.
Select Computer Configuration,
expand Administrative Templates,
expand System,
click Remote Procedure Call,
double click RPC Endpoint Mapper Client Authentication.
Change the value to Enabled.
Examples using SimXpert
Several examples and tutorials are available to demonstrate how to create a SOL 700 model in the
SimXpert environment, to run the analysis and to postprocess the results. For information on example
problems created with SimXpert, see the MD User’s Guide.
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MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Examples using SimXpert
90
Main Index
Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
4
Special Modeling Techniques

Artificial Viscosity 92

Hourglass Damping 93

Mass Scaling 97

Time Domain NVH 99

Prestress (Implicit to Explicit Sequential Simulation) 109

Time Step Control 116
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MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Artificial Viscosity
92
Artificial Viscosity
Two types of artificial viscosity are used in SOL 700; bulk viscosity and hourglass viscosity are used to
control the numerical process. The parameters for bulk viscosity are material parameters. The hourglass
viscosity parameters are defined per property.
Bulk Viscosity
Artificial bulk viscosity is used to control the formation of shock waves. Shock waves are the propagation
of discontinuities in velocity. The simplest example of a shock wave is a “square wave.” An ideal impact
between two flat surfaces generates a square wave. Materials that stiffen upon deformation can produce
a shock wave from a smooth wave profile. A finite element model of a continuous body cannot
numerically represent this propagating discontinuity. When a time integration scheme without
algorithmic damping (such as the explicit central difference method) is used to integrate the response,
severe oscillations in amplitude trail the shock front. These oscillations can be traced to the limitations
imposed by the finite frequency spectrum of the finite element mesh.
To control the oscillations trailing the shock front, artificial bulk viscosity is introduced. Artificial bulk
viscosity is designed to increase the pressure in the shock front as a function of the strain rate. The effect
on the shock wave is to keep it smeared over approximately five elements. Reducing the coefficients in
an attempt to steepen the wave front may result in undesirable oscillations trailing the shock, a condition
sometimes referred to as “overshoot.”
An artificial viscosity term “ ” is added to the pressure. An artificial viscosity term can be considered
as a modification to the pressure , which is replaced by:
The definition of the artificial viscosity term that modifies the pressure:
where
The following parameters can be used in the SOL 700 to define the linear and quadratic bulk
viscosity coefficients:
PARAM,DYBULKL, value (Linear coefficient, Default =0.06)
PARAM,DYBULKQ1, value (Quadratic coefficient, default = 1.5)
See How to control Hourglassing in SOL 700.
= constant = 1.5
= constant = 0.06
is the characteristic element dimension and is the material speed of sound.
Q
p
p* p Q + =
Q max p C
Q
2
d
2 V
·
V
---
V
·
V
---
· · · · – 0 .
\ .
| |
max p C
L
d c
V
·
V
--- · · · · – 0 .
\ .
| |
+ =
C
Q
C
L
d c
Main Index
93 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Hourglass Damping
Hourglass Damping
The solid and shell elements in SOL 700 have only one integration point at the center of the element. This
makes the program very efficient since each element requires relatively little processing, but it also
introduces the problem of hourglassing.
For simplicity, consider the two-dimensional membrane action of a CQUAD4 element.
The element has four grid points, each with two degrees of freedom. There are, therefore, a total of eight
degrees of freedom and eight modes of deformation. There are three rigid body modes, two translational
modes, and one rotational mode.
With a single integration point, two direct and one shear stress are calculated at the center of the element.
This means that only three modes of deformation have stiffness associated with them.
Two modes of deformation remain, that correspond to the linear stress terms. With a single integration
point, these have no stiffness associated with them and are called the zero energy or hourglass modes.
When no measures are taken to stop these modes from occurring, they rapidly spread through the mesh
and degrade the accuracy of the calculation (see Figure 4-1), reduce the time step, and ultimately cause
the analysis to abort when the length of the side of an element becomes zero.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Hourglass Damping
94
Similar zero energy modes exist for the bending deformation of CQUAD4 elements, in CHEXA and
CPENTA elements. CTRIA3 and CTETRA elements do not suffer from hourglassing, since no zero energy
modes exist in these elements.
Figure 4-1 Deformation of a Mesh Showing Hourglassing
How to control Hourglassing in SOL 700
There are two methods available in SOL 700 to control the hourglassing. Viscous and Stiffness damping.
The viscous form damps out hourglass modes and is carefully tuned so that other modes of deformation
are not affected. The stiffness form applies forces to restrict the hourglass deformation by controlling the
nonlinear part of the strain field that produces hourglassing. Normally the viscous forms work well, but,
in some instances, are not adequate. The stiffness form is more effective but tends to make the elements
overly stiff, depending on the input parameters selected.
Each of the hourglass forms has slightly different characteristics. The default model is efficient and
recommended for general use.
The hourglass type can be specified using the PARAM,DYHRGIHQ. The hourglass coefficients can be
specified using the PARAM options DYHRGQH, DYBULKQ1, and DYBULKQW. The hourglass type and
the hourglass coefficients can be defined for each individual property using the HGSUPPR bulk data
entry. Note that the value specified on the HGSUPPR overwrite the default values defined by using the
PARAM options.
Careful modeling can help prevent the occurrence of hourglassing in a mesh. Try to avoid sharp
concentrations of load and isolated constraints. Rather, try to spread the loading and constraint over as
large an area as possible. Some examples of how to avoid hourglassing are shown in Figure 4-2.
In the majority of cases, hourglassing does not cause any problem. In those instances where it does begin
to occur, adjustment of the type of hourglass control and the hourglass viscosity should allow the analysis
to be completed successfully. Extreme cases of hourglassing are normally caused by coarse meshes. The
only solution is to refine the mesh.
Increasing the hourglass coefficient helps prevent hourglassing. However, excessively large values
can cause numerical problems. Start with the default value and only increase it if excessive
hourglassing occurs.
Main Index
95 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Hourglass Damping
Figure 4-2 Hourglass Promotion and Avoidance
The following parameters are used in MD Nastran SOL 700 to define viscous and stiffness methods
of hourglassing:
Where QH is the default hourglass coefficient. Values of QH that exceed 0.15 may cause instabilities.
The recommended default applies to all options except for Belytschko-Bindeman (type 6) of hourglass
control. The stiffness forms, however, can stiffen the response especially if deformations are large and
therefore should be used with care. For the shell and membrane elements QH is taken as the membrane
PARAM,DYHRGIHQ
(Integer > 0, Default=1)
Default hourglass viscosity type
= 1: standard (default)
= 2: Flanagan-Belytschko integration
= 3: Flanagan-Belytschko with exact volume integration
= 4: stiffness form of type 2 (Flanagan-Belytschko)
= 5: stiffness form of type 3 (Flanagan-Belytschko)
= 6: Belytschko-Bindeman assumed strain co-rotational stiffness form for
solid elements only.
PARAM,DYHRGQH (Real >= 0.0)
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Hourglass Damping
96
hourglass coefficient, the bending as QB, and warping as QW. These coefficients can be specified
independently but in SOL 700 the default is set at QH=QB=QW which is adequate (see
PARAM,DYBULKL and PARAM,DYBULKQ1 below). For type 6 solid element hourglass control, see
note 4 below.
Below are some guidelines to use the different formulations for the hourglass viscosity:
1. Viscous hourglass control is recommended for problems deforming with high velocities. Stiffness
control is often preferable for lower velocities, especially if the number of time steps are large.
For solid elements the exact volume integration provides some advantage for highly distorted
elements.
2. For automotive crash, the stiffness form of the hourglass control with a coefficient of 0.05 is
preferred by many users.
3. Bulk viscosity is necessary to propagate shock waves in solid materials and therefore applies only
to solid elements. Generally, the default values are okay except in problems where pressures are
very high, larger values may be desirable. In low density foams, it may be necessary to reduce the
viscosity values since the viscous stress can be significant. It is not advisable to reduce it by more
than an order of magnitude.
4. Type 6 hourglass control is for 2-D and 3-D solid elements only. Based on elastic constants and
an assumed strain field, it produces accurate coarse mesh bending results for elastic material when
hourglass coefficient QH=1.0. For plasticity models with a yield stress tangent modulus that is
much smaller than the elastic modulus, a smaller value of QH (0.001 to 0.1) may produce better
results. For any material, keep in mind that the stiffness is based on the elastic constants, so if the
material softens, a QH value smaller than 1.0 may work better.
5. In part, the computational efficiency of the Belytschko-Lin-Tsay and the under integrated
Hughes-Liu shell elements are derived from their use of one-point quadrature in the plane of the
element. To suppress the hourglass deformation modes that accompany one-point quadrature,
hourglass viscous or stiffness based stresses are added to the physical stresses at the local
element level.
PARAM,DYBULKL, value (Linear coefficient CL, Default = 0.06)
The linear bulk viscosity coefficient CL. The defaults are: CL=QB=QH. See remark 4 above.
PARAM,DYBULKQ1, value (Quadratic coefficient, default = 1.5)
PARAM,DYBULKQW,value (Hourglass coefficient for warping). The default is QW=QB
Main Index
97 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Mass Scaling
Mass Scaling
The explicit dynamics procedure of SOL 700 uses relatively small time steps dictated by the shortest
natural period of the mesh: the analysis cost is in direct proportion to the size of the mesh. There are two
types of problems where the cost effectiveness of the analysis can be increased:
• If a mesh consists of a few, very small (or stiff) elements, the smallest (or stiffest) element
determines the time step for all elements of the mesh.
• If a few severely distorted elements are obtained by the analysis, the most distorted element
determines the time step for all elements of the mesh. This may result in a very small stable
time step.
Speedup of those problems can be achieved by using mass scaling. Mass scaling is based on adding
numerical mass to an element so that its time step never becomes less than the minimum allowable time
step defined by the user. One can also employ mass scaling in a selective manner by artificially increasing
material density of the parts needed for mass-scaling. This manual form of mass scaling is done
independently of the automatic mass scaling invoked with PARAM,DYTSTEPDT2MS. Note that mass
scaling can be risky in areas where either inertia effects are relevant or contact with other parts is expected
to occur.
Problems Involving a Few Small Elements
It is common practice that meshing of real-life problems may involve some relatively small elements:
elements frequently localized in transition region and meant to connect large structural parts to each
other. Those elements determine the time step of the whole calculation although they might be present in
the model to a very limited extent. Speedup can be realized by using mass scaling.
• Make a run for one cycle and retrieve the time step of all elements.
• By using a postprocessing program, view which elements are determining the time step and filter
out the elements whose time steps exceed a user-defined minimum time step.
• See what the impact would be of specifying this new minimum time step. Select the value of
minimum time step such that hardly any elements would be scaled in the area of interest (for
example, as much as possible outside the impact region in a crash simulation)
Problems Involving a Few Severely Distorted Elements
There are many applications where elements are distorted to such a high extent that a few of them
determine the time step for all elements of the mesh. For example, crushing of a subfloor structure
frequently involves failure modes associated with the occurrence of severely distorted elements.
Modeling this kind of crushing behavior without including a failure mechanism result in a stable time
step that is too small. Since those elements are often present in a relatively small region, the mass scaling
method might be a good means to artificially speed up the calculation without losing the capability to
model the global crushing behavior. Note that to prevent severely distorted elements, it is recommended
that a proper failure mechanism be included, instead of coping with the distorted elements by making use
of the mass scaling method. Some guidelines:
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Mass Scaling
98
• Since you do not know in advance which elements will become too distorted, you should first
run the analysis as far as possible without mass scaling. You should gauge and monitor the time
step of all elements.
• If the problem ends up with a too small stable time step, the analysis finishes prematurely. See
which elements are so severely distorted and decide what a reasonable minimum time step might
be without affecting elements in the area of interest. See the guidelines of the previous section.
• Rerun the analysis specifying mass scaling if the region of highly distorted elements is relatively
small compared to the whole model.
• If there is too much mass added to the grid points of those elements, the model might show
significantly different inertia effects, and subsequently, different global structural response. In
order to avoid this, no more mass is added if the numerically added mass exceeds a certain
percentage (PARAM, DYTERMNENDMAS).
How to define Mass Scaling in SOL 700
The following PARAM entries can be used to define mass scaling in SOL 700:
PARAM,DYTSTEPDT2MS,value (Default=0.0, time step size for mass scaled solution)
PARAM,DYSTEPFCTL,value (Default=0.9, scale factor for internally calculated time step)
PARAM,DYTERMNENDMAS,value (Default=1.0e20, Percent change in total mass for
termination of calculation).
Anytime you add nonphysical mass to increase the time step in a dynamic analysis, you affect the results
(think of F = ma). Sometimes the effect is insignificant and in those cases adding nonphysical mass is
justifiable. Examples of such cases may include the addition of mass to just a few small elements in a
noncritical area or quasi-static simulations where the velocity is low and the kinetic energy is very small
relative to the peak internal energy. In the end, it's up to the judgement of the analyst to gauge the affect
of mass scaling. You may have to reduce or eliminate mass scaling in a second run to gauge the sensitivity
of the results to the amount of mass added.
When the value of DT2MS in PARAM,DYTSTEPDT2MS is input as a negative value, mass is added only
to those elements whose time step would otherwise be less than Fact * |DT2MS |. The value of Fact
is specified in PARAM,DYSTEPFCTL. By adding mass to these elements, their time step becomes equal
to Fact *|DT2MS|. An infinite number of combinations of Fact and DT2MS will give the same
product; i.e., time step but the added mass will be different for each of those combinations.
The trend is that the smaller the time step factor Fact, the greater the added mass. In return, stability may
improve as time step factor Fact is reduced (just as in non-mass-scaled solutions). If stability is a
problem with the default time step factor of 0.9, try 0.8 or 0.7. If you reduce Fact, you can increase
|DT2MS| proportionally so that the product/time step is unchanged.
The difference between using a positive or negative number for DT2MS is:
Negative: Mass is added to only those elements whose time step would otherwise be less than
Fact*abs(DT2MS). When mass scaling is appropriate, this is the recommended approach.
Positive: Mass is added or taken away from elements so that the time step of every element is the
same. There is no clear advantage in using this method over the negative DT2MS method.
Main Index
99 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Time Domain NVH
Time Domain NVH
This is a new methodology in MD Nastran SOL 700 that is used to compute the natural frequencies of a
structure similar to what is done in experimental modal identification using impact or other transient
testing. The user applies an impact, simulates driving a vehicle over a rough road or some other type of
transient loading to the structure such that it is likely to excite all the important modes. A standard SOL
700 analysis is run to output accelerations, velocities and/or displacements at selected grids using a
reasonably fine output delta time. After the nonlinear analysis finishes, a postprocessing operation is
used to transform the selected outputs from the time domain to the frequency domain using Fast Fourier
Transforms. Various criteria are available to select which peaks will be approximately defined as modes
(eigenvectors). This approximation is reasonably accurate if the damping is small. The amplitudes of
all the selected degrees of freedom for each of the selected modal frequencies are normalized and become
the eigenvectors and saved on a file. A "restart" capability is available to change the criteria selections.
In addition, a user may pick modes from plots made from data saved during the first run and then compute
the eigenvectors associated with the chosen natural frequencies.
The advantages of Time Domain NVH include the ability to consider the material and structural
nonlinearity, damping and contact interface between various components. In other words, instead of
utilizing a linear implicit method, an explicit approach is under taken to first, predict the nonlinear
behavior of the structure, and then compute the NVH characteristics by FFT method. The double
precision version of MD Nastran Nonlinear Explicit (SOL 700) is used to ensure higher fidelity of
the solution.
The disadvantage of time domain NVH technique is the excessive CPU time since an analysis may be
required to run for a few seconds, considered a long runtime for an explicit simulation, before an FFT is
performed to compute frequencies and mode shapes. However, this problem is becoming less significant
due to the advanced Distributed Memory Parallel (DMP) technology in SOL 700 and dramatic hardware
performance improvements.
Figure 4-3 Time Domain NVH of vehicle running on proving grounds (courtesy of ETA)
Time Domain Data Frequency Domain Data
FFT Process
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Time Domain NVH
100
To define a time domain NVH simulation, refer to the new entries of TIMNVH, TIMSML, and TIMNAT in
the QRG and see the chassis example in SOL 700 User Guide. A simple example is listed below.
Time Domain NVH Example – Plate Subjected to a
Pulse Loading
SOL 700 entries included:
SOL 700
TSTEPNL
PARAM,S700NVH1
TIMNVH
TIMNAT
Description:
This is an example of a virtual dynamic test. A plate was modeled and a impulse loading was applied at
one of corner points. Time histories were obtained at six points and they were translated by Fast Fourier
Transformation (FFT) method to a frequency domain to obtain modal frequencies and shapes.
Model
To build a model, a plate was constructed with 231 grid points and 200 quadratic elements. A fixed
boundary condition was applied along one end. All shell elements were Belytschko-Wong-Chiang
formulation. The impact loading at the corner of the plate was modeled by defining the load time history
as shown in Figure 4-4. The simulation time is 1.024 seconds.
Main Index
101 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Time Domain NVH
Figure 4-4 Impluse Load applied at One Corner of the Plate
Time NVH Scheme
Input
The loading was applied at node 231 by using FORCE and TABLE1 entries. Using TIMNVH, TIMNAT,
and PARAM, S700NVH1, dynamic properties of the plate were obtained. There were three steps to
acquire the dynamic properties as follows:
Step 1: Find modal properties using TIMNVH entry in the first trial
Step 2: Check the obtained modal properties and select required natural frequencies
Step 3: Re-run with selected natural frequencies
MD Nastran SOL 700 (impluse loading)
Time history
- Displacement
- Velocity
- Acceleration (default)
Time domain -> Frequency domain using FFT
Extract dynamic properties:
Natural frequencies and Mode shapes
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Time Domain NVH
102
Input file timnvh.bdf
SOL 700 is a executive control card similar to SOL 600. It activates an explicit nonlinear
transient analysis.
Case control section is below.
Bulk entry section starts.
TSTEPNL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the number of Time Steps (100) and Time
Increment (10.24 ms) of the simulation. End time is the product of the two entries. Notice here the Time
Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time Increments and the exact value of the Time
Steps is determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The time step is a function of the smallest element
dimension during the simulation.
TIMNVH entry is for Time NVH analysis.
Detail for TIMNVH entry:
TIMNVH, 1, , , 1.0, 500., 3, 0.00005, 2,+
The range of natural frequencies to obtain is from 1.0 Hz to 500 Hz and only z-translational degrees of
freedom is considered (3). The sampling rate is 0.00005 seconds. The peaking criterion is two, which
means a peak is selected if the number of increasing and decreasing amplitude around a peak is over 2.
+, 0, 3, 1, 0.015, 0, 3, 13, .0030,+
Acceleration is selected for the response (0) and translational eigenvectors are only requested as ASCII
format (3). Eignevalues are normalized by 1.0 (1) and 0.015 is selected as CLOSE value which means if
there are two modes which distance is smaller than 0.015 Hz, it is assumed to be the same mode. ACII
SOL 700,NLTRAN path=3 stop=1
CEND
TITLE = MD Nastran job created on 12-Dec-06 at 11:21:25
LOADSET = 1
$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data
SUBCASE 1
TITLE=This is a default subcase.
TSTEPNL = 1
SPC = 2
DLOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL 1 100 .01024 1 ADAPT 2 10
TIMNVH,1,,,1.0,500.,3,0.00005,2,+
+,0,3,1,0.015,0,3,13,.0030,+
+,11,21,116,126,221,231
Main Index
103 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Time Domain NVH
file format of natural frequencies and eigenvalues are asked (0) and translational time histories of z-
direction are requested (3). Frequency-amplitude data of z-direction are asked (13) and a peak which
amplitude is less than 0.0030×the maximum amplitude is ignored (.0030)
+,11,21,116,126,221,231
The grid points 11, 21, 116, 126, 221 and 231 are only considered for Time Domain NVH analysis.
Bulk data entry that defines grid points and elements.
Bulk data entry that defines boundary conditions.
Bulk data entry that defines material properties.
MAT1 is an isotropic-elastic material card of SOL 700 bulk data entry.
Bulk data entry that defines properties for shell elements with .001 thickenss.
Bulk data entry that defines applying forces.
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 23 22
..
$ Nodes of the Entire Model
GRID 1 0. 0. 0.
..
SPCADD 2 1
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : fixed
SPC1 1 123456 1 22 43 64 85 106
127 148 169 190 211
$ Referenced Material Records
$ Material Record : steel
$ Description of Material : Date: 12-Dec-06 Time:
11:09:13
PSHELL 1 1 .001 1 1
$ Loads for Load Case : Default
TLOAD1 4 5 1
LSEQ 1 5 3
DLOAD 2 1. 1. 4
$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : impact
FORCE 3 231 0 .01 0. 0. -1.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Time Domain NVH
104
Bulk data entry that defines tables.
Input file timnvh1.bdf
This input is for the refinement of the selection of modal frequencies and mode shapes.
Only different part is shown
PARAM, S700NVH is for the re-run of Time NVH analysis. Using 1 as option Time Domain NVH
analysis is carried out without re-running SOL 700.
The PEAK value (original: 2) in TIMNVH card is changed to -2 to use TIMNAT card.
TIMNAT card is for the control of the natural frequency selection. In this job, 20.5, 88, 129, 285, 360 Hz
are selected to get the results.
Results
There are three types of new results file from Time Domain NVH analysis.
1. mode.out: the natural frequencies and eigenvalues selected are restored.
2. ampl-freq-00000116-3.txt : amplitude-frequency output of DOF =3 at grid point 116.
3. time-hist-00000116-3.txt: time history output of DOF =3 at grid point 116.
From the ampl-freq-*** files, the frequency-amplitude plots are obtained.
$ Dynamic Load Table : hammer
TABLED1 1
-10. 0. 0. 0. .001 1. .002 0.
10. 0. ENDT
..
ENDDATA
PARAM,S700NVH1,1
TSTEPNL 1 100 .01024 1 ADAPT 2 10
TIMNVH,1,,,1.0,500.,3,0.00005,-2,+
+,0,3,1,0.015,0,3,13,.0030,+
+,11,21,116,126,221,231
TIMNAT,1,20.5,88.,129.,285.,360.
Main Index
105 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Time Domain NVH
1.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.00E+00
1.00E+01
1.00E+02
1.00E+03
1.00E+04
0 100 200 300 400 500
Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

(
a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
)
node 11
node 21
node 116
node 126
node 221
node 231
2
nd
mode ~ 88.
3
rd
mode ~ 129.
4
th
mode ~ 285.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Time Domain NVH
106
In mode.out file,
Comparison of natural frequencies between SOL 103 and SOL 700 (Hz)
Comparison of mode shapes between SOL 103 and SOL 700
Mode SOL103 SOL 700 Diff(%)
1 2.0508E+01 2.0864E+01 1.74
2 8.7894E+01 8.8639E+01 0.85
3 1.2891E+02 1.2966E+02 0.58
4 2.8516E+02 2.8771E+02 0.89
5 3.6036E+02 3.6269E+02 0.65
MODES 1 18
EIGV 1 2.050821E+01
11-9.13892833E-06 3.86241316E-06 3.19331321E-01
21 2.14690732E-05-1.14613790E-05 9.95118635E-01
116-9.93770531E-06 2.13863912E-06 3.30875181E-01
126 7.27358928E-06-2.94809676E-06 1.00000000E+00
221-1.23613298E-05-3.06943202E-06 3.20993777E-01
231 1.35196599E-05 6.87379272E-06 9.99026322E-01
EIGV 2 8.789234E+01
11-5.69607103E-06 1.65922185E-06-6.09298304E-01
21 5.33656071E-06-7.67633319E-06-9.90453563E-01
116-3.47585317E-06 8.00428604E-07 1.97687095E-02
126 5.34868995E-06-3.96739670E-06-7.95414322E-03
221-4.07797686E-06-2.98546031E-06 5.90684541E-01
231 3.21720171E-06 7.30456344E-06 1.00000000E+00
1
st
Mode
Natural Frequency
Total Number of Modes
Node Number Mode Shape of x-direction Mode Shape of y-direction Mode Shape of z-direction
Main Index
107 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Time Domain NVH
Mode SOL 103 SOL 700
1
2
3
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Time Domain NVH
108
4
5
6 points sampling
12 points sampling
Mode SOL 103 SOL 700
Main Index
109 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Prestress (Implicit to Explicit Sequential Simulation)
Prestress (Implicit to Explicit Sequential Simulation)
Many applications require a prestress analysis prior to transient analysis. For example in bird strike
and blade out analysis, the blades of a running jet engine have residual stresses due to high
rotational velocities. SOL 700 uses the implicit solver for prestress analysis to reduce the CPU time.
Prestress calculations are performed by MD Nastran Nonlinear Explicit (SOL 700) implicit double
precision version where initial state of the model is written into a file that can only be used for subsequent
SOL 700 transient run. This is an automated process and there is no need for dynamic relaxation to
eliminate the high frequency oscillations.
The following entries may be used to define a pre-stressed state.
Caution must be exercised to use the appropriate element formulation to get consistent results during
prestress analysis. Implicit and explicit element formulations might differ from each other resulting in
different displacement or stress values. For this purpose, the following study is done to identify the
best element formulations in MD Nastran Nonlinear Explicit (SOL 700) implicit solver that match
closest to those in MD Nastran. It is therefore recommended that the users follow the guideline below for
prestress simulation.
Comparative Study between Nastran and MD Nastran SOL 700
Implicit Element Formulations
Model description: Two simple models were constructed for the comparative study. The first model
is a 1 x 1 square plate with a thickness of 0.01 and isotropic material. The element sizes are 0.2 x 0.2.
The plate model was constructed using the standard MD Nastran CQUAD4, CTRIA3 shells and then
were compared to MD Nastran Nonlinear Explicit (SOL 700) shell formulations under different
loading conditions.
Similarly, the second model is a 1 x 1 x 1 solid cube constructed with Nastran solid elements CHEXA,
CPENTA, and CTETRA as well as MD Nastran Nonlinear Explicit (SOL 700) different solid element
formulations. The size of elements are 0.2x0.2x0.2 with isotropic material. The solid model was
subjected to different loading condition to determine the consistency of the results between MD Nastran
and MD Nastran Nonlinear Explicit (SOL 700).
Two sets of analyses were done to compare the results in linear and nonlinear domain. For linear analysis,
only partial loading was used to remain in elastic range whereas the loading was ramped up beyond the
yield point to compare the nonlinear behavior of the elements.
PRESTRS Perform prestress run to calculate an initially stressed model and write out the initial
state to a file that can be used for a subsequent explicit SOL 700 run
ISTRSBE Initialize stresses and plastic strains in the Hughes-Liu beam elements
ISTRSSH Initialize stresses, history variables and the effective plastic strain for shell elements
ISTRSTS Initialize stresses, history variables and the effective plastic strain for thick
shell elements.
ISTRSSO Initialize stresses and plastic strains for solid elements
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Prestress (Implicit to Explicit Sequential Simulation)
110
Model
Material: Isotropic & elastic (E=1000., v=0.3 and density=1.)
1. Plate Model:
Size: 1x1
Thickness: 0.01
Element size: 0.2x0.2
a. Boundary Condition – Fixed at all edges
b. loading condition:
case 1. Z- Translational Loading at the every grid point: 1.E-2
case 2. X-Rotational Loading at the every grid point: 1.E-2
case 3. Pressure at the top surface 1E-2
Main Index
111 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Prestress (Implicit to Explicit Sequential Simulation)
c. CTRIA
Loading and boundary conditions are the same as CQUAD4
d. CSHEAR
Not tested yet.
2. Solid Model
Cube Size: 1x1x1
a. CHEXA Element size: 0.2x0.2x0.2
Case 1 Case 2
Case 3
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Prestress (Implicit to Explicit Sequential Simulation)
112
Boundary Condition: Fixed at the bottom surface.
b. loading condition
case 1. Z- Translational Loading on the every grid point at the top: 1.E-2
case 2. Pressure at the top surface 1E-2
c. CPENTA The same loading and boundary conditions as the Hexa case
d. TETRA
The same loading and boundary conditions as the Hexa case
Main Index
113 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Prestress (Implicit to Explicit Sequential Simulation)
LS-DYNA Model:
The following entries were used for the linear analysis of the shells:
*CONTROL_SHELL
,1
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_AUTO
0
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL
1,0.1,,0,0,0,0
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLUTION
2,5,,0.01,0.01
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLVER
, , , ,1,100.
*CONTROL_TERMINATION
1.0000
Similarly for solid model:
*CONTROL_SOLID
1,2
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_AUTO
0
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL
1,0.1,,0,0,0,0
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLUTION
2,5,,0.01,0.01
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLVER
, , , ,1,100.
LS-DYNA Element formulations used in the study:
CQUAD4 : ELFORM= 1,2,6,10,16,18,20
CTRIA: ELFORM= 1,2,6,10,16,17,18,20,21
HEXA: ELFORM= 1,2,6,18
TETRA: ELFORM= 1,2,4,10,16,18
PENTA: ELFORM= 1,2,15,18
Results:
The results for the linear and nonlinear static analyses are shown in Table 4-1. Even though many
elements showed close results (within 10% differences), several cases had a large variance of more than
10%. These are highlighted in red.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Prestress (Implicit to Explicit Sequential Simulation)
114
Table 4-1 Comparative Results Between MD Nastran and LS-DYNA Implicit Elements
Description of LS-DYNA element formulations:
SECTION_SHELL
ELFORM=1: Hughes-Liu,
ELFORM=2: Belytschko-Tsay (default),
ELFORM=6: S/R Hughes-Liu,
ELFORM=10: Belytschko-Wong-Chiang,
ELFORM=16: Fully integrated shell element,
ELFORM=17: Fully integrated DKT, triangular shell element,
ELFORM=18: Taylor 4-node quadrilateral and 3-node triangle (linear only)
ELFORM=20: Wilson 3 & 4-node DSE quadrilateral (linear only)
ELFORM=21: Fully integrated linear assumed strain C0 shell (5 DOF).
ELFORM=22: Linear shear panel element (3 DOF per node)
SECTION_SOLID
ELFORM=1: constant stress solid element,
ELFORM=2: fully integrated S/R solid. See remark 5 below,
ELFORM=3: fully integrated 8 node solid with rotational DOFs,
DYNA (linear) DYNA (nonlinear) SOL101 SOL106 %Diff (linear and SOL101) %Diff (n
FORCE 1.008E+01 1.008E+01 1.040E+01 8.400E-02 3.08
PRESSURE 4.031E-01 4.03E-01 4.140E-01 2.680E-02 2.63
MOMENT 3.559E+00 3.559E+00 3.400E+00 Not converged 4.68
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=1 FORCE 1.019E+01 8.030E-02 1.040E+01 8.400E-02 2.02
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=2 FORCE 1.019E+01 8.030E-02 1.040E+01 8.400E-02 2.02
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=6 FORCE 1.002E+01 8.300E-02 1.040E+01 8.400E-02 3.65
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=10 FORCE 8.620E+00 8.539E-02 1.040E+01 8.400E-02 17.12
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=16 FORCE 1.003E+01 8.411E-02 1.040E+01 8.400E-02 3.56
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=20 FORCE 1.084E+01 7.781E-02 1.040E+01 8.400E-02 4.23
FORCE 1.040E+01 7.369E-02 9.660E+00 7.870E-02 7.66
PRESSURE 4.147E-01 2.546E-02 3.860E-01 2.680E-02 7.44
MOMENT 3.557E+00 Not converged 3.470E+00 Not converged 2.51
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=1 FORCE 3.819E+00 7.382E-02 9.660E+00 7.870E-02 60.47
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=2 FORCE 3.819E+00 7.382E-02 9.660E+00 7.870E-02 60.47
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=6 FORCE 3.819E+00 7.382E-02 9.660E+00 7.870E-02 60.47
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=10 FORCE 3.819E+00 7.382E-02 9.660E+00 7.870E-02 60.47
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=16 FORCE 3.819E+00 7.382E-02 9.660E+00 7.870E-02 60.47
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=17 FORCE 9.778E+00 7.397E-02 9.660E+00 7.870E-02 1.22
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=20 FORCE 1.040E+01 7.369E-02 9.660E+00 7.870E-02 7.66
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=21 FORCE 1.040E+01 7.369E-02 9.660E+00 7.870E-02 7.66
FORCE 6.416E-02 6.416E-02 6.500E-02 6.290E-02 1.29
PRESSURE 9.952E-04 9.958E-04 9.950E-04 9.960E-04 0.02
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=1 FORCE 9.356E-02 9.132E-02 6.500E-02 6.290E-02 43.94
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=2 FORCE 6.577E-02 6.734E-02 6.500E-02 6.290E-02 1.18
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=3 FORCE 1.016E-01 1.243E-01 6.500E-02 6.290E-02 56.31
FORCE 6.047E-02 6.179E-02 6.050E-02 5.890E-02 0.05
PRESSURE 9.928E-04 9.921E-04 9.930E-04 9.930E-04 0.02
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=1 FORCE 6.047E-02 6.179E-02 6.050E-02 5.890E-02 0.05
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=2 FORCE 6.047E-02 6.179E-02 6.050E-02 5.890E-02 0.05
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=4 FORCE 4.021E-02 9.077E-02 6.050E-02 5.890E-02 33.54
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=10 FORCE 6.047E-02 6.179E-02 6.050E-02 5.890E-02 0.05
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=16 FORCE 6.047E-02 6.179E-02 6.050E-02 5.890E-02 0.05
FORCE 7.200E-02 7.191E-02 7.060E-02 6.820E-02 1.98
PRESSURE 9.978E-04 9.970E-04 9.960E-04 9.970E-04 0.18
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=1 FORCE 7.200E-02 7.191E-02 7.060E-02 6.820E-02 1.98
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=2 FORCE 7.200E-02 7.191E-02 7.060E-02 6.820E-02 1.98
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=15 FORCE 7.200E-02 7.191E-02 7.060E-02 6.820E-02 1.98
LS-DYNA
SOLID
CHEXA
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=18
CTETRA
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=18
CPENTA
SECTION_SOLID with ELFORM=18
LOADING
Output
Displacement
SHELL
CQUAD4
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=18
CTRIA
SECTION_SHELL with ELFORM=18
Nastran
Main Index
115 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Prestress (Implicit to Explicit Sequential Simulation)
ELFORM=4: fully integrated S/R 4 node tetrahedron with rotational DOFs,
ELFORM=10: 1 point tetrahedron.
ELFORM=15: 2 point pentahedron element.
ELFORM=16: 5 point 10 noded tetrahedron
ELFORM=18: 8 point enhanced strain solid element for linear statics only,
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Time Step Control
116
Time Step Control
During the solution, we loop through the elements to update the stresses and the right-hand side force
vector. We also determine a new time step size by taking the minimum value over all elements.
where is the number of elements. For stability reasons the scale factor is typically set to a value of
.90 (default) or some smaller value.
Time Step Calculations for Solid Elements
A critical time step size, , is computed for solid elements from
where is a function of the bulk viscosity coefficients and :
is a characteristic length:
is the element volume, is the area of the largest side, and is the adiabatic sound speed:
where is the specific mass density. Noting that:
and that along an isentrope the incremental energy, , in the units of pressure is the product of pressure,
, and the incremental relative volume, :
we obtain
8 node solids:
4 node tetrahedras:
At
n 1 +
o mi n At
1
At
2
A , t
3
. At
N
. . . { } · =
N o
At
e
At
e
L
e
Q Q
2
c
2
+ ( )
1 2
+ | | { }
------------------------------------------------------- =
Q C
0
C
1
Q C
1
c C
0
L
e
c
·
kk
+ = for c
·
kk
0 < ( )
Q 0 =
for c
·
kk
0 > ( )
L
e
L
e
u
e
A
e
max
-------------- =
L
e
minimum altitude =
u
e
A
max
C
C
4G
3p
0
---------
cp
cp
------
.
|
s
+
1 2
=
p
cp
cp
------
.
|
s
cp
cp
------
.
|
E
cp
cE
-------
.
|
p
cE
cp
-------
.
|
s
+ =
E
p dV
dE pdV =
c
4G
3p
0
---------
cp
cp
------
.
|
E
pV
2
p
0
---------
cp
cE
-------
.
|
p
+ +
1 2
=
Main Index
117 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Time Step Control
For elastic materials with a constant bulk modulus, the sound speed is given by:
where is Young’s modulus, and is Poisson’s ratio.
Time Step Calculations for Beam and Truss Elements
For the Hughes-Liu beam and truss elements, the time step size is give by:
(4-1)
where is the length of the element and is the wave speed:
(4-2)
For the Belytschko beam, the time step size given by the longitudinal sound speed is used (Equation
(4-1)), unless the bending-related time step size given by [Belytschko and Tsay 1982]
is smaller, where and are the maximum value of the moment of inertia and area of the cross section,
respectively.
Comparison of critical time steps of the truss versus the elastic solid element shows that it if Poisson's
ratio, . is nonzero the solid elements give a considerably smaller stable time step size. If we define the
ratio, , as:
,
we obtain the results in Table 4-2 where we can see that as approaches .5 .
Time Step Calculations for Shell Elements
For the shell elements, the time step size is given by:
Table 4-2 Comparison of Critical Time Step Sizes for a Truss vs a Solid Element
0. 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.45 0.49 0.50
1. 0.949 0.862 0.683 0.513 0.242 0.0
c
E 1 u – ( )
1 u + ( ) 1 2u – ( )p
-------------------------------------------- =
E u
At
e
L
c
--- =
L c
c
E
p
--- =
At
e
.5L
3I
3
12I AL
2
+
-------------------------
1
AL
2
---------- +
c
----------------------------------------------------------- =
I A
u
o
o
At
cont i nuum
At
rod
----------------------------
C
rod
C
cont i nuum
--------------------------
1 u + ( ) 1 2u – ( )
1 u –
---------------------------------------- = = =
u o 0 ÷
u
o
At
e
L
s
c
----- =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Time Step Control
118
where is the characteristic length and is the sound speed:
(4-3)
Three user options exists for choosing the characteristic length. In the first (default) option, the
characteristic length is given by:
where for quadrilateral and for triangular shell elements, is the area, and is
the length of the sides defining the shell elements.
In the second option, a more conservative value of is used:
where is the length of the diagonals.
The third option provides the largest time step size and is frequently used when triangular shell elements
have very short altitudes. The bar wave speed, Equation (4-2), is used to compute the time step size and
is give by
A comparison of critical time steps of truss versus shells is given in Table 4-3 with defined as:
Time Step Calculations for Solid Shell Elements
A critical time step size, is computed for solid shell elements from
where is the element volume, is the area of the largest side, and is the plane stress sound speed
given in Equation (4-3).
Table 4-3 Comparison of Critical Time Step Sizes for a Truss vs a Shell Element
0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
1.0 0.98 0.954 0.917 0.866
L
s
c
c
E
p 1 v
2
– ( )
------------------------ =
L
s
1 | + ( )A
s
max L
1
L
2
L
3
1 | – ( )L
4
. . . ( )
-------------------------------------------------------------------- =
| 0 = 1 A
s
Li i ( . 1.4 ) =
L
s
L
s
1 | + ( )A
s
max D
1
D
2
. ( )
--------------------------------- =
D
i
i ( 1 2 ) . =
L
s
L
s
max
1 | + ( )A
s
max L
1
L
2
L
3
1 | – ( )L
4
. . . ( )
-------------------------------------------------------------------- mi n L
1
L
2
L
3
L
4
|10
20
+ . . . ( ) . =
|
|
At
2D cont i nuum –
At
rod
---------------------------------------
C
rod
C
----------- 1 u
2
– = = =
u
|
At
e
At
e
u
e
cA
e
max
----------------- =
u
e
A
e
max
c
Main Index
119 Chapter 4: Special Modeling Techniques
Time Step Control
Time Step Calculations for Discrete Elements
For spring elements such as that in Figure 4-5 there is no wave propagation speed to calculate the
critical time step size.
Figure 4-5 Lumped Spring Mass System
The eigenvalue problem for the free vibration of spring with nodal masses and , and stiffness, ,
is given by:
Since the determinant of the characteristic equation must equal zero, we can solve for the maximum
eigenvalue:
Recalling the critical time step of a truss element:
and approximating the spring masses by using 1/2 the actual nodal mass, we obtain:
Therefore, in terms of the nodal mass, we can write the critical time step size as:
The springs used in the contact interface are not checked for stability.
c
m
1
- 0.5 M
1
m
2
- 0.5 M
2
M
1
= nodal mass
M
2
= nodal mass
;
;
m
1
m
2
k
k k –
k – k
u
1
u
2
e
2
m
1
0
0 m
2
u
1
u
2

0
0
=
det
k e
2
m
1
– k –
k – k e
2
m
2

0 e
max
2
÷
k m
1
m
2
+ ( )
m
1
m
2
·
---------------------------- = =
At

c
-- s
e
max
2c

------ =
)
¦
`
¦
¹
At
2
e
max
------------ s
At
m
1
m
2
m
1
m
2
+
--------------------
1
k
-- -
2
=
At
e
2M
1
M
2
k M
1
M
2
+ ( )
------------------------------
2
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Time Step Control
120
Main Index
Chapter 5: Constraints and Loadings
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
5
Constraints and Loadings

Constraint Definition 122

Lagrangian Loading 126

Eulerian Loading and Constraints 129

Boundary and Loading Conditions - Theoretical Background 137
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Constraint Definition
122
Constraint Definition
The motion of part or all of a mesh can be prescribed by application of constraints.
Single-Point Constraints
A single-point constraint is used to prescribe the motion of a translational or rotational degree of freedom.
The constraint is effective throughout the analysis and is used to specify boundary conditions or planes
of symmetry.
A single-point constraint is defined by an SPCn entry. The SPC entry defines the constraints on one grid
point, while the SPC1 defines the constraints to be applied to a set of grid points. Several sets of SPC
entries can be defined in the Bulk Data Section, but only those selected in the Case Control Section using
the SPC = n command are incorporated in the analysis.
Single-point constraints can also be defined using the GRIDt entry. These constraints are present for the
entire analysis and do not need to be selected in Case Control. This is valid only for SPC and SPC1.
Since Sol 700 is an explicit code, there is no matrix decomposition. Therefore, the problems of singular
matrices that occur with some implicit codes do not exist. All, or part of the Lagrangian mesh can be
entirely unconstrained and can undergo rigid body motion. SOL 700 correctly calculates the motion of
the mesh. Similarly, the redundant degrees of freedom, such as the in-plane rotation of shell elements, do
not need to be constrained since they do not affect the solution. The only constraints that are needed are
those representing the boundary conditions of the model and those necessary for any planes of symmetry.
The following SPC types are supported in MD Nastran SOL 700.
• SPC
• SPC1
• SPCADD
• SPCD (at present, only velocity is available)
• SPCD2
Multi-Point Constraints
MPCs are special element types which define a rigorous behavior between several specified nodes. The
following MPC types which are supported for MD Nastran SOL 700:
• MPC
• RBAR
• RBE2
• RBE2A
• RBE2D
• RBE2F
• RBE3
Main Index
123 Chapter 5: Constraints and Loadings
Constraint Definition
• RBE3D
• RBJOINT
• REJSTIFF
• RCONN
Specifying Explicit MPCs
MPC’s may be created between a dependent degree of freedom and one or more independent degrees of
freedom. The dependent term consists of a node ID and a degree of freedom; an independent term
consists of a coefficient, a node ID, and a degree of freedom. An unlimited number of independent terms
can be specified, but only one dependent term can be specified. The constant term is not allowed in
MD Nastran.
References
“MPC” in the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
Contact in SOL 700
The detailed theory behind the implementation of contact in SOL 700 is discussed in Chapter 8: Contact
Impact Algorithm. However, here we discuss the contact methodology and definition as implemented in
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear.
The simulation of many physical problems requires the ability to model the contact phenomena. This
includes impact simulations, drop testing, component crush, crash, and manufacturing processes among
others. The analysis of contact behavior is complex because of the requirement to accurately track the
motion of multiple geometric bodies, and the motion due to the interaction of these bodies after contact
occurs. This includes representing the friction between surfaces if required. The numerical objective is
to detect the motion of the bodies, apply a constraint to avoid penetration, and apply appropriate
boundary conditions to simulate the frictional behavior and heat transfer. Several procedures have been
developed to treat these problems including the use of Perturbed or Augmented Lagrangian methods,
penalty methods, and direct constraints. Furthermore, contact simulation has often required the use of
special contact or gap elements. MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear allows contact analysis to be performed
automatically without the use of special contact elements. A robust numerical procedure to simulate these
complex physical problems has been implemented in MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear.
Contact problems can be classified as one of the following types of contact.
• Deformable-Deformable contact between two and three-dimensional deformable bodies.
• Rigid - Deformable contact between a deformable body and a rigid body, for two- or
three-dimensional cases.
MPC Types Description
MPC Defines a multipoint constraint equation.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Constraint Definition
124
Contact problems involve a variety of different geometric and kinematic situations. Some contact
problems involve small relative sliding between the contacting surfaces, while others involve large
sliding or penetration followed by perforation and failure. Some contact problems involve contact over
large areas, while others involve contact between discrete points. The general Contact Body approach in
SOL 600 is also adopted by MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) to model contact and can be used
to handle most contact problem definitions.
Contact Bodies
There are two types of contact bodies in MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear – deformable and rigid.
Deformable bodies are simply a collection of finite elements as shown below.
Figure 5-1 Deformable Body
This body has three key aspects to it:
1. The elements which make up the body.
2. The nodes on the external surfaces which might contact another body or itself. These nodes are
treated as potential contact nodes.
3. The edges (2-D) or faces (3-D) which describe the outer surface which a node on another body
(or the same body) might contact. These edges/faces are treated as potential contact segments.
Note that a body can be multiply connected (have holes in itself). It is also possible for a body to have a
self contact where the entire surface folds on to itself. A contact may include 1-D elements such as beams
and rods, 2-D elements such as shells and membranes, and 3-D elements such as solids.
Each element should be in, at most, one body. The elements in a body are defined using the BCBODY
option. It is not necessary to identify the grid points on the exterior surfaces as this is done automatically.
The algorithm used is based on the fact that grid points on the boundary are on element edges or faces that
belong to only one element. Each node on the exterior surface is treated as a potential slave grid point.
The second type of a contact body is called Rigid bodies. Rigid bodies are composed of (2-D) or (3-D)
meshes and their most significant aspect is that they do not distort. Deformable bodies can contact rigid
bodies and contact between rigid bodies is also allowed.
Main Index
125 Chapter 5: Constraints and Loadings
Constraint Definition
Rigid Walls
A rigid wall is a plane through which specified slave grid points cannot penetrate. The rigid wall provides
a convenient way of defining rigid targets in impact analyses.
Any number of rigid walls can be specified using WALL entries. The orientation of each wall is defined
by the coordinates of a point on the wall and a vector that is perpendicular to the wall and points towards
the model.
At each time step, a check is made to determine whether the slave grid points have penetrated the wall.
These slave points are defined using a Case Control SET entry, and there can be any number of them.
Since a check is made for every slave point at each time step, you should specify only those points as
slave points that are expected to contact the wall in order to ensure the most efficient solution.
If a slave point is found to have penetrated the wall, it is moved back towards the wall so that its
momentum is conserved. If the slave point subsequently moves away from the wall, it is allowed to do so.
Slave points cannot have any other constraint. They can, however, be part of other contact.
Contact Detection
During the incremental procedure, each potential contact node is first checked to see whether it is near a
contact segment. The contact segments are either edges of other 2- D deformable bodies, faces of 3-D
deformable bodies, or segments from rigid bodies. By default, each node could contact any other segment
including segments on the body that it belongs to. This allows a body to contact itself. To simplify the
computation, it is possible to use the BCTABLE entry to indicate that a particular body will or will not
contact another body. This is often used to indicate that a body will not contact itself. During the iteration
process, the motion of the node is checked to see whether it has penetrated a surface by determining
whether it has crossed a segment.
For more detailed discussion on the Contact, refer to Chapter 8: Contact Impact Algorithm of this guide
and see Chapter 12 in the SOL 600 User’s Guide.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Loading
126
Lagrangian Loading
This section covers the different ways that the analysis model can be loaded. The facilities available are:
• Concentrated Loads and Moments
• FORCE, FORCE2, or DAREA – Fixed-Direction Concentrated Loads
• Pressure Loads
• Initial Conditions
Concentrated Loads and Moments
Concentrated loads and moments can be applied to any grid point using the DAREA, FORCE, FORCE2,
entries in combination with a TLOADn entry.
The types of concentrated load that can be applied are discussed in the following section.
FORCE, FORCE2, or DAREA – Fixed-Direction
Concentrated Loads
The FORCE, FORCE2, and DAREA entries define fixed direction loads. In other words, the direction of
the force is constant throughout the analysis and does not change as the structure moves.
FORCE, FORCE2, and DAREA entries have the same effect but define the loading in different ways. With
the DAREA entry, you specify the grid point, the direction in the basic coordinate system in which the
load acts, and the scale factor. With the FORCE entry, a concentrated force remains in the same direction
for the entire problem. For FORCE2, the direction of the force follows the deformation and you define
the grid point and the components of a vector giving the loading direction and the scale factor. In this
case, the magnitude of the vector also acts as a scale factor, so the force in direction i is given by
. P
i
AN
i
=
Main Index
127 Chapter 5: Constraints and Loadings
Lagrangian Loading
On a rigid body, the concentrated load or enforced motion is specified by defining the load at the rigid
body center of gravity. To do so, set the TYPE field of the TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entries to 13 and 12,
respectively. The G field in the FORCE entry references the property number of the rigid body.
Pressure Loads
Pressure loads are applied to the faces of solid elements and to shell elements. Pressure loads are defined
using the PLOAD or PLOAD4 entry in combination with a TLOADn entry.
TLOAD2 also references a set of PLOAD and/or PLOAD4 entries. Each entry selects the face of the
element to be loaded by its grid points and defines the scale factor to be applied to the curve of pressure
versus time. The actual pressure acting on the element is given as follows:
where is the scale factor.
The direction of positive pressure is calculated according to the right-hand rule using the sequence of grid
points on the PLOAD entry. For PLOAD4 entries, the pressure is inwards for solid elements and in the
direction of the element normal vector for shell elements.
The RFORCE entry defines enforced motion due to a centrifugal acceleration field. This motion affects
all structural elements present in the problem. The GRAV defines an enforced motion due to a
gravitational acceleration field. This motion affects all Lagrangian elements.
Grid points with enforced motion cannot be:
• Attached to a rigid body.
• A slave point for a rigid wall.
To specify the motion of a rigid body, the enforced motion of the rigid-body center of gravity must be
defined. To do so, set the TYPE field of the TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 entries to 12. The G field on the
DAREA, FORCE entry references the property number of the rigid body.
p
el
p
el
t ( ) Ap t ( ) =
A
G3
G2
G4
G1
G3
G2
G1
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Loading
128
Initial Conditions
The initial velocity of grid points can be defined using TIC, TIC3, and TICD entries. This allows the initial
state of the model to be set prior to running the analysis. It is important to recognize the difference
between initial velocities and enforced velocities. Enforced velocities specify the motion of grid points
throughout the transient analysis. Initial velocities, on the other hand, specify the velocity of grid points
at the beginning of the analysis. Thereafter, the velocities are determined by the calculation.
Where TIC and TIC3 set only the initial grid-point velocity, the TICD entry can be used to set the initial
value of any valid grid point variable. It can also refer to a local coordinate system by including the CID1
and/or CID2 entry in the list.
Main Index
129 Chapter 5: Constraints and Loadings
Eulerian Loading and Constraints
Eulerian Loading and Constraints
Loading Definition
The implementation of loading and constraints within Eulerian meshes is somewhat different than that
in a Lagrangian mesh. Eulerian constraints apply to element faces within the mesh rather than to the grid
points. The code allows you to set the initial conditions for material in Eulerian elements, constrain
material with fixed barriers, apply gravitational body forces, apply pressure boundaries to element faces,
apply flow boundaries where material enters or leaves the mesh, and couple the mesh so that the material
interacts with the Lagrangian parts of the model.
If an exterior or free face of an Eulerian mesh does not have a specific boundary condition, by default, it
forms a barrier through which the material cannot flow. The default can be redefined by using a
FLOWDEF entry.
Flow Boundary
A flow boundary defines the physical properties of material flowing in or out of Eulerian elements and
the location of the flow. The FLOW entry is referenced by a TLOAD1. The TYPE field on the TLOAD1
must be set to 4.
The FLOW entry references a set of segments, specified by BCSEG entries, through which the material
flows. The subsequent fields allow you to specify the x, y, or z velocity, the pressure, and the density or
specific internal energy of the flowing material. If only the pressure is defined, this gives a pressure
boundary. Any variables not specified take the value in the element that the material that is flowing into
or out of the flow.
Rigid Wall
The BARRIER entry defines a wall that is equivalent to a Lagrangian rigid wall. This is a barrier to
material transport in an Eulerian mesh. The barrier is defined by a set of faces generated from a BCSEG
entry through which no material can flow.
This is the default condition for any exterior faces of the Eulerian mesh that do not have a FLOW
boundary specified. However, the BARRIER entry can be used to specify rigid walls within an
Eulerian mesh.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Loading and Constraints
130
Initial Conditions
The initial conditions of Eulerian elements can be defined using the TICEL or TICEUL1 entry or by using
the option “initeul=” in the sol700.pth file. This allows the initial state of the model to be set prior to
running the analysis. It is important to recognize the difference between initial conditions and enforced
conditions. Enforced conditions specify the loading and constraints of material throughout the transient
analysis. Initial conditions, on the other hand, specify the state of the material only at the beginning of
the analysis. Thereafter, the material state is determined by the calculation.
TICEL
The TICEL entry defines transient initial conditions for elements. Any valid element variable can be given
an initial value.
INITEUL
The INITEUL entry imports an Euler archive into a follow-up run and maps it onto the defined Euler
elements. If the follow-up run uses a coupling surface, then in the first run, this coupling surface can be
left out provided that physics in the Euler have not reached the coupling surface at the end of the first run.
In the follow-up run, a coarser mesh can be used to reduce CPU time.
TICEUL1
The TICEUL1 entry defines transient initial conditions for geometrical regions in the Eulerian mesh using
the TICREG entries. The TICEUL1 entry must be used together with the PEULER1 property definition.
Eulerian Mesh
BARRIER Boundary
Main Index
131 Chapter 5: Constraints and Loadings
Eulerian Loading and Constraints
With the TICREG entry, it is possible to generate initial conditions inside or outside multifaceted surfaces,
analytical cylindrical or spherical geometry shapes and in sets of elements.
Each geometrical region (multifaceted surface, cylinder, sphere, box or set of elements) has a level
number. This allows the creation of regions of arbitrary shape by allowing the regions to overlap. An
element that lies in two or more geometrical regions is assigned to the region that has the highest
level number.
Think of geometrical regions as shapes cut out of opaque paper. Position the region of the lowest level
number on the mesh. Then, place the next higher region on top of the first and continue until all the
regions are in place. When the last region is placed, you have a map indicating to which region each
element in the problem is assigned.
The following figure shows how three different geometrical regions can be used to create regions of
arbitrary shape. The solid line represents the boundary of the mesh. Region one (LEVEL = 1) is the large
dashed rectangle. Region two (LEVEL = 2) is the long narrow rectangle. Region three (LEVEL = 3) is a
circular region. The numbers on the diagram indicate how the elements in different parts of the mesh are
assigned to these three regions.
If two or more regions with the same level number but different initial value sets or materials overlap,
the regions are ambiguously defined resulting in an error.
Multifaceted surfaces that are used in initial value generation must be closed and form a positive volume
and are defined on the SURFINI entry. The SURFINI entry is referred to from the TICREG entry and
together with a TICVAL entry the initial condition for the initialization surface is defined.
1
1
1
1
2 2
3
3
3
LEVEL = 1
LEVEL = 2
LEVEL = 3
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Loading and Constraints
132
Example 1:
In the example below, a combination of two multi-faceted surfaces, a cylindrical and a spherical shape
together with a block of elements (all Eulerian elements) are used to define the initial conditions in an
Eulerian rectangular mesh.
The different shapes, initial value sets and levels used are shown below. All elements of the Eulerian
mesh are defined as an ELEMENT shape with void and the lowest level 6 (see input file below). This
means that the part of an element that doesn’t fall inside any of the shapes will be initialized as being
void.7.
Plot of the material inside the Eulerian mesh after initialization.
Input:
TICEUL1,101,101
TICREG,1,101,SURF,6,12,204,9.
TICREG,1,101,SURF,7,12,205,10.
TICREG,1,101,CYLINDER,8,12,206,7.
TICREG,1,101,SPHERE,9,12,207,8.
TICREG,1,101,ELEM,444,,,6.
SET1,444,50000,THRU,53375
$
TICVAL,204,,DENSITY,1000.,XVEL,50.
TICVAL,205,,DENSITY,1000.,XVEL,50.
Main Index
133 Chapter 5: Constraints and Loadings
Eulerian Loading and Constraints
TICVAL,206,,DENSITY,1000.,XVEL,50.
TICVAL,207,,DENSITY,1000.,XVEL,50.
$
BCPROP 116
SURFINI 6 6 Inside On On
$
BCPROP 117
SURFINI 7 7 Inside On On
$
CYLINDR,8,,1.0,.5,.5,2.0,.5,.5,+
+,.075
SPHERE,9,,1.75,.5,.5,.15
Example 2:
In the example below a multifaceted surface is used with the OUTSIDE option. When the OUTSIDE
option is used on the SURFINI entry, the parts of the Eulerian elements that fall outside the initialization
surface are initialized.
Plot of the material inside the Eulerian mesh after initialization:
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Loading and Constraints
134
Input:
TICEUL1,102,102
TICREG,1,102,SURF,8,12,204,9.
TICREG,2,102,,CYLINDER,7,12,206,7.
TICREG,3,102,,ELEM,445,,,5.
SET1,445,60000,THRU,63375
$
BCPROP 118
SURFINI 8 8 Outside On On
$
CYLINDR,7,,1.0,.20,.50,3.0,.40,.50,+
+,.1
Any initial condition that you define will act on the material as it is defined within the confines of the
Eulerian mesh.
The user can define a radial velocity field for the material in an Eulerian domain. The definition does not
apply the standard element variables, but a sequence of four definitions that completely specify the radial
velocity field. You need to define the center from where the radial is to emerge (X-CENTER, Y-CENTER,
and Z-CENTER), the velocity in the direction of the radial (R-VEL) and the decay coefficient (DECAY).
Assume the element center at location and the location of where the radial emerges as .
With , the velocity along the radial and the decay coefficient , the velocity components for the element
(mass) can be computed:
and
The velocity components resulting from the radial field are added to the velocity components otherwise
defined for the element.
Note that the dimension of RVEL changes with the value of DECAY.
Example 3:
Assume the initialization is with sphere with origin at (0,0,0) and has a radius of 2.
The DECAY coefficient is 3 and the velocity of air at the sphere boundary is 400.
The value of R-VEL is:
Input:
PEULER1,100,,2ndOrder,101
$
TICEUL1,101,101
TICREG,1,101,SPHERE,1,1,4,2.0
TICREG,2,101,ELEM,2,1,5,1.0
$
SPHERE,1,,0.,0.,0.,2.0
x y z . . ( ) x y z . . ( )
R
·
|
r
x x
r

x x
r

------------------- = v r R
·
x x
r
– ( )
|
· · =
R VEL –
400
2
3
--------- 50 = =
Main Index
135 Chapter 5: Constraints and Loadings
Eulerian Loading and Constraints
TICVAL 4 DENSITY 1.1468-7SIE 3.204+8 ZVEL 20000.
+CONT
+CONT X-CENTER0.0 Y-CENTER0.0 Z-CENTER0.0 R-VEL 50.
+CONT
+CONT DECAY 3.0
$
SET1,2,1,THRU,10000
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.1468-7,SIE,3.204+8
Detonation
Eulerian elements that reference a JWL equation of state (EOSJWL) have to be detonated. A DETSPH
entry must be present that defines a spherical detonation wave. You define the location of the detonation
point, the time of detonation, and the speed of the detonation wave. The solver then calculates the
time at which each explosive element detonates. Elements that do not have a JWL equation of state
are unaffected.
Body Forces
If the GRAV entry is specified, the Eulerian material also has body forces acting on the material mass.
The GRAV entry defines acceleration in any direction. All Eulerian material present in the problem
is affected.
Hydrostatic Preset
With PARAM, HYDSTAT, the Euler element densities are initialized in accordance to a hydrostatic
pressure profile. This PARAM requires the use of the GRAV entry.
To impose matching boundary conditions FLOW,,,HYDSTAT and PORHYDS can be used. These two
entries use the following boundary conditions:
• The pressure given by hydrostatic pressure profile. This is defined by the HYDSTAT entry
• The velocities are set equal to their element values.
• If fluid flows in, its density is derived from the hydrostatic pressure.
Speedup for 2-D Axial Symmetric Models
To simulate a 2-D axial symmetric model, a 3-D pie model can be used. To get sufficient accuracy, the
angle of the pie should be smaller than five degrees but not too small. The small angle gives a mesh size
in circumferential direction that is much smaller than the mesh sizes in the other directions. This results
in a small time step. In principle, the mesh size in the circumferential direction can be skipped for the
time step computation. But often there are small errors in the circumferential normals and the
circumferential direction has to be taken into account. With DYPARAM,AXIALSYM, these normals are
automatically aligned. This allows a time step that is only based on the axial and radial directions,
resulting in a significant larger time step. The larger time step is automatically computed when using
DYPARAM,AXIALSYM.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Loading and Constraints
136
Viscosity and Skin Friction in Euler
Viscosity is available for the HYDRO, MMHYDRO, and the Roe solver. It is activated by setting the
viscosity entry on the EOSPOL, EOSTAIT, EOSEX, or EOSGAM options. This entry specifies the
dynamic viscosity that relates shear stress to velocity gradients. Besides physical viscosity, the first-order
solvers introduce a certain amount of artificial viscosity. This amount is problem dependent and the total
viscosity can become significantly larger than the physical one. The Roe solver, using standard settings,
has no artificial viscosity. Only in case of a transonic rarefaction waves, is a limited amount of artificial
viscosity introduced.
With viscosity active, the Euler equations are replaced by the Navier-Stokes equation. Heat transfer and
heat generation by viscous dissipation are not taken into account. In addition, a no-slip condition is
enforced at the boundaries.
In most flows, the viscous effects are limited to a small region alongside the boundary. This region is
called the boundary layer. Outside this region, the flow is more or less inviscid and its size depends on
the Reynolds number. The thickness of the boundary layer scales as . Flows with large Reynolds
number have small boundary layers. To accurately simulate the boundary layer, several elements are
needed across it. To see whether Euler elements are sufficiently fine, the mesh can be refined a bit. If
element tangential shear stresses at the wall do not change significantly, the boundary layer is sufficiently
captured. For flow with a large Reynolds number, this may require very small mesh sizes. To avoid small
mesh sizes, the tangential shear stress at the wall can be computed by an empirical law that relates the
shear stress to the element velocity:
Here, denotes the skin-friction coefficient, the density, and the relative tangential velocity. The
skin-friction coefficient is available either in literature or from experimental studies. Moreover, the skin
friction can account, to some degree, for turbulence and roughness of the structural surface.
Considering first-order methods, if the artificial viscosity is larger than the physical viscosity, artificial
viscosity enters into the Reynolds number. In this case, artificial viscosity can increase the size of the
boundary layer. If the artificial viscosity is larger than the physical viscosity and boundary layers play a
dominant role in the flow, first-order methods are not appropriate and the Roe solver has to be used. If
the physical viscosity is larger than the artificial viscosity, there are no restriction on the use of viscosity.
Boundary Conditions
At walls, the no-slip condition is enforced. When viscosity is activated, walls cannot be used to simulate
symmetry planes. To simulate symmetry planes, define a flow boundary condition with normal velocity
set to zero and any tangential velocity left unspecified.
At flow boundaries and porous sub surfaces, a prescribed tangential velocities also give rise to
viscous shear stresses when the tangential Euler element velocity does not match the prescribed
tangential velocity.
1
Re
-----------
t
1
2
-- - f pv
2
=
f p v
Main Index
137 Chapter 5: Constraints and Loadings
Boundary and Loading Conditions - Theoretical Background
Boundary and Loading Conditions -
Theoretical Background
Pressure Boundary Conditions
Consider pressure loadings on boundary in (5-1). To carry out the surface integration indicated by
the integral:
(5-1)
a Gaussian quadrature rule is used. To locate any point of the surface under consideration, a position
vector, , is defined:
(5-2)
where:
(5-3)
and , , and are unit vectors in the , , and directions (see (5-2)).
Nodal quantities are interpolated over the four-node linear surface by the functions:
(5-4)
so that the differential surface area may be written in terms of the curvilinear coordinates as:
where is the surface Jacobian defined by:
(5-5)
in which:
(5-6)
cb
1
N
t
t s d
cb
1
í
¸
r f
1
c n , ( ) i
1
f
2
c n , ( )i
2
f
3
c n , ( )i
3
+ + =
f
i
c n , ( ) o
j
x
i
j
j 1 =
4
¯
=
i
1
i
2
i
3
x
1
x
2
x
3
o
i
1
4
-- - 1 cc
i
+ ( ) 1 nn
i
+ ( ) =
ds
ds J dcdn =
J
J
cr
cc
------
cr
cn
------- × EG F
2
– ( )
1 2
= =
E
cr
cc
------
cr
cc
------ · =
F
cr
cc
------
cr
cn
------- · =
G
cr
cn
-------
cr
cn
------- · =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Boundary and Loading Conditions - Theoretical Background
138
A unit normal vector to the surface segment is given by:
(5-7)
and the global components of the traction vector can now be written:
(5-8)
where is the applied pressure at the jth node.
Figure 5-2 Parametric Representation of a Surface Segment
The surface integral for a segment is evaluated as:
(5-9)
One such integral is computed for each surface segment on which a pressure loading acts. Note that the
Jacobians cancel when (5-7) and (5-6) are put into (5-9). Equation (5-9) is evaluated with one-point
integration analogous to that employed in the volume integrals. The area of an element side is
approximated by where .
n
n J
1 –
cr
cc
------
cr
cn
------- ×
\ .
| |
=
t
i
n
i
o
j
p
j
j 1 =
4
¯
=
p
j
x
3
x
2
x
1
i
3
i
2
i
1
r
c.n
1
2
3
4
c
n
N
t
t J
1 –
1
í
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
c d ( ) n d
1 –
1
í
4 J J J 0 0 . ( ) =
Main Index
139 Chapter 5: Constraints and Loadings
Boundary and Loading Conditions - Theoretical Background
Kinematic Boundary Conditions
In this subsection, the kinematic constraints are briefly reviewed. SOL 700 tracks reaction forces for each
type of kinematic constraint and provides this information as output if requested. For the prescribed
boundary conditions, the input energy is integrated and included in the external work.
Displacement Constraints
Translational and rotational boundary constraints are imposed either globally or locally by setting the
constrained acceleration components to zero. If nodal single point constraints are employed, the
constraints are imposed in a local system. The user defines the local system by specifying a vector in
the direction of the local x-axis, , and a local in-plane vector . After normalizing , the local , ,
and

axes are given by:
(5-10)
(5-11)
(5-12)
A transformation matrix is constructed to transform the acceleration components to the local system:
(5-13)
and the nodal translational and rotational acceleration vectors and , for node I are transformed to
the local system:
(5-14)
(5-15)
and the constrained components are zeroed. The modified vectors are then transformed back to the
global system:
(5-16)
(5-17)
u
l
x
l
v
l
u
l
x
l
y
l
z
l
x
l
u
l
u
l
--------- =
z
l
x
l
v
l
×
x
l
v
l
×
-------------------- =
y
l
z
l
x
l
× =
q
q
x
l
t
y
l
t
z
l
t
=
a
I
e
·
I
a
I
l
qa
I
=
e
·
I
l
qe
·
I
=
a
I
q
t
a
I
l
=
e
·
I
q
t
e
·
I
l
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Boundary and Loading Conditions - Theoretical Background
140
Prescribed Displacements, Velocities, and Accelerations
Prescribed displacements, velocities, and accelerations are treated in a nearly identical way to
displacement constraints. After imposing the zero displacement constraints, the prescribed values are
imposed as velocities at time,
.
The acceleration versus time curve is integrated or the displacement
versus time curve is differentiated to generate the velocity versus time curve. The prescribed nodal
components are then set.
Body Force Loads
Body force loads are used in many applications. For example, in structural analysis the base accelerations
can be applied in the simulation of earthquake loadings, the gun firing of projectiles, and gravitational
loads. The latter is often used with dynamic relaxation to initialize the internal forces before proceeding
with the transient response calculation. In aircraft engine design the body forces are generated by the
application of an angular velocity of the spinning structure.
For base accelerations and gravity, we can fix the base and apply the loading as part of the body force
loads element by element according to (5-18).
(5-18)
where is the base acceleration and is the element (lumped) mass matrix.
t
n 1 2 +
f
ebody
pN
t
Na
base
u d
v
m
í
m
e
a
base
= =
a
base
m
e
Main Index
Chapter 6: Elements
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
6
Elements

Elements Overview 142

Preliminaries 146

CHEXA Solid Elements 150

CBEAM - Belytschko Beam 160

CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam 169

CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell 178

CQUAD4 DYSHELLFORM = 10, Belytschko-Wong-Chiang Improvements
187

CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 4, C0 Triangular Shell 190

CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 3, Marchertas-Belytschko Triangular Shell
(BCIZ) 196

CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell 203

CQUAD4, DYSHELLFORM = 6, 7, Fully Integrated Hughes-Liu Shells
213

Transverse Shear Treatment for Layered Shell 217

CROD, Truss Element 222CQUAD4 - DYSHELLFORM = 9, Membrane
Element 223

CELAS1D, Discrete Elements and CONM2, Masses 225

CDAMP2D, Linear Elastic or Linear Viscous 230

Eulerian Elements 231

Graded Meshes 232
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Elements Overview
142
Elements Overview
The heart of a finite element program lies in its element library which allows you to model a structure for
analysis. MD Nastran has a very comprehensive element library which lets you model 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D
structures. This section gives some basic definitions of the element types available in MD Nastran
Explicit Nonlinear. Please note, these elements differ from those used in other portions of MD Nastran.
Element Types
Each element has five definitive characteristics that determine its behavior:
• Class
• Number of Nodes
• Interpolation
• Degrees of Freedom
• Integration Method
Class
The type of geometric domain that an element represents determines the class of the element. Listed
below are the classes of elements in the MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear element library.
• Beam Elements - a 3-D bar with axial, bending, and torsional stiffness.
• Shell Elements - a curved, thin or thick structure with membrane/bending capabilities.
• Plate Elements - a flat thin structure carrying in-plane and out-of-plane loads.
• Continuum Elements - Solid elements used to model thick sections.
• Plane stress - a thin plate with in-plane stresses only. All normal and shear stresses associated
with the out-of-plane direction are assumed to be zero. (All plane strain elements lie in the global
x-y plane.)
• Plane strain - a region where there is no out-of-plane motion and the normal and transverse
strains are zero.
• Generalized plane strain is the same as plane strain except that the normal z-strain can be a
prescribed constant or function of x and y.
• Axisymmetric elements are describe in 2-D, but represent a full 3-D structure where the
geometry and loading are both axisymmetric.
• 3-D solid - a solid structure with only translational degrees of freedom for each node (linear or
quadratic interpolation functions).
• Truss Elements - a 3-D rod with axial stiffness only (no bending).
• Membrane Elements - a thin sheet with in-plane stiffness only (no bending resistance).
• Concentrated mass/Springs/Damper Elements -
• Rigid Constraints -
Main Index
143 Chapter 6: Elements
Elements Overview
Number of Nodes
The number of nodes for an element define where the displacements are calculated in the analysis.
Elements with only corner nodes are classified as first order elements and the calculation of
displacements at locations within the element are made by linear interpolation. Elements that contain
midside nodes are second order elements and quadratic interpolations are made for calculating
displacements. MD Nastran SOL 700 do not support second order elements.
In MD Nastran, the number of nodes is designated at the end of the element name. For example, a
CQUAD4 has 4 nodes.
Interpolation
Interpolation (shape) function is an assumed function relating the displacements at a point inside an
element to the displacements at the nodes of an element. In MD Nastran, three types of shape functions
are used: linear, quadratic, and cubic.
Degrees of Freedom
Degrees of freedom is the number of unknowns at a node. In the general case, there are six degrees of
freedom at a node in structural analysis (three translations, three rotations). For example there are three
(translations) for 3-D truss element; six (three translations, three rotations) for a 3-D beam element and
only three translations for the 3-D solid elements.
Integration
Numerical integration is a method used for evaluating integrals over an element. Element quantities –
such as stresses, strains, and temperatures – are calculated at each integration point of the element. Full
integration (quadrature) requires, for every element, 2-D integration points for linear interpolation and 3-
D points for quadratic interpolation, where scalar “d” is the number of geometric dimensions of an
element (that is, d = 2 for a quad; d = 3 for a hexahedron). Reduced integration uses a lower number of
integration points than necessary to integrate exactly. For example, for an 8-node quadrilateral, the
number of integration points is reduced from 9 to 4 and, for a 20-node hexahedron, from 27 to 8. For
some elements, an “hourglass” control method is used to insure an accurate solution.
Table 6-1 summarizes the elements available in MD Nastran SOL 700. This section describes the
characteristics of the elements. For shell elements CTRIA3 and CQUAD4, shell element
PARAM,DYNSHELLFORM is used to control the behavior.
Table 6-1 Elements in MD Nastran SOL 700
MD
Nastran Available in SOL 700 Fatal Error
CBAR Y
CBEAM Y
CBELT Y
CBEND N Y
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Elements Overview
144
CBUSH N Y
CBUTT Y
CCONEAX N Y
CCRSFIL Y
CDAMP1 Y
CDAMP2 Y
CDAMP1D Y
CDAMP2D Y
CELAS1 Y
CELAS2 Y
CELAS1D Y
CELAS2D Y
CFILLET Y
CFLUID N Y
CGAP N Y
CHACAB N Y
CHACBR N Y
CHEXA Y (8 Nodes only)
COMBWLD Y
CONM2 Y
CONROD Y
CONSPOT Y
CPENTA Y (6 Nodes only)
CQUAD4 Y
CQUAD8 Y (4 Nodes only)
CQUADR Y
CQUADX N Y
CROD Y
CSHEAR N Y
CSPOT Y
CSPR Y
Table 6-1 Elements in MD Nastran SOL 700
MD
Nastran Available in SOL 700 Fatal Error
Main Index
145 Chapter 6: Elements
Elements Overview
CTETRA Y (4 and 10 Nodes)
CTRIA3 Y
CTRIA6 Y (3 Nodes only)
CTRIA3R Y
CTRIAX N Y
CTRIAX6 N Y
CTQUAD Y
CTTRIA Y
CTUBE Y
CVISC Y
CWELD N Y
Table 6-1 Elements in MD Nastran SOL 700
MD
Nastran Available in SOL 700 Fatal Error
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Preliminaries
146
Preliminaries
Consider the body shown in Figure 6-1. We are interested in time-dependent deformation in which a point
in b initially at in a fixed rectangular Cartesian coordinate system moves to a point
in the same coordinate system. Since a Lagrangian formulation is considered, the deformation
can be expressed in terms of the convected coordinates , and time
(6-1)
At time , we have the initial conditions
(6-2)
(6-3)
where defines the initial velocities.
Figure 6-1 Notation
X
o
o 1 2 3 . . = ( ) x
i
i 1 2 3 . . = ( )
X
o
t
x
i
x
i
X
o
t . ( ) =
t 0 =
x
i
X
o
0 . ( ) X
o
=
x
·
i
X
o
0 . ( ) V
i
X
o
( ) =
V
i
x
3
X
3
x
2
X
2
t 0 =
c
B
B
0
b
n
c
b
x
1
X
1
Main Index
147 Chapter 6: Elements
Preliminaries
Governing Equations
We seek a solution to the momentum equation
(6-4)
satisfying the traction boundary conditions
(6-5)
on boundary , the displacement boundary conditions
(6-6)
on boundary , the contact discontinuity
(6-7)
along an interior boundary

when . Here is the Cauchy stress, is the current density, is
the body force density, is acceleration, the comma denotes covariant differentiation, and is a unit
outward normal to a boundary element of .
Mass conservation is trivially stated
(6-8)
where is the relative volume, i.e., the determinant of the deformation gradient matrix, ,
(6-9)
and is the reference density. The energy equation
(6-10)
is integrated in time and is used for equation of state evaluations and a global energy balance. In Equation
(6-10), and represent the deviatoric stresses and pressure,
(6-11)
(6-12)
respectively, is the bulk viscosity, is the Kronecker delta ( if ; otherwise ) and
is the strain rate tensor. The strain rates and bulk viscosity are discussed later.
o
i j j .
pf
i
+ px
··
i
=
o
i j
n
j
t
i
t ( ) =
cb
1
x
i
X
o t .
( ) D
i
t ( ) =
cb
2
o
i j
+
o
i j
-
– ( )n
i
0 =
cb
3
X
i
+
x
i
-
= o
i j
p f
x
··
n
j
cb
pV p
0
=
V F
i j
F
i j
cx
i
cX
j
-------- =
p
0
E
·
Vs
i j
c
·
i j
p q + ( )V
·
– =
s
i j
p
s
i j
o
i j
p q + ( )o
i j
+ =
p
1
3
-- - o
i j
o
i j
– q –
1
3
-- - o
kk
– q – = =
q o
i j
o
i j
1 = i j = o
i j
0 =
c
·
i j
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Preliminaries
148
We can write:
(6-13)
where satisfies all boundary conditions on , and the integrations are over the current geometry.
Application of the divergence theorem gives
(6-14)
and noting that
(6-15)
leads to the weak form of the equilibrium equations:
(6-16)
a statement of the principle of virtual work.
We superimpose a mesh of finite elements interconnected at nodal points on a reference configuration
and track particles through time; i.e.,
(6-17)
where are shape (interpolation) functions of the parametric coordinates
,
is the number of
nodal points defining the element, and is the nodal coordinate of the jth node in the ith direction.
Summing over the n elements we may approximate with
(6-18)
and write
(6-19)
px
··
i
o
i j j .
– pf
i
– ( )ox
i
v o
i j
n
j
t
i
– ( )ox
i
s
o
i j
+
o
i j
-
– ( )n
j
ox
i
s d
cb
3
í
+
d
cb
1
í
+ d
v
í
0 =
ox
i
cb
2
o
i j
ox
i
( ) du
j
.
u
í
o
i j
n
j
ox
i
s o
i j
+
o
i j
-
– ( )n
j
ox
i
s d
cb
3
í
+ d
cb
1
í
=
o
i j
ox
i
( ) o
i j j .
ox
i

j
, o
i j
ox
i j .
=
ot px
··
i
ox
i
u o
i j
ox
i j .
u pf
i
ox
i
u t
i
ox
i
s d
cb
1
í
– d
u
í
– d
u
í
+ d
u
í
0 = =
x
i
X
o
t , ( ) x
i
X
o
c n . , , ( ) t , ( ) o
j
c n . , , ( )x
i
j
t ( )
j 1 =
k
¯
= =
o
j
c n . , , ( ) k
x
i
j
ot
ot ot
m
m 1 =
n
¯
0 = =
px
··
i
u
i
m
u o
i j
m
u
i j ,
m
u pf
i
u
i
m
u t
i
u
i
m
s d
cb
1
í
– d
u
m
í
– d
u
m
í
+ d
u
m
í
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
m 1 =
n
¯
0 =
Main Index
149 Chapter 6: Elements
Preliminaries
where
(6-20)
In matrix notation (6-19) becomes:
(6-21)
where is an interpolation matrix, is the stress vector
(6-22)
is the strain-displacement matrix, is the nodal acceleration vector
(6-23)
is the body force load vector, and are applied traction loads.
(6-24)
u
i
m
o
1
o
2
. o
k
, , , ( )
i
m
=
pN
t
Na u B
t
o u pN
t
b u N
t
t s d
cb
1
í
– d
u
m
í
– d
u
m
í
+ d
u
m
í
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
m
m 1 =
n
¯
0 =
N o
o
t
o
xx
o
yy
o
zz
o
xy
o
yz
o
zx
. . . . . ( ) =
B a
x
··
1
x
··
2
x
··
3
N
a
x
1
a
y
1
a
y
k
a
z
k
Na = =
.
b t
b
f
x
f
y
f
z
= t
t
x
t
y
t
z
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CHEXA Solid Elements
150
CHEXA Solid Elements
For a mesh of 8-node hexahedron solid elements, (6-17) becomes:
(6-25)
The shape function is defined for the 8-node hexahedron as
(6-26)
where take on their nodal values of and is the nodal coordinate of the th node in
the th direction (see Figure 6-2).
Figure 6-2 Eight-node Solid Hexahedron Element
For a solid element, is the 3 x 24 rectangular interpolation matrix given by
(6-27)
x
i
X
o
t . ( ) x
i
X
o
c n . , , ( ) t . ( ) o
j
c n . , , ( )x
i
j
t ( )
j 1 =
8
¯
= =
o
j
o
j
1
8
-- - 1 cc
j
+ ( ) 1 nn
j
+ ( ) 1 ..
j
+ ( ) =
c
j
n
j
.
j
, , 1 1 1 ± . ± . ± ( ) x
i
j
j
i
2
3
4
8
7
5
6
1
c
.
n
Node
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
c
-1
1
1
-1
-1
1
1
-1
n
-1
-1
1
1
-1
-1
1
1
.
-1
-1
-1
-1
1
1
1
1
N
N c n . , , ( )
o
1
0 0 o
2
0 . 0 0
0 o
1
0 0 o
2
. o
8
0
0 0 o
1
0 0 . 0 o
8
=
Main Index
151 Chapter 6: Elements
CHEXA Solid Elements
is the stress vector
(6-28)
is the 6 x 24 strain-displacement matrix
(6-29)
In order to achieve a diagonal mass matrix the rows are summed giving the th diagonal term as
(6-30)
since the basis functions sum to unity.
Terms in the strain-displacement matrix are readily calculated. Note that
(6-31)
which can be rewritten as
(6-32)
o
o
t
o
xx
o
yy
o
zz
o
xy
o
yz
o
zx
. . . . . ( ) =
B
B
c
cx
------ 0 0
0
c
cy
------ 0
0 0
c
cz
-----
c
cy
------
c
cx
------ 0
0
c
cz
-----
c
cy
------
c
cz
----- 0
c
cx
------
N =
k
m
kk
po
k
o
i
i 1 =
8
¯
u d
u
í
po
k
u d
u
í
= =
co
i
cc
--------
co
i
cx
--------
cx
cc
------
co
i
cy
--------
cy
cc
------
co
i
cz
--------
cz
cc
------ + + =
co
i
cn
--------
co
i
cx
--------
cx
cn
-------
co
i
cy
--------
cy
cn
-------
co
i
cz
--------
cz
cn
------- + + =
co
i
c.
--------
co
i
cx
--------
cx
c.
------
co
i
cy
--------
cy
c.
------
co
i
cz
--------
cz
c.
------ + + =
co
i
cc
--------
co
i
cn
--------
co
i
c.
--------
cx
cc
------
cy
cc
------
cz
cc
------
cx
cn
-------
cy
cn
-------
cz
cn
-------
cx
c.
------
cy
c.
------
cz
c.
------
co
i
cx
--------
co
i
cy
--------
co
i
cz
--------
J
co
i
cx
--------
co
i
cy
--------
co
i
cz
--------
= =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CHEXA Solid Elements
152
Inverting the Jacobian matrix, , we can solve for the desired terms
(6-33)
Volume Integration
Volume integration is carried out with Gaussian quadrature. If is some function defined over the
volume, and is the number of integration points, then
(6-34)
is approximated by
(6-35)
where are the weighting factors,
(6-36)
and is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix. For one-point quadrature
(6-37)
and we can write
(6-38)
Note that approximates the element volume.
Perhaps the biggest advantage to one-point integration is a substantial savings in computer time. An anti-
symmetry property of the strain matrix
(6-39)
J
co
i
cx
--------
co
i
cy
--------
co
i
cz
--------
J
1 –
co
i
cc
--------
co
i
cn
--------
co
i
c.
--------
=
g
n
g u d
u
í
g J c d n d . d
1 –
1
í
1 –
1
í
1 –
1
í
=
g
j kl
J
j kl
w
j
w
k
w
l
l 1 =
n
¯
k 1 =
n
¯
j 1 =
n
¯
w
j
w
k
w
l
. .
g
j kl
g c
j
n
k
.
l
. . ( ) =
J
n 1 =
w
i
w
j
w
k
2 = = =
c
1
n
1
.
1
0 = = =
g v d
í
8g 0 0 0 , , ( ) J 0 0 0 , , ( ) =
8 J 0 0 0 , , ( )
co
1
cx
i
---------
co
7
cx
i
--------- – =
co
3
cx
i
---------
co
5
cx
i
--------- – =
co
2
cx
i
---------
co
8
cx
i
--------- – =
co
4
cx
i
---------
co
6
cx
i
--------- – =
Main Index
153 Chapter 6: Elements
CHEXA Solid Elements
at reduces the amount of effort required to compute this matrix by more than 25 times
over an 8-point integration. This cost savings extends to strain and element nodal force calculations
where the number of multiplies is reduced by a factor of 16. Because only one constitutive evaluation is
needed, the time spent determining stresses is reduced by a factor of eight. Operation counts for the
constant stress hexahedron are given in Table 6-2. Included are counts for the Flanagan and Belytschko
[1981] hexahedron and the hexahedron used by Wilkins [1974] in his integral finite difference method,
which was also implemented [Hallquist 1979].
.
It may be noted that 8-point integration has another disadvantage in addition to cost. Fully integrated
elements used in the solution of plasticity problems and other problems where Poisson’s ratio
approaches .5 lock up in the constant volume bending modes. To preclude locking, an average pressure
must be used over the elements; consequently, the zero energy modes are resisted by the deviatoric
stresses. If the deviatoric stresses are insignificant relative to the pressure or, even worse, if material
failure causes loss of this stress state component, hourglassing will still occur, but with no means of
resisting it. Sometimes, however, the cost of the fully integrated element may be justified by increased
reliability and if used sparingly may actually increase the overall speed.
Hourglass Control
The biggest disadvantage to one-point integration is the need to control the zero energy modes, which
arise, called hourglassing modes. Undesirable hourglass modes tend to have periods that are typically
much shorter than the periods of the structural response, and they are often observed to be oscillatory.
However, hourglass modes that have periods that are comparable to the structural response periods may
be a stable kinematic component of the global deformation modes and must be admissible. One way of
resisting undesirable hourglassing is with a viscous damping or small elastic stiffness capable of stopping
the formation of the anomalous modes but having a negligible affect on the stable global modes. Two of
the early three-dimensional algorithms for controlling the hourglass modes were developed by Kosloff
and Frazier [1974] and Wilkins et al. [1974].
Table 6-2 Operation Counts for Constant Stress Hexahedron*
Flanagan-Wilkins
SOL 700
Belytschko
[1981] FDM
Strain displacement matrix 94 357 843
Strain rates 87 56
Force 117 195 270
Subtotal 298 708 1,113
Hourglass control 130 620 680
Total 428 1328 1,793
*Includes adds, subtracts, multiplies, and divides in major subroutines,
and is independent of vectorization.
c n . 0 = = =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CHEXA Solid Elements
154
Since the hourglass deformation modes are orthogonal to the strain calculations, work done by the
hourglass resistance is neglected in the energy equation. This may lead to a slight loss of energy;
however, hourglass control is always recommended for the under integrated solid elements. The energy
dissipated by the hourglass forces reacting against the formations of the hourglass modes is tracked and
reported in the output files MATSUM and GLSTAT. This is only provided if the PARM,DYENERGYGE
is included.
It is easy to understand the reasons for the formation of the hourglass modes. Consider the following
strain rate calculations for the 8-node solid element
(6-40)
Whenever diagonally opposite nodes have identical velocities; i.e.,
(6-41)
the strain rates are identically zero:
(6-42)
due to the asymmetries in (6-39). It is easy to prove the orthogonality of the hourglass shape vectors,
which are listed in Table 6-3 and shown in Figure 6-2 with the derivatives of the shape functions:
(6-43)
The hourglass modes of an 8-node element with one integration point are shown [Flanagan and
Belytschko 1981] (Figure 6-3). A total of twelve modes exist.
Table 6-3 Hourglass Base Vectors
1 1 1 1
-1 1 -1 -1
1 -1 -1
-1 -1 1 -1
1 -1 -1 -1
-1 -1 1 1
1 1 1 -1
-1 1 -1 1
c
·
i j
1
2
-- -
co
k
cx
i
-------- x
·
j
k
co
k
cx
j
-------- x
·
i
k
+
k 1 =
8
¯
\ .
|
|
| |
=
x
·
i
1
x
·
i
7
x
·
i
2
. x
·
i
8
x
·
i
3
. x
·
i
5
x
·
i
4
. x
·
i
6
= = = =
c
·
i j
0 =
co
k
cx
i
-------- I
ok
k 1 =
8
¯
0 = i 1 2 3 , , =
o 1 2 3 4 , , , =
o 1 = o 2 = o 3 = o 4 =
I
j 1
I
j 2
I
j 3
I
j 4
I
j 5
I
j 6
I
j 7
I
j 8
Main Index
155 Chapter 6: Elements
CHEXA Solid Elements
Figure 6-3 Hourglass Modes
The product of the base vectors with the nodal velocities
(6-44)
are nonzero if hourglass modes are present. The 12 hourglass-resisting force vectors, are
(6-45)
where
(6-46)
in which is the element volume, is the material sound speed, and is a user-defined constant
usually set to a value between .05 and .15. This is defined by DYHRGQH PARAM. The hourglass resisting
forces of (6-45) are not orthogonal to rigid body rotations; however, the approach of Flanagan and
Belytschko [1981] is orthogonal. This is controlled by using the DYHRGIHQ PARAM.
Material subroutines add as little as 60 operations for the bilinear elastic-plastic routine to ten times as
much for multi-surface plasticity and reactive flow models. Unvectorized material models will increase
that share of the cost a factor of four or more.
I1k I2k
I3k I4k
h
i o
x
·
i
k
I
ok
k 1 =
8
¯
0 = =
f
i o
k
f
i o
k
a
h
h
i o
I
ok
=
a
h
Q
hg
pv
e
2 3
c
4
-- - =
v
e
c Q
hg
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CHEXA Solid Elements
156
Instead of resisting components of the bilinear velocity field that are orthogonal to the strain calculation,
Flanagan and Belytschko resist components of the velocity field that are not part of a fully linear field.
They call this field, defined below, the hourglass velocity field
(6-47)
where
(6-48)
(6-49)
Flanagan and Belytschko construct geometry-dependent hourglass shape vectors that are orthogonal to
the fully linear velocity field and the rigid body field. With these vectors they resist the hourglass velocity
deformations. Defining hourglass shape vectors in terms of the base vectors as
(6-50)
and setting
(6-51)
the 12 resisting force vectors become
(6-52)
where is a constant given in (6-45).
The hourglass forces given by (6-45) and (6-52) are identical if the, hexahedron element is a
parallelepiped. The default hourglass control method for solid element is given by (6-45); however, we
recommend the Flanagan-Belytschko approach for problems that have large rigid body rotations since
the default approach is not orthogonal to rigid body rotations.
A cost comparison in Table 6-2 shows that the default hourglass viscosity requires approximately 130
adds or multiplies per hexahedron, compared to 620 and 680 for the algorithms of Flanagan-Belytschko
and Wilkins.
Hourglass stabilization for the 3-D hexahedral element is available. Based on material properties and
element geometry, this stiffness type stabilization is developed by an assumed strain method [Belytschko
and Bindeman 1993] such that the element does not lock with nearly incompressible material. This is
activated by using the PARAM,DYHRGIHG,6. When the user-defined hourglass constant is set to 1.0,
accurate coarse mesh bending stiffness is obtained for elastic material. For nonlinear material, a smaller
value of is suggested and the default value is set to 0.1.
x
·
i
k
HG
x
·
i
x
·
i
k
LIN
– =
x
·
i
k
LIN
x
·
i
x
·
i j ,
x
j
k
x
j
– ( ) + =
x
i
1
8
-- - x
i
k
k 1 =
8
¯
= x
·
i
1
8
-- - x
·
i
k
k 1 =
8
¯
=
¸
ak
I
ak
o
k i ,
x
i
n
I
an
n 1 =
8
¯
– =
g
i a
x
·
i
k
¸
ok
k 1 =
8
¯
0 = =
f
i o
k
a
h
g
i o
¸
ok
=
a
h
Q
hg
Q
hg
Main Index
157 Chapter 6: Elements
CHEXA Solid Elements
Fully Integrated Brick Elements and Mid-Step
Strain Evaluation
To avoid locking in the fully integrated brick elements strain increments at a point in a constant pressure,
solid element are defined by [see Nagtegaal, Parks, and Rice 1974]
(6-53)
where modifies the normal strains to ensure that the total volumetric strain increment at each
integration point is identical
(6-54)
and is the average volumetric strain increment in the midpoint geometry
(6-55)
, and are displacement increments in the , and directions, respectively, and
(6-56)
(6-57)
(6-58)
To satisfy the condition that rigid body rotations cause zero straining, it is necessary to use the geometry
at the mid-step in the evaluation of the strain increments. The explicity formulation uses the geometry at
step to save operations; however, for calculations, which involve rotating parts, the mid-step
geometry should be used especially if the number of revolutions is large.
Ac
yy
cAv
cy
n 1 2 +
----------------------- o + = Ac
yz
cAw
cy
n 1 2 +
-----------------------
cAv
cz
n 1 2 +
---------------------- +
2
----------------------------------------------------- =
Ac
xx
cAu
cx
n 1 2 +
----------------------- o + = Ac
xy
cAv
cx
n 1 2 +
-----------------------
cAu
cy
n 1 2 +
----------------------- +
2
------------------------------------------------------ =
Ac
zz
cAw
cz
n 1 2 +
---------------------- o + = Ac
zx
cAu
cz
n 1 2 +
----------------------
cAw
cx
n 1 2 +
----------------------- +
2
----------------------------------------------------- =
o
o Ac
v
n 1 2 +
cAu
cx
n 1 2 +
-----------------------
cAv
cy
n 1 2 +
-----------------------
cAw
cz
n 1 2 +
---------------------- + +
3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ – =
Ac
v
n 1 2 +
1
3
-- -
cAu
cx
n 1 2 +
-----------------------
cAv
cy
n 1 2 +
-----------------------
cAw
cz
n 1 2 +
---------------------- + +
\ .
| |
v
n 1 2 +
d
v
n 1 2 +
í
v
n 1 2 +
d
v
n 1 2 +
í
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Au Av . Aw x y . z
x
n 1 2 +
x
n
x
n 1 +
+ ( )
2
------------------------------ =
y
n 1 2 +
y
n
y
n 1 +
+ ( )
2
------------------------------ =
z
n 1 2 +
z
n
z
n 1 +
+ ( )
2
----------------------------- =
n 1 +
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CHEXA Solid Elements
158
Since the bulk modulus is constant in the plastic and viscoelastic material models, constant pressure solid
elements result. In the thermoelastoplastic material, a constant temperature is assumed over the element.
In the soil and crushable foam material, an average relative volume is computed for the element at time
step , and the pressure and bulk modulus associated with this relative volume is used at each
integration point. For equations of state, one pressure evaluation is done per element and is added to the
deviatoric stress tensor at each integration point.
The foregoing procedure requires that the strain-displacement matrix corresponding to equation (6-53)
and consistent with a constant volumetric strain, ,

be used in the nodal force calculations [Hughes
1980]. It is easy to show that:
(6-59)
and avoid the needless complexities of computing .
CTETRA - Four Node Tetrahedron Element
The four node tetrahedron element with one point integration, shown in Figure 6-4, is a simple, fast, solid
element that has proven to be very useful in modeling low density foams that have high compressibility.
For most applications, however, this element is too stiff to give reliable results and is primarily used for
transitions in meshes. The formulation follows the formulation for the one point solid element with the
difference that there are no kinematic modes, so hourglass control is not needed. The basis functions are
given by:
(6-60)
Figure 6-4 Four-node tetrahedron
n 1 +
B
F B
n 1
t
+
o
n 1 +
v
n 1 +
d
v
n 1 +
í
B
n 1
t
+
o
n 1 +
v
n 1 +
d
v
n 1 +
í
= =
B
N
1
r s t . . ( ) r =
N
2
r s t . . ( ) s =
N
3
r s t . . ( ) 1 r – s – t – =
N
4
r s t . . ( ) t =
r
1
2
s
3
4
t
Main Index
159 Chapter 6: Elements
CHEXA Solid Elements
If a tetrahedron element is needed, this element should be used instead of the collapsed solid element
since it is, in general, considerably more stable in addition to being much faster.
CPENTA - Six Node Pentahedron Element
The pentahedron element with two point Gauss integration along its length, shown in Figure 6-5, is a
solid element that has proven to be very useful in modeling axisymmetric structures where wedge shaped
elements are used along the axis-of-revolution. The formulation follows the formulation for the one point
solid element with the difference that, like the tetrahedron element, there are no kinematic modes, so
hourglass control is not needed. The basis functions are given by:
(6-61)
If a pentahedron element is needed, this element should be used instead of the collapsed solid element
since it is, in general, more stable and significantly faster. Selective-reduced integration is used to prevent
volumetric locking; i.e., a constant pressure over the domain of the element is assumed.
Figure 6-5 Six Node Pentahedron
N
1
r s t . . ( )
1
2
--- 1 t – ( )r =
N
2
r s t . . ( )
1
2
--- 1 t – ( ) 1 r – s – ( ) =
N
3
r s t . . ( )
1
2
--- 1 t + ( ) 1 r – s – ( ) =
N
4
r s t . . ( )
1
2
--- 1 t + ( )r =
N
5
r s t . . ( )
1
2
--- 1 t – ( )s =
N
6
r s t . . ( )
1
2
--- 1 t + ( )s =
5
1
r
4
2
6
s
t
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam
160
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam
The Belytschko beam element formulation [Belytschko et. al.1977] is part of a family of structural finite
elements, by Belytschko and other researchers that employ a ‘co-rotational technique’ in the element
formulation for treating large rotation. This section discusses the co-rotational formulation, since the
formulation is most easily described for a beam element, and then describes the beam theory used to
formulate the co-rotational beam element.
Co-rotational Technique
In any large displacement formulation, the goal is to separate the deformation displacements from the
rigid body displacements, as only the deformation displacements give rise to strains and the associated
generation of strain energy. This separation is usually accomplished by comparing the current
configuration with a reference configuration.
The current configuration is a complete description of the deformed body in its current spatial location
and orientation, giving locations of all points (nodes) comprising the body. The reference configuration
can be either the initial configuration of the body (i.e., nodal locations at time zero) or the configuration
of the body at some other state (time). Often, the reference configuration is chosen to be the previous
configuration, say at time .
The choice of the reference configuration determines the type of deformations that will be computed:
total deformations result from comparing the current configuration with the initial configuration, while
incremental deformations result from comparing with the previous configuration. In most time stepping
(numerical) Lagrangian formulations, incremental deformations are used because they result in
significant simplifications of other algorithms, chiefly constitutive models.
A direct comparison of the current configuration with the reference configuration does not result in a
determination of the deformation, but rather provides the total (or incremental) displacements. We will
use the unqualified term displacements to mean either the total displacements or the incremental
displacements, depending on the choice of the reference configuration as the initial or the last state. This
is perhaps most obvious if the reference configuration is the initial configuration. The direct comparison
of the current configuration with the reference configuration yields displacements, which contain
components due to deformations and rigid body motions. The task remains of separating the deformation
and rigid body displacements. The deformations are usually found by subtracting from the displacements
an estimate of the rigid body displacements. Exact rigid body displacements are usually only known for
trivial cases where they are prescribed a priori as part of a displacement field. The co-rotational
formulations provide one such estimate of the rigid body displacements.
The co-rotational formulation uses two types of coordinate systems: one system associated with each
element; i.e., element coordinates which deform with the element, and another associated with each node;
i.e., body coordinates embedded in the nodes. (The term ‘body’ is used to avoid possible confusion from
referring to these coordinates as ‘nodal’ coordinates. Also, in the more general formulation presented in
[Belytschko et al., 1977], the nodes could optionally be attached to rigid bodies. Thus, the term ‘body
coordinates’ refers to a system of coordinates in a rigid body, of which a node is a special case.) These
two coordinate systems are shown in the upper portion of Figure 6-6.
t
n
t
n 1 +
At – =
Main Index
161 Chapter 6: Elements
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam
Figure 6-6 Co-rotational Coordinate System
Y
I
X
Y
^
e
2
b
2
e
1
b
1
J
X
^
X
^
Y
^
Y
X
e
1
0
b
1
e
2
b
2
e
1
J
X
^
J
e
1
0
I
e
2
0
X
b
1
b
2
Y
Y
^
(a) Initial Configuration
(b) Rigid Rotation Configuration
(c) Deformed Configuration
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam
162
The element coordinate system is defined to have the local x-axis originating at node and terminating
at node ; the local y-axis and, in three dimension, the local z-axis , are constructed normal to . The
element coordinate system and associated unit vector triad are updated at every time
step by the same technique used to construct the initial system; thus the unit vector deforms with the
element since it always points from node to node .
The embedded body coordinate system is initially oriented along the principal inertial axes; either the
assembled nodal mass or associated rigid body inertial tensor is used in determining the inertial principal
values and directions. Although the initial orientation of the body axes is arbitrary, the selection of a
principal inertia coordinate system simplifies the rotational equations of motion; i.e., no inertial cross
product terms are present in the rotational equations of motion. Because the body coordinates are fixed
in the node (or rigid body), they rotate and translate with the node and are updated by integrating the
rotational equations of motion, as will be described subsequently.
The unit vectors of the two coordinate systems define rotational transformations between the global
coordinate system and each respective coordinate system. These transformations operate on vectors with
global components , body coordinates components , and element coordinate
components which are defined as:
(6-62)
where are the global components of the body coordinate unit vectors. Similarly for the element
coordinate system:
(6-63)
where are the global components of the element coordinate unit vectors. The inverse
transformations are defined by the matrix transpose: i.e.,
(6-64)
(6-65)
since these are proper rotational transformations.
The following two examples illustrate how the element and body coordinate system are used to separate
the deformations and rigid body displacements from the displacements.
x
ˆ
I
J y
ˆ
z
ˆ
x
ˆ
x
ˆ
y
ˆ
z
ˆ
. . ( ) e
1
e
2
e
3
. . ( )
e
1
I J
A A
x
A
y
A
z
. . ( ) = A A
x
A
y
A
z
. . =
A
ˆ
A
ˆ
x
A
ˆ
y
A
ˆ
z
. . =
A
A
x
A
y
A
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
b
1x
b
2x
b
3x
b
1y
b
2y
b
3y
b
1z
b
2z
b
3z
A
x
A
y
A
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
ì | | A { } = = =
b
i x
b
i y
b
i z
. .
A
A
x
A
y
A
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
e
1x
e
2x
e
3x
e
1y
e
2y
e
3y
e
1z
e
2z
e
3z
A
ˆ
x
A
ˆ
y
A
ˆ
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
u | | A
ˆ
{ } = = =
e
i x
e
i y
e
i z
. .
A { } ì | |
T
A { } =
A
ˆ
{ } u | |
T
A { } =
Main Index
163 Chapter 6: Elements
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam
Rigid Rotation
First, consider a rigid body rotation of the beam element about node , as shown in the center of
Figure 6-6b; i.e., consider node to be a pinned connection. Because the beam does not deform during
the rigid rotation, the orientation of the unit vector in the initial and rotated configuration will be the
same with respect to the body coordinates. If the body coordinate components of the initial element unit
vector were stored, they would be identical to the body coordinate components of the current element
unit vector .
Deformation Rotation
Next, consider node to be constrained against rotation; i.e., a clamped connection. Now node is
moved, as shown in the lower portion of Figure 6-6, causing the beam element to deform. The updated
element unit vector is constructed and its body coordinate components are compared to the body
coordinate components of the original element unit vector . Because the body coordinate system did
not rotate, as node was constrained, the original element unit vector and the current element unit vector
are not co-linear. Indeed, the angle between these two unit vectors is the amount of rotational deformation
at node ; i.e.,
(6-66)
Thus the co-rotational formulation separates the deformation and rigid body deformations by using:
• a coordinate system that deforms with the element; i.e., the element coordinates or
• a coordinate system that rigidly rotates with the nodes; i.e., the body coordinates.
Then, it compares the current orientation of the element coordinate system with the initial element
coordinate system, using the rigidly rotated body coordinate system, to determine the deformations.
Belytschko Beam Element Formulation
The deformation displacements used in the Belytschko beam element formulation are:
(6-67)
where

= length change
= torsional deformation
= bending rotational deformations
The superscript emphasizes that these quantities are defined in the local element coordinate system,
and and are the nodes at the ends of the beam.
I
I
e
1
e
1
0
e
1
I J
e
1
e
1
0
I
I
e
1
e
1
0
× u

e
3
=
d
ˆ
T
o
IJ
u
ˆ
xJI u
ˆ
yI u
ˆ
yJ u
ˆ
zI u
ˆ
zJ . . . . . { } =
o
IJ
u
ˆ
xJI
u
ˆ
yI u
ˆ
yJ u
ˆ
zI u
ˆ
zJ . . .
ˆ
I J
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam
164
The beam deformations, defined in equation (6-62), are the usual small displacement beam deformations
(see, for example, [Przemieniecki 1986]). Indeed, one advantage of the co-rotational formulation is the
ease with which existing small displacement element formulations can be adapted to a large displacement
formulation having small deformations in the element system. Small deformation theories can be easily
accommodated because the definition of the local element coordinate system is independent of rigid body
rotations and hence deformation displacement can be defined directly.
Calculation of Deformations
The elongation of the beam is calculated directly from the original nodal coordinates and the
total displacements :
(6-68)
where
(6-69)
etc. (6-70)
The deformation rotations are calculated using the body coordinate components of the original element
coordinate unit vector along the beam axis; i.e., , as outlined in the previous section. Because the body
coordinate components of initial unit vector rotate with the node, in the deformed configuration it
indicates the direction of the beam’s axis if no deformations had occurred. Thus comparing the initial unit
vector with its current orientation indicates the magnitude of deformation rotations. Forming the
vector cross product between and :
(6-71)
where
is the incremental deformation about the local axis
is the incremental deformation about the local axis
The calculation is most conveniently performed by transforming the body components of the initial
element vector into the current element coordinate system:
(6-72)
X
I
Y
I
Z
I
. . ( )
u
xI
u
yI
u
zI
. . ( )
o
IJ
1
l l
o
+
------------ 2 X
JI
u
xJI
Y
JI
u
yJI
Z
JI
u
zJI
+ + ( ) u
xJI
2
u
yJI
2
u
zJI
2
+ + + | | =
X
JI
X
J
X
I
– =
u
xJI
u
xJ
u
xI
– =
e
1
0
e
1
0
e
1
0
e
1
e
1
0
e
1
e
1
e
1
0
× u
ˆ
ye
2
u
ˆ
z e
3
+ =
u
ˆ
y y
ˆ
u
ˆ
z z
ˆ
e
ˆ
1x
0
e
ˆ
1y
0
e
ˆ
1z
0
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
u | |
T
ì | |
e
1x
0
e
1y
0
e
1z
0
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
Main Index
165 Chapter 6: Elements
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam
Substituting equation (6-72) into ((6-71))
(6-73)
Thus,
(6-74)
(6-75)
The torsional deformation rotation is calculated from the vector cross product of initial unit vectors, from
each node of the beam, that were normal to the axis of the beam, i.e., and ; note that and
could also be used. The result from this vector cross product is then projected onto the current axis of the
beam; i.e.,
(6-76)
Note that the body components of and are transformed into the current element coordinate system
before performing the indicated vector products.
Calculation of Internal Forces
There are two methods for computing the internal forces for the Belytschko beam element formulation:
• Functional forms relating the overall response of the beam- e.g., moment-curvature relations,
• Direct through-the-thickness integration of the stress.
Currently only the former method, as explained subsequently, is implemented; the direct integration
method is detailed in [Belytschko et al., 1977].
Axial Force
The internal axial force is calculated from the elongation of the beam . as given by equation (6-68), and
an axial stiffness:
(6-77)
where:
is the axial stiffness
is the cross sectional area of the beam
e
1
e
1
0
× det
e
1
e
2
e
3
1 0 0
e
ˆ
1x
0
e
ˆ
1y
0
e
ˆ
1z
0
e
ˆ
1z
0
e
2
– e
ˆ
1y
0
e
3
+ u
ˆ
ye
2
u
ˆ
z e
3
+ = = =
u
y
ˆ
e
ˆ
1z
0
– =
u
z
ˆ
e
ˆ
1y
0
=
e
ˆ
2I
0
e
ˆ
2J
0
e
ˆ
3I
0
e
ˆ
3J
0
u
ˆ
xJI e
1
e
ˆ
2I
0
e
ˆ
2J
0
× ( ) · e
1
det
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
ˆ
x2I
0
e
ˆ
y2I
0
e
ˆ
z2I
0
e
ˆ
x2J
0
e
ˆ
y2J
0
e
ˆ
z2J
0
e
ˆ
y2I
0
e
ˆ
z2J
0
e
ˆ
y2J
0
e
ˆ
z2I
0
– = = =
e
2I
0
e
2J
0
o
f
ˆ
xJ K
a
o =
K
a
AE l
0
=
A
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam
166
is Young’s Modulus
is the original length of the beam
Bending Moments
The bending moments are related to the deformation rotations by
(6-78)
(6-79)
where equation (6-78) is for bending in the plane and equation (6-79) is for bending in the
plane. The bending constants are given by
(6-80)
(6-81)
(6-82)
(6-83)
(6-84)
Hence is the shear factor, the shear modulus, and is the effective area in shear.
Torsional Moment
The torsional moment is calculated from the torsional deformation rotation as
(6-85)
where
(6-86)
(6-87)
E
l
0
m
ˆ
yI
m
ˆ
yJ
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
K
y
b
1 o
y
+
---------------
4 o
y
+ 2 o
y

2 o
y
– 4 o
y
+
u
ˆ
yI
u
ˆ
yJ
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
=
m
ˆ
zI
m
ˆ
zJ
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
K
z
b
1 o
z
+
---------------
4 o
z
+ 2 o
z

2 o
z
– 4 o
z
+
u
ˆ
zI
u
ˆ
zJ
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
=
x
ˆ
z
ˆ
– x
ˆ
y
ˆ

K
y
b
EI
yy
l
0
---------- =
K
z
b
EI
zz
l
0
---------- =
I
yy
z
ˆ2
y
ˆ
d z
ˆ
d
í í
=
I
zz
y
ˆ 2
y
ˆ
d z
ˆ
d
í í
=
o
y
12EI
yy
GA
s
l
2
----------------- = o
z
12EI
zz
GA
s
l
2
---------------- =
o G A
s
m
ˆ
xJ
K
t
u
ˆ
xJI =
K
t
GJ
l
0
------- =
J y
ˆ
z
ˆ
y
ˆ
d z
ˆ
d
í í
=
Main Index
167 Chapter 6: Elements
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam
The above forces are conjugate to the deformation displacements given previously in equation (6-67);
i.e.,
(6-88)
where
(6-89)
(6-90)
The remaining internal force components are found from equilibrium:
(6-91)
Updating the Body Coordinate Unit Vectors
The body coordinate unit vectors are updated using the Newmark -Method [Newmark 1959] with
, which is almost identical to the central difference method [Belytschko 1974]. In particular, the
body component unit vectors are updated using the formula
(6-92)
where the superscripts refer to the time step and the subscripts refer to the three unit vectors comprising
the body coordinate triad. The time derivatives in the above equation are replaced by their equivalent
forms from vector analysis:
(6-93)
(6-94)
where and are vectors of angular velocity and acceleration, respectively, obtained from the
rotational equations of motion. With the above relations substituted into equation (6-92), the update
formula for the unit vectors becomes
(6-95)
d
ˆ T
o
IJ
u
ˆ
xJI u
ˆ
yI u
ˆ
yJ u
ˆ
zI u
ˆ
zJ . . . . . { } =
d
ˆ
{ }
T
f
ˆ
{ } W
i nt
=
f
ˆT
f
ˆ
xJ m
ˆ
xJ
m
ˆ
yI
m
ˆ
yJ
m
ˆ
zI
m
ˆ
zJ
. . . . . { } =
f
ˆ
xI f
ˆ
xJ – =
m
ˆ
xI
m
ˆ

xJ
=
f
ˆ
zI
m
ˆ
yI
m
ˆ
yJ
+
l
0
------------------------ – =
f
ˆ
zI f
ˆ
zJ – =
f
ˆ
yJ
m
ˆ
zI
m
ˆ
zJ
+
l
0
------------------------ – =
f
ˆ
yI f
ˆ
yJ – =
|
| 0 =
b
i
j 1 +
b
i
j
At
db
i
j
dt
--------
At
2
2
--------
d
2
b
i
j
dt
2
----------- + + =
db
i
j
dt
-------- e b
i
× =
d
2
b
i
j
dt
2
----------- e e b
i
× ( ) × o
i
b
i
× ( ) + =
e o
b
i
j 1 +
b
i
j
At e b
i
× ( )
At
2
2
-------- e e b
i
× ( ) o
i
b
i
× ( ) + × | | { } + + =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CBEAM - Belytschko Beam
168
To obtain the formulation for the updated components of the unit vectors, the body coordinate system is
temporarily considered to be fixed and then the dot product of equation (6-95) is formed with the unit
vector to be updated. For example, to update the component of , the dot product of equation (6-95),
with , is formed with , which can be simplified to the relation
(6-96)
Similarly,
(6-97)
(6-98)
The remaining components and are found by using normality and orthogonality, where it is
assumed that the angular velocities are small during a time step so that the quadratic terms in the
update relations can be ignored. Since is a unit vector, normality provides the relation
(6-99)
Next, if it is assumed that , orthogonality yields (6-100)
(6-101)
The component is then found by enforcing normality:
(6-102)
The updated components of and are defined relative to the body coordinates at time step . To
complete the update and define the transformation matrix, equation (6-62), at time step , the updated
unit vectors and are transformed to the global coordinate system, using equation (6-62) with
defined at step , and their vector cross product is used to form .
x b
3
i 3 = b
1
b
x3
j 1 +
b
1
j
b
y3
j 1 +
· At e
y
j At
2
2
-------- e
x
j
e
z
j
o
y
j
+ ( ) + = =
b
y3
j 1 +
b
2
j
b
3
j 1 +
· At e
x
j At
2
2
-------- e
y
j
e
z
j
o
x
j
+ ( ) + = =
b
x2
j 1 +
b
1
j
b
2
j 1 +
· At e
z
j At
2
2
-------- e
x
j
e
y
j
o
z
j
+ ( ) + = =
b
3
j 1 +
b
1
j 1 +
e
b
3
j 1 +
b
z3
j 1 +
1 b
x3
j 1 +
( )
2
– b
y3
j 1 +
( )
2
– =
b
x1
j 1 +
1 ~
b
z1
j 1 + b
x3
j 1 +
b
y1
j 1 +
b
y3
j 1 +
+
b
z3
j 1 +
-------------------------------------------- – =
b
x1
j 1 +
b
x1
j 1 +
1 b
y1
j 1 +
( )
2
– b
z1
j 1 +
( )
2
– =
b
1
b
3
j
j 1 +
b
1
b
3
ì | |
j b
2
Main Index
169 Chapter 6: Elements
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam
The Hughes-Liu beam element formulation, based on the shell [Hughes and Liu 1981a, 1981b] discussed
later. It has several desirable qualities:
• It is incrementally objective (rigid body rotations do not generate strains), allowing for the
treatment of finite strains that occur in many practical applications.
• It is simple, which usually translates into computational efficiency and robustness.
• It is compatible with the brick elements, because the element is based on a degenerated brick
element formulation.
• It includes finite transverse shear strains. The added computations needed to retain this strain
component, compare to those for the assumption of no transverse shear strain, are insignificant.
Geometry
The Hughes-Liu beam element is based on a degeneration of the isoparametric 8-node solid element, an
approach originated by Ahmad et al., [1970]. Recall the solid element isoparametric mapping of the
biunit cube
(6-103)
(6-104)
where is an arbitrary point in the element, are the parametric coordinates, are the global
nodal coordinates of node , and are the element shape functions evaluated at node , i.e.,
are evaluated at node .
In the beam geometry, determines the location along the axis of the beam and the coordinate pair
defines a point on the cross section. To degenerate the 8-node brick geometry into the 2-node beam
geometry, the four nodes at and at are combined into a single node with three translational
and three rotational degrees of freedom. Orthogonal, inextensible nodal fibers are defined at each node
for treating the rotational degrees of freedom. Figure 6-7 shows a schematic of the bi-unit cube and the
beam element. The mapping of the bi-unit cube into the beam element is separated into three parts:
(6-105)
where denotes a position vector to a point on the reference axis of the beam, and and are position
vectors at point on the axis that define the fiber directions through that point. In particular,
(6-106)
(6-107)
(6-108)
x c n . , , ( ) N
a
c n . , , ( )x
a
=
N
a
c n . , , ( )
1 c
a
c + ( ) 1 n
a
n + ( ) 1 .
a
. + ( )
8
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
x c n . , , ( ) x
a
a N
a
a c
a
n
a
.
a
, ,
c n . , , ( ) a
c n . , ( )
c 1 – = c 1 =
x c n . , , ( ) x c ( ) X c n . , , ( ) + x c ( ) X
.
c . , ( ) X
n
c n , ( ) + + = =
x X
.
X
n
x
x c ( ) N
a
c ( )x
a
=
X
n
c n . ( ) N
a
c ( )X
na
n ( ) =
X
.
c . . ( ) N
a
c ( )X
.a
. ( ) =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam
170
Figure 6-7 Hughes-Liu Beam Element
With this description, arbitrary points on the reference line are interpolated by the one- dimensional
shape function operating on the global position of the two beam nodes that define the reference axis,
i.e., . Points off the reference axis are further interpolated by using a one-dimensional shape function
along the fiber directions; i.e., and where
(6-109)
(6-110)
.
c
n
Bi-unit Cube
x
.
c
n
Beam Element
z.
.
n
+
X.
+
X.
X
ˆ
X.
X
ˆ
.
z.
-1
0
+1
Top Surface
Nodal Fibers
Bottom Surface
x
N c ( )
x
a
X
n
a n ( ) X
.a
. ( )
X
na
n ( ) z
n
n ( ) X
ˆ
na
=
z
n
n ( ) N
+
n ( )z
na
+
N
-
n ( )z
na
-
+ =
Main Index
171 Chapter 6: Elements
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam
(6-111)
(6-112)
(6-113)
(6-114)
(6-115)
(6-116)
where and are “thickness functions”.
The Hughes-Liu beam formulation uses four position vectors, in addition to , to locate the reference
axis and define the initial fiber directions. Consider the two position vectors and located on the
top and bottom surfaces, respectively, at node . Then
(6-117)
(6-118)
(6-119)
(6-120)
(6-121)
(6-122)
(6-123)
(6-124)
where is the Euclidean norm. The reference surface may be located at the midsurface of the beam or
offset at the outer surfaces. This capability is useful in several practical situations involving contact
surfaces, connection of beam elements to solid elements, and offsetting elements such as for beam
stiffeners in stiffened shells. The reference surfaces are located within the beam element by specifying
N
+
n ( )
1 n + ( )
2
------------------ =
N
-
n ( )
1 n – ( )
2
------------------ =
X
.a
. ( ) z
.
. ( ) X
ˆ
.a
=
z
.
. ( ) N
+
. ( )z
.a
+
N
-
. ( )z
.a
-
+ =
N
+
. ( )
1 . + ( )
2
----------------- =
N
-
. ( )
1 . – ( )
2
----------------- =
z
.
. ( ) z
n
n ( )
c
x
.a
+
x
.a
-
a
x
.a
1
2
--- 1 . – ( )x
na

1 . + ( ) + | |x
.a
+
=
X
ˆ
.a
x
.a
+
x
.a
-
– ( )
x
.a
+
x
.a
-

---------------------------- =
z
.a
+
1
2
-- - 1 . – ( ) x
.a
+
x
.a
-
– · =
z
.a
-
1
2
-- - 1 . + ( ) x
.a
+
x
.a
-
– · – =
x
na
1
2
-- - 1 . – ( )x
na

1 . + ( ) + | |x
na
+
=
X
ˆ
na
x
na
+
x
na
-
– ( )
x
na
+
x
na
-

----------------------------- =
z
na
+
1
2
-- - 1 n – ( ) x
na
+
x
na
-
– · =
z
na
-
1
2
-- - 1 n + ( ) x
na
+
x
na
-
– · – =
.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam
172
the value of the parameters and , (see lower portion of Figure 6-7). When these parameters take on
the values or , the reference axis is located on the outer surfaces of the beam. If they are set to zero,
the reference axis is at the center.
The same parametric representation used to describe the geometry of the beam elements is used to
interpolate the beam element displacements; i.e., an isoparametric representation. Again, the
displacements are separated into the reference axis displacements and rotations associated with the
fiber directions:
(6-125)
(6-126)
(6-127)
(6-128)
(6-129)
(6-130)
where is the displacement of a generic point, is the displacement of a point on the reference surface,
and is the ‘fiber displacement’ rotations. The motion of the fibers can be interpreted as either
displacements or rotations as will be discussed.
Hughes and Liu introduced the notation that follows, and the associated schematic shown in Figure 6-8,
to describe the current deformed configuration with respect to the reference configuration:
(6-131)
(6-132)
(6-133)
(6-134)
(6-135)
(6-136)
(6-137)
In the above relations, and in Figure 6-8, the quantities refer to the reference configuration, the
quantities refer to the updated (deformed) configuration and the quantities are the displacements. The
notation consistently uses a superscript bar to indicate reference surface quantities, a superscript caret
to indicate unit vector quantities, lower case letter for translational displacements, and upper case
letters for fiber displacements. Thus to update to the deformed configuration, two vector quantities are
needed: the reference surface displacement and the associated nodal fiber displacement . The nodal
fiber displacements are defined in the fiber coordinate system, described in the next subsection.
n .
1 – +1
u c n . . . ( ) u c ( ) U c n . . . ( ) + u c ( ) U
.
c . . ( ) U
n
c n . ( ) + + = =
u c ( ) N
a
c ( ) u
a
=
U
n
c n . ( ) N
a
c ( )U
na
n ( ) =
U
.
c . . ( ) N
a
c ( ) U
.a
. ( ) =
U
na
n ( ) z
na
n ( ) U
ˆ
na
=
U
.a
. ( ) z
.a
. ( ) U
ˆ
.a
=
u u
U
y y Y + =
y x u + =
y
a
x
a
u
a
+ =
Y X U + =
Y
a
X
a
U
a
+ =
Y
ˆ
na
X
ˆ
na
U
ˆ
na
+ =
Y
ˆ
.a
X
ˆ
.a
U
ˆ
.a
+ =
x y
u
( )
ˆ ( )
u U
Main Index
173 Chapter 6: Elements
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam
Figure 6-8 Schematic of Deformed Configuration Displacements and Position Vectors
Fiber Coordinate System
For a beam element, the known quantities will be the displacements of the reference surface obtained
from the translational equations of motion and the rotational quantities at each node obtained from the
rotational equations of motion. What remains to complete the kinematics is a relation between nodal
rotations and fiber displacements . The linearized relationships between the incremental components
the incremental rotations are given by
(6-138)
(6-139)
Equations (6-138) and (6-139) are used to transform the incremental fiber tip displacements to rotational
increments in the equations of motion. The second-order accurate rotational update formulation due to
Hughes and Winget [1980] is used to update the fiber vectors:
(6-140)
(6-141)
Y
U u
u
X
Deformed Configuration
Reference Surface
Reference axis in
undeformed geometry
Parallel Construction
x
x
y
y
u
U
AU
ˆ
AU
ˆ
n1
AU
ˆ
n2
AU
ˆ
n3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
0 Y
ˆ
n3
Y
ˆ
n2

Y
ˆ
n3
– 0 Y
ˆ
n1
Y
ˆ
n2
Y
ˆ
n1
– 0
Au
1
Au
2
Au
3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
h
n
Au = =
AU
ˆ
.1
AU
ˆ
.2
AU
ˆ
.3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
0 Y
ˆ
.3
Y
ˆ
.2

Y
ˆ
.3
– 0 Y
ˆ
.1
Y
ˆ
.2
Y
ˆ
.1
– 0
Au
1
Au
2
Au
3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
h
.
Au = =
Y
ˆ
ni
n 1 +
R
i j
Au ( )Y
ˆ
nj
n
=
Y
ˆ
.i
n 1 +
R
i j
Au ( )Y
ˆ
.i
n
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam
174
then
(6-142)
(6-143)
where
(6-144)
(6-145)
(6-146)
Here is the Kronecker delta and is the permutation tensor.
Local Coordinate System
In addition to the above described fiber coordinate system, a local coordinate system is needed to enforce
the zero normal stress conditions transverse to the axis. The orthonormal basis with two directions and
normal to the axis of the beam is constructed as follows:
(6-147)
(6-148)
From the vector cross product of these local tangents.
(6-149)
and to complete this orthonormal basis, the vector
(6-150)
is defined. This coordinate system rigidly rotates with the deformations of the element.
The transformation of vectors from the global to the local coordinate system can now be defined in terms
of the basis vectors as
(6-151)
AU
ˆ
na
Y
ˆ
na
n 1 +
Y
ˆ
na
n
– =
AU
ˆ
.a
Y
ˆ
.a
n 1 +
Y
ˆ
.a
n
– =
R
i j
Au ( ) o
i j
2o
i k
AS
i k
+ ( )AS
j k
2D
--------------------------------------------- + =
AS
i j
e
i kj
Au
k
=
2D 2
1
2
--- Au
1
2
Au
2
2
Au
3
2
+ + ( ) + =
o
i j
e
i kj
e
ˆ
2
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
1
y
2
y
1

y
2
y
1

---------------------- =
e
2
'
Y
ˆ
n1
Y
ˆ
n2
+
Y
ˆ
n1
Y
ˆ
n2
+
------------------------------ =
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
1
e
2
'
× =
e
ˆ
2
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
1
× =
A
ˆ
A
ˆ
x
A
ˆ
y
A
ˆ
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
e
1x
e
2x
e
3x
e
1y
e
2y
e
3y
e
1z
e
2z
e
3z
T
A
x
A
y
A
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
q | | A { } = = =
Main Index
175 Chapter 6: Elements
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam
where are the global components of the local coordinate unit vectors, is a vector in the local
coordinates, and is the same vector in the global coordinate system.
Strains and Stress Update
Incremental Strain and Spin Tensors
The strain and spin increments are calculated from the incremental displacement gradient
(6-152)
where are the incremental displacements and are the deformed coordinates. The incremental strain
and spin tensors are defined as the symmetric and skew-symmetric parts, respectively, of :
(6-153)
(6-154)
The incremental spin tensor is used as an approximation to the rotational contribution of the
Jaumann rate of the stress tensor. Here the Jaumann rate update is approximated as
(6-155)
where the superscripts on the stress tensor refer to the updated and reference configurations.
This update of the stress tensor is applied before the constitutive evaluation, and the stress and strain are
stored in the global coordinate system.
Stress Update
To evaluate the constitutive relation, the stresses and strain increments are rotated from the global to the
local coordinate system using the transformation defined previously in (6-151).
(6-156)
(6-157)
where the superscript indicates components in the local coordinate system. The stress is
incrementally updated:
(6-158)
e
i x
e
i y
e
i z
. . A
ˆ
A
G
i j
cAu
i
cy
j
------------ =
Au
i
y
j
G
i j
Ac
i j
1
2
-- - G
i j
G
j i
+ ( ) =
Ae
i j
1
2
-- - G
i j
G
j i
– ( ) =
Ae
i j
o
i j
o
i j
n
o
i p
n
Ae
pj
o
j p
n
Ae
pi
+ + =
n 1 + ( ) n ( )
o
i j
l
n
q
i k
o
kn
q
j n
=
Ac
i j
l
q
i k
Ac
kn
q
j n
=
l
o
i j
l
n 1 +
o
i j
l
n
Ao
i j
l
n
1
2
--- +
+ =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam
176
and rotated back to the global system:
(6-159)
before computing the internal force vector.
Incremental Strain-Displacement Relations
After the constitutive evaluation is completed, the fully updated stresses are rotated back to the global
coordinate system. These global stresses are then used to update the internal force vector
(6-160)
where are the internal forces at node and is the strain-displacement matrix in the global
coordinate system associated with the displacements at node . The matrix relates six global strain
components to eighteen incremental displacements [three translational displacements per node and the
six incremental fiber tip displacements of (6-142)]. It is convenient to partition the matrix:
(6-161)
Each sub matrix is further partitioned into a portion due to strain and spin with the following sub
matrix definitions:
(6-162)
where
(6-163)
With respect to the strain-displacement relations, note that:
• The derivative of the shape functions are taken with respect to the global coordinates;
• The matrix is computed on the cross-section located at the mid-point of the axis;
• The resulting matrix is a matrix.
o
i j
n 1 +
q
ki
o
kn
l
n 1 +
q
nj
=
f
a
i nt
B
a
T
o u d
í
=
f
a
i nt
a B
a
a B
B
B B
1
B
2
. | | =
B
a
B
a
B
1
0 0 B
4
0 0 B
7
0 0
0 B
2
0 0 B
5
0 0 B
8
0
0 0 B
3
0 0 B
6
0 0 B
9
B
2
B
1
0 B
5
B
4
0 B
8
B
7
0
0 B
3
B
2
0 B
6
B
5
0 B
9
B
8
B
3
0 B
1
B
6
0 B
4
B
9
0 B
7
=
B
i
=
N
a i .
cN
a
cy
i
---------- =
N
ana
( )
i 3 – ( ) ,
c N
a
z
na
( )
cy
i 3 –
----------------------- =
N
a
z
.a
( )
i 6 – ( ) ,
c N
a
z
na
( )
cy
i 6 –
----------------------- =
for i = 1,2,3
for i = 4,5,6
for i = 7,8,9
B
B 6 18 ×
Main Index
177 Chapter 6: Elements
CBEAM - DYSHELFORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Beam
The internal force, , given by
(6-164)
is assembled into the global right hand side internal force vector. is defined as (also see equation
(6-138)):
(6-165)
where is a identity matrix.
f
f
'
T
t
f
a
i nt
=
T
T
I 0
0 h
n
0 h
.
=
I 3 3 ×
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell
178
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay
Shell
The Belytschko-Lin-Tsay shell element ([Belytschko and Tsay 1981], [Belytschko et al., 1984a]) was
implemented as a computationally efficient alternative to the Hughes-Liu shell element. For a shell
element with five through thickness integration points, the Belytschko-Lin-Tsay shell elements requires
725 mathematical operations compared to 4050 operations for the under integrated Hughes-Liu element.
The selectively reduced integration formulation of the explicit Hughes-Liu element requires 35,350
mathematical operations. Because of its computational efficiency, the Belytschko-Lin-Tsay shell element
is usually the shell element formulation of choice. For this reason, it has become the default shell element
formulation for explicit calculations.
The Belytschko-Lin-Tsay shell element is based on a combined co-rotational and velocity-strain
formulation. The efficiency of the element is obtained from the mathematical simplifications that result
from these two kinematical assumptions. The co-rotational portion of the formulation avoids the
complexities of nonlinear mechanics by embedding a coordinate system in the element. The choice of
velocity-strain or rate-of-deformation in the formulation facilitates the constitutive evaluation, since the
conjugate stress is the physical Cauchy stress. We closely follow the notation of Belytschko, Lin, and
Tsay in the following development.
Co-rotational Coordinates
The midsurface of the quadrilateral shell element, or reference surface, is defined by the location of the
element’s four corner nodes. An embedded element coordinate system (see Figure 6-9) that deforms with
the element is defined in terms of these nodal coordinates. Then the procedure for constructing
the co-rotational coordinate system begins by calculating a unit vector normal to the main diagonal of
the element:
(6-166)
(6-167)
(6-168)
where the superscript caret is used to indicate the local (element) coordinate system.
e
ˆ
3
s
3
s
3
---------- =
s
3
s
31
2
s
32
2
s
33
2
+ + =
s
3
r
31
r
42
× =
ˆ
( )
Main Index
179 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell
Figure 6-9 Construction of Element Coordinate System
It is desired to establish the local axis approximately along the element edge between nodes 1 and 2.
This definition is convenient for interpreting the element stresses, which are defined in the local
coordinate system. The procedure for constructing this unit vector is to define a vector that is nearly
parallel to the vector .
(6-169)
(6-170)
The remaining unit vector is obtained from the vector cross product
(6-171)
If the four nodes of the element are coplanar, then the unit vectors and are tangent to the midplane
of the shell and is in the fiber direction. As the element deforms, an angle may develop between the
actual fiber direction and the unit normal . The magnitude of this angle may be characterized as
(6-172)
where is the unit vector in the fiber direction and the magnitude of depends on the magnitude of the
strains. According to Belytschko et al., for most engineering applications, acceptable values of are on
the order of 10
-2
and if the condition presented in equation (6-172) is met, then the difference between
the rotation of the co-rotational coordinates and the material rotation should be small.
3
r
31
s
1
2
r
21
x
ˆ
e
ˆ
3
s
3
4
y
ˆ
r
42
1
e
ˆ
2
e
ˆ
1
x x
ˆ
x
ˆ
y
ˆ

s
1
r
21
s
1
r
21
r
21
e
ˆ
3
· ( )e
ˆ
3
– =
e
ˆ
1
s
1
s
1
---------- =
e
ˆ
2
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
1
× =
e
ˆ
1
e
ˆ
2
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
3
f 1 – · o <
f o
o
e
ˆ
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell
180
The global components of this co-rotational triad define a transformation matrix between the global and
local element coordinate systems. This transformation operates on vectors with global components
and element coordinate components , and is defined as:
(6-173)
where are the global components of the element coordinate unit vectors. The inverse
transformation is defined by the matrix transpose; i.e.,
(6-174)
Velocity-Strain Displacement Relations
The above small rotation condition, equation (6-172), does not restrict the magnitude of the element’s
rigid body rotations. Rather, the restriction is placed on the out-of-plane deformations, and, thus, on the
element strain. Consistent with this restriction on the magnitude of the strains, the velocity-strain
displacement relations used in the Belytschko-Lin-Tsay shell are also restricted to small strains.
As in the Hughes-Liu shell element, the displacement of any point in the shell is partitioned into a
midsurface displacement (nodal translations) and a displacement associated with rotations of the
element’s fibers (nodal rotations). The Belytschko-Lin-Tsay shell element uses the Mindlin [1951] theory
of plates and shells to partition the velocity of any point in the shell as:
(6-175)
where is the velocity of the mid-surface, is the angular velocity vector, and is the distance along
the fiber direction (thickness) of the shell element. The corresponding co-rotational components of the
velocity strain (rate of deformation) are given by
(6-176)
Substitution of equation (6-175) into the above yields the following velocity-strain relations:
(6-177)
(6-178)
(6-179)
A A
x
A
y
A
z
. . ( ) = A
ˆ
A
ˆ
x
A
ˆ
y
A
ˆ
z
. . ( ) =
A { }
A
x
A
y
A
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
e
1x
e
2x
e
3x
e
1y
e
2y
e
3y
e
1z
e
2z
e
3z
A
ˆ
x
A
ˆ
y
A
ˆ
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
u | | A
ˆ
{ } q | |
T
A
ˆ
{ } = = = =
e
i x
e
i y
e
i z
. .
A
ˆ
{ } u | |
T
A { } =
v v
m
z
ˆ
e
3
u × – =
v
m
u z
ˆ
d
ˆ
i j
1
2
-- -
cu
ˆ
i
cx
ˆ
j
--------
cu
ˆ
j
cx
ˆ
i
-------- +
\ .
|
| |
=
d
ˆ
x
cv
ˆ
x
m
cx
ˆ
---------- z
ˆ
cu
ˆ
y
cx
ˆ
-------- + =
d
ˆ
y
cu
ˆ
y
m
cy
ˆ
---------- z
ˆ
cu
ˆ
x
cy
ˆ
-------- – =
2d
ˆ
xy
cu
ˆ
x
m
cy
ˆ
----------
cu
ˆ
y
m
cx
ˆ
---------- z
ˆ
cu
ˆ
y
cy
ˆ
--------
cu
ˆ
x
cx
ˆ
-------- –
\ .
| |
+ + =
Main Index
181 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell
(6-180)
(6-181)
The above velocity-strain relations need to be evaluated at the quadrature points within the shell.
Standard bilinear nodal interpolation is used to define the mid-surface velocity, angular velocity, and the
element’s coordinates (isoparametric representation). These interpolations relations are given by
(6-182)
(6-183)
(6-184)
where the subscript is summed over all the nodes of the element and the nodal velocities are
obtained by differentiating the nodal coordinates with respect to time, i.e., . The bilinear
shape functions are
(6-185)
(6-186)
(6-187)
(6-188)
The velocity-strains at the center of the element (i.e., at , and ) are obtained by substitution
of the above relations into the previously defined velocity-strain displacement relations, equations
(6-177) through (6-181). After some algebra, this yields
(6-189)
(6-190)
(6-191)
(6-192)
(6-193)
2d
ˆ
yz
cu
ˆ
z
m
cy
ˆ
---------- u
ˆ
x – =
2d
ˆ
xz
cu
ˆ
z
m
cx
ˆ
---------- u
ˆ
y + =
v
m
N
I
c n . ( )v
I
=
u
m
N
I
c n . ( )u
I
=
x
m
N
I
c n . ( )x
I
=
I
u
I
x
·
I
=
N
1
1
4
--- 1 c – ( ) 1 n – ( ) =
N
2
1
4
--- 1 c + ( ) 1 n – ( ) =
N
3
1
4
--- 1 c + ( ) 1 n + ( ) =
N
4
1
4
--- 1 c – ( ) 1 n + ( ) =
c 0 = n 0 =
d
ˆ
x B
1I
u
ˆ
xI z
ˆ
B
1I
u
ˆ
yI + =
d
ˆ
y B
2I
u
ˆ
yI z
ˆ
B
2I
u
ˆ
xI – =
2d
ˆ
xy B
2I
u
ˆ
xI B
1I
u
ˆ
yI z
ˆ
B
2I
u
ˆ
yI B
1I
u
ˆ
xI – ( ) + + =
2d
ˆ
xz B
1I
u
ˆ
zI N
I
u
ˆ
yI + =
2d
ˆ
yz B
2I
u
ˆ
zI N
I
u
ˆ
xI – =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell
182
where
(6-194)
(6-195)
The shape function derivatives are also evaluated at the center of the element; i.e., at , and
.
Stress Resultants and Nodal Forces
After suitable constitutive evaluations using the above velocity-strains, the resulting stresses are
integrated through the thickness of the shell to obtain local resultant forces and moments. The integration
formula for the resultants are
(6-196)
(6-197)
where the superscript, , indicates a resultant force or moment, and the Greek subscripts emphasize the
limited range of the indices for plane stress plasticity.
The above element midplane force and moment resultants are related to the local nodal forces and
moments by invoking the principle of virtual power and integrating with a one-point quadrature. The
relations obtained in this manner are
(6-198)
(6-199)
(6-200)
(6-201)
(6-202)
(6-203)
B
1I
cN
I
cx
ˆ
--------- =
B
2I
cN
I
cy
ˆ
--------- =
B
aI
c 0 =
n 0 =
f
ˆ
o|
R
o
ˆ
o| z
ˆ
d
í
=
m
ˆ
o|
R
z
ˆ
o
ˆ
o|
z
ˆ
d
í
– =
R
f
ˆ
xI A B
1I
f
ˆ
xx
R
B
2I
f
ˆ
xy
R
+
\ .
| |
=
f
ˆ
yI A B
2I
f
ˆ
yy
R
B
1I
f
ˆ
xy
R
+
\ .
| |
=
f
ˆ
zI Ak B
1I
f
ˆ
xz
R
B
2I
f
ˆ
yz
R
+
\ .
| |
=
m
ˆ
xI
A B
2I
m
ˆ
yy
R
B
1I
m
ˆ
xy
R k
4
--- f
ˆ
yz
R
– +
\ .
| |
=
m
ˆ
yI
A B
1I
m
ˆ
xx
R
B
2I
m
ˆ
xy
R k
4
--- f
ˆ
xz
R
– +
\ .
| |
– =
m
ˆ
zI
0 =
Main Index
183 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell
where is the area of the element, and is the shear factor from the Mindlin theory. In the Belytschko-
Lin-Tsay formulation, is used as a penalty parameter to enforce the Kirchhoff normality condition as
the shell becomes thin.
The above local nodal forces and moments are then transformed to the global coordinate system using
the transformation relations given previously as equation (6-173). The global nodal forces and moments
are then appropriately summed over all the nodes and the global equations of motion are solved for the
next increment in nodal accelerations.
Hourglass Control (Belytschko-Lin-Tsay)
In part, the computational efficiency of the Belytschko-Lin-Tsay and the under integrated Hughes-Liu
shell elements are derived from their use of one-point quadrature in the plane of the element. To suppress
the hourglass deformation modes that accompany one-point quadrature, hourglass viscosity stresses are
added to the physical stresses at the local element level. The discussion of the hourglass control that
follows pertains to the Hughes-Liu and the membrane elements as well. The hourglass procedure is
controlled by the DYHRGIHQ PARAM.
The hourglass control used by Belytschko et al., extends an earlier derivation by Flanagan and
Belytschko [1981], (see also Kosloff and Frazier [1978], Belytschko and Tsay [1983]). The hourglass
shape vector, , is defined as
(6-204)
where
(6-205)
is the basis vector that generates the deformation mode that is neglected by one-point quadrature. In
equation (6-204) and the reminder of this subsection, the Greek subscripts have a range of 2; e.g.,
.
The hourglass shape vector then operates on the generalized displacements, in a manner similar to
equations (6-189) through (6-193), to produce the generalized hourglass strain rates
(6-206)
(6-207)
(6-208)
where the superscripts and denote bending and membrane modes, respectively. The corresponding
hourglass stress rates are then given by
A k
k
t
I
t
I
h
I
h
J
x
ˆ
aJ
( )B
aI
– =
h
+1
1 –
+1
1 –
=
x
aI
x
ˆ
1I
x
ˆ
2I
. ( ) x
ˆ
I
y
ˆ
I
. ( ) = =
q
·
o
B
t
I
u
ˆ
oI =
q
·
3
B
t
I
u
ˆ
zI =
q
·
o
M
t
I
u
ˆ
oI =
B M
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell
184
(6-209)
(6-210)
(6-211)
where is the shell thickness and the parameters, , and are generally assigned values between
0.01 and 0.05.
Finally, the hourglass stresses, which are updated from the stress rates in the usual way; i.e.,
(6-212)
and the hourglass resultant forces are then
(6-213)
(6-214)
(6-215)
where the superscript emphasizes that these are internal force contributions from the hourglass
deformations. These hourglass forces are added directly to the previously determined local internal forces
due to deformations equations (6-198) through (6-203). These force vectors are orthogonalized with
respect to rigid body motion.
Hourglass Control (Englemann and Whirley)
Englemann and Whirley [1991] developed an alternative hourglass control, which they implemented in
the framework of the Belytschko, Lin, and Tsay shell element. We will briefly highlight their procedure
here that has proven to be cost effective-only twenty percent more expensive than the default control.
In the hourglass procedure, the in-plane strain field (subscript ) is decomposed into the one point strain
field plus the stabilization strain field:
(6-216)
where the stabilization strain field, which is obtained from the assumed strain fields of Pian and Sumihara
[1984], is given in terms of the hourglass velocity field as
(6-217)
Q
·
o
B
r
u
Et
3
A
192
------------------ B
|I
B
|I
q
·
o
B
=
Q
·
3
B
r
w
kGt
3
A
12
----------------------- B
|I
B
|I
q
·
3
B
=
Q
·
o
M r
m
Et A
8
---------------- B
|I
B
|I
q
·
o
M
=
t r
u
r
w
. r
m
Q
n 1 +
Q
n
At Q
·
+ =
m
ˆ
oI
H
t
I
Q
o
B
=
f
ˆ
3I
H
t
I
Q
3
B
=
f
ˆ
oI
H
t
I
Q
o
M
=
H
p
c
·
p
c
·
p
0
c
·
p
s
+ =
c
·
p
s
W
m
q
·
m
zW
b
q
·
b
+ =
Main Index
185 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell
Here, and play the role of stabilization strain velocity operators for membrane and bending:
(6-218)
(6-219)
where the terms , are rather complicated and the reader is referred to the reference
[Englemann and Whirley, 1991].
To obtain the transverse shear assumed strain field, the procedure given in [Bathe and Dvorkin, 1984] is
used. The transverse shear strain field can again be decomposed into the one point strain field plus the
stabilization field:
(6-220)
that is related to the hourglass velocities by
(6-221)
where the transverse shear stabilization strain-velocity operator is given by
(6-222)
Again, the coefficients and are defined in the reference.
In their formulation, the hourglass forces are related to the hourglass velocity field through an
incremental hourglass constitutive equation derived from an additive decomposition of the stress into a
“one-point stress,” plus a “stabilization stress.” The integration of the stabilization stress gives a resultant
constitutive equation relating hourglass forces to hourglass velocities.
The in-plane and transverse stabilization stresses are updated according to:
(6-223)
where the tangent matrix is the product of a matrix , which is constant within the shell domain, and a
scalar that is constant in the plane but may vary through the thickness.
W
m
W
b
W
m
f
1
p
c n . ( ) f
4
p
c n . ( )
f
2
p
c n . ( ) f
5
p
c n . ( )
f
3
p
c n . ( ) f
6
p
c n . ( )
=
W
b
f
4
p
c n . ( ) – f
1
p
c n . ( )
f
5
p
c n . ( ) – f
2
p
c n . ( )
f
6
p
c n . ( ) – f
3
p
c n . ( )
=
f
i
p
c n . ( ) i 1 2 . 6 . . . =
c
·
s
c
·
s
0
c
·
s
s
+ =
c
·
s
s
W
s
q
·
s
=
W
s
W
s
f
1
s
c n . ( ) g
1
s
c – g
2
s
n g
3
s
c g
3
s
n
f
2
s
c n . ( ) g
4
s
c g
4
s
n g
2
s
c – g
1
s
n
=
f
1
s
c n . ( ) g
1
s
t
s
s n 1 + .
t
s
s n .
At c
s
C
s
c
·
s
s
+ =
C
c
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUADA - DYSHELLFORM = 2, Belytschko-Lin-Tsay Shell
186
The stabilization stresses can now be used to obtain the hourglass forces:
(6-224)
Q
m
W
m
T
t
p
s
A d z d
A
í h
2
--- –
h
2
---
í
=
Q
b
W
b
T
t
p
s
A d z d
A
í h
2
--- –
h
2
---
í
=
Q
s
W
s
T
t
s
s
A d z d
A
í h
2
--- –
h
2
---
í
=
Main Index
187 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUAD4 DYSHELLFORM = 10, Belytschko-Wong-Chiang Improvements
CQUAD4 DYSHELLFORM = 10, Belytschko-Wong-
Chiang Improvements
Since the Belytschko-Tsay element is based on a perfectly flat geometry, warpage is not considered.
Although this generally poses no major difficulties and provides for an efficient element, incorrect results
in the twisted beam problem, See Figure 6-10, are obtained where the nodal points of the elements used
in the discretization are not coplanar. The Hughes-Liu shell element considers non-planar geometry and
gives good results on the twisted beam, but is relatively expensive. The effect of neglecting warpage in
typical a application cannot be predicted beforehand and may lead to less than accurate results, but the
latter is only speculation and is difficult to verify in practice. Obviously, it would be better to use shells
that consider warpage if the added costs are reasonable and if this unknown effect is eliminated. In this
section, we briefly describe the simple and computationally inexpensive modifications necessary in the
Belytschko-Tsay shell to include the warping stiffness. The improved transverse shear treatment is also
described which is necessary for the element to pass the Kirchhoff patch test. Readers are directed to the
references [Belytschko, Wong, and Chang 1989, 1992] for an in depth theoretical background.
Figure 6-10 The Twisted Beam Problem Fails with the Belytschko-Tsay Shell Element
In order to include warpage in the formulation it is convenient to define nodal fiber vectors as shown in
Figure 6-11. The geometry is interpolated over the surface of the shell from:
(6-225)
where: and is a parametric coordinate which varies between -1 to +1.
0
0
5 10 15 19
4
8
12
16
20
24
29
30
Belystchkno-Tsay
Hughes-Liu
Belytschko-Wong-Chiang
time (ms)
Displacement-time History
Y

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
1
0
4
)
Twisted Beam Problem
L = 12
b = 1.1
t = .32
twist = 90 degrees
E = 29 000 000
v = .22
x x
m
.p + x
I
.p
I
+ ( )N
I
c n . ( ) = =
.
.h
2
------ = .
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUAD4 DYSHELLFORM = 10, Belytschko-Wong-Chiang Improvements
188
Figure 6-11 Nodal Fiber Vectors , and where is the Thickness
The in plane strain components are given by:
(6-226)
(6-227)
(6-228)
The coupling terms are come in through which is defined in terms of the components of the fiber
vectors as:
(6-229)
For a flat geometry the normal vectors are identical and no coupling can occur. Two methods are used by
Belytschko for computing and the reader is referred to his papers for the details. Both methods have
been tested and comparable results were obtained.
The transverse shear strain components are given as
(6-230)
(6-231)
where the nodal rotational components are defined as:
(6-232)
h
p
2
p
3
p
1
p
1
p
2
. p
3
h
d
xx
b
xI
v
ˆ
xI
. b
xI
c
v
ˆ
xI
b
xI
p
·
xI
+ ( ) + =
d
yy
b
yI
v
ˆ
yI
. b
yI
c
v
ˆ
yI
b
yI
p
·
yI
+ ( ) + =
d
xy
1
2
-- - b
xI
v
ˆ
yI
b
yI
v
ˆ
xI
. b
xI
c
v
ˆ
yI
b
xI
p
·
yI
b
yI
c
v
ˆ
xI
b
yI
p
·
xI
+ + + ( ) + + =
b
i I
c
b
xI
c
b
yI
c
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
p
y
ˆ
2
p
y
ˆ
4
– p
y
ˆ
3
p
y
ˆ
1
– p
y
ˆ
4
p
y
ˆ
2
– p
y
ˆ
1
p
y
ˆ
3

p
x
ˆ
2
p
x
ˆ
4
– p
x
ˆ
3
p
x
ˆ
1
– p
x
ˆ
4
p
x
ˆ
2
– p
x
ˆ
1
p
x
ˆ
3

=
b
i I
c
¸
ˆ
xz
N –
I
c n , ( )u
y
ˆ
I
=
¸
ˆ
yz
N –
I
c n , ( )u
x
ˆ
I
=
u
x
ˆ
I
e
n
I
e
x
ˆ
· ( )u
n
I
e
n
K
e
x
ˆ
· ( )u
n
K
+ =
Main Index
189 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUAD4 DYSHELLFORM = 10, Belytschko-Wong-Chiang Improvements
(6-233)
The rotation comes from the nodal projection
(6-234)
where the subscript refers to the normal component of side as seen in Figure 6-12 and is the length
of side .
Figure 6-12 Vector and Edge Definitions for Computing the Transverse Shear
Strain Components
u
y
ˆ
I
e
n
I
e
y
ˆ
· ( )u
n
I
e
n
K
e
y
ˆ
· ( )u
n
K
+ =
u
n
I
u
n
I
1
2
-- - u
nI
I
u
nJ
I
+ ( )
1
L
IJ
------- u
ˆ
zJ
u
ˆ
zJ
– ( ) + =
n I L
IJ
IJ
J
K
K
I
e
n
i
e
X
ˆ
e
n
k
L
K
e
y
ˆ
y
r
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 4, C0 Triangular Shell
190
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 4, C
0
Triangular Shell
The shell element due to Kennedy, Belytschko, and Lin [1986] has been implemented as a
computationally efficient triangular element complement to the Belytschko-Lin-Tsay quadrilateral shell
element ([Belytschko and Tsay 1981], [Belytschko et al., 1984a]). For a shell element with five through-
the-thickness integration points, the element requires 649 mathematical operations (the Belytschko-Lin-
Tsay quadrilateral shell element requires 725 mathematical operations) compared to 1417 operations for
the Marchertas-Belytschko triangular shell [Marchertas and Belytschko 1974] (referred to as the BCIZ
[Bazeley, Cheung, Irons, and Zienkiewicz 1965] triangular shell element).
Triangular shell elements are offered as optional elements primarily for compatibility with local user grid
generation and refinement software. Many computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided
manufacturing (CAM) packages include finite element mesh generators, and most of these mesh
generators use triangular elements in the discretization. Similarly, automatic mesh refinement algorithms
are typically based on triangular element discretization. Also, triangular shell element formulations are
not subject to zero energy modes inherent in quadrilateral element formulations.
The triangular shell element’s origins are based on the work of Belytschko et al., [Belytschko, Stolarski,
and Carpenter 1984b] where the linear performance of the shell was demonstrated. Because the triangular
shell element formulations parallels closely the formulation of the Belytschko-Lin-Tsay quadrilateral
shell element presented in the previous section, the following discussion is limited to items related
specifically to the triangular shell element.
Co-rotational Coordinates
The mid-surface of the triangular shell element, or reference surface, is defined by the location of the
element’s three nodes. An embedded element coordinate system (see Figure 6-13) that deforms with the
element is defined in terms of these nodal coordinates. The procedure for constructing the co-rotational
coordinate system is simpler than the corresponding procedure for the quadrilateral, because the three
nodes of the triangular element are guaranteed coplanar.
Figure 6-13 Local Element Coordinate System for Shell Element
C
0
2
x
ˆ
3
1
y
ˆ
z
ˆ
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
2
e
ˆ
1
C
0
Main Index
191 Chapter 6: Elements
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 4, C0 Triangular Shell
The local x-axis, , is directed from node 1 to 2. The element’s normal axis, , is defined by the vector
cross product of a vector along with a vector constructed from node 1 to node 3. The local y-axis, ,
is defined by a unit vector cross product of with , which are the unit vectors in the directions,
respectively. As in the case of the quadrilateral element, this triad of co-rotational unit vectors defines
a transformation between the global and local element coordinate systems (see equations (6-173)
and (6-174)).
Velocity-Strain Relations
As in the Belytschko-Lin-Tsay quadrilateral shell element, the displacement of any point in the shell is
partitioned into a mid-surface displacement (nodal translations) and a displacement associated with
rotations of the element’s fibers (nodal rotations). The Kennedy-Belytschko-Lin triangular shell element
also uses the Mindlin [Mindlin 1951] theory of plates and shells to partition the velocity of any point in
the shell (recall equation (6-175)):
(6-235)
where is the velocity of the mid-surface, is the angular velocity vector, and is the distance along
the fiber direction (thickness) of the shell element. The corresponding co-rotational components of the
velocity strain (rate of deformation) were given previously in equations (6-189) through (6-193).
Standard linear nodal interpolation is used to define the midsurface velocity, angular velocity, and the
element’s coordinates (isoparametric representation). These interpolation functions are the area
coordinates used in triangular element formulations. Substitution of the nodally interpolated velocity
fields into the velocity-strain relations (see Belytschko et al., for details), leads to strain rate-velocity
relations of the form
(6-236)
where are the velocity strains (strain rates), the elements of are derivatives of the nodal interpolation
functions, and the are the nodal velocities and angular velocities.
It is convenient to partition the velocity strains and the matrix into membrane and bending
contributions. The membrane relations are given by
(6-237)
x
ˆ
z
ˆ
x
ˆ
y
ˆ
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
1
z
ˆ
v v
m
z
ˆ
e
3
u × – =
v
m
u z
ˆ
d
ˆ
Bv
ˆ
=
d
ˆ
B
v
ˆ
B
d
ˆ
x
d
ˆ
y
2d
ˆ
xy
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
M
1
x
ˆ
2
y
ˆ
3
----------
y
ˆ
3
0 y
ˆ
3
0 0 0
0 x
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2
– 0 x
ˆ
3
– 0 x
ˆ
2
x
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2
– y
ˆ
3
– x
ˆ
3
– y
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2
0
u
ˆ
x1
u
ˆ
y1
u
ˆ
x2
u
ˆ
y2
u
ˆ
x3
u
ˆ
y3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 4, C0 Triangular Shell
192
or
(6-238)
The bending relations are given by
(6-239)
or
(6-240)
The local element velocity strains are then obtained by combining the above two relations:
(6-241)
The remaining two transverse shear strain rates are given by
(6-242)
d
ˆ M
B
M
v
ˆ
=
k
ˆ
x
k
ˆ
y
2k
ˆ
xy
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
1 –
x
ˆ
2
y
ˆ
3
----------
0 y
ˆ
3
– 0 y
ˆ
3
0 0
x
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2
– 0 x
ˆ
3
0 x
ˆ
2
– 0
y
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2
– y
ˆ
3
– x
ˆ
3
– 0 x
ˆ
2
u
ˆ
x1
u
ˆ
y1
u
ˆ
x2
u
ˆ
y2
u
ˆ
x3
u
ˆ
y3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
k
ˆ M
B
M
u
ˆ def
=
d
ˆ
x
d
ˆ
y
2d
ˆ
xy
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
d
ˆ
x
d
ˆ
y
2d
ˆ
xy
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
M
z
ˆ
k
ˆ
x
k
ˆ
y
2k
ˆ
xy
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹

\ .
|
|
|
|
|
| |
d
ˆ M
z
ˆ
k
ˆ
– =
2d
ˆ
xz
2d
ˆ
yz
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
1
6x
ˆ
2
y
ˆ
3
-------------- =
y
ˆ
3
2
– y
ˆ
3
2x
ˆ
2
x
ˆ
3
+ ( ) y
ˆ
3
2
y
ˆ
3
3x
ˆ
2
x
ˆ
3
– ( ) 0 x
ˆ
2
y
ˆ
3
y
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2
2x
ˆ
2
– ( ) x
ˆ
2
2
x
ˆ
3
2
– y
ˆ
3
2
x
ˆ
2
x
ˆ
3
+ ( ) – x
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
3
2x
ˆ
2
– ( ) 3x
ˆ
2
y
ˆ
3
– x
ˆ
2
2x
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2
– ( )
u
ˆ
x1
u
ˆ
y1
u
ˆ
x2
u
ˆ
y2
u
ˆ
x3
u
ˆ
y3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
def
Main Index
193 Chapter 6: Elements
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 4, C0 Triangular Shell
or
(6-243)
All of the above velocity-strain relations have been simplified by using one-point quadrature.
In the above relations, the angular velocities are the deformation component of the angular velocity
obtained by subtracting the portion of the angular velocity due to rigid body rotation; i.e.,
(6-244)
The two components of the rigid body angular velocity are given by
(6-245)
(6-246)
The first of the above two relations is obtained by considering the angular velocity of the local x-axis
about the local y-axis. Referring to Figure 6-14, by construction nodes 1 and 2 lie on the local x-axis and
the distance between the nodes is ; i.e., the distance from node 2 to the local coordinate origin at
node 1. Thus, the difference in the nodal velocities divided by the distance between the nodes is an
average measure of the rigid body rotation rate about the local y-axis.
Figure 6-14 Element Configurations with Node 3 Aligned with Node 1 (left) and Node 3
Aligned with Node 2 (right)
d
ˆ S
B
S
u
ˆ def
=
u
ˆ def
u
ˆ
u
ˆ def
u
ˆ
u
ˆ ri g
– =
u
ˆ
y
ri g
u
ˆ
z1
u
ˆ
z2

x
ˆ
2
---------------------- =
u
ˆ
x
ri g
u
ˆ
z3
u
ˆ
z1
– ( )x
ˆ
2
u
ˆ
z2
u
ˆ
z1
– ( )x
ˆ
3

x
ˆ
2
y
ˆ
3
------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
x
ˆ
2
x
ˆ
z
ˆ
1 2
3
y
ˆ
x
ˆ
z
ˆ
y
ˆ
z
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2 1
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 4, C0 Triangular Shell
194
The second relation is conceptually identical, but is implemented in a slightly different manner due to the
arbitrary location of node 3 in the local coordinate system. Consider the two local element configurations
shown in Figure 6-14. For the left-most configuration, where node 3 is the local y-axis, the rigid body
rotation rate about the local x-axis is given by
(6-247)
and for the rightmost configuration the same rotation rate is given by
(6-248)
Although both of these relations yield the average rigid body rotation rate, the selection of the correct
relation depends on the configuration of the element; i.e., on the location of node 3. Since every element
in the mesh could have a configuration that is different in general from either of the two configurations
shown in Figure 6-14, a more robust relation is needed to determine the average rigid body rotation rate
about the local x-axis. In most typical grids, node 3 will be located somewhere between the two
configurations shown in Figure 6-14. Thus, a linear interpolation between these two rigid body rotation
rates was devised using the distance as the interpolant:
(6-249)
Substitution of equations (6-247) and (6-248) into equation (6-249) and simplifying produces the relations
given previously as equation (6-246).
Stress Resultants and Nodal Forces
After suitable constitutive evaluation using the above velocity strains, the resulting local stresses are
integrated through the thickness of the shell to obtain local resultant forces and moments. The integration
formulae for the resultants are
(6-250)
(6-251)
where the superscript indicates a resultant force or moment and the Greek subscripts emphasize the
limited range of the indices for plane stress plasticity.
The above element midplane force and moment resultant are related to the local nodal forces and
moments by invoking the principle of virtual power and performing a one-point quadrature. The relations
obtained in this manner are
u
ˆ
x l ef t –
ri g u
ˆ
z3
u
ˆ
z1

y
ˆ
3
---------------------- =
u
ˆ
x ri ght –
ri g u
ˆ
z3
u
ˆ
z2

y
ˆ
3
---------------------- =
x
ˆ
3
u
ˆ
x
ri g
u
ˆ
x l ef t –
ri g
1
x
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2
----- –
\ .
| |
u
ˆ
x ri ght –
ri g
x
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2
-----
\ .
| |
+ =
f
ˆ
o|
R
o
ˆ
o|
z
ˆ
d
í
=
m
ˆ
o|
R
z
ˆ
o
ˆ
o|
z
ˆ
d
í
– =
R
Main Index
195 Chapter 6: Elements
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 4, C0 Triangular Shell
(6-252)
(6-253)
where is the area of the element .
The remaining nodal forces, the component of the force , are determined by successively
solving the following equilibration equations
(6-254)
(6-255)
(6-256)
which represent moment equilibrium about the local x-axis, moment equilibrium about the local y-axis,
and force equilibrium in the local z-direction, respectively.
f
ˆ
x1
f
ˆ
y1
f
ˆ
x2
f
ˆ
y2
f
ˆ
x3
f
ˆ
y3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
AB
M
T
f
ˆ
xx
R
f
ˆ
yy
R
f
ˆ
xy
R
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
m
ˆ
x1
m
ˆ
y1
m
ˆ
x2
m
ˆ
y2
m
ˆ
x3
m
ˆ
y3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
AB
M
T
m
ˆ
xx
R
m
ˆ
yy
R
m
ˆ
xy
R
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
AB
S
T
f
ˆ
xz
R
f
ˆ
yz
R
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
+ =
A 2A x
ˆ
2
y
ˆ
3
= ( )
z
ˆ
f
ˆ
z3
f
ˆ
z2
f
ˆ
z1
. . ( )
m
ˆ
x1
m
ˆ
x2
m
ˆ
x3
y
ˆ
3
f
ˆ
z3
+ + + 0 =
m
ˆ
y1
m
ˆ
y2
m
ˆ
y3
x
ˆ
3
f
ˆ
z3
– x
ˆ
2
f
ˆ
z2
– + + 0 =
f
ˆ
z1
f
ˆ
z2
f
ˆ
z3
+ + 0 =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 3, Marchertas-Belytschko Triangular Shell (BCIZ)
196
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 3, Marchertas-Belytschko
Triangular Shell (BCIZ)
The Marchertas-Belytschko [1974] triangular shell element, or the BCIZ triangular shell element, was
developed in the same time period as the Belytschko beam element [Belytschko, Schwer, and Klein,
1977], see CBEAM - Belytschko Beam, forming the first generation of co-rotational structural elements
developed by Belytschko and co-workers. Although the Marchertas-Belytschko shell element is
relatively expensive (i.e., the triangular shell element with five through-the-thickness integration
points requires 649 mathematical operations compared to 1,417 operations for the Marchertas-
Belytschko triangular shell), it is maintained in SOL 700 for compatibility with earlier user models.
However, as the user community moves to application of the more efficient shell element formulations,
the use of the Marchertas-Belytschko triangular shell element will decrease.
As mentioned above, the Marchertas-Belytschko triangular shell has a common co-rotational
formulation origin with the Belytschko beam element. The interested reader is referred to the beam
element description, see Co-rotational Technique for details on the co-rotational formulation. In the next
subsection a discussion of how the local element coordinate system is identical for the triangular shell
and beam elements. The remaining subsections discuss the triangular element’s displacement
interpolants, the strain displacement relations, and calculations of the element nodal forces.
Element Coordinates
Figure 6-15a shows the element coordinate system, originating at Node 1, for the Marchertas-
Belytschko triangular shell. The element coordinate system is associated with a triad of unit vectors
the components of which form a transformation matrix between the global and local coordinate
systems for vector quantities. The nodal or body coordinate system unit vectors are defined at
each node and are used to define the rotational deformations in the element, see Co-rotational Technique.
The unit normal to the shell element is formed from the vector cross product
(6-257)
where and are unit vectors originating at Node 1 and pointing towards Nodes 2 and 3, respectively
(see Figure 6-15b).
C
0
x
ˆ
y
ˆ
z
ˆ
. . ( )
e
1
e
2
e
3
. . ( )
b
1
b
2
b
3
. .
e
3
e
3
l
21
l
31
× =
l
21
l
31
Main Index
197 Chapter 6: Elements
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 3, Marchertas-Belytschko Triangular Shell (BCIZ)
Figure 6-15 Construction of Local Element Coordinate System
1
2
3
x
ˆ
y
ˆ
b
3
b
2
b
1
e
1
e
2
e
3
z
ˆ
(a) Element and Body Coordinates
2
1
3
x
ˆ
y
ˆ
z
ˆ
l
31
o
o 2
|
g
l
21
e
3
(b) Construction of Element Coordinates
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 3, Marchertas-Belytschko Triangular Shell (BCIZ)
198
Next a unit vector, , see Figure 6-15b, is assumed to be in the plane of the triangular element with its
origin at Node 1 and forming an angle with the element side between Nodes 1 and 2, i.e., the vector
. The direction cosines of this unit vector are represented by the symbols . Since is the unit
vector, its direction cosines will satisfy the equation:
(6-258)
Also, since and are orthogonal unit vectors, their vector dot product must satisfy the equation
(6-259)
In addition, the vector dot product of the co-planar unit vectors and satisfies the equation
(6-260)
where are the direction cosines of .
Solving this system of three simultaneous equation; i.e., equations (6-258), (6-259), and (6-260), for the
direction cosines of the unit vector g yields
(6-261)
These equations provide the direction cosines for any vector in the plane of the triangular element that is
oriented at an angle from the element side between Nodes 1 and 2. Thus the unit vector components
of , and are obtained by setting and in (6-261), respectively. The angle
is obtained from the vector dot product of the unit vectors and ,
(6-262)
Displacement Interpolation
As with the other large displacement and small deformation co-rotational element formulations, the nodal
displacements are separated into rigid body and deformation displacements,
(6-263)
where the rigid body displacements are defined by the motion of the local element coordinate system,
i.e., the co-rotational coordinates, and the deformation displacement are defined with respect to the co-
rotational coordinates. The deformation displacement are defined by
g
|
l
21
g
x
g
y
g
z
. . ( ) g
g
x
2
g
y
2
g
z
2
+ + 1 =
g e
3
e
3x
g
x
e
3y
g
y
e
3z
g
z
+ + 0 =
g l
21
I
21x
g
x
I
21y
g
y
I
21z
g
z
+ + | cos =
l
21x
+l
21y
+l
21z
. . ( ) l
21
g
y
l
21y
| e
3z
l
21x
e
3x
l
21z
– ( ) | sin + cos =
g
x
l
21x
| e
3y
l
21z
e
3z
l
21y
– ( ) | sin + cos =
g
z
l
21z
| e
3x
l
21y
e
3y
l
21x
– ( ) | sin + cos =
|
e
1
e
2
| o 2 = | t o + ( ) 2 = o
l
21
l
31
o cos l
21
l
31
· =
u u
ri gi d
u
def
+ =
Main Index
199 Chapter 6: Elements
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 3, Marchertas-Belytschko Triangular Shell (BCIZ)
(6-264)
where
(6-265)
are the edge elongations and
(6-266)
are the local nodal rotation with respect to the co-rotational coordinates.
The matrices and are the membrane and flexural interpolation functions, respectively. The
element’s membrane deformation is defined in terms of the edge elongations. Marchertas and Belytschko
adapted this idea from Argyris et. al., [1964], where incremental displacements are used, by modifying
the relations for total displacements,
(6-267)
where , etc.
The non-conforming shape functions used for interpolating the flexural deformations, were originally
derived by Bazeley, Cheung, Irons, and Zienkiewicz [1965], called the BCIZ element. Explicit
expressions for are quite tedious and are not given here. The interested reader is referred to Appendix
G in the original work of Marchertas and Belytschko [1974].
The local nodal rotations, which are interpolated by these flexural shape functions, are defined in a
manner similar to those used in the Belytschko beam element. The current components of the original
element normal are obtained from the relation
(6-268)
where and are the current transformations between the global coordinate system and the element
(local) and body coordinate system, respectively. The vector is the original element unit normal
expressed in the body coordinate system. The vector cross product between this current-original unit
normal and the current unit normal,
(6-269)
u
ˆ
x
u
ˆ
y
---
u
ˆ
z ¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
def
o
x
m
o
y
m
---
o
z
f
o
---
u
ˆ
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
o { }
T
o
12
o
23
o
31
{ } =
u
ˆ
{ } u
ˆ
1xu
ˆ
1yu
ˆ
2xu
ˆ
2yu
ˆ
3xu
ˆ
3y { } =
o
x
m
o
y
m
. o
z
f
o
i j
2 x
j i
u
j i x
y
j i
u
j i y
z
j i
u
j i z
+ + ( ) u
j i x
2
u
j i y
2
u
j i z
2
+ + +
l
i j
0
l
i j
+
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ =
x
j i
x
j
x
i
– =
o
z
f
o
z
f
e
3
0
u
T
ìe
3
0
=
u ì
e
3
0
e
3
e
3
0
× u
ˆ
x
e
1
u
ˆ
y
e
2
+ =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 3, Marchertas-Belytschko Triangular Shell (BCIZ)
200
define the local nodal rotations as
(6-270)
(6-271)
Note that at each node the corresponding transformation matrix is used in equation (6-268).
Strain-Displacement Relations
Marchertas-Belytschko impose the usual Kirchhoff assumptions that normals to the midplane of the
element remain straight and normal, to obtain
(6-272)
(6-273)
(6-274)
where it is understood that all quantities refer to the local element coordinate system.
Substitution of equation (6-264) into the above strain-displacement relations yields
(6-275)
where
(6-276)
with
(6-277)
and
u
ˆ
x e
ˆ

3y
0
=
u
ˆ
y e
ˆ
3x
0
=
ì
e
xx
cu
x
cx
-------- z
c
2
u
z
cx
2
----------- – =
e
yy
cu
y
cy
-------- z
c
2
u
z
cy
2
----------- – =
2e
xy
cu
x
cy
--------
cu
y
cx
-------- 2z
c
2
u
z
cxcy
------------ – + =
c { } E
m
| | o { } z E
f
| | u
ˆ
{ } – =
c { }
t
c
xx
c
yy
2c
xy
. . { } =
E
m
| |
co
xi
m
cx
----------
co
yi
m
cy
----------
co
xi
m
cy
----------
co
yi
m
cx
---------- +
=
Main Index
201 Chapter 6: Elements
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 3, Marchertas-Belytschko Triangular Shell (BCIZ)
(6-278)
Nodal Force Calculations
The local element forces and moments are found by integrating the local element stresses through the
thickness of the element. The local nodal forces are given by
(6-279)
where
(6-280)
(6-281)
where the side forces and stresses are understood to all be in the local convected coordinate system.
Similarly, the local moments are given by
(6-282)
where
(6-283)
The through-the-thickness integration portions of the above local force and moment integrals are usually
performed with a 3- or 5-point trapezoidal integration. A three-point in-plane integration is also used; it
is, in part, this three-point in-plane integration that increases the operation count for this element over the
shell, which used one-point inplane integration with hourglass stabilization.
The remaining transverse nodal forces are obtained from element equilibrium considerations. Moment
equilibrium requires
(6-284)
where is the area of the element. Next transverse force equilibrium provides
(6-285)
E
f
| |
c
2
o
zi
f
cx
2
-------------
c
2
o
zi
f
cy
2
-------------
2
c
2
o
zi
f
cxcy
-------------
=
f
ˆ
E
m
| |
t
o
ˆ
V d
í
=
f
ˆT
f
12
f
23
f
31
{ } =
o
ˆ T
o
xx
o
yy
o
xy
{ } =
m
ˆ T
z E
f
| |
t
o
ˆ
v d
í
– =
m
ˆ T
m
ˆ
1x
m
ˆ
1y
m
ˆ
2x
m
ˆ
2y
m
ˆ
3x
m
ˆ
3y
{ } =
C
0
f
ˆ
2z
f
ˆ
3z
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
1
2A
-------
x
ˆ
3
– y
ˆ
3
x
ˆ
2
y
ˆ
2

m
ˆ
1x
m
ˆ
2x
m
ˆ
3x
+ +
m
ˆ
1y
m
ˆ
2y
m
ˆ
3y
+ +
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
A
f
ˆ
1z
f
ˆ
2z
– f
ˆ
3z
– =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CTRIA3 - DYSHELLFORM = 3, Marchertas-Belytschko Triangular Shell (BCIZ)
202
The corresponding global components of the nodal forces are obtained from the following transformation
(6-286)
Finally, the local moments are transformed to the body coordinates using the relation
(6-287)
f
i x
f
i y
f
i z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
f
i j
l
i j
----
x
i j
u
i j x
+
y
i j
u
i j y
+
z
i j
u
i j z
+
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
f
i k
l
i k
-----
x
i k
u
i kx
+
y
i k
u
i ky
+
z
i k
u
i kz
+
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
f
ˆ
i z
e
3x
e
3y
e
3z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
+ + =
m
i x
m
i y
m
i z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
ì
T
u
m
ˆ
i x
m
ˆ
i y
m
ˆ
i z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
Main Index
203 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
The Hughes-Liu shell element formulation ([Hughes and Liu 1981a, b], [Hughes et al., 1981], [Hallquist
et al., 1985]) has several desirable qualities:
• It is incrementally objective (rigid body rotations do not generate strains), allowing for the
treatment of finite strains that occur in many practical applications;
• It is simple, which usually translates into computational efficiency and robustness;
• It is compatible with brick elements, because the element is based on a degenerated brick
element formulation. This compatibility allows many of the efficient and effective techniques
developed for brick elements to be used with this shell element;
• It includes finite transverse shear strains;
• A through-the-thickness thinning option (see [Hughes and Carnoy 1981]) is also available when
needed in some shell element applications.
The remainder of this section reviews the Hughes-Liu shell element (referred to by Hughes and Liu as
the U1 element) which is a four-node shell with uniformly reduced integration, and summarizes the
modifications to their theory as it is implemented in SOL 700. A detailed discussion of these
modifications are presented in an article by Hallquist and Benson [1986].
Geometry
The Hughes-Liu shell element is based on a degeneration of the standard 8-node brick element
formulation, an approach originated by Ahmad et al. [1970]. Recall from the discussion of the solid
elements the isoparametric mapping of the bi-unit cube:
(6-288)
(6-289)
where is an arbitrary point in the element, are the parametric coordinates, are the global
nodal coordinates of node , and are the element shape functions evaluated at node , i.e.,
are evaluated at node .
In the shell geometry, planes of constant will define the lamina or layers of the shell and fibers are
defined by through-the-thickness lines when both and are constant (usually only defined at the nodes
and thus referred to as ‘nodal fibers’). To degenerate the 8-node brick geometry into the 4-node shell
geometry, the nodal pairs in the direction (through the shell thickness) are combined into a single node,
for the translation degrees of freedom, and an inextensible nodal fiber for the rotational degrees of
freedom. Figure 6-16 shows a schematic of the bi-unit cube and the shell element.
The mapping of the bi-unit cube into the shell element is separated into two parts
(6-290)
x c n . , , ( ) N
a
c n . , , ( )x
a
=
N
a
c n . , , ( )
1 c
a
c + ( ) 1 n
a
n + ( ) 1 .
a
. + ( )
8
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
x c n . . . ( ) x
a
a N
a
a c
a
n
a
.
a
. . ( )
c n . . . ( ) a
.
c n
.
x c n . , , ( ) x c n , ( ) X c n . , , ( ) + =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
204
where denotes a position vector to a point on the reference surface of the shell and is a position
vector, based at point on the reference, that defines the fiber direction through that point. In particular,
if we consider one of the four nodes which define the reference surface, then
(6-291)
(6-292)
Figure 6-16 Mapping of the Bi-unit Cube into the Hughes-Liu Shell Element and Nodal
Fiber Nomenclature
x X
x
x c n , ( ) N
a
c n , ( )x
a
=
X c n . , , ( ) N
a
c n , ( )X
a
. ( ) =
x
.
c
n
Bi-unit Cube
x
.
c
n
Shell Element
z
.
+
x
+
x
x
ˆ
-1
0
+1
Top Surface
Nodal Fiber
Bottom Surface
Reference Surface
z
Main Index
205 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
With this description, arbitrary points on the reference surface are interpolated by the two-dimensional
shape function operating on the global position of the four shell nodes that define the reference
surfaces; i.e., . Points off the reference surface are further interpolated by using a one-dimensional
shape function along the fiber direction, i.e., , where
(6-293)
(6-294)
(6-295)
(6-296)
As shown in the lower portion of Figure 6-16, is a unit vector in the fiber direction and is a
thickness function. (Thickness changes (see [Hughes and Carnoy 1981]) are accounted for by explicitly
adjusting the fiber lengths at the completion of a time step based on the amount of straining in the fiber
direction. Updates of the fiber lengths always lag one time step behind other kinematical quantities.)
The reference surface may be located at the mid-surface of the shell or at either of the shell’s outer
surfaces. This capability is useful in several practical situations involving contact surfaces, connection of
shell elements to solid elements, and offsetting elements such as stiffeners in stiffened shells. The
reference surface is located within the shell element by specifying the value of the parameter (see lower
portion of Figure 6-16). When , the reference surface is located at the bottom, middle, and
top surface of the shell, respectively.
The Hughes-Liu formulation uses two position vectors, in addition to , to locate the reference surface
and define the initial fiber direction. The two position vectors and are located on the top and bottom
surfaces, respectively, at node . From these data the following are obtained:
(6-297)
(6-298)
(6-299)
(6-300)
(6-301)
where is the Euclidean norm.
x
N c n , ( )
x
a
X
a
. ( )
X
a
. ( ) z
a
. ( ) X
ˆ
a
=
z
a
. ( ) N
+
. ( )z
a
+
N
-
. ( )z
a
-
+ =
N
+
. ( )
1 . + ( )
2
----------------- =
N
-
. ( )
1 . – ( )
2
----------------- =
X
ˆ
a
z . ( )
.
. 1 0 +1 . . – =
.
x
a
+
x
a
-
a
x
a
1
2
-- - 1 . – ( )x
a
-
1 . + ( ) + | |x
a
+
=
X
ˆ
a
x
a
+
x
a
-
– ( )
h
a
----------------------- =
z
a
+ 1
2
-- - 1 . – ( )h
a
=
z
a
- 1
2
-- - – 1 . + ( )h
a
=
h
a
x
a
+
x
a
-
– =
.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
206
Kinematics
The same parametric representation used to describe the geometry of the shell element (i.e., reference
surface and fiber vector interpolation) are used to interpolate the shell element displacement; i.e., an
isoparametric representation. Again, the displacements are separated into the reference surface
displacements and rotations associated with the fiber direction:
(6-302)
(6-303)
(6-304)
(6-305)
where is the displacement of a generic point; is the displacement of a point on the reference surface,
and is the ‘fiber displacement’ rotations; the motion of the fibers can be interpreted as either
displacements or rotations as will be discussed.
Hughes and Liu introduce the notation that follows, and the associated schematic shown in Figure 6-17,
to describe the current deformed configuration with respect to the reference configuration:
(6-306)
(6-307)
(6-308)
(6-309)
(6-310)
(6-311)
Figure 6-17 Schematic of Deformed Configuration Displacements and Position Vectors
u c n . , , ( ) u c n , ( ) U c n . , , ( ) + =
u c n , ( ) N
a
c n , ( ) u
a
=
U c n . , , ( ) N
a
c n , ( ) U
a
. ( ) =
U
a
. ( ) z
a
. ( )U
ˆ
a =
u u
U
y y Y + =
y x u + =
y
a
x
a
u
a
+ =
Y X U + =
Y
a
X
a
U
a
+ =
Y
ˆ
a
X
ˆ
a
U
ˆ
a
+ =
Y
U u
u
X
Deformed Configuration
Reference Surface
Initial Configuration
Reference Surface
Parallel Construction
x
x
y
y
Main Index
207 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
In the above relations, and in Figure 6-17, the quantities refer to the reference configuration, the
quantities refer to the updated (deformed) configuration and the quantities are the displacements. The
notation consistently uses a superscript bar to indicate reference surface quantities, a superscript caret
to indicate unit vector quantities, lower case letters for translational displacements, and upper case
letters indicating fiber displacements. To update to the deformed configuration, two vector quantities are
needed: the reference surface displacement and the associated nodal fiber displacement . The nodal
fiber displacements are defined in the fiber coordinate system, described in the next subsection.
Fiber Coordinate System
For a shell element with four nodes, the known quantities will be the displacements of the reference
surface obtained from the translational equations of motion and some rotational quantities at each node
obtained from the rotational equations of motion. To complete the kinematics, we now need a relation
between nodal rotations and fiber displacements .
At each node a unique local Cartesian coordinate system is constructed that is used as the reference frame
for the rotation increments. The relation presented by Hughes and Liu for the nodal fiber displacements
(rotations) is an incremental relation; i.e., it relates the current configuration to the last state, not to the
initial configuration. Figure 6-18 shows two triads of unit vectors: comprising the
orthonormal fiber basis in the reference configuration (where the fiber unit vector is now ) and
indicating the incrementally updated current configuration of the fiber vectors. The reference
triad is updated by applying the incremental rotations, and , obtained from the rotational
equations of motion, to the fiber vectors ( and ) as shown in Figure 6-18. The linearized relationship
between the components of in the fiber system, , and the incremental rotations is
given by
(6-312)
Although the above Hughes-Liu relation for updating the fiber vector enables a reduction in the number
of nodal degrees of freedom from six to five, it is not implemented in SOL 700 because it is not applicable
to beam elements.
x y
u
( )
ˆ
( )
u U
u
U
b
1
f
b
2
f
b
3
f
. . ( )
Y
ˆ
b
3
f
=
b
1
b
2
b
3
, , ( )
Au1 Au2
b
1
f
b
2
f
AU
ˆ
AU
ˆ
1
f
AU
ˆ
2
f
AU
ˆ
3
f
. .
AU
ˆ
1
f
AU
ˆ
2
f
AU
ˆ
3
f
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
1 – 0
0 1 –
0 0
Au
1
Au
2
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
208
Figure 6-18 Incremental Update of Fiber Vectors Using Hughes-Liu Incremental Rotations
In SOL 700, three rotational increments are used, defined with reference to the global coordinate axes:
(6-313)
Equation (6-313) is adequate for updating the stiffness matrix, but for finite rotations the error is
significant. A more accurate second-order technique is used in SOL 700 for updating the unit
fiber vectors:
(6-314)
where
(6-315)
(6-316)
(6-317)
Here, is the Kronecker delta and is the permutation tensor. This rotational update is often referred
to as the Hughes-Winget formula [Hughes and Winget 1980]. An exact rotational update using Euler
angles or Euler parameters could easily be substituted in equation (6-314), but it is doubtful that the extra
effort would be justified.
Lamina Coordinate System
In addition to the above described fiber coordinate system, a local lamina coordinate system is needed to
enforce the zero normal stress condition; i.e., plane stress. Lamina are layers through the thickness of the
shell that correspond to the locations and associated thicknesses of the through-the-thickness shell
Fiber
b
3
f
Y
ˆ
=
b
3
b
2
Au
1
b
2
f
b
1
f
b
1
Au
2
AU
ˆ
1
AU
ˆ
2
AU
ˆ
3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
0 Y
ˆ
3
Y
ˆ
2

Y
ˆ
3
– 0 Y
ˆ
1
Y
ˆ
2
Y
ˆ
1
– 0
Au
1
Au
2
Au
3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
Y
ˆ
i
n 1 +
R
i j
Au ( )Y
ˆ
j
n
=
R
i j
Au ( ) o
i j
1
2
-- -
2o
i k
AS
i k
+ ( )AS
j k
D
--------------------------------------------- + =
AS
i j
e
i kj
Au
k
=
2D 2
1
2
--- Au
1
2
Au
2
2
Au
3
2
+ + ( ) + =
o
i j
e
i j k
Main Index
209 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
integration points; the analogy is that of lamina in a fibrous composite material. The orthonormal lamina
basis (Figure 6-19), with one direction normal to the lamina of the shell, is constructed at every
integration point in the shell.
Figure 6-19 Schematic of Lamina Coordinate Unit Vectors
The lamina basis is constructed by forming two unit vectors locally tangent to the lamina:
(6-318)
(6-319)
where, as before, is the position vector in the current configuration. The normal to the lamina at the
integration point is constructed from the vector cross product of these local tangents:
(6-320)
To complete this orthonormal lamina basis, the vector
(6-321)
is defined, because , although tangent to both the lamina and lines of constant , may not be normal
to and . The lamina coordinate system rotates rigidly with the element.
The transformation of vectors from the global to lamina coordinate system can now be defined in terms
of the lamina basis vectors as
(6-322)
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
2
e
ˆ
1
n
n
=
co
n
sta
n
t
c

=

c
o
n
s
t
a
n
t
c
e
ˆ
1
y,
c
y,
c
------------ =
e
2
'
y,
n
y,
n
------------- =
y
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
1
e
2
'
× =
e
ˆ
2
e
ˆ
3
e
ˆ
1
× =
e
ˆ
2
c
e
ˆ
1
e
ˆ
3
A
ˆ
A
ˆ
x
A
ˆ
y
A
ˆ
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
e
1x
e
2x
e
3x
e
1y
e
2y
e
3y
e
1z
e
2z
e
3z
T
A
x
A
y
A
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
q | | A { } = = =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
210
where are the global components of the lamina coordinate unit vectors; is a vector in the
lamina coordinates, and is the same vector in the global coordinate system.
Strains and Stress Update
Incremental Strain and Spin Tensors
The strain and spin increments are calculated from the incremental displacement gradient
(6-323)
where are the incremental displacements and are the deformed coordinates. The incremental
strain and spin tensors are defined as the symmetric and skew-symmetric parts, respectively, of :
(6-324)
(6-325)
The incremental spin tensor is used as an approximation to the rotational contribution of the
Jaumann rate of the stress tensor; SOL 700 implicit uses the more accurate Hughes-Winget
transformation matrix equation (6-314) with the incremental spin tensor for the rotational update. The
Jaumann rate update is approximated as:
(6-326)
where the superscripts on the stress refer to the updated ( ) and reference ( ) configurations. The
Jaumann rate update of the stress tensor is applied in the global configuration before the constitutive
evaluation is performed. In the Hughes-Liu shell the stresses and history variables are stored in the global
coordinate system.
Stress Update
To evaluate the constitutive relation, the stresses and strain increments are rotated from the global to the
lamina coordinate system using the transformation defined previously in equation (6-322).
(6-327)
(6-328)
where the superscript indicates components in the lamina (local) coordinate system.
e
i x
e
i y
e
i z
. . A
ˆ
A
G
i j
cAu
i
cy
j
------------ =
Au
i
y
j
G
i j
Ac
i j
1
2
-- - G
i j
G
j i
+ ( ) =
Ae
i j
1
2
-- - G
i j
G
j i
– ( ) =
Ae
i j
o
i j
n 1 +
o
i j
n
o
i p
n
Ae
pj
o
j p
n
Ae
pi
+ + =
n 1 + n
o
i j
l
n 1 +
q
i k
o
kn
n 1 +
q
j n
=
Ac
i j
l
n 1 2 +
q
i k
Ac
kn
n 1 2 +
q
j n
=
l
Main Index
211 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
The stress is updated incrementally:
(6-329)
and rotated back to the global system:
(6-330)
before computing the internal force vector.
Incremental Strain-Displacement Relations
The global stresses are now used to update the internal force vector
(6-331)
where are the internal forces at node , is the strain-displacement matrix in the lamina
coordinate system associated with the displacements at node , and is the transformation matrix
relating the global and lamina components of the strain-displacement matrix. Because the matrix
relates six strain components to twenty-four displacements (six degrees of freedom at four nodes), it is
convenient to partition the matrix into four groups of six:
(6-332)
Each submatrix is further partitioned into a portion due to strain and spin:
(6-333)
with the following submatrix definitions:
(6-334)
(6-335)
o
i j
l
n 1 +
o
i j
l
n 1 +
Ao
i j
l
n 1 2 +
+ =
o
i j
n 1 +
q
ki
o
kn
l
n 1 +
q
nj
=
f
a
i nt
T
a
T
B
a
T
o u d
í
=
f
a
i nt
a B
a
a T
a
B
B
B B1 B2 B3 B4 . . . | | =
B
a
B
a
B
a
c
B
a
e
=
B
a
c
B
1
0 0 B
4
0 0
0 B
2
0 0 B
5
0
B
2
B
1
0 B
5
B
4
0
0 B
3
B
2
0 B
6
B
5
B
3
0 B
1
B
6
0 B
4
=
B
a
e
B
2
B –
1
0 B
5
B –
4
0
0 B
3
B –
2
0 B
6
B –
5
B –
3
0 B
1
B –
6
0 B
4
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUAD4 - DYSHELL FORM = 1, Hughes-Liu Shell
212
where
(6-336)
Notes on strain-displacement relations:
• The derivatives of the shape functions are taken with respect to the lamina coordinate system,
e.g., . The superscript bar indicates the ’s are evaluated at the center of the lamina
. The strain-displacement matrix uses the ‘B-Bar’ approach advocated by Hughes
[1980]. In the SOL 700 implementations, this entails replacing certain rows of the matrix and
the strain increments with their counterparts evaluated at the center of the element. In particular,
the strain-displacement matrix is modified to produce constant shear and spin increments
throughout the lamina.
• The resulting -matrix is a 8 x 24 matrix. Although there are six strain and three rotations
increments, the -matrix has been modified to account for the fact that will be zero in the
integration of equation (6-331).
B
i
N
a i ,
cN
a
cy
i
l
---------- =
N
a
z
a
( ),
i 3 –
c N
a
z
a
( )
cy
i 3 –
l
-------------------- =
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
¦
¦
¦
=
for i 1 2 3 . . =
for i 4 5 6 . . =
y

qy = B
0 0 . . . ( ) B ( )
B
B
B o
33
Main Index
213 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUAD4, DYSHELLFORM = 6, 7, Fully Integrated Hughes-Liu Shells
CQUAD4, DYSHELLFORM = 6, 7, Fully Integrated
Hughes-Liu Shells
It is well known that one-point integration results in zero energy modes that must be resisted. The
four-node under integrated shell with six degrees of freedom per node has nine zero energy modes,
six rigid body modes, and four unconstrained drilling degrees of freedom. Deformations in the zero
energy modes are always troublesome but usually not a serious problem except in regions where
boundary conditions such as point loads are active. In areas where the zero energy modes are a problem,
it is highly desirable to provide the option of using the original formulation of Hughes-Liu with
selectively reduced integration.
The major disadvantages of full integration are two-fold:
• nearly four times as much data must be stored;
• the operation count increases three- to fourfold. The level 3 loop is added as shown in
Figure 6-20.
However, these disadvantages can be more than offset by the increased reliability and accuracy.
Figure 6-20 Selectively Reduced Integration Rule Results in Four Inplane Points
Being Used
There are two version of the Hughes-Liu shell with selectively reduced integration. The first closely
follows the intent of the original paper, and therefore no assumptions are made to reduce costs, which are
outlined in operation counts in Table 6-4. This is activated by using DYSHELLFORM = 6. These
operation counts can be compared with those in Table 6-5 for the Hughes-Liu shell with uniformly
reduced integration. The second formulation, which reduces the number of operation by more than a
factor of two, is referred to as the co-rotational Hughes-Liu shell. This is activated by using
DYSHELLFORM = 7. This shell is considerably cheaper due to the following simplifications:
• Strains rates are not centered. The strain displacement matrix is only computed at time
and not at time .
n
c
n 1 +
n 1 2 +
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUAD4, DYSHELLFORM = 6, 7, Fully Integrated Hughes-Liu Shells
214
• The stresses are stored in the local shell system following the Belytschko-Tsay shell.
The transformations of the stresses between the local and global coordinate systems are
thus avoided.
• The Jaumann rate rotation is not performed, thereby avoiding even more computations. This
does not necessarily preclude the use of the shell in large deformations.
To study the effects of these simplifying assumptions, we can compare results with those obtained with
the full Hughes-Liu shell. Thus far, we have been able to get comparable results.
Figure 6-21 An Inner Loop, Level 3, is added for the Hughes-Liu Shell with Selectively
Reduced Integration
Table 6-4 Operation Counts for the Hughes-Liu Shell with Selectively
Reduced Integration
LEVEL L1 - Once per element
Midstep translation geometry, etc. 204
Midstep calculation of 318
LEVEL L2 - For each integration point through thickness (NT points)
Strain increment at 316
Hughes-Winget rotation matrix 33
Square root of Hughes-Winget matrix 47
LEVEL L1 - Do over each element group,
gather data, midstep geometry calculations
LEVEL 2 - For each thickness integration point
center of element calculations for
selective reduced integration
LEVEL 3 - Do over four Gauss points
stress update and
force contributions
LEVEL 2 - Completion
LEVEL L1 - Completion
Y
ˆ
0 0 . . . ( )
Main Index
215 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUAD4, DYSHELLFORM = 6, 7, Fully Integrated Hughes-Liu Shells
Rotate strain increments into lamina coordinates 66
Calculate rows 3 through 8 of B matrix 919
LEVEL L3 - For each integration point in lamina
Rotate stress to configuration 75
Incremental displacement gradient matrix 370
Rotate stress to lamina system 75
Rotate strain increments to lamina system 55
Constitutive model model dependent
Rotate stress back to global system 69
Rotate stress to configuration 75
Calculate rows 1 and 2 of B matrix 358
Stresses in lamina system 75
Stress divergence 245
TOTAL 522 +NT {1381 +4 * 1397}
Table 6-5 Operation Counts for the SOL 700 Implementation of the Uniformly Reduced
Hughes-Liu Shell
LEVEL L1 - Once per element
Calculate displacement increments 24
Element areas for time step 53
Calculate
238
LEVEL L2 and L3 - Integration point through thickness (NT points)
Incremental displacement gradient matrix 284
Jaumann rotation for stress 33
Rotate stress into lamina coordinates 75
Rotate stain increments into lamina coordinates 81
Constitutive model model dependent
Rotate stress to global coordinates 69
Stress divergence 125
Table 6-4 Operation Counts for the Hughes-Liu Shell with Selectively Reduced Integration
(continued)
n 1 2 +
n 1 +
n 1 +
Y
ˆ
n 1 +
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUAD4, DYSHELLFORM = 6, 7, Fully Integrated Hughes-Liu Shells
216
Element Mass Matrix
Hughes, Liu, and Levit [Hughes et al., 1981] describe the procedure used to form the shell element mass
matrix in problems involving explicit transient dynamics. Their procedure, which scales the rotary mass
terms, is used for all shell elements in SOL 700 including those formulated by Belytschko and his co-
workers. This scaling permits large critical time step sizes without loss of stability.
The consistent mass matrix is defined by
(6-337)
but cannot be used effectively in explicit calculations where matrix inversions are not feasible. In SOL
700 only three and four-node shell elements are used with linear interpolation functions; consequently,
we compute the translational masses from the consistent mass matrix by row summing, leading to the
following mass at element node :
(6-338)
The rotational masses are computed by scaling the translational mass at the node by the factor :
(6-339)
where
(6-340)
(6-341)
(6-342)
(6-343)
(6-344)
and and are the volume and the thickness of the element, respectively.
LEVEL L1 - Cleanup
Finish stress divergence 60
Hourglass control 356
TOTAL 731 +NT * 667
Table 6-5 Operation Counts for the SOL 700 Implementation of the Uniformly Reduced
Hughes-Liu Shell (continued)
M pN
t
N u
m
d
u
m
í
=
a
M
di sp
a
po
a
u d
v
í
=
o
M
rot
a
·M
di sp
a
=
· max ·
1
·
2
. { } =
·
1
z
a
( ,
2
1
12
------ z
a
| |
2
+ =
·
2
V
8h
------ =
z
a
( ,
z
a
+
z
a
-
+ ( )
2
---------------------- =
z
a
| | z
a
+
z
a
-
– =
V h
Main Index
217 Chapter 6: Elements
Transverse Shear Treatment for Layered Shell
Accounting for Thickness Changes
Hughes and Carnoy [1981] describe the procedure used to update the shell thickness due to large
membrane stretching. Their procedure with any necessary modifications is used across all shell element
types in SOL 700. One key to updating the thickness is an accurate calculation of the normal strain
component . This strain component is easily obtained for elastic materials but can require an iterative
algorithm for nonlinear material behavior. In SOL 700, we, therefore, default to an iterative plasticity
update to accurately determine .
Hughes and Carnoy integrate the strain tensor through the thickness of the shell in order to determine a
mean value :
(6-345)
and then project it to determine the straining in the fiber direction:
(6-346)
Using the interpolation functions through the integration points the strains in the fiber directions are
extrapolated to the nodal points if 2 x 2 selectively reduced integration is employed. The nodal fiber
lengths can now be updated:
(6-347)
Transverse Shear Treatment for Layered Shell
The shell element formulations that include the transverse shear strain components are based on the first
order shear deformation theory, which yield constant through thickness transverse shear strains. This
violates the condition of zero traction on the top and bottom surfaces of the shell. Normally, this is
corrected by the use of a shear correction factor. The shear correction factor is 5/6 for isotropic materials;
however, this value is incorrect for sandwich and laminated shells. Not accounting for the correct
transverse shear strain and stress could yield a very stiff behavior in sandwich and laminated shells. This
problem is addressed here by the use of the equilibrium equations without gradient in the y-direction as
described by what follows. Consider the stresses in a layered shell:
(6-348)
Assume that the bending center is known. Then
(6-349)
Ac
33
Ac
33
Ac
i j
Ac
i j
1
2
-- - Ac
i j
. d
1 –
1
í
=
c
f
Y
ˆ T
Ac
i j
Y
ˆ
=
h
a
n 1 +
h
a
n
1 c
a
f
+ ( ) =
o
x
i ( )
C
11
i ( )
c
x
°
z;
x
+ ( ) C
12
i ( )
c
y
°
z;
y
+ ( ) + C
11
i ( )
c
x
°
C
12
i ( )
c
y
°
z C
11
i ( )
;
x
C
12
i ( )
;
y
+ ( ) + + = =
o
y
i ( )
C
12
i ( )
c
x
°
C
22
i ( )
c
y
°
z + + C
12
i ( )
;
x
C
22
i ( )
;
y
+ ( ) =
t
xy
i ( )
C
44
i ( )
c
xy
°
z;
xy
+ ( ) =
z
x
o
x
i ( )
z z
x
– ( ) C
11
i ( )
;
x
C
12
i ( )
;
y
+ ( ) C
11
i ( )
c
x
z
x
( ) C
12
i ( )
c
y
z
x
( ) + + =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Transverse Shear Treatment for Layered Shell
218
The bending moment is given by the following equation:
(6-350)
or
(6-351)
where “ ” is the number of layers in the material.
Assume and , then
(6-352)
and
(6-353)
(6-354)
Therefore, the stress becomes
(6-355)
Now considering the first equilibrium equation, one can write the following:
(6-356)
(6-357)
where is the shear force and is the constant of integration. This constant is obtained from the
transverse shear stress continuity requirement at the interface of each layer.
M
xx
;
x
C
11
i ( )
z
2
z d
z
i 1 –
z
i
í
i 1 =
NL
¯
\ .
|
|
| |
;
y
C
12
i ( )
z
2
z d
z
i 1 –
z
i
í
i 1 =
NL
¯
\ .
|
|
| |
+ =
M
xx
1
3
-- - ;
x
C
11
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( ) ;
y
C
12
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
i 1 =
NL
¯
+
i 1 =
NL
¯
=
NL
c
y
0 = o
x
E
;
c
;
=
c
x
z z
x

p
------------- z z
x
– ( );
x
= =
M
xx
1
3
-- - ;
x
E
x
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
¯
( ) =
;
x
3M
xx
E
x
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
¯
--------------------------------------------- =
o
x
i ( ) 3M
xx
E
x
i ( )
z z
x
– ( )
E
x
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
i 1 =
NL
¯
------------------------------------------------ =
ct
xz
cz
----------
co
x
cx
--------- –
3Q
xz
E
x
j ( )
z z
x
– ( )
E
x
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
i 1 =
NL
¯
------------------------------------------------ – = =
t
xz
j ( )
3Q
xz
E
x
j ( )
z
2
2
---- zz
x

\ .
| |
E
x
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
i 1 =
NL
¯
------------------------------------------------ – C
j
+ =
Q
xz
C
j
Main Index
219 Chapter 6: Elements
Transverse Shear Treatment for Layered Shell
Let
(6-358)
Then
(6-359)
and
(6-360)
For the first layer
(6-361)
for subsequent layers
(6-362)
Here is the stress in previous layer at the interface with the current layer. The shear stress can also
be expressed as follows:
(6-363)
where
(6-364)
and
EI ( )
x
1
3
--- E
x
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
i 1 =
NL
¯
=
C
j
3Q
xz
E
x
i ( ) z
i 1 –
2
2
----------- z
i 1 –
z
x

\ .
| |
EI ( )
x
-------------------------------------------------------------- t
xz
i 1 –
( )
+ =
t
xz
i ( )
t
xz
i 1 – ( )
Q
xz
E
x
i ( )
EI ( )x
------------------
z
i 1 –
2
2
----------- z
i 1 –
z
x

z
2
2
---- – zz
x
+ + =
t
xz
3Q
xz
C
11
1 ( )
C
11
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
+ ( )
i 1 =
NL
¯
-------------------------------------------------
z
2
z
o
2

2
---------------- z
x
z z
o
– ( ) – – =
t
xz
t
xz
i 1 – ( )
3Q
xz
C
11
i ( )
C
11
j ( )
z
j
3
z
j 1 –
3
– ( )
j 1 =
NL
¯
------------------------------------------------
z
2
z
o
2

2
---------------- z
x
z z
o
– ( ) – z
i 1 –
z z
i
s s , – =
t
xz
i 1 – ( )
t
xz
3Q
xz
C
11
i ( )
C
11
j ( )
z
j
3
z
j 1 –
3
– ( )
j 1 =
NL
¯
------------------------------------------------ f
x
i ( ) z
2
z
i 1 –
2

2
---------------------- z
x
z z
i 1 –
– ( ) – + =
f
x
i ( )
1
C
11
i ( )
--------- C
11
j ( )
h
j
z
j
z
j 1 +
+
2
---------------------- z
x

j 1 =
NL
¯
=
h
j
z
j
z
j 1 –
– =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Transverse Shear Treatment for Layered Shell
220
To find , the shear force, assume that the strain energy expressed through average shear modules, ,
is equal to the strain energy expressed through the derived expressions as follows:
(6-365)
(6-366)
then
to calculate use for last layer at surface
(6-367)
where
(6-368)
Algorithm:
Q
xz
C
66
U
1
2
-- -
Q
xz
C
66
h
------------
1
2
-- -
t
xz
2
C
66
-------- z d
í
= =
1
C
66
--------
9h
C
11
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
j 1 =
NL
¯
2
---------------------------------------------------------
C
11
2
C
66
--------- f
x
i ( ) z
2
z
i 1 –
2
– ( )
2
--------------------------- z
x
z z
i 1 –
– ( ) – +
2
z d
í
=
9h
C
11
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
j 1 =
NL
¯
2
---------------------------------------------------------
C
11
i ( )
( )
2
C
66
i ( )
----------------- f
x
i ( ) z
2
z
i 1 –
2

2
---------------------- z
x
z z
i 1 –
– ( ) – +
2
z d
z
i 1 –
z
i
í
i 1 =
NL
¯
=
1
60
------
9h
C
11
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
j 1 =
NL
¯
2
---------------------------------------------------------
C
11
i ( )
( )
2
h
C
66
i ( )
-------------------- f
x
i ( )
60f
x
i ( )
20h
i
z
i
2z
i 1 –
3z
x
– + ( ) + | | + {
i
NL
¯
=
z
x
h
i
20z
x
h
i
35z
i 1 –
2
10z
i 1 –
z
i
z
i 1 –
+ ( ) – 15z
i
2
– + | |
+z
i
z
i
z
i 1 –
+ ( ) 3z
i
2
7z
i 1 –
2
– ( ) 8z
i 1 –
4
} +
1
C
66
-------- =
Q
xz
t
xz
h C
66
¸
xz
h = =
z
x
t
xz
z 0 =
C
11
i ( ) z
i
2
z
i 1 –
2

2
-----------------------
\ .
| |
z
x
z
i
z
i 1 –
– ( ) –
i 1 =
NL
¯
0 =
z
x
C
11
i ( )
h
i
z
i
z
i 1 +
+ ( )
i 1 =
NL
¯
2 C
11
i ( )
h
i
i 1 =
NL
¯
---------------------------------------------------- =
Main Index
221 Chapter 6: Elements
Transverse Shear Treatment for Layered Shell
The following algorithm is used in the implementation of the transverse shear treatment.
1. Calculate according to (6-368)
2. Calculate according to (6-364)
3. Calculate
4. Calculate
5. Calculate according to equation (6-366)
6. Calculate
7. Calculate
Steps 1-5 are performed at the initialization stage. Step 6 is performed in the shell formulation subroutine,
and Step 7 is performed in the stress calculation inside the constitutive subroutine.
z
x
f
x
i ( )
1
3
-- - C
11
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
i 1 =
NL
¯
h
1
3
-- - C
11
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )
i 1 =
NL
¯
\ .
|
|
| |
2
C
66
Q
xz
C
66
¸
xz
h =
t
xz
t
xz
i ( )
1
3
-- - C
11
i ( )
z
i
3
z
i 1 –
3
– ( )Q
xz
C
11
i ( )
f
x
i ( ) z
2
z
i 1 –
2

2
---------------------- z
x
z z
i 1 –
– ( ) – + z ,
i 1 –
z z
i
s s
i 1 =
NL
¯
– =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CROD, Truss Element
222
CROD, Truss Element
One of the simplest elements is the pin-jointed truss element shown in Figure 6-22. This element has three
degrees of freedom at each node and carries an axial force. The displacements and velocities measured
in the local system are interpolated along the axis according to
(6-369)
(6-370)
where at , , and at , .
Figure 6-22 Truss Element
Incremental strains are found from
(6-371)
and are computed using
(6-372)
The normal force is then incrementally updated using a tangent modulus according to
(6-373)
Two constitutive models are implemented for the truss element: elastic and elastic-plastic with
kinematic hardening.
Note: Unlike the CBEAM, this does not support torsion.
u u
1
x
L
--- u
2
u
1
– ( ) + =
u
·
u
·
1
x
L
--- u
·
2
u
·
1
– ( ) + =
x 0 = u u
1
= x L = u u
2
=
u
1
L
N
1
N
2
A
u
2
Ac
u
·
2
u
·
1
– ( )
L
---------------------- At =
Ac
n 1 2 +
2 u
·
2
n 1 2 +
u
·
1
n 1 2 +
– ( )
L
n
L
n 1 +
+
----------------------------------------------------- At
n 1 2 +
=
N E
t
N
n 1 +
N
n
AE
t
Ac
n 1 2 +
+ =
Main Index
223 Chapter 6: Elements
CQUAD4 - DYSHELLFORM = 9, Membrane Element
CQUAD4 - DYSHELLFORM = 9, Membrane Element
The Belytschko-Lin-Tsay shell element {Belytschko and Tsay [1981], Belytschko et al., [1984a]} is the
basis for this very efficient membrane element. In this section we briefly outline the theory employed
which, like the shell on which it is based, uses a combined co-rotational and velocity-strain formulation.
The efficiency of the element is obtained from the mathematical simplifications that result from these
two kinematical assumptions. The co-rotational portion of the formulation avoids the complexities of
nonlinear mechanics by embedding a coordinate system in the element. The choice of velocity strain or
rate of deformation in the formulation facilitates the constitutive evaluation, since the conjugate stress is
the more familiar Cauchy stress.
In membrane elements the rotational degrees of freedom at the nodal points may be constrained, so that
only the translational degrees of freedom contribute to the straining of the membrane. A triangular
membrane element may be obtained by collapsing adjacent nodes of the quadrilateral.
Co-rotational Coordinates
The mid-surface of the quadrilateral membrane element is defined by the location of the element’s four
corner nodes. An embedded element coordinate system (Figure 6-9) that deforms with the element is
defined in terms of these nodal coordinates. The co-rotational coordinate system follows the development
in equations (6-166) to (6-171).
Velocity-Strain Displacement Relations
The co-rotational components of the velocity strain (rate of deformation) are given by:
(6-374)
The above velocity-strain relations are evaluated only at the center of the shell. Standard bilinear nodal
interpolation is used to define the mid-surface velocity, angular velocity, and the element’s coordinates
(isoparametric representation). These interpolation relations are given by
(6-375)
(6-376)
where the subscript is summed over all the element’s nodes and the nodal velocities are obtained by
differentiating the nodal coordinates with respect to time, i.e., . The bilinear shape functions are
defined in (6-185).
The velocity strains at the center of the element, i.e., at , and , are obtained as in Co-rotational
Technique, giving:
(6-377)
d
ˆ
i j
1
2
-- -
cu
ˆ
i
cx
ˆ
j
--------
cu
ˆ
j
cx
ˆ
i
-------- +
\ .
|
| |
=
v
m
N
I
c n . ( )v
I
=
x
m
N
I
c n . ( )x
I
=
I
u
I
x
·
I
=
c 0 = n 0 =
d
ˆ
x B
1I
u
ˆ
xI
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CQUAD4 - DYSHELLFORM = 9, Membrane Element
224
(6-378)
(6-379)
where
(6-380)
(6-381)
Stress Resultants and Nodal Forces
After suitable constitutive evaluations using the above velocity strains, the resulting stresses are
multiplied by the thickness of the membrane, , to obtain local resultant forces. Therefore,
(6-382)
where the superscript indicates a resultant force and the Greek subscripts emphasize the limited range
of the indices for plane stress plasticity.
The above element centered force resultants are related to the local nodal forces by
(6-383)
(6-384)
where is the area of the element.
The above local nodal forces are then transformed to the global coordinate system using the
transformation relations given in equation (6-173).
Membrane Hourglass Control
Hourglass deformations need to be resisted for the membrane element. The hourglass control for this
element is discussed in Hourglass Control (Belytschko-Lin-Tsay).
d
ˆ
y B
2I
u
ˆ
yI
=
2d
ˆ
xy B
2I
v
ˆ
xI
B
1I
v
ˆ
yI
+ =
B
1I
cN
I
cx
ˆ
--------- =
B
2I
cN
I
cy
ˆ
--------- =
h
f
ˆ
o|
R
ho
ˆ
o|
=
R
f
ˆ
xI A B
1I
f
ˆ
xx
R
B
2I
f
ˆ
xy
R
+ ( ) =
f
ˆ
yI A B
2I
f
ˆ
yy
R
B
1I
f
ˆ
xy
R
+ ( ) =
A
Main Index
225 Chapter 6: Elements
CELAS1D, Discrete Elements and CONM2, Masses
CELAS1D, Discrete Elements and CONM2, Masses
The discrete elements and masses in SOL 700 provide a capability for modeling simple spring-mass
systems as well as the response of more complicated mechanisms. Occasionally, the response of
complicated mechanisms or materials needs to be included in the models, e.g., energy absorbers used in
passenger vehicle bumpers. These mechanisms are often experimentally characterized in terms of
force-displacement curves. SOL 700 provides a selection of discrete elements that can be used
individually or in combination to model complex force-displacement relations.
The discrete elements are assumed to be massless. However, to solve the equations of motion at
unconstrained discrete element nodes or nodes joining multiple discrete elements, nodal masses must be
specified at these nodes. SOL 700 provides a direct method for specifying these nodal masses in the
model input.
All of the discrete elements are two-node elements, i.e., three-dimensional springs or trusses. A discrete
element may be attached to any of the other SOL 700 continuum, structural, or rigid body element. The
force update for the discrete elements may be written as
(6-385)
where the superscript indicates the time increment and the superposed caret indicates the force
in the local element coordinates; i.e., along the axis of the element. In the default case(i.e., no orientation
vector is used), the global components of the discrete element force are obtained by using the element’s
direction cosines:
(6-386)
where:
(6-387)
is the length
(6-388)
and are the global coordinates of the nodes of the spring element. The forces in Equation (6-386)
are added to the first node and subtracted from the second node.
f
ˆ i 1 +
f
ˆ i
Af
ˆ
+ =
i 1 + ˆ ( )
F
x
F
y
F
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
f
ˆ
l
-
Al
x
Al
y
Al
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
f
ˆ
n
x
n
y
n
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
f
ˆ
n
˜
= = =
A
˜
l
Al
y
Al
y
Al
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
x
2
x
1

y
2
y
1

z
2
z
1

¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
= =
l
l Al
x
2
Al
y
2
Al
z
2
+ + =
x
i
y
i
z
i
. . ( )
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CELAS1D, Discrete Elements and CONM2, Masses
226
For a node tied to ground we use the same approach but for the coordinates in equation (6-366),
the initial coordinates of node 1, i.e., are used instead; therefore,
(6-389)
The increment in the element force is determined from the user specified force-displacement relation.
Currently, nine types of force-displacement/velocity relationships may be specified:
• Linear elastic
• Linear viscous
• Nonlinear elastic
• Nonlinear viscous
• Elasto-plastic with isotropic hardening
• General nonlinear
• Linear viscoelastic
• Inelastic tension and compression only
• Muscle model
Orientation Vectors
An orientation vector,
(6-390)
can be defined to control the direction the spring acts. If orientation vectors are used, it is strongly
recommended that the nodes of the discrete element be coincident and remain approximately so
throughout the calculation. If the spring or damper is of finite length, rotational constraints will appear
in the model that can substantially affect the results. If finite length springs are needed with directional
vectors, then the discrete beam elements, CROD, should be used with the coordinate system flagged for
the finite length case.
We will first consider the portion of the displacement that lies in the direction of the vector. The
displacement of the spring is updated based on the change of length given by
(6-391)
x
2
y
2
z
2
. . ( )
x
0
y
0
z
0
. . ( )
F
x
F
y
F
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
f
ˆ
l
-
x
0
x
1

y
0
y
1

z
0
z
1

¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
f
ˆ
n
x
n
y
n
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
= =
m
˜
m
1
m
2
m
3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
AI I I
0
– =
Main Index
227 Chapter 6: Elements
CELAS1D, Discrete Elements and CONM2, Masses
where is the initial length in the direction of the vector and is the current length given for a node to
node spring by
(6-392)
and for a node to ground spring by
(6-393)
The latter case is not intuitively obvious and can affect the sign of the force in unexpected ways if the
user is not familiar with the relevant equations. The nodal forces are then given by
(6-394)
The orientation vector can be either permanently fixed in space as defined in the input or acting in a
direction determined by two moving nodes which must not be coincident but may be independent of the
nodes of the spring. In the latter case, we recompute the direction every cycle according to:
(6-395)
In equation (6-395) the superscript, , refers to the orientation nodes.
For the case where we consider motion in the plane perpendicular to the orientation vector we consider
only the displacements in the plane, , given by,
(6-396)
We update the displacement of the spring based on the change of length in the plane given by
(6-397)
where is the initial length in the direction of the vector and is the current length given for a node to
node spring by
(6-398)
I
0
I
I m
1
x
2
x
1
– ( ) m
2
y
2
y
1
– ( ) m
3
z
2
z
1
– ( ) + + =
I m
1
x
0
x
1
– ( ) m
2
y
0
y
1
– ( ) m
3
z
0
z
1
– ( ) + + =
F
x
F
y
F
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
f
ˆ
m
1
m
2
m
3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
m
1
m
2
m
3
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
1
l
n
----
x
2
n
x
1
n

y
2
n
y
1
n

z
2
n
z
1
n

¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
n
A
˜
l
p
A
˜
l
p
A
˜
l m
˜
m
˜
A
˜
l · ( ) – =
Al
p
l
p
l
0
p
– =
l
0
p
l
l
p
m
1
p
x
2
x
1
– ( ) m
2
p
y
2
y
1
– ( ) m
3
p
z
2
z
1
– ( ) + + =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CELAS1D, Discrete Elements and CONM2, Masses
228
and for a node to ground spring by
(6-399)
where
(6-400)
After computing the displacements, the nodal forces are then given by
(6-401)
Dynamic Magnification “Strain Rate” Effects
To account for “strain rate” effects, we have a simple method of scaling the forces based to the relative
velocities that applies to all springs. The forces computed from the spring elements are assumed to be the
static values and are scaled by an amplification factor to obtain the dynamic value:
(6-402)
where
For example, if it is known that a component shows a dynamic crush force at 15m/s equal to 2.5 times
the static crush force, use and .
= a user defined input value
= absolute relative velocity
= dynamic test velocity
l
p
m
1
p
x
0
x
1
– ( ) m
2
p
y
0
y
1
– ( ) m
3
p
z
0
z
1
– ( ) + + =
m
1
p
m
2
p
m
3
p
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
1
Al
x
p
2
Al
y
p
2
Al
z
p
2
+ +
----------------------------------------------------
Al
x
p
Al
y
p
Al
z
p
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
F
x
F
y
F
z
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
f
ˆ
m
1
p
m
2
p
m
3
p
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
=
F
dynami c
1. k
d
V
V
0
------ +
\ .
| |
F
st at i c
=
k
d
V
V
0
k
d
1.5 = V
0
15 =
Main Index
229 Chapter 6: Elements
CELAS1D, Discrete Elements and CONM2, Masses
Deflection Limits in Tension and Compression
The deflection limit in compression and tension is restricted in its application to no more than one spring
per node subject to this limit, and to deformable bodies only. For example in the former case, if three
spring are in series either the center spring or the two end springs may be subject to a limit but not all
three. When the limiting deflection is reached momentum conservation calculations are performed and a
common acceleration is computed:
(6-403)
An error termination will occur if a rigid body node is used in a spring definition where compression is
limited.
a
ˆ
common
f
ˆ
1 f
ˆ
2 +
m
1
m
2
+
-------------------- =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
CDAMP2D, Linear Elastic or Linear Viscous
230
CDAMP2D, Linear Elastic or Linear Viscous
These discrete elements have the simplest force-displacement relations. The linear elastic discrete
element has a force-displacement relation of the form
(6-404)
where is the element’s stiffness and is the change in length of the element. The linear viscous
element has a similar force-velocity (rate of displacement) relation:
(6-405)
where is a viscous damping parameter and is the time step increment.
f
ˆ
KAl =
K Al
f
ˆ
C
Al
At
----- =
C At
Main Index
231 Chapter 6: Elements
Eulerian Elements
Eulerian Elements
Element Definition
In the Eulerian solver, the mesh is defined by grid points and solid elements. The elements are
specified as being (partially) filled with certain materials or with nothing (VOID), and initial conditions
are defined.
As the calculation proceeds, the material moves relative to the Eulerian mesh. The mass, momentum, and
energy of the material is transported from element to element depending on the direction and velocity of
the material flow. The solver then calculates the impulse and work done on each of the faces of every
Eulerian element.
Eulerian elements can only be solid but have a general connectivity and therefore are defined in exactly
the same way as Lagrangian elements.
Solid Elements
There are three types of Euler elements, a six-sided CHEXA with eight grid points defining the corners,
a CPENTA with six grid points, and a CTETRA with four grid points. The connectivity of the element
is defined in exactly the same manner as a Lagrangian element, that is, with a CHEXA, CPENTA, or
CTETRA entry. However, in order to differentiate between Lagrangian and Eulerian solid elements, the
property entry for Euler is PEULERn rather than PSOLID.
Unlike Lagrangian solid elements, the CPENTA and CTETRA elements perform just as well as the
CHEXA element. They can be used, therefore, wherever meshing demands such use.
The PEULERn entry references a MATDEUL material entry that is used to define the material filling the
elements at the start of the calculation. When no material entry is referenced (the field contains a zero),
the element is initially void.
CPENTA CTETRA
CHEXA
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Graded Meshes
232
Graded Meshes
Nonuniform Euler meshes can easily be created by MD Patran. This is particularly useful when the
elements do not need to be orthogonal. But in orthogonal meshes, the nonuniformity propagates to the
boundaries of the mesh. Even at the boundary, there will be elements that have a small size in at least
one direction. To allow for large element sizes in all three coordinate directions at the boundary, block
structured meshing has to be used. This type of meshing is very effective when modeling the flow over
bodies and is often used in CFD. Usually, the Euler elements are fine near the body and become coarser
as the distance is increased away from the body. By using the graded mesh capability, a block of fine
elements is used in the area of interest and a coarse block is used in other areas. To use this method, the
blocks need to be glued together. This is done by adding PARAM,GRADMESH.
Graded meshes are supported by all Eulerian solvers except by the single material Euler solver with
Strength. Intersection of a coupling surface segment with the interface between a coarse and fine block
is not allowed. Graded meshes are not supported by multiple Euler domains. Figure 1 shows an example
of graded meshes. This mesh is be used in Example 4.14.
Consider a blast wave simulation. Close to the ignition point elements need to be fine, but at some
distance the wave blast becomes larger in radius and it becomes less steep allowing coarser mesh
elements. To reduce the number of elements and the limit the problem size, part of the fine mesh can be
replaced by a coarse mesh. For modeling, only part of the fine mesh is constructed and the coarse
mesh is created such that it covers the whole problem domain. Next, the fine mesh is glued to the coarse
mesh. This gluing is activated by PARAM,GRADED-MESH. The algorithm identifies the elements of the
coarse mesh that are covered by the fine mesh. They are deactivated and removed from Euler archive
output requests.
Requirements for Gluing Meshes
Connecting meshes with varying mesh sizes was already possible by using multiple Euler domains with
porous coupling surfaces. Using this method, two connected meshes are surrounded by a coupling
surface together with a fully porous subsurface that connects the two domains. The domains are
exclusively setup by using the MESH entry. In this approach there are no requirements on the size and
location of the meshes. In output requests, only one domain can be examined. Making plots of the whole
domain is not possible in one Patran session. This makes the approach cumbersome.
With the graded mesh functionality there is no longer any need to create coupling surfaces. An additional
advantage is that there is no restriction on how the elements are created for the simulation. Any pre-
processor may be used, defining the CHEXA elements in an input file, but also blocks of meshes can be
created by means of the MESH entry. The interface between the fine and coarse mesh is identified in the
solver when PARAM,GRADMESH is activated. However, one restriction applies to graded meshes. An
Euler element of the coarse mesh has to be fully active or fully inactive. This means that the coarse
element should not intersect elements of the fine mesh or it should be fully covered by the fine elements.
Fine elements are not allowed to cover any part of the coarse elements. In practice, this means that the
fine mesh has to fit nicely in the coarse mesh. As shown in the meshes in Figure 6-23, the four marked
Main Index
233 Chapter 6: Elements
Graded Meshes
locations a grid point of the fine mesh coincides with a grid point of the coarse mesh. This matching does
not need to be exact, since the solver uses a tolerance to find the coinciding grid points. Visualization of
the results of the complete Euler domain can be done in one session in a post-processor like MD Patran.
Figure 6-23 Graded Mesh with Structure
Gluing Meshes
Gluing of fine and coarse meshes is activated by PARAM,GRADMESH. The algorithm removes coarse
elements that are completely covered by fine elements. Here the criterion for removal is based on the
element volume. The element with the largest volume will be removed. It is also possible to remove the
elements with the lowest element numbers. These two approaches are activated by, respectively, the
MINVOL and ELNUM option of the GRADMESH PARAM.
The gluing algorithm performs the following steps:
• The Euler elements are sorted such that the connected elements are grouped together.
• For each group of elements, the algorithm determines which elements have to be removed. As
mentioned the criterion for removal is based on the fact if these elements are completely covered
by elements of another group that are smaller or have a larger element number.
• Next the groups of elements are connected at boundary faces and at locations where elements
have been removed. Special faces will be created that connect an element of one element group
to an element of another group.
If the fine mesh is fully surrounded by the coarse mesh, the interface between the two meshes consists of
the boundary faces of the fine mesh. The geometry formed by these faces will be used to construct special
faces that connect an element of the coarse mesh to an element of the fine mesh.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Graded Meshes
234
Using Graded Meshes
Blocks of Euler elements can be defined by either MD Patran or the MESH,BOX entry. It is important that
at the interface a face of a coarse element can be matched to several parts of faces of fine elements. This
matching does not need to be exact since a tolerance is used.
One way to construct graded meshes is:
• Make the coarse mesh by using MESH,BOX.
• Run the simulation and read in the Euler mesh into MD Patran. For a part of this mesh, the
coarse elements have to be replaced by finer elements. Select a part of this mesh by selecting two
Eulerian grid points.
• Create the fine mesh by MESH,BOX, by using for the reference grid point as the first grid point.
The width of the box is given by subtracting the coordinates of the second grid point from the
coordinates of the first. To finish the definition of the fine mesh, the number of elements in each
direction has to be defined. This ensures that the fine mesh fits nicely in the coarse mesh.
• Add PARAM,GRADMESH which activates the algorithm that is described above.
If needed a part of fine mesh can be replaced by an even finer mesh, by iterating through the steps above.
To construct graded meshes by MD Patran, a utility called “the break up of element” can be used.
Visualization with MD Patran
Elements that are fully covered by the fine mesh will not be included in the Euler archives. This allows
for visualization of all euler elements in one MD Patran session. The fringe plots can lack smoothness at
the interfaces. The reason is that Patran determines colors on the basis of grid point values. They are
computed by averaging over the elements that are connected to the grid points. In graded meshes, there
can be grid points that belong only to fine elements and not to coarse elements. These grid points are
called hanging nodes. An example of a hanging node is shown in Figure 6-24. At the hanging node, the
value only reflects the fine mesh. This results in loss of smoothness. An example is shown in Figure 6-25.
If the results are postprocessed by using the element values this problem does not appear (see
Figure 6-26).
Main Index
235 Chapter 6: Elements
Graded Meshes
Figure 6-24 Hanging Node

Figure 6-25 Lack of Smoothness
Figure 6-26 Using Element Values
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Graded Meshes
236
Main Index
Chapter 7: Materials
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
7
Materials

Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700 238

Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700 345
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
238
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
In addition to most materials available in MD Nastran Solutions 101 - 200, the following material models
which are suitable for explicit applications are also made available for SOL 700.
About ninety new material models are currently implemented in SOL 700. In this chapter, we will
highlight the theoretical background of these material models. These are the material models that
are most commonly used for typical structural applications. Additional materials will be added in
future releases.
1 Elastic
2 Orthotropic Elastic
3 Kinematic/Isotropic Elastic-Plastic
4 Thermo-Elastic-Plastic
5 Soil and Crushable/Non-crushable Foam
6 Viscoelastic
7 Blatz-Ko Rubber
8 High Explosive Burn
9 Null Hydrodynamics
10 Isotropic-Elastic-Plastic-Hydrodynamic
11 Temperature Dependent, Elastoplastic, Hydrodynamic
12 Isotropic-Elastic-Plastic
13 Elastic-Plastic with Failure Model
14 Soil and Crushable Foam with Failure Model
15 Johnson/Cook Strain and Temperature Sensitive Plasticity
16 Pseudo TENSOR Concrete/Geological Model
17 Isotropic Elastic-Plastic Oriented Crack Model
18 Power Law Isotropic Plasticity
19 Strain Rate Dependent Isotropic Plasticity
20 Rigid
21 Thermal Orthotropic Elastic
22 Composite Damage Model
23 Thermal Orthotropic Elastic with 12 Curves
24 Piecewise Linear Isotropic Plasticity
25 Inviscid Two Invariant Geologic Cap Model
26 Honeycomb
27 Compressible Mooney-Rivlin Rubber
Main Index
239 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
28 Resultant Plasticity
29 Forced Limited Resultant Fomulation
30 Shape-Memory Superelastic Material
31 Slightly Compressible Rubber Model
32 Laminated Glass Model
34 Fabric
40 Nonlinear Orthotropic
54-55 Composite Damage Model
57 Low Density Urethane Foam
58 Laminated Composite Fabric
59 Composite Failure Model - Plasticity Based
62 Viscous foam
63 Isotropic Crushable Foam
64 Strain Rate Sensitive Power-Law Plasticity
66 Linear Elastic Discrete Beam
67 Nonlinear Elastic Discrete Beam
68 Nonlinear Plastic Discrete Beam
69 SID Damper Discrete Beam
70 Hydraulic Gas Damper Discrete Beam
71 Cable Discrete Beam
72 Concrete Damage
72R Concrete Damage Release III
73 Low Density Viscoelastic Foam
74 Elastic Spring Discrete Beam
76 General Viscoelastic
77 Hyperviscoelastic Rubber
80 Ramberg-Osgood Plasticity
81 Plastic with Damage
83 Fu-Chang’s Foam with Rate Effects
87 Cellular Rubber
89 Plastic Polymer
93 Elastic Six Degrees of Freedom Spring Discrete Beam
94 Inelastic Spring Discrete Beam
95 Inelastic Spring Six Degrees of Freedom Discrete Beam
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
240
97 General Joint Discrete Beam
98 Simplified Johnson-Cook
99 Simplified Johnson-Cook Orthotropic Damage
100 Spot weld
112 Finite Elastic Strain Plasticity
114 Layered Linear Plasticity
119 General Nonlinear Six Degrees of Freedom Discrete Beam
121 General Nonlinear One Degree of Freedom Discrete Beam
123 Modified Piecewise Linear Plasticity
126 Modified Honeycomb
127 Arruda-Boyce rubber
158 Composite Fabric
181 Simplified Rubber
196 General Spring Descrete Beam
B01 Seatbelt
S01 Spring Elastic (Linear)
S02 Damper Viscous (Linear)
S03 Spring Elastoplastic (Isotropic)
S04 Spring Nonlinear Elastic
S05 Damper Nonlinear Viscous
S06 Spring General Nonlinear
S07 Spring Maxwell (Three parameter Viscoelastic)
S08 Spring Inelastic (Tension or Compression)
S13 Spring Tri-linear Degrading
S14 Spring Squat Shearwall
S15 Spring Muscle
SW1 Spot Weld (Simple Damage-Failure)
SW2 Spot Weld (Resultant-based Failure Criteria)
SW3 Spot Weld (Stress-based Failure)
SW4 Spot Weld (Rate Dependent Stress-based Failure)
SW5 Spot Weld (Additional Failure)
Main Index
241 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
In the table below, a list of the available material models and the applicable element types are given.
Some materials include strain rate sensitivity, failure, equations of state, and thermal effects and this
is also noted. General applicability of the materials to certain kinds of behavior is suggested in the
last column.

Material Title
Gn General
Cm Composites
Cr Ceramics
Fl Fluids
Fm Foam
Gl Glass
Hy Hydro-dyn
Mt Metal
Pl Plastic
Rb Rubber
Sl Soil/Cone
1 Elastic Y Y Y Y Gn, Fl
2 Orthotropic Elastic (Anisotropic - solids) Y Y Y Cm, Mt
3 Plastic Kinematic/Isotropic Y Y Y Y Y Y Cm, Mt, Pl
5 Soil and Foam Y Fm, Sl
6 Linear Viscoelastic Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Rb
7 Blatz-Ko Rubber Y Y Rb, Polyurethane
9 Null Material Y Y Y Y Fl, Hy
10 Elastic Plastic Hydro (dynamics) Y Y Y Hy, Mt
12 Isotropic Elastic Plastic Y Y Y Y Mt
13 Isotropic Elastic-Plastic with Failure Y Y Mt
14 Soil and Foam with Failure Y Y Fm, Sl
15 Johnson/Cook Plasticity Model Y Y Y Y Y Y Hy, Mt
16 Pseudo TENSOR Geological Model Y Y Y Y Sl
18 Power Law Plasticity (Isotropic) Y Y Y Y Y Mt, Pl
19 Strain Rate Dependent Rate Plasticity Y Y Y Y Y Mt, Pl
20 Rigid Y Y Y Y
22 Composite Damage Y Y Y Y Cm
24 Piecewise Linear Isotropic Plasticity Y Y Y Y Y Y Mt, Pl
26 Honeycomb Y Y Y Cm, Fm, Sl
27 Mooney-Rivlin Rubber Y Y Rb
28 Resultant Plasticity Y Y Mt
29 Forced Limited Resultant Formaultion Y
30 Shaped Memory Alloy Y Mt
M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

N
u
m
b
e
r
B
r
i
c
k
s
B
e
a
m
s
T
h
i
n

S
h
e
l
l
s
T
h
i
c
k

S
h
e
l
l
s
S
t
r
a
i
n
-
R
a
t
e

E
f
f
e
c
t
s
F
a
i
l
u
r
e
E
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
-
o
f
-
S
t
a
t
e
T
h
e
r
m
a
l

E
f
f
e
c
t
s
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
242
31 Slightly Compressible Rubber Y Rb
32 Laminated Glass (Composite) Y Y Y Cm, Gl
34 Fabric Y
36 3-Parameter Barlat Palsticity Y Mt
37 Traversely Anisotropic Elastic Plastic Y Y Mt
39 FLD Transversely Anisotropic Y Y Mt
40 Nonlinear Orthotropic Y Y Y Cm
53 Closed Cell Foam (Low Density
Polyurethane)
Y Fm
54 Composite Damage with Chang Failure Y Y Cm
55 Composite Damage with Tsai-Wu Failure Y Y Cm
57 Low Density Urethane Foam Y Y Y Fm
58 Laminated composite Fabric Y
59 Composite Failure - Plasticity Based Y Y Y Cm, Cr
62 Viscous foam (Crash Dummy) Y Y Fm
63 Isotropic Crushable Foam Y Y Fm
64 Rate Sensitive Power-Law Plasticity Y Y Y Y Mt
65 Modified Zerilli/Armstrong
66 Linear Elastic Discrete Beam Y Y
67 Nonlinear Elastic Discrete Beam Y Y
68 Nonlinear Plastic Discrete Beam Y Y Y
69 SID Damper Discrete Beam Y Y
70 Hydraulic Gas Damper Discrete Beam Y Y
71 Cable Discrete Beam Y
72 Concrete Damage Y Y Y Y Sl
72R Concrete Damage Release III Y Y Y Y Sl
73 Low Density Viscous Foam Y Y Y Fm
Material Title
Gn General
Cm Composites
Cr Ceramics
Fl Fluids
Fm Foam
Gl Glass
Hy Hydro-dyn
Mt Metal
Pl Plastic
Rb Rubber
Sl Soil/Cone M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

N
u
m
b
e
r
B
r
i
c
k
s
B
e
a
m
s
T
h
i
n

S
h
e
l
l
s
T
h
i
c
k

S
h
e
l
l
s
S
t
r
a
i
n
-
R
a
t
e

E
f
f
e
c
t
s
F
a
i
l
u
r
e
E
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
-
o
f
-
S
t
a
t
e
T
h
e
r
m
a
l

E
f
f
e
c
t
s
Main Index
243 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
74 Elastic Spring Discrete Beam Y
76 General Viscoelastic (Maxwell model) Y Y Rb
77 Hyperelastic and Ogden Rubber Y Rb
78 Soil Concrete Y Y Sl
79 Hysteretic Soil (Elasto-Perfectly Plastic) Y Y Sl
80 Ramberg-Osgood Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
81 Plastic with Damage (Elasto-Plastic) Y Y Y Y Y Y Mt, Pl
83 Fu-Chang’s Foam Y Y Y Fm
87 Cellular Rubber Y Y Rb
89 Plastic Polymer Y
93 Elastic Six Degrees of Freedom Spring
Discrete Beam
Y
94 Inelastic Spring Discrete Beam Y
95
Inelastic Six Degrees of Freedom Spring
Discrete Beam
Y
97 General Joint Discrete Beam Y
98 Simplified Johnson-Cook Y Y Y Y
99 Simplified Johnson-Cook Orthotropic
Damage
Y Y Y Y
100 Spot weld Y
112 Finite Elastic Strain Plasticity Y
114 Layered Linear Plasticity Y Y
116 Composite Layup Y Cm
119 General Nonlinear Six Degrees of Freedom
Discrete Beam
Y
121 General Nonlinear One Degree of Freedom
Discrete Beam
Y
123 Modified Piecewise Linear Plasticity Y Y
Material Title
Gn General
Cm Composites
Cr Ceramics
Fl Fluids
Fm Foam
Gl Glass
Hy Hydro-dyn
Mt Metal
Pl Plastic
Rb Rubber
Sl Soil/Cone M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

N
u
m
b
e
r
B
r
i
c
k
s
B
e
a
m
s
T
h
i
n

S
h
e
l
l
s
T
h
i
c
k

S
h
e
l
l
s
S
t
r
a
i
n
-
R
a
t
e

E
f
f
e
c
t
s
F
a
i
l
u
r
e
E
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
-
o
f
-
S
t
a
t
e
T
h
e
r
m
a
l

E
f
f
e
c
t
s
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
244
126 Modified Honeycomb Y
127 Arruda-Boyce rubber Y
130 Special Orthotropic Y
145 Schwer Murray Cap Model Y Y Y Sl
147 FHWA Soil Y Y Sl
158 Composite Fabric Y Y Y Y Cm
163 Modified Crushable Foam Y Y Fm
170 Resultant Anisotropic Y Y Pl
181 Simplified Rubber Y RB
190 Flow Limit Diagram 3-Parameter Barlat Y Y Mt
193 Drucker Prager Y Sl
196 General Spring Discrete Beam Y
B01 Seatbelt
S01 Spring Elastic (Linear) Y
S02 Damper Viscous (Linear) Y Y
S03 Spring Elastoplastic (Isotropic) Y
S04 Spring Nonlinear Elastic Y Y
S05 Damper Nonlinear Viscous Y Y
S06 Spring General Nonlinear Y
S07
Spring Maxwell (Three Parameter
Viscoelastic)
Y Y
S08 Spring Inelastic (Tension or Compression Y
S13 Spring Tri-linear Degrading
S14 Spring Squat Shearwall
S15 Spring Muscle
SW1 Spot Weld (Simple Damage-Failure) Y
Material Title
Gn General
Cm Composites
Cr Ceramics
Fl Fluids
Fm Foam
Gl Glass
Hy Hydro-dyn
Mt Metal
Pl Plastic
Rb Rubber
Sl Soil/Cone M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

N
u
m
b
e
r
B
r
i
c
k
s
B
e
a
m
s
T
h
i
n

S
h
e
l
l
s
T
h
i
c
k

S
h
e
l
l
s
S
t
r
a
i
n
-
R
a
t
e

E
f
f
e
c
t
s
F
a
i
l
u
r
e
E
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
-
o
f
-
S
t
a
t
e
T
h
e
r
m
a
l

E
f
f
e
c
t
s
Main Index
245 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Model 1: Elastic
In this elastic material we compute the co-rotational rate of the deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor as
(7-1)
and pressure
(7-2)
where and are the elastic shear and bulk moduli, respectively, and is the relative volume; i.e., the
ratio of the current volume to the initial volume.
For standard MD Nastran solution sequence, this would be the same as using MAT1 to define a linear
elastic material.
Material Model 2: Orthotropic Elastic
The material law that relates second Piola-Kirchhoff stress to the Green-St. Venant strain is
(7-3)
where is the transformation matrix [Cook 1974].
SW2
Spot Weld (Resultant-based Failure
Criteria)
Y
SW3 Spot Weld (Stress-based Failure) Y
SW4
Spot Weld (Rate Dependent Stress-based
Failure)
Y
SW5 Spot Weld (Additional Failure) Y
Material Title
Gn General
Cm Composites
Cr Ceramics
Fl Fluids
Fm Foam
Gl Glass
Hy Hydro-dyn
Mt Metal
Pl Plastic
Rb Rubber
Sl Soil/Cone M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l

N
u
m
b
e
r
B
r
i
c
k
s
B
e
a
m
s
T
h
i
n

S
h
e
l
l
s
T
h
i
c
k

S
h
e
l
l
s
S
t
r
a
i
n
-
R
a
t
e

E
f
f
e
c
t
s
F
a
i
l
u
r
e
E
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
-
o
f
-
S
t
a
t
e
T
h
e
r
m
a
l

E
f
f
e
c
t
s
s
i j
V
n 1 2 +
2Gc'
·
i j
n 1 2 +
=
p
n 1 +
K V
n 1 +
ln =
G K V
S E
S C E · T
t
C
l
T E · = =
T
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
246
(7-4)
, , are the direction cosines
(7-5)
and denotes the material axes. The constitutive matrix is defined in terms of the material axes as
(7-6)
where the subscripts denote the material axes; i.e.,
and (7-7)
Since is symmetric
, ect. (7-8)
The vector of Green-St. Venant strain components is
(7-9)
(7-10)
After computing , we use Equation (7-10) to obtain the Cauchy stress. This model will predict realistic
behavior for finite displacement and rotations as long as the strains are small.
For standard MD Nastran solution sequences, this would be the same as using MAT9 to define a linear
anisotropic material. For shell elements, you would have used the MAT2 or MAT8 option.
T
l
1
2
m
1
2
n
1
2
l
1
m
1
m
1
n
1
n
1
l
1
l
2
2
m
2
2
n
2
2
l
2
m
2
m
2
n
2
n
2
l
2
l
3
2
m
3
2
n
3
2
l
3
m
3
m
3
n
3
n
3
l
3
2l
1
l
2
2m
1
m
2
2n
1
n
2
l
1
m
2
l
1
m
1
+ ( ) m
1
n
2
m
2
n
1
+ ( ) n
1
l
2
n
2
l
1
+ ( )
2l
2
l
3
2m
2
m
3
2n
2
n
3
l
2
m
3
l
3
m
2
+ ( ) m
2
n
3
m
3
n
2
+ ( ) n
2
l
3
n
3
l
2
+ ( )
2l
3
l
1
2m
3
m
1
2n
3
n
1
l
3
m
1
l
1
m
3
+ ( ) m
3
n
1
m
1
n
3
+ ( ) n
3
l
1
n
1
l
3
+ ( )
=
l
i
m
i
n
i
x'
i
l
i
x
1
m
i
x
2
n
i
x
3
+ + =
for i = 1,2,3
x'
i
C
l
C
l
1 –
1
E
11
--------
u
21
E
22
-------- –
u
31
E
33
-------- – 0 0 0
u
12
E
11
-------- –
1
E
22
--------
u
32
E
33
-------- – 0 0 0
u
13
E
11
-------- –
u
23
E
22
-------- –
1
E
33
-------- 0 0 0
0 0 0
1
G
12
--------- 0 0
0 0 0 0
1
G
23
--------- 0
0 0 0 0 0
1
G
31
---------
=
u
i j
u
x'
i
x'
j
= E
i i
E
x'
i
=
C
l
u
12
E
11
--------
u
21
E
22
-------- =
E
t
E
11
E
22
E
33
E
12
E
23
E
31
, , , , , =
o
i j
p
p
o
-----
cx
i
cX
k
---------
cx
j
cX

--------- S
k
=
S
i j
Main Index
247 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Model 3: Elastic Plastic with Kinematic Hardening
Isotropic, kinematic, or a combination of isotropic and kinematic hardening may be obtained by varying
a parameter, called between 0 and 1. For equal to 0 and 1, respectively, kinematic and isotropic
hardening are obtained as shown in Figure 7-1 where and are the undeformed and deformed length
of uniaxial tension specimen, respectively. Krieg and Key [1976] formulated this model and the
implementation is based on their paper.
In isotropic hardening, the center of the yield surface is fixed but the radius is a function of the plastic
strain. In kinematic hardening, the radius of the yield surface is fixed but the center translates in the
direction of the plastic strain. Thus the yield condition is
(7-11)
where
(7-12)
(7-13)
The co-rotational rate of is
(7-14)
Hence,
(7-15)
| |
l
0
l
o
1
2
-- - c
i j
c
i j
o
y
2
3
------ – 0 = =
c
i j
S
i j
o
i j
=
o
y
o
0
|E
p
c
ef f
p
+ =
o
i j
o
i j
V
1 | – ( )
2
3
-- - E
p
c
·
i j
p
=
o
i j
n 1 +
o
i j
n
o
i j
V
n 1 2 +
o
i k
n
O
i k
n 1 2 +
o
j k
n 1 2 +
O
ki
n 1 2 +
+ + ( )At
n 1 2 +
+ =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
248
Figure 7-1 Elastic-plastic Behavior with Isotropic and Kinematic Hardening
Strain rate is accounted for using the Cowper and Symonds [Jones 1983] model which scales the yield
stress by a strain rate dependent factor
(7-16)
where and are user-defined input constants and is the strain rate defined as:
(7-17)
The current radius of the yield surface, , is the sum of the initial yield strength, , plus the growth
, where is the plastic hardening modulus
(7-18)
and is the effective plastic strain
Kinematic Hardening
Isotropic Hardening
| 0 =
| 1 =
l
l
0
----
\ .
| |
ln
Yield
Stress
E
E
t
p
y
1
c
·
C
----
\ .
| |
1 p
+ o
0
|E
p
c
ef f
p
+ ( ) =
p C c
·
c
·
c
·
i j
c
·
i j
+
o
y
o
0
|E
p
c
ef f
p
E
p
E
p
E
t
E
E E
t

--------------- =
c
ef f
p
Main Index
249 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
(7-19)
The plastic strain rate is the difference between the total and elastic (right superscript) strain rates:
(7-20)
In the implementation of this material model, the deviatoric stresses are updated elastically, as described
for model 1, but repeated here for the sake of clarity:
(7-21)
where
is the trial stress tensor,
is the stress tensor from the previous time step,
is the elastic tangent modulus matrix,
is the incremental strain tensor.
and, if the yield function is satisfied, nothing else is done. If, however, the yield function is violated, an
increment in plastic strain is computed, the stresses are scaled back to the yield surface, and the yield
surface center is updated.
Let represent the trial elastic deviatoric stress state at
(7-22)
and
(7-23)
Define the yield function,
(7-24)
For plastic hardening then:
(7-25)
Scale back the stress deviators:
(7-26)
c
ef f
p 2
3
-- - c
·
i j
p
c
·
i j
p
\ .
| |
1 2 /
t d
0
t
í
=
c
·
i j
p
c
·
i j
c
·
i j
e
– =
o
i j
*
o
i j
n
C
i j kl
Ac
kl
+ =
o
i j
*
o
i j
n
C
i j kl
Ac
kl
s
i j
*
n 1 +
s
i j
*
o
i j
* 1
3
-- - o
kk
*
o
i j
– =
c
i j
*
s
i j
*
o
i j
– =
o
3
2
-- - c
i j
*
c
i j
*
o
y
2
– A
2
o
y
2
– = =
< 0 for elastic or neutral loading
> 0 for plastic harding
c
ef f
p
n 1 +
c
ef f
p
n A o
y

3G E
p
+
--------------------- + c
ef f
p
n
Ac
ef f
p
+ = =
o
i j
n 1 +
o
i j
*
3GAc
ef f
p
A
--------------------- c
i j
*
– =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
250
and update the center:
(7-27)
Plane Stress Plasticity
The plane stress plasticity options apply to beams, shells, and thick shells. Since the stresses and strain
increments are transformed to the lamina coordinate system for the constitutive evaluation, the stress and
strain tensors are in the local coordinate system.
The application of the Jaumann rate to update the stress tensor allows for the possibility that the normal
stress, , will not be zero. The first step in updating the stress tensor is to compute a trial plane stress
update assuming that the incremental strains are elastic. In the above, the normal strain increment
is replaced by the elastic strain increment
(7-28)
where and are Lamé’s constants.
When the trial stress is within the yield surface, the strain increment is elastic and the stress update is
completed. Otherwise, for the plastic plane stress case, secant iteration is used to solve Equation (7-26)
for the normal strain increment required to produce a zero normal stress:
(7-29)
Here, the superscript indicates the iteration number.
The secant iteration formula for (the superscript is dropped for clarity) is
(7-30)
where the two starting values are obtained from the initial elastic estimate and by assuming a purely
plastic increment; i.e.,
(7-31)
These starting values should bound the actual values of the normal strain increment.
The iteration procedure uses the updated normal stain increment to update first the deviatoric stress and
then the other quantities needed to compute the next estimate of the normal stress in Equation (7-29). The
iterations proceed until the normal stress is sufficiently small. The convergence criterion requires
convergence of the normal strains:
o
i j
n 1 +
o
i j
n
1 | – ( )E
p
Ac
ef f
p
A
-------------------------------------- + =
o
33
Ac
33
Ac
33
o
33
ì Ac
11
Ac
22
+ ( ) +
ì 2u +
------------------------------------------------------ – =
ì ¸
Ac
33
( )
o
33
i
o
33
*
3GAc
ef f
p
i
c
33
A
----------------------------- – =
i
Ac
33
p
Ac
33
i 1 +
Ac
33
i 1 –
Ac
33
i
Ac
33
i 1 –

o
33
i
o
33
i 1 –

---------------------------------- o
33
i 1 –
– =
Ac
33
1
Ac
11
Ac
22
– ( ) – =
o
33
i
Main Index
251 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
(7-32)
After convergence, the stress update is completed using the relationships given in Equations (7-25) and
(7-27).
For SOL SEQ 106, 129, or 600, this material model is the same as using MATS1, with the hardening rule
(HR) set to either Isotropic or Kinematic. These models do not allow between 0 and 1.
Material Model 5: Soil and Crushable Foam
This model, due to Krieg [1972], provides a simple model for foam and soils whose material properties
are not well characterized. We believe the other foam models (such as material models 57, 62, and 63) in
SOL 700 are superior in their performance and are recommended over this model which simulates the
crushing through the volumetric deformations. If the yield stress is too low, this foam model gives nearly
fluid like behavior.
A pressure-dependent flow rule governs the deviatoric behavior:
(7-33)
where , , and are user-defined constants. Volumetric yielding is determined by a tabulated curve
of pressure versus volumetric strain. Elastic unloading from this curve is assumed to a tensile cutoff as
illustrated in Figure 7-2.
Implementation of this model is straightforward. One history variable, the maximum volumetric strain in
compression, is stored. If the new compressive volumetric strain exceeds the stored value, loading is
indicated. When the yield condition is violated, the updated trial stresses, , are scaled back using a
simple radial return algorithm:
(7-34)
If the hydrostatic tension exceeds the cutoff value, the pressure is set to the cutoff value and the deviatoric
stress tensor is zeroed.
Ac
33
i
Ac
33
i 1 –

Ac
33
i 1 +
------------------------------------- 10
4 –
<
|
o
s
1
2
-- - s
i j
s
i j
a
0
a
1
p a
2
p
2
+ + ( ) – =
a
0
a
1
a
2
s
i j
*
s
i j
n 1 +
a
0
a
1
p a
2
p
2
+ +
1
2
-- - s
i j
s
i j
----------------------------------------
\ .
|
|
| |
1 2
s
i j
*
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
252
Figure 7-2 Volumetric Strain Versus Pressure Curve for Soil and Crushable Foam Model
Material Model 6: Viscoelastic
In this model, linear viscoelasticity is assumed for the deviatoric stress tensor [Herrmann and
Peterson 1968]:
(7-35)
where
(7-36)
is the shear relaxation modulus. A recursion formula is used to compute the new value of the hereditary
integral at time from its value at time . Elastic bulk behavior is assumed:
(7-37)
where pressure is integrated incrementally.
Tension Cutoff Value
Tension
V
V
0
------
\ .
| |
ln
Pressure
Volumetric Strain
(Compression)
The bulk unloading modulus is used if the
volumetric crushing option is on (VCR = 0).
Loading and unloading follows the input curve if
the volumetric crushing option is off (VCR = 1.0).
s
i j
2 o t t – ( )
cc'
i j
ct
---------- t d
0
t
í
=
o t ( ) G
·
G
0
G
·
– ( )e
|t –
+ =
t
n 1 +
t
n
p K V ln =
Main Index
253 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Model 7: Continuum Rubber
The hyperelastic continuum rubber model was studied by Blatz and Ko [1962]. In this model, the second
Piola-Kirchhoff stress is given by
(7-38)
where is the shear modulus, is the relative volume, is Poisson’s ratio, and is the right
Cauchy-Green strain:
(7-39)
after determining , it is transformed into the Cauchy stress tensor, :
(7-40)
where and are the initial and current density, respectively. The default value of is 0.463.
Material 27 and 31 better represent incompressible materials.
Material Model 9: Null Material
For solid elements equations of state can be called through this model to avoid deviatoric stress
calculations. A pressure cutoff may be specified to set a lower bound on the pressure. This model has
been very useful when combined with the reactive high explosive model where material strength is often
neglected. The null material should not be used to delete solid elements.
A optional viscous stress of the form
(7-41)
is computed for nonzero where is the deviatoric strain rate.
Sometimes it is advantageous to model contact surfaces via shell elements which are not part of the
structure, but are necessary to define areas of contact within nodal rigid bodies or between nodal rigid
bodies. Beams and shells that use this material type are completely bypassed in the element processing.
The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are used only for setting the contact interface stiffnesses, and
it is recommended that reasonable values be input.
Material Model 10: Elastic-Plastic-Hydrodynamic
For completeness we give the entire derivation of this constitutive model based on radial return plasticity.
The pressure, ; deviatoric strain rate, ; deviatoric stress rate, ; and volumetric strain rate, , are
defined in Equation (7-42):
S
i j
G V
1 –
C
i j
V
1
1 2u –
---------------- –
o
i j

\ .
| |
=
G V u C
i j
C
i j
cx
k
cX
i
--------
cx
k
cX
j
-------- =
S
i j
o
i j
o
i j
p
p
0
-----
cx
i
cX
k
---------
cx
j
cX
l
-------- S
kl
=
p
0
p u
o
i j
uc'
i j
=
u c'
i j
p c'
·
i j
s
·
i j
c
·
v
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
254
(7-42)
The Jaumann rate of the deviatoric stress, , is given by:
(7-43)
First we update to elastically
(7-44)
where the left superscript, *, denotes a trial stress value. The effective trial stress is defined by
(7-45)
and if exceeds yield stress , the von Mises flow rule:
(7-46)
is violated and we scale the trial stresses back to the yield surface; i.e., a radial return
(7-47)
The plastic strain increment can be found by subtracting the deviatoric part of the strain increment that
is elastic, , from the total deviatoric increment, , i.e.,
(7-48)
Recalling that,
(7-49)
and substituting Equation (7-49) into Equation (7-48) we obtain,
(7-50)
p
1
3
-- - o
i j
o
i j
– =
s
i j
o
i j
po
i j
+ =
s
i j
V
2uc'
·
i j
2Gc'
·
i j
= =
c'
·
i j
c
·
i j
1
3
-- - c
·
v
– =
c
·
v
c
·
i j
o
i j
=
s
i j
V
s
i j
V
s
·
i j
s
i p
O
pj
– s
j p
O
pi
– =
s
i j
n
s
i j
n 1 +
s
i j
n 1 +
*
s
i j
n
s
i p
O
pj
s
j p
O
pi
2Gc'
·
i j
dt + + + s
i j
n
R
i j
2Gc'
·
i j
dt + + = =
s
i j
R
n
2GAc'
i j
s
*
3
2
-- - s
i j
n 1 +
s
i j
n 1 +
* *
\ .
| |
1 2
=
s
*
o
y
o
1
2
-- - s
i j
s
i j
o
y
2
3
------ 0 s – =
s
i j
n 1 +
o
y
s
*
----- s
i j
n 1 +
*
m
*
s
i j
n 1 +
= =
1
2G
------- s
i j
n 1 +
s
i j
R
n
– ( ) Ac'
i j
Ac
i j
p
Ac'
i j
1
2G
------- s
i j
n 1 +
s
i j
R
n
– ( ) – =
Ac'
i j
s
i j
n 1 +
s
i j
R
n
– *
2G
----------------------------- =
Ac
i j
p
s
i j
n 1 +
s
i j
n 1 +

*
( )
2G
--------------------------------------- =
Main Index
255 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Substituting Equation (7-47)
(7-51)
into Equation (7-50) gives,
(7-52)
By definition an increment in effective plastic strain is
(7-53)
Squaring both sides of Equation (7-52) leads to:
(7-54)
or from Equations (7-45) and (7-53):
(7-55)
Hence,
(7-56)
where we have substituted for from Equation (7-47)
If isotropic hardening is assumed then:
(7-57)
and from Equation (7-56)
(7-58)
Thus,
(7-59)
and solving for the incremental plastic strain gives
(7-60)
s
i j
n 1 +
m
*
s
i j
n 1 +
=
Ac
i j
p 1 m – ( )
2G
------------------ s
i j
n 1 +
*
1 m –
2Gm
------------- s
i j
n 1 +
dìs
i j
n 1 +
= = =
Ac
p
2
3
--- Ac
i j
p
Ac
i j
p
\ .
| |
1 2
=
Ac
i j
p
Ac
i j
p
1 m –
2G
-------------
\ .
| |
2
s
i j
n 1 +

*
s
i j
n 1 +
*
=
3
2
-- - Ac
p
2 1 m –
2G
-------------
\ .
| |
2
2
3
-- - s
*2
=
Ac
p

1 m –
3G
------------- s
-
s
-
o
y

3G
----------------- = =
m
m
o
y
s
-
----- =
o
y
n 1 +
o
y
n
E
p
Ac
p
+ =
Ac
p
s
-
o
y
n 1 +
– ( )
3G
------------------------------
s
-
o
y
n
– E
p
Ac
p
– ( )
3G
---------------------------------------------- = =
3G E
p
+ ( )Ac
p
s
-
o
y
n
– ( ) =
Ac
p
s
-
o
y
n
– ( )
3G E
p
+ ( )
-------------------------- =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
256
The algorithm for plastic loading can now be outlined in five simple stress. If the effective trial stress
exceeds the yield stress then
1. Solve for the plastic strain increment:
2. Update the plastic strain:
3. Update the yield stress:
4. Compute the scale factor using the yield strength at time :
5. Radial return the deviatoric stresses to the yield surface:
Material Model 12: Isotropic Elastic-Plastic
The von Mises yield condition is given by:
(7-61)
where the second stress invariant, , is defined in terms of the deviatoric stress components as
(7-62)
and the yield stress, , is a function of the effective plastic strain, , and the plastic hardening modulus,
:
(7-63)
The effective plastic strain is defined as:
(7-64)
where:
(7-65)
Ac
p
s
-
o
y
n
– ( )
3G E
p
+ ( )
-------------------------- =
c
p
n 1 +
c
p
n
Ac
p
+ =
o
y
n 1 +
o
y
n
E
p
Ac
p
+ =
n 1 +
m
o
y
n 1 +
s
-
------------- =
s
i j
n 1 +
m s
i j
n 1 +
* =
o J
2
o
y
2
3
------ – =
J
2
J
2
1
2
-- - s
i j
s
i j
=
o
y
c
ef f
p
E
p
o
y
o
0
E
p
c
ef f
p
+ =
c
ef f
p
c
ef f
p
d
0
t
í
=
dc
ef f
p
2
3
--- dc
i j
p
dc
i j
p
=
Main Index
257 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
and the plastic tangent modulus is defined in terms of the input tangent modulus, , as:
(7-66)
Pressure is given by the expression
(7-67)
where is the bulk modulus. This is perhaps the most cost effective plasticity model. Only one history
variable, , is stored with this model.
This model is not recommended for shell elements. In the plane stress implementation, a one-step radial
return approach is used to scale the Cauchy stress tensor to if the state of stress exceeds the yield surface.
This approach to plasticity leads to inaccurate shell thickness updates and stresses after yielding. This is
the only model in SOL 700 for plane stress that does not default to an iterative approach.
For MD Nastran SOL SEQ 106, 129, and 600, this material model is similar to using the MATS1 option
to define an elastic-plastic material.
Material Model 13: Isotropic Elastic-Plastic with Failure
This highly simplistic failure model is occasionally useful. Material model 12 is called to update the
stress tensor. Failure is initially assumed to occur if either
(7-68)
or
(7-69)
where and are user-defined parameters. Once failure has occurred, pressure may never be
negative and the deviatoric components are set to zero:
(7-70)
for all time. The failed element can only carry loads in compression.
Material Model 14: Soil and Crushable Foam With Failure
This material model provides the same stress update as model 5. However, if pressure ever reaches its
cutoff value, failure occurs and pressure can never again go negative. In material model 5, the pressure
is limited to its cutoff value in tension.
E
t
E
p
EE
t
E E
t

--------------- =
p
n 1 +
K
1
V
n 1 +
------------- 1 –
\ .
| |
=
K
c
ef f
p
p
n 1 +
p
mi n
<
c
ef f
p
c
max
p
>
p
mi n
c
max
p
s
i j
0 =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
258
Material Model 15: Johnson and Cook Plasticity Model
Johnson and Cook express the flow stress as
(7-71)
where , , , , and are user-defined input constants, and:
effective plastic strain rate for

Constants for a variety of materials are provided in Johnson and Cook [1983].
Due to the nonlinearity in the dependence of flow stress on plastic strain, an accurate value of the flow
stress requires iteration for the increment in plastic strain. However, by using a Taylor series expansion
with linearization about the current time, we can solve for with sufficient accuracy to avoid iteration.
The strain at fracture is given by
(7-72)
where , , are input constants and is the ratio of pressure divided by effective stress:
(7-73)
Fracture occurs when the damage parameter,
(7-74)
reaches the value 1.
A choice of three spall models is offered to represent material splitting, cracking, and failure under tensile
loads. The pressure limit model limits the minimum hydrostatic pressure to the specified value, .
If pressures more tensile than this limit are calculated, the pressure is reset to . This option is not
strictly a spall model since the deviatoric stresses are unaffected by the pressure reaching the tensile
cutoff and the pressure cutoff value remains unchanged throughout the analysis. The maximum
principal stress spall model detects spall if the maximum principal stress, , exceeds the limiting
value . Once spall is detected with this model, the deviatoric stresses are reset to zero and no
hydrostatic tension is permitted. If tensile pressures are calculated, they are reset to 0 in the spalled
material. Thus, the spalled material behaves as rubble. The hydrostatic tension spall model detects spall
o
y
A Bc
p
n
+ ( ) 1 C c
·
-
ln + ( ) 1 T
-
m
– ( ) =
A B C n m
c
p
effective plastic strain =
c
·
-
c
· p
c
·
0
----- = c
·
0
1s
1 –
=
T
-
T T
room

T
mel t
T
room

--------------------------------- =
o
y
c
f
D
1
D
2
D
3
s
-
exp + | | 1 D
4
c
-
ln + | | 1 D
5
T
-
+ | | =
D
i
i 1 . 5 , , = o
-
o
-
p
o
ef f
--------- =
D
Ac
p
c
f
---------
¯
=
p p
mi n
>
p
mi n
p
mi n
o
max
o
p
Main Index
259 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
if the pressure becomes more tensile than the specified limit, . Once spall is detected, the deviatoric
stresses are set to zero and the pressure is required to be compressive. If hydrostatic tension is calculated
then the pressure is reset to 0 for that element.
In addition to the above failure criterion, this material model also supports a shell element deletion
criterion based on the maximum stable time step size for the element, . Generally, goes down
as the element becomes more distorted. To assure stability of time integration, the global time step is the
minimum of the values calculated for all elements in the model. Using this option allows the
selective deletion of elements whose time step has fallen below the specified minimum time step,
. Elements which are severely distorted often indicate that material has failed and supports little
load, but these same elements may have very small time steps and therefore control the cost of the
analysis. This option allows these highly distorted elements to be deleted from the calculation, and,
therefore, the analysis can proceed at a larger time step, and, thus, at a reduced cost. Deleted elements do
not carry any load, and are deleted from all applicable slide surface definitions. Clearly, this option must
be judiciously used to obtain accurate results at a minimum cost.
Material type 15 is applicable to the high rate deformation of many materials including most metals.
Unlike the Steinberg-Guinan model, the Johnson-Cook model remains valid down to lower strain rates
and even into the quasistatic regime. Typical applications include explosive metal forming, ballistic
penetration, and impact.
This material is similar to the use of the ISOTROPIC option with the Johnson-Cook hardening rule.
Material Model 16: Pseudo Tensor
This model can be used in two major modes: a simple tabular pressure-dependent yield surface and a
potentially complex model featuring two yield versus pressure functions with the means of migrating
from one curve to the other. For both modes, load curve N1 is taken to be a strain rate multiplier for the
yield strength. Note that this model must be used with the EOSTAB or ETOSTABC option.
Response Mode I. Tabulated Yield Stress Versus Pressure
This model is well suited for implementing standard geologic models like the Mohr-Coulomb yield
surface with a Tresca limit, as shown in Figure 7-3. Note that under conventional triaxial compression
conditions, the SOL700 input corresponds to an ordinate of rather than the more widely used
, where is the maximum principal stress and is the minimum principal stress.
This material combined with EOSTAB option has been used very successfully to model ground shocks
and soil-structure interactions at pressures up to 100kbar.
p
mi n
At
max
At
max
At
max
At
max
At
cri t
o
1
o
3

o
1
o
3

2
------------------ o
1
o
3
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
260
Figure 7-3 Mohr-Coulomb Surface with a Tresca Limit
To invoke Mode I of this model, set , , , , , and to zero. The tabulated values of pressure
should then be specified on rows 4 and 5 and the corresponding values of yield stress should be specified
on rows 6 and 7. The parameters relating to reinforcement properties, initial yield stress, and tangent
modulus are not used in this response mode and should be set to zero.
Simple tensile failure
Note that is reset internally to 1/3 even though it is input as zero; this defines a material failure curve
of slope 3p, where p denotes pressure (positive in compression). In this case, the yield strength is taken
from the tabulated yield vs. pressure curve until the maximum principal stress in the element
exceeds the tensile cut-off . For every time step that , the yield strength is scaled back by
a fraction of the distance between the two curves until after 20 time steps the yield strength is defined by
the failure curve. The only way to inhibit this feature is to set arbitrarily large.
Response Mode II. Two-Curve Model with Damage and Failure
This approach uses two yield versus pressure curves of the form
(7-75)
Friction Angle
Mohr-Coulomb
Cohesion
Pressure
Tresca
o
1
o
3

2
------------------
a
0
a
1
a
2
b
1
a
0f
a
1f
a
1f
o
1
( )
o
cut
( ) o
1
o
cut
>
o
cut
o
y
a
0
p
a
1
a
2
p +
--------------------- + =
Main Index
261 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
The upper curve is best described as the maximum yield strength curve and the lower curve is the material
failure curve. There are a variety of ways of moving between the two curves (Figure 7-4) and each is
discussed below.
Figure 7-4 Two-curve Concrete Model with Damage and Failure
MODE II.A: Simple tensile failure
Define , , , and , set to zero, and leave rows 4 through 7 blank. In this case, the yield
strength is taken from the maximum yield curve until the maximum principal stress in the element
exceeds the tensile cut-off . For every time step that , the yield strength is scaled back by
a fraction of the distance between the two curves until after 20 time steps the yield strength is defined by
the failure curve.
Mode II.B: Tensile failure plus plastic strain scaling
Define , , , and , set to zero, and user rows 4 through 7 to define a scale factor, , versus
effective plastic strain. SOL700 evaluates at the current effective plastic strain and then calculates the
yield stress as
(7-76)
o
max
a
0
p
a
1
a
2
p +
--------------------- + =
o
f ai l ed
a
0f
p
a
1f
a
2
p +
----------------------- + =
Yield
Pressure
a
0
a
1
a
2
a
0f
a
1f
b
1
o
1
( )
o
cut
( ) o
1
o
cut
>
a
0
a
1
a
2
a
0f
a
1f
b
1
n
n
o
yi el d
o
f ai l ed
n o
max
o
f ai l ed
– ( ) + =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
262
where and are found as shown in Figure 7-4. This yield strength is then subject to scaling for
tensile failure as described above. This type of model allows the description of a strain hardening or
softening material such as concrete.
Mode II.C: Tensile failure plus damage scaling
The change in yield stress as a function of plastic strain arises from the physical mechanisms such as
internal cracking, and the extent of this cracking is affected by the hydrostatic pressure when the cracking
occurs. This mechanism gives rise to the "confinement" effect on concrete behavior. To account for
this phenomenon, a "damage" function was defined and incorporated. This damage function is given
the form:
Define , , , , , and . Rows 4 though 7 now give as a function of and scale the yield
stress as
and then apply any tensile failure criteria.
Mode II Concrete Model Options
Material Model 16 Mode II provides the option of automatic internal generation of a simple "generic"
model for concrete. If is negative, then is assumed to be the unconfined concrete compressive
strength, and is assumed to be a conversion factor from SOL700 pressure units to psi. (For
example, if the model stress units are MPa, should be set to –145.) In this case, the parameter values
generated internally are
(7-77)
Note that the and defaults are overwritten by nonzero entries on Row 3. If plastic strain or damage
scaling is desired, Rows 5 through 8 and should be specified in the input. When is input as a
negative quantity, the equation-of-state can be given as 0 and a trilinear EOSTABC model is automatically
o
max
o
f ai l ed
ì 1
p
o
cut
---------- +
\ .
| |
b
1

c
p
d
0
c
p
í
=
a
0
a
1
a
2
a
0f
a
1f
b
1
n ì
o
yi el d
o
f ai l ed
n o
max
o
f ai l ed
– ( ) + =
a
0
o
cut
f
c
'
a
0

a
0
o
cut
1.7
f
c
' 2
a
0

--------
\ .
| |
1
3
---
=
a
0
f
c
'
4
---- =
a
1
1
3
-- - =
a
2
1
3f
c
'
------- =
a
0f
0 =
a
1f
0.385 =
a
0f
a
01
b
1
a
0
Main Index
263 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
generated from the unconfined compressive strength and Poisson's ratio. The EOSTABC model is a
simple pressure versus volumetric strain model with no internal energy terms and should give reasonable
results for pressures up to 5kbar (approximately 72,500 psi).
Mixture model
A reinforcement fraction, , can be defined along with properties of the reinforcing material. The bulk
modulus, shear modulus, and yield strength are then calculated from a simple mixture rule; i.e., for the
bulk modulus the rule gives:
(7-78)
where and are the bulk moduli for the geologic material and the reinforcing material, respectively.
This feature should be used with caution. It gives an isotropic effect in the material instead of the true
anisotropic material behavior. A reasonable approach would be to use the mixture elements only where
reinforcing material exists and plain elements elsewhere. When the mixture model is being used, the
strain rate multiplier for the principal material is taken from load curve N1 and the multiplier for the
reinforcement is taken from load curve N2.
Material Model 18: Power Law Isotropic Plasticity
Elastoplastic behavior with isotropic hardening is provided by this model. The yield stress, , is a
function of plastic strain and obeys the equation:
(7-79)
where is the elastic strain to yield and is the effective plastic strain (logarithmic).
A parameter, SIGY, in the input governs how the strain to yield is identified. If SIGY is set to zero, the
strain to yield if found by solving for the intersection of the linearly elastic loading equation with the
strain hardening equation:
(7-80)
which gives the elastic strain at yield as:
(7-81)
If SIGY yield is nonzero and greater than 0.02 then:
(7-82)
Strain rate is accounted for using the Cowper and Symonds model which scales the yield stress with
the factor
f
r
K 1 f
r
– ( )K
m
f
r
K
r
+ =
K
m
K
r
o
y
o
y
kc
n
k c
yp
c
p
+ ( )
n
= =
c
yp
c
p
o Ec =
o l c
n
=
c
yp
E
k
---
\ .
| |
1
n 1 –
------------
=
c
yp
o
y
k
-----
\ .
| |
1
n
---
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
264
(7-83)
where is the strain rate. A fully viscoplastic formulation is optional with this model which incorporates
the Cowper and Symonds formulation within the yield surface. An additional cost is incurred but the
improvement is results can be dramatic.
This material model is a subset of what may be specified through the MATEP option for SOL600.
Material Model 19: Elastic Plastic Material Model with Strain
Rate Dependent Yield
In this model, a TABLED1 is used to describe the yield strength as a function of effective strain rate
where
(7-84)
and the prime denotes the deviatoric component. The yield stress is defined as
(7-85)
where is the effective plastic strain and is given in terms of Young’s modulus and the tangent
modulus by
(7-86)
Both Young's modulus and the tangent modulus may optionally be made functions of strain rate by
specifying a TABLED1 ID giving their values as a function of strain rate. If these TABLED1 ID's are input
as 0, then the constant values specified in the input are used.
This model also contains a simple mechanism for modeling material failure. This option is activated by
specifying a TABLED1 ID defining the effective stress at failure as a function of strain rate. For solid
elements, once the effective stress exceeds the failure stress the element is deemed to have failed and is
removed from the solution. For shell elements the entire shell element is deemed to have failed if all
integration points through the thickness have an effective stress that exceeds the failure stress. After
failure the shell element is removed from the solution.
In addition to the above failure criterion, this material model also supports a shell element deletion
criterion based on the maximum stable time step size for the element, . Generally, goes down
as the element becomes more distorted. To assure stability of time integration, the global time step is the
1
c
·
C
----
\ .
| |
1 p /
+
c
·
o
0
c
·
c
·
2
3
-- - c'
·
i j
c'
·
i j
\ .
| |
1 2
=
o
y
o
0
c
·
( ) E
p
c
p
+ =
c
p
E
p
E
p
EE
t
E E
t

--------------- =
Note: All TABLED1s used to define quantities as a function of strain rate must have the same
number of points at the same strain rate values. This requirement is used to allow
vectorized interpolation to enhance the execution speed of this constitutive model.
At
max
At
max
Main Index
265 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
minimum of the values calculated for all elements in the model. Using this option allows the
selective deletion of elements whose time step has fallen below the specified minimum time step,
. Elements which are severely distorted often indicate that material has failed and supports little
load, but these same elements may have very small time steps and therefore control the cost of the
analysis. This option allows these highly distorted elements to be deleted from the calculation, and,
therefore, the analysis can proceed at a larger time step, and, thus, at a reduced cost. Deleted elements do
not carry any load, and are deleted from all applicable slide surface definitions. Clearly, this option must
be judiciously used to obtain accurate results at a minimum cost.
This material model is a subset of what may be specified through the MATEP option for SOL600.
Material Model 20: Rigid
The rigid material type 20 provides a convenient way of turning one or more parts comprised of beams,
shells, or solid elements into a rigid body. Approximating a deformable body as rigid is a preferred
modeling technique in many real world applications. For example, in sheet metal forming problems the
tooling can properly and accurately be treated as rigid. In the design of restraint systems the occupant
can, for the purposes of early design studies, also be treated as rigid. Elements which are rigid are
bypassed in the element processing and no storage is allocated for storing history variables; consequently,
the rigid material type is very cost efficient.
Two unique rigid part IDs may not share common nodes unless they are merged together using the rigid
body merge option. A rigid body may be made up of disjoint finite element meshes, since this is a
common practice in setting up tooling meshes in forming problems.
All elements which reference a given part ID corresponding to the rigid material should be contiguous,
but this is not a requirement. If two disjoint groups of elements on opposite sides of a model are modeled
as rigid, separate part ID's should be created for each of the contiguous element groups if each group is
to move independently. This requirement arises from the fact that SOL 700 internally computes the six
rigid body degrees-of-freedom for each rigid body (rigid material or set of merged materials), and if
disjoint groups of rigid elements use the same part ID, the disjoint groups will move together as one
rigid body.
Inertial properties for rigid materials may be defined in either of two ways. By default, the inertial
properties are calculated from the geometry of the constituent elements of the rigid material and the
density specified for the part ID. Alternatively, the inertial properties and initial velocities for a rigid body
may be directly defined, and this overrides data calculated from the material property definition and
nodal initial velocity definitions.
Young's modulus, , and Poisson's ratio, . are used for determining sliding interface parameters if the
rigid body interacts in a contact definition. Realistic values for these constants should be defined since
unrealistic values may contribute to numerical problem in contact.
Material Model 22: Chang-Chang Composite Failure Model
Five material parameters are used in the three failure criteria based upon Chang and Chang 1987a, 1987b:
At
max
At
max
At
cri t
E u
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
266
• , longitudinal tensile strength
• , transverse tensile strength
• , shear strength
• , transverse compressive strength
• , nonlinear shear stress parameter.
and are obtained from material strength measurement. is defined by material shear stress-strain
measurements. In plane stress, the strain is given in terms of the stress as
(7-87)
The third equation defines the nonlinear shear stress parameter .
A fiber matrix shearing term augments each damage mode:
(7-88)
which is the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strength.
The matrix cracking failure criteria is determined from
(7-89)
where failure is assumed whenever . If , then the material constants , , , and
are set to zero.
The compression failure criteria is given as
(7-90)
where failure is assumed whenever . If , then the material constants , , and are
set to zero.
The final failure mode is due to fiber breakage.
S
1
S
2
S
12
C
2
o
C
2
o
c
1
1
E
1
------ o
1
u
1
o
2
– ( ) =
c
2
1
E
2
------ o
2
u
2
o
1
– ( ) =
2c
12
1
G
12
--------- t
12
ot
12
3
+ =
o
t
t
12
2
2G
12
------------
3
4
-- - ot
12
4
+
S
12
2
2G
12
------------
3
4
-- - oS
12
4
+
------------------------------------ =
F
mat ri x
o
2
S
2
------
\ .
| |
2
t + =
F
mat ri x
1 > F
mat ri x
1 > E
2
G
12
u
u
2
F
comp
o
2
2S
12
-----------
\ .
| |
2
C
2
2S
12
-----------
\ .
| |
2
1 –
o
2
C
2
------ t + + =
F
comp
1 > F
comp
1 > E
2
u
1
u
2
Main Index
267 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
(7-91)
Failure is assumed whenever . If , then the constants , , , , and are set
to zero.
Material Model 24: Piecewise Linear Isotropic Plasticity
This plasticity treatment in this model is quite similar to Model 3 but only isotropic hardening occurs.
Deviatoric stresses are determined that satisfy the yield function
(7-92)
where
(7-93)
where the hardening function can be specified in tabular form as an option. Otherwise, linear
hardening of the form
(7-94)
is assumed where and are given in Equations (7-16) and (7-17), respectively. The parameter
accounts for strain rate effects. For complete generality a table defining the yield stress versus plastic
strain may be defined for various levels of effective strain rate.
In the implementation of this material model, the deviatoric stresses are updated elastically (see material
model 1), the yield function is checked, and if it is satisfied the deviatoric stresses are accepted. If it is
not, an increment in plastic strain is computed:
(7-95)
is the shear modulus and is the current plastic hardening modulus. The trial deviatoric stress state
is scaled back:
(7-96)
For shell elements, the above equations apply, but with the addition of an iterative loop to solve for the
normal strain increment, such that the stress component normal to the mid surface of the shell element
approaches zero.
F
f i ber
o
1
S
1
------
\ .
| |
2
t + =
F
f i ber
1 > F
f i ber
1 > E
1
E
2
G
12
u
1
u
2
o
1
2
-- - s
i j
s
i j
o
y
2
3
------ 0 s – =
o
y
| o
0
f
h
c
ef f
p
( ) + | | =
f
h
c
ef f
p
( )
f
h
c
ef f
p
( ) E
p
c
ef f
p
( ) =
E
p
c
ef f
p
|
Ac
ef f
p
3
2
-- - s
i j
*
s
i j
*
\ .
| |
1 2
o
y

3G E
p
+
------------------------------------------ =
E
p
s
i j
*
s
i j
n 1 +
o
y
3
2
--- s
i j
*
s
i j
*
\ .
| |
1 2
------------------------------ s
i j
*
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
268
Three options to account for strain rate effects are possible:
• Strain rate may be accounted for using the Cowper and Symonds model which scales the yield
stress with the factor
(7-97)
where is the strain rate.
• For complete generality a TABLED1, defining , which scales the yield stress may be input
instead. In this curve the scale factor versus strain rate is defined.
• If different stress versus strain curves can be provided for various strain rates, the option using
the reference to a table definition can be used.
A fully viscoplastic formulation is optional which incorporates the different options above within the
yield surface. An additional cost is incurred over the simple scaling but the improvement is results can
be dramatic.
If a TABLE ID is specified a curve ID is given for each strain rate. Intermediate values are found by
interpolating between curves.
Material Model 26: Crushable Foam
This orthotropic material model does the stress update in the local material system denoted by the
subscripts, , , and . The material model requires the following input parameters:
• , Young’s modulus for the fully compacted material;
• , Poisson’s ratio for the compacted material;
• , yield stress for fully compacted honeycomb;
• LCA, TABLED1 number for sigma-aa versus either relative volume or volumetric strain (see
Figure 7-5);
| 1
c
·
C
----
\ .
| |
1 p
+ =
c
·
|
a b c
E
v
o
y
Note: In Figure 7-5, the “yield stress” at a volumetric strain of zero is nonzero. In the
TABLED1 definition, the “time” value is the volumetric strain and the “function”
value is the yield stress.
Main Index
269 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-5 Stress Quantity Versus Volumetric Strain
• LCB, TABLED1 number for sigma-bb versus either relative volume or volumetric strain (default:
LCB = LCA);
• LCC, the TABLED1 number for sigma-cc versus either relative volume or volumetric strain
(default: LCC = LCA);
• LCS, the TABLED1 number for shear stress versus either relative volume or volumetric strain
(default LCS = LCA);
• , relative volume at which the honeycomb is fully compacted;
• , elastic modulus in the uncompressed configuration;
• , elastic modulus in the uncompressed configuration;
• , elastic modulus in the uncompressed configuration;
• , elastic shear modulus in the uncompressed configuration;
• , elastic shear modulus in the uncompressed configuration;
• , elastic shear modulus in the uncompressed configuration;
• LCAB, TABLED1 number for sigma-ab versus either relative volume or volumetric strain
(default: LCAB = LCS);
• LCBC, TABLED1 number for sigma-bc versus either relative volume or volumetric strain
default: LCBC = LCS);
o
i j
c
i j
– Strain 0
Curve extends into negative strain quadrant
since SOL 700 extrapolates using the two
end points. It is important that the extrapolation
does not extend into the negative stress region.
Unloading is based on the interpolated
Young’s moduli which must provide an
unloading tangent that exceeds the
loading tangent.
Unloading and
reloading path
V
f
E
aau
E
bbu
E
ccu
G
abu
G
bcu
G
cau
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
270
• LCCA, TABLED1 number for sigma-ca versus either relative volume or volumetric strain
(default: LCCA = LCS);
• LCSR, optional TABLED1 number for strain rate effects.
The behavior before compaction is orthotropic where the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled;
i.e., an a component of strain will generate resistance in the local a direction with no coupling to the local
b and c directions. The elastic moduli vary linearly with the relative volume from their initial values to
the fully compacted values:
(7-98)
where
(7-99)
and is the elastic shear modulus for the fully compacted honeycomb material
(7-100)
The relative volume is defined as the ratio of the current volume over the initial volume; typically,
at the beginning of a calculation. The relative volume, , is the minimum value reached during
the calculation.
The TABLED1s define the magnitude of the average stress as the material changes density (relative
volume). Each curve related to this model must have the same number of points and the same abscissa
values. There are two ways to define these curves: as a function of relative volume , or as a function of
volumetric strain defined as:
(7-101)
In the former, the first value in the curve should correspond to a value of relative volume slightly less
than the fully compacted value. In the latter, the first value in the curve should be less than or equal to
zero corresponding to tension and should increase to full compaction.
E
aa
E
aau
| E E
aau
– ( ) + =
E
bb
E
bbu
| E E
bbu
– ( ) + =
E
cc
E
ccu
| E E
ccu
– ( ) + =
G
ab
G
abu
| G G
abu
– ( ) + =
G
bc
G
bcu
| G G
bcu
– ( ) + =
G
ca
G
cau
| G G
cau
– ( ) + =
| max mi n
1 V
mi n

1 V
f

--------------------- 1 .
\ .
| |
0 . =
G
G
E
2 1 v + ( )
--------------------- =
V
V 1 = V
mi n
V
c
V
1 V – =
Note: When defining the curves, care should be taken that the extrapolated values do not lead to
negative yield stresses.
Main Index
271 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
At the beginning of the stress update we transform each element’s stresses and strain rates into the local
element coordinate system. For the uncompacted material, the trial stress components are updated using
the elastic interpolated moduli according to:
(7-102)
Then we independently check each component of the updated stresses to ensure that they do not exceed
the permissible values determined from the TABLED1s; e.g., if
(7-103)
then
(7-104)
The parameter is either unity or a value taken from the TABLED1 number, LCSR, that defines
as a function of strain rate. Strain rate is defined here as the Euclidean norm of the deviatoric strain
rate tensor.
For fully compacted material we assume that the material behavior is elastic-perfectly plastic and updated
the stress components according to:
(7-105)
Where the deviatoric strain increment is defined as:
(7-106)
We next check to see if the yield stress for the fully compacted material is exceeded by comparing:
(7-107)
o
aa
n 1 +
t ri al
o
aa
n
E
aa
Ac
aa
+ =
o
bb
n 1 +
t ri al
o
bb
n
E
bb
Ac
bb
+ =
o
cc
n 1 +
t ri al
o
cc
n
E
cc
Ac
cc
+ =
o
ab
n 1 +
t ri al
o
ab
n
E
ab
Ac
ab
+ =
o
bc
n 1 +
t ri al
o
bc
n
E
bc
Ac
bc
+ =
o
ca
n 1 +
t ri al
o
ca
n
E
ca
Ac
ca
+ =
o
i j
n 1
t ri al
+
ìo
i j
V
mi n
( ) >
o
i j
n 1 +
o
i j
V
mi n
( )
ìo
i j
n 1
t ri al
+
o
i j
n 1
t ri al
+
--------------------------- =
ì ì
s
i j
t ri al
s
i j
n
2GAc
i j
dev
n 1 2 +
+ =
Ac
i j
dev
Ac
i j
1
3
-- - Ac
kk
o
i j
– =
s
ef f
t ri al
3
2
-- - s
i j
t ri al
s
i j
t ri al
\ .
| |
1 2
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
272
the effective trial stress, to the yield stress . If the effective trial stress exceeds the yield stress, we
simply scale back the stress components to the yield surface:
(7-108)
We can now update the pressure using the elastic bulk modulus, :
(7-109)
and obtain the final value for the Cauchy stress:
(7-110)
After completing the stress update, we transform the stresses back to the global configuration.
Material Model 27: Incompressible Mooney-Rivlin Rubber
This material model, available for solid elements only, provides an alternative to the Blatz-Ko rubber
model. The strain energy density function is defined as in terms of the input constants , ,, and as:
(7-111)
where
(7-112)
(7-113)
= Poisson’s ratio
= shear modulus of linear elasticity
= strain invariants in terms of the principal stretches:
(7-114)
Recommended values for Poisson’s ratio are between .490 and .495 or higher. Lower values may lead to
instabilities. In the derivation of the constants and incompressibility is assumed.
o
y
s
i j
n 1 +
o
y
s
ef f
t ri al
------------ s
i j
t ri al
=
K
p
n 1 +
p
n
KAc
kk
n 1 2 +
– =
K
E
3 1 2v – ( )
------------------------ =
o
i j
n 1 +
s
i j
n 1 +
p
n 1 +
o
i j
– =
A B u
W I
1
I
2
I
2
, , ( ) A I
1
3 – ( ) B I
2
3 – ( ) C
1
I
3
2
---- 1 –
\ .
| |
D I
3
1 – ( )
2
+ + + =
C . 5
-
A B + =
D
A 5u 2 – ( ) B 11u 5 – ( ) +
2 1 2u – ( )
------------------------------------------------------------- =
u
G 2 A B + ( ) =
I
1
I
2
I
3
, ,
I
1
ì
1
2
ì
2
2
ì
3
2
+ + =
I
2
ì
1
2
ì
2
2
ì
2
2
ì
3
2
ì
3
2
ì
1
2
+ + =
I
3
ì
1
2
ì
2
2
ì
3
2
=
C D
Main Index
273 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Model 28: Resultant Plasticity
This plasticity model, based on resultants as illustrated in Figure 7-6, is very cost effective but not as
accurate as through-thickness integration. This model is available only with the triangular,
Belytschko-Tsay shell, and the Belytschko beam element since these elements, unlike the Hughes-Liu
elements, lend themselves very cleanly to a resultant formulation. The elements are set by the
SHELLFORM parameter.
Figure 7-6 Full Section Yield using Resultant Plasticity
In applying this model to shell elements the resultants are updated incrementally using the midplane
strains and curvatures :
(7-115)
(7-116)
where the plane stress constitutive matrix is given in terms of Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio
as:
(7-117)
Defining
(7-118)
(7-119)
(7-120)
the Ilyushin yield function becomes
(7-121)
C
0
Membrane
o
y
o
y
Bending
m
y
o
y
. . d
h
2
--- –

h
2
---
í
h
2
4
----- o
y
= =
n
y
o
y
. d
h
2
--- –

h
2
---
í
ho
y
= =
c
m
k
An At Cc
m
=
Am At
h
3
12
------ Ck =
E
v
m m
xx
2
m
xx
m
yy
– m
yy
2
3m
xy
2
+ + =
n n
xx
2
n
xx
n
yy
– n
yy
2
3n
xy
2
+ + =
m m
xx
2
m
xx
m
yy
– m
yy
2
3m
xy
2
+ + =
mn m
xx
n
xx
1
2
--- m
xx
n
yy

1
2
--- n
xx
m
yy
– m
y
n
y
3m
xy
n
xy
+ + =
f m n . ( ) n
4 mn
h 3
--------------
16m
h
2
---------- n
y
2
s + + h
2
o
y
2
= =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
274
In our implementation we update the resultants elastically and check to see if the yield condition
is violated:
(7-122)
If so, the resultants are scaled by the factor :
(7-123)
We update the yield stress incrementally:
(7-124)
where is the plastic hardening modulus which in incremental plastic strain is approximated by
(7-125)
Kennedy, et. al., report that this model predicts results that may be too stiff; users of this model should
proceed cautiously.
In applying this material model to the Belytschko beam, the flow rule changes to
(7-126)
have been updated elastically according to Equations (6-77) through (6-79). The yield condition is
checked Equation (7-122), and if it is violated, the resultants are scaled as described above.
This model is frequently applied to beams with nonrectangular cross sections. The accuracy of the results
obtained should be viewed with some healthy suspicion. No workhardening is available with this model.
Material Model 29: FORCE LIMITED Resultant Formulation
This material model is available for the Belytschko beam element only. Plastic hinges form at the ends
of the beam when the moment reaches the plastic moment. The momentversus- rotation relationship is
specified by the user in the form of a TABLED1 and scale factor.
The point pairs of the TABLED1 are (plastic rotation in radians, plastic moment). Both quantities should
be positive for all points, with the first point pair being (zero, initial plastic moment). Within this
constraint any form of characteristic may be used including flat or falling curves. Different TABLED1s
and scale factors may be specified at each node and about each of the local s and t axes.
f m n . ( ) n
y
2
>
o
o
n
y
2
f m n . ( )
----------------- =
o
y
n 1 +
o
y
n
E
p
Ac
pl ast i c
ef f
+ =
E
p
Ac
pl ast i c
ef f
f m n . ( ) n
y

h 3G E
p
+ ( )
---------------------------------- =
f m n . ( ) f
ˆ
x
2
4m
ˆ
y
2
3I
yy
----------
4m
ˆ
z
2
3I
zz
---------- n
y
2
s + + A
2
o
y
2
= =
Main Index
275 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-7 Full Section Yield using Resultant Plasticity
Axial collapse occurs when the compressive axial load reaches the collapse load. The collapse load-
versus-collapse deflection is specified in the form of a TABLED1. The points of the TABLED1 are (true
strain, collapse force). Both quantities should be entered as positive for all points, and will be interpreted
as compressive i.e., collapse does not occur in tension. The first point should be the pair (zero, initial
collapse load).
The collapse load may vary with end moment and with deflection. In this case, several load-deflection
curves are defined, each corresponding to a different end moment. Each TABLED1 should have the same
number of point pairs and the same deflection values. The end moment is defined as the average of the
absolute moments at each end of the beam, and is always positive.
It is not possible to make the plastic moment vary with axial load.
Figure 7-8 The Force Magnitude Limited Applied End Moment
Membrane
o
y
o
y
Bending
m
y
o
y
. . d
h
2
--- –

h
2
---
í
h
2
4
----- o
y
= =
n
y
o
y
. d
h
2
--- –

h
2
---
í
ho
y
= =
F
o
r
c
e
Displacement
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
M
5
M
6
M
7
M
8
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
276
For an intermediate value of the end moment, MD Nastran SOL 700 interpolates between the curves to
determine the allowable force.
A co-rotational technique and moment-curvature relations are used to compute the internal forces. The
co-rotational technique will not be treated here as we will focus solely on the internal force update and
computing the tangent stiffness. For this, we use the notation:
We emphasize that the local y and z base vectors in the reference configuration always coincide with the
corresponding nodal vectors. The nodal vectors in the current configuration are updated using the
Hughes-Winget formula while the base vectors are computed from the current geometry of the element
and the current nodal vectors.
Internal Forces
Elastic Update
In the local system for a beam connected by nodes I and J, the axial force is updated as
(7-127)
where
(7-128)
.. (7-129)
The torsional moment is updated as
= Young’s modulus
= Shear modulus
= Cross sectional area
= Effective area in shear
= Reference length of beam
= Current length of beam
= Second moment of inertia about y
= Second moment of inertia about z
= Polar moment of inertia
= ith local base vector in the current configuration
= nodal vector in y direction at node I in the current configuration
= nodal vector in z direction at node I in the current configuration
E
G
A
A
s
l
n
l
n 1 +
I
yy
I
zz
J
e
i
y
I
z
I
f
a
el
f
a
n
K
a
el
o + =
K
a
el EA
l
n
------- =
o l
n 1 +
l
n
– =
Main Index
277 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
(7-130)
where
(7-131)
. (7-132)
The bending moments are updated as
(7-133)
(7-134)
where
(7-135)
(7-136)
(7-137)
(7-138)
In the following, we refer to as the (elastic) moment-rotation matrix.
Plastic Correction
After the elastic update the state of force is checked for yielding as follows. As a preliminary note we
emphasize that whenever yielding does not occur the elastic stiffnesses and forces are taken as the new
stiffnesses and forces.
The yield moments in direction i at node I as functions of plastic rotations are denoted . This
function is given by the user but also depends on whether a plastic hinge has been created. Whenever the
elastic moment exceeds the plastic moment, the plastic rotations are updated as
(7-139)
and the moment is reduced to the yield moment
m
t
el
m
t
n
K
t
el
u
t
+ =
K
t
el GJ
l
n
------- =
u
t
1
2
-- - e
l
T
y
I
y
J
z
I
z
J
× + × ( ) =
m
y
el
m
y
n
A
y
el
u
y
+ =
m
z
el
m
z
n
A
z
el
u
z
+ =
A
*
el 1
1 o
*
+
---------------
EI
**
l
n
-----------
4 o
*
+ 2 o
*

2 o
*
– 4 o
*
+ \ .
|
| |
=
o
*
12EI
**
GA
*
l
n
t
n
-------------------- =
u
y
T
e
3
T
y
I
z
I
× y
J
z
J
×
\ .
| |
=
u
z
T
e
2
T
y
I
z
I
× y
J
z
J
×
\ .
| |
=
A
*
el
m
i I
Y
u
i I
P
( )
u
i I
P n 1 + ( )
u
i I
P n ( )
m
i I
el
m
i I
Y

max 0.001 A
i II ( )
el
cm
i I
Y
cu
i I
P
----------- + .
\ .
|
| |
------------------------------------------------------------------ + =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
278
(7-140)
The corresponding diagonal component in the moment-rotation matrix is reduced as
(7-141)
where is a parameter chosen such that the moment-rotation matrix remains positive definite.
The yield moment in torsion is given by and is provided by the user. If the elastic torsional
moment exceeds this value, the plastic torsional rotation is updated as
(7-142)
and the moment is reduced to the yield moment
The torsional stiffness is modified as
(7-143)
where again is chosen so that the stiffness is positive.
Axial collapse is modeled by limiting the axial force by ; i.e., a function of the axial strains and
the magnitude of bending moments. If the axial elastic force exceeds this value it is reduced to yield
(7-144)
and the axial stiffness is given by
(7-145)
We neglect the influence of change in bending moments when computing this parameter.
m
i I
n 1 +
m
i I
Y
u
i I
P n 1 + ( )
( ) m
i I
el
( ) sgn =
A
i II ( )
n 1 +
A
i II ( )
el
1 o
A
i II ( )
el
max 0.001 A
i II ( )
el
cm
i I
Y
cu
i I
P
----------- + .
\ .
|
| |
------------------------------------------------------------------ –
\ .
|
|
|
|
|
| |
=
o 1 s
m
t
Y
u
t
P
( )
u
t
P n 1 + ( )
u
t
P n ( )
m
t
el
m
t
Y

max 0.0001 K
t
el
cm
t
Y
cu
t
P
---------- + .
\ .
|
| |
--------------------------------------------------------------- + =
m
t
n 1 +
m
t
Y
u
t
P n 1 + ( )
( ) m
t
el
( ) sgn =
K
t
n 1 +
K
t
el
1 o
K
t
el
K
t
el
cm
t
Y
cu
t
P
---------- +
-------------------------- –
\ .
|
|
|
|
|
| |
=
o 1 s
f
a
Y
c m . ( )
f
a
n 1 +
f
a
Y
c
n 1 +
m
n 1 +
. ( ) f
a
el
( ) sgn =
K
a
n 1 +
max 0.05K
a
el
cf
a
Y
cc
-------- ,
\ .
| |
=
Main Index
279 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Damping
Damping is introduced by adding a viscous term to the internal force on the form
(7-146)
(7-147)
where is a damping parameter.
Transformation
The internal force vector in the global system is obtained through the transformation
(7-148)
where
(7-149)
(7-150)
Tangent Stiffness
Derivation
The tangent stiffness is derived from taking the variation of the internal force
(7-151)
which can be written
f
v
D
d
dt
-----
o
u
t
u
y
u
z
=
D ¸
K
a
el
K
t
el
A
y
el
A
z
el
=
¸
f
g
n 1 +
Sf
t
n 1 +
=
S
e
1
– 0 e
3
l
n 1 +
– e
3
l
n 1 +
– e
2
l
n 1 +
e
2
l
n 1 +

0 e
1
– e
2
0 e
3
0
e
1
0 e
3
l
n 1 +
e
3
l
n 1 +
e
2
l
n 1 +
– e
2
l
n 1 +

0 e
1
0 e
2
0 e
3
=
f
l
n 1 +
f
a
n 1 +
m
t
n 1 +
m
y
n 1 +
m
z
n 1 +
=
of
g
n 1 +
oSf
l
n 1 +
Sof
l
n 1 +
+ =
of
g
n 1 +
K
geo
ou K
mat
ou + =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
280
where
. (7-152)
There are two contributions to the tangent stiffness: geometrical and material. The geometrical
contribution is given (approximately) by
(7-153)
where
(7-154)
(7-155)
(7-156)
(7-157)
and I is the 3 by 3 identity matrix. We use as the outer matrix product and define
. (7-158)
The material contribution can be written as
(7-159)
where
(7-160)
ou
ox
I
T
oe
I
T
ox
J
T
oe
j
T
\ .
| |
T
=
K
geo
R f
l
n 1 +
I © ( )W
1
l
n 1 +
l
n 1 +
------------------------ Tf
l
n 1 +
L – =
R
R
1
0 R
3
l
n 1 +
R
3
l
n 1 +
R
2
l
n 1 +
– R
2
n 1 + ( ) –
0 R
1
R
2
– 0 R
3
– 0
R
1
– 0 R
3
l
n 1 +
– R
3
l
n 1 +
– R
2
l
n 1 +
R
2
l
n 1 +

0 R
1
– 0 R
2
– 0 R
3

=
W
R
1
l
n 1 +
– e
1
e
1
T
2 R
1
l
n 1 +
e
1
e
1
T
2
\ .
| |
=
T
0 0 e
3
– e
3
– e
2
e
2
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 e
3
e
3
e
2
– e
2

0 0 0 0 0 0
=
L
e
1
T
0 e
1
T
0
\ .
| |
=
©
R
i
v e
i
v × =
K
mat
SKS
T
=
K
K
a
n 1 +
K
t
n 1 +
A
y
n 1 +
A
z
n 1 +
=
Main Index
281 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Model 30: Shape Memory Alloy
This section presents the mathematical details of the shape memory alloy material in MD Nastran
SOL 700.
The description closely follows the one of Auricchio and Taylor [1997] with appropriate modifications
for this particular implementation.
Mathematical Description of the Material Model
The Kirchhoff stress in the shape memory alloy can be written
(7-161)
where i is the second order identity tensor and
. (7-162)
Here K and G are bulk and shear modulii, and e are volumetric and shear logarithmic strains and
and are constant material parameters. There is an option to define the bulk and shear modulii as
functions of the martensite fraction according to
(7-163)
in case the stiffness of the martensite differs from that of the austenite. Furthermore, the unit vector n is
defined as
(7-164)
and a loading function is introduced as
(7-165)
where
. (7-166)
t
t pi t + =
p K u 3oc
S
c
L
– ( ) =
t 2G e c
S
c
L
n – ( ) =
u o
c
L
K K
A
c
S
K
S
K
A
– ( ) + =
G G
A
c
S
G
S
GK
A
– ( ) + =
n e e 10
12 –
+ ( ) =
F 2G e 3oKu |c
S
– + =
| 2G 9o
2
K + ( )c
L
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
282
For the evolution of the martensite fraction in the material, the following rule is adopted
. (7-167)
Here , , , and are constant material parameters. The Cauchy stress is finally obtained as
(7-168)
where J is the Jacobian of the deformation.
Algorithmic Stress Update
For the stress update, we assume that the martensite fraction and the value of the loading function
is known from time and the deformation gradient at time , , is known. We form the left Cauchy-
Green tensor as which is diagonalized to obtain the principal values and directions
and . The volumetric and principal shear logarithmic strains are given by
where
is the total Jacobian of the deformation. Using Equation (7-165) with , a value of the loading
function can be computed. The discrete counterpart of Equation (7-167) becomes
(7-169)
c
S
F R
s
AS
0 > –
F
·
0 >
c
S
1 <
)
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¹
c
S
¬ 1 c
S
– ( )
F
·
F R
f
AS

------------------- – =
F R
s
SA
0 < –
F
·
0 >
c
S
0 >
)
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¹
c
S
¬ c
S
F
·
F R
f
SA

------------------- =
R
s
AS
R
f
AS
R
s
SA
R
f
SA
o t J =
c
s
n
F
n
t
n
t
n 1 +
F
B FF
T
= Adi ag ì
i
( )
Q
u J ( ) log =
e
i
ì
i
J
1 3
( ) log =
J ì
1
ì
2
ì
3
=
c
S
c
S
n
= F
t ri al
F
t ri al
R
s
AS
0 > –
F
t ri al
F
n
0 > –
c
S
n
1 <
)
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¹
Ac
S
¬ 1 c
S
n
– Ac
S
– ( )
F
t ri al
|Ac
S
– mi n max F
n
R
s
AS
, ( ) R
f
AS
, ( ) –
F
t ri al
|Ac
S
– R
f
AS

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ – =
F
t ri al
R
s
SA
0 > –
F
t ri al
F
n
0 > –
c
S
n
1 <
)
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¹
Ac
S
¬ c
S
n
Ac
S
+ ( )
F
t ri al
|Ac
S
– mi n max F
n
R
s
SA
, ( ) R
f
SA
, ( ) –
F
t ri al
|Ac
S
– R
f
SA

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ =
Main Index
283 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
If none of the two conditions to the left are satisfied, set , , and compute the stress
using Equations (7-161), (7-162), (7-163), (7-168) and . When phase transformation occurs
according to a condition to the left, the corresponding equation to the right is solved for . If the bulk
and shear modulii are constan,t this is an easy task. Otherwise, as well as depends on this
parameter and makes things a bit more tricky. We have that
.
where and are Young’s modulii for martensite and austenite, respectively. The subscript n is
introduced for constant quantities evaluated at time . To simplify the upcoming expressions, these
relations are written
(7-170)
respectively, where we have for simplicity set
Inserting these expressions into Equation (7-169) results in
(7-171)
and
respectively, where we have for simplicity set
.
The solutions to these equations are approximated with two Newton iterations starting in the point
.. Now set and compute and according to Equations
(7-161), (7-162), (7-163), (7-164), (7-166) and .
c
S
n 1 +
c
S
n
= F
n 1 +
F
t ri al
=
o
n 1 +
c
S
c
S
n
=
Ac
S
F
t ri al
|
F
t ri al
F
n
t ri al
1
E
S
E
A

E
n
------------------- Ac
S
+
\ .
| |
=
| |
n
1
E
S
E
A

E
n
------------------- Ac
S
+
\ .
| |
=
E
S
E
A
t
n
F
t ri al
F
n
t ri al
AF
t ri al
Ac
S
+ =
| |
n
A|Ac
S
+ =
f Ac
S
( ) A| 1 c
S
n
– ( )Ac
S
2
R
f
AS
F
˜
AS
n
– |
n
AF
t ri al
– ( ) 1 c
S
n
– ( ) + ( )Ac
S
+ + =
1 c
S
n
– ( ) F
˜
AS
n
F
n
t ri al
– ( ) 0 =
f Ac
S
( ) A|c
S
n
Ac
S
2
F
˜
SA
n
R
f
SA
– |
n
AF
t ri al
– ( )c
S
n
+ ( )Ac
S
+ + =
c
S
n
F
˜
SA
n
F
n
t ri al
– ( ) 0 =
F
˜
AS
n
mi n max F
n
R
s
AS
. ( ) R
f
AS
, ( ) =
F
˜
SA
n
mi n max F
n
R
f
SA
. ( ) R
s
SA
, ( ) =
Ac
S
0 = c
S
n 1 +
mi n 1 max 0 c
S
n
Ac
S
+ , ( ) , ( ) = o
n 1 +
F
n 1 +
c
S
c
S
n 1 +
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
284
Tangent Stiffness Matrix
An algorithmic tangent stiffness matrix relating a change in true strain to a corresponding change in
Kirchhoff stress is derived in the following. Taking the variation of Equation (7-162) results in
. (7-172)
The variation of the unit vector in Equation (7-163) can be written
where I is the fourth order identity tensor. For the variation of martensite fraction, we introduce the
indicator parameters and that should give information of the probability of phase transformation
occurring in the next stress update. Set initially and change them according to
using the quantities computed in the previous stress update. For the variation of the martensite fraction
we take variations of Equations(7-171) and (7-172) with
which results in
where
.
As can be seen, we use the value of obtained in the previous stress update since this is easier to
implement and will probably give a good indication of the current value of this parameter.
op K ou 3ooc
S
c
L
– ( ) oK u 3oc
S
c
L
– ( ) + =
ot 2G oe oc
S
c
L
n – c
S
c
L
on – ( ) 2oG e c
S
c
L
n – ( ) + =
on
1
e 10
12 –
+
---------------------------- I n n © – ( )oe =
H
AS
H
SA
H
AS
H
SA
0 = =
F
t ri al
R
s
AS
0 > –
F
t ri al
F
n
0 > –
c
S
n
Ac
S
1 s +
)
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¹
H
AS
¬ 1 =
F
t ri al
R
s
SA
0 > –
F
t ri al
F
n
0 > –
c
S
n
Ac
S
0 > +
)
¦
¦
`
¦
¦
¹
H
SA
¬ 1 =
oF
n
t ri al
2Gn: oe 3oKou + =
oc
S
¸ 2Gn: oe 3oKou + ( ) =
¸
1 c
S
n
– ( )H
AS
R
f
AS
F
˜
AS
n
| (
n
AF
n
t ri al
) 1 c
S
n
– ( ) – + –
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
c
S
n
H
SA
F
˜
SA
n
R
f
SA
– |
n
AF
n
t ri al
– ( )c
S
n
+
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- + =
¸
Main Index
285 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
The variation of the material parameters K and G results in
and, finally, using the identities
results in
where is the fourth order deviatoric identity tensor. In general this tangent is not symmetric because
of the terms on the second line in the expression above. We simply use a symmetrization of the tangent
stiffness above in the implementation. Furthermore, we transform the tangent to a tangent closer related
to the one that should be used in the MD Nastran SOL 700 implementation,
Material Model 31: Slightly Compressible Rubber Model
This model implements a modified form of the hyperelastic constitutive law first described in
[Kenchington 1988].
The strain energy functional, , is defined in terms of the input constants as:
(7-173)
oK K
S
K
A
– ( )oc
S
=
oG G
S
G
A
– ( )oc
S
=
n: oe n: oc =
ou i : oc =
ot i op ot + =
ot 2G 1
c
S
c
L
e 10
12 –
+
---------------------------- –
\ .
| |
I
dev
K 1 9o
2
K¸c
L
– 3o¸ K
S
K
A
– ( ) u 3oc
S
c
L
– ( ) + ( )i i © +
¹
´
¦
+ =
2¸G K
S
K
A
– ( ) u 3oc
S
c
L
– ( )i n 6¸oK G
S
G
A
– ( ) e c
S
c
L
– ( )n i + © + ©
2G
c
S
c
L
e 1 10
12 –
– +
------------------------------------- 2G¸c
L
– 2¸ G
S
G
A
– ( ) e c
D
c
L
– ( ) +
\ .
| |
n n 6KGo¸c
L
i n n i © + © ( ) }oc – ©
I
dev
C J
1 –
2G 1
c
S
c
L
e 10
12 –
+
---------------------------- –
\ .
| |
I
dev
K 1 9o
2
K¸c
L
– 3o¸ K
S
K
A
– ( ) u 3oc
S
c
L
– ( ) + ( )i i + © +
¹
´
¦
=
¸G K
S
K
A
– ( ) u 3oc
S
c
L
– ( ) 3¸oK G
S
G
A
– ( ) e c
S
c
L
– ( ) 6KGo¸c
L
– + ( ) i n n i © + © ( ) +
2G
c
S
c
L
e 10
12 –
+
---------------------------- 2G¸c
L
– 2¸ G
S
G
A
– ( ) e c
S
c
L
– ( ) +
\ .
| |
n n ©
)
`
¹
oc
U
U C
100
I
1
C
200
I
1
2
C
300
I
1
3
C
400
I
1
4
C
110
I
1
I
2
C
210
I
1
2
I
2
C
010
I
2
C
020
I
2
2
j J ( ) + + + + + + + + =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
286
where the strain invariants can be expressed in terms of the deformation gradient matrix, , and the
Green-St. Venant strain tensor, :
. (7-174)
The derivative of with respect to a component of strain gives the corresponding component of stress
(7-175)
where, , is the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor which is transformed into the Cauchy stress tensor:
(7-176)
where and are the initial and current density, respectively.
Material Model 32: Laminated Glass Model
This model is available for modeling safety glass. Safety glass is a layered material of glass bonded to a
polymer material which can undergo large strains.
The glass layers are modeled by isotropic hardening plasticity with failure based on exceeding a specified
level of plastic strain. Glass is quite brittle and cannot withstand large strains before failing. Plastic strain
was chosen for failure since is increases monotonically and, therefore, is insensitive to spurious
numberical noise in the solution.
The material to which the glass is bonded is assumed to stretch plastically without failure.
The user defined integration rule option must be used with this material. The user defined rule specifies
the thickness of the layers making up the safety glass. Each integration point is flagged with a zero if the
layer is glass and with a one if the layer is polymer.
An iterative plane stress plasticity algorithm is used to enforce the plane stress condition.
Material Model 34: Fabric
The fabric model is a variation on the Layered Orthotropic Composite material model (Material 22) and
is valid for only 3 and 4 node membrane elements. This material model is strongly recommended for
modeling airbags and seatbelts. In addition to being a constitutive model, this model also invokes a
special membrane element formulation that is better suited to the large deformations experienced by
fabrics. For thin fabrics, buckling (wrinkling) can occur with the associated inability of the structure to
F
i j
E
i j
J F
i j
=
I
1
E
i i
=
I
2
1
2
-- - o
pq
i j
E
pi
E
qj
=
U
S
i j
cU
cE
i j
---------- =
S
i j
o
i j
p
p
o
-----
cx
i
cX
k
---------
cx
j
cX
l
-------- S
kl
=
p
o
p
Main Index
287 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
support compressive stresses; a material parameter flag is included for this option. A linear elastic liner
is also included which can be used to reduce the tendency for these material/elements to be crushed when
the no-compression option is invoked.
If the airbag material is to be approximated as an isotropic elastic material, then only one Young’s
modulus and Poisson’s ratio should be defined. The elastic approximation is very efficient because the
local transformations to the material coordinate system may be skipped. If orthotropic constants are
defined, it is very important to consider the orientation of the local material system and use great care in
setting up the finite element mesh.
If the reference configuration of the airbag is taken as the folded configuration, the geometrical accuracy
of the deployed bag will be affected by both the stretching and the compression of elements during the
folding process. Such element distortions are very difficult to avoid in a folded bag. By reading in a
reference configuration, such as the final unstretched configuration of a deployed bag, any distortions in
the initial geometry of the folded bag will have no effect on the final geometry of the inflated bag. This
is because the stresses depend only on the deformation gradient matrix:
(7-177)
where the choice of may coincide with the folded or unfold configurations. It is this unfolded
configuration which may be specified here. When the reference geometry is used, then the
no-compression option should be active. With the reference geometry, it is possible to shrink the airbag
and then perform the inflation. Although the elements in the shrunken bag are very small, the time step
can be based on the reference geometry so a very reasonable time step size is obtained. The reference
geometry based time step size is optional in the input.
The parameters fabric leakage coefficient, FLC, fabric area coefficient, FAC, and effective leakage area,
ELA, for the fabric in contact with the structure are optional for the Wang-Nefske and hybrid inflation
models. It is possible for the airbag to be constructed of multiple fabrics having different values of
porosity and permeability. The gas leakage through the airbag fabric then requires an accurate
determination of the areas by part ID available for leakage. The leakage area may change over time due
to stretching of the airbag fabric or blockage when the outer surface of the bag is in contact with the
structure. MD Nastran SOL 700 can check the interaction of the bag with the structure and split the areas
into regions that are blocked and unblocked depending on whether the regions are in contact or not,
respectively. Typically, the parameters, FLC and FAC, must be determined experimentally and their
variation with time and pressure are optional inputs that allow for maximum modeling flexibility.
Material Model 36: Barlat’s 3-Parameter Plasticity Model
This model was developed by Barlat and Lian [1989] for modeling sheets under plane stress conditions.
The anisotopic yield criterion for plane stress is defined as:
(7-178)
F
i j
cx
i
cX
j
-------- =
X
j
u
u a K
1
K
2
+
-
a K
1
K
2

-
c 2K
m
+ + 2o
Y
m
= =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
288
where is the yield stress and are given by:
(7-179)
The anisotropic material constants a, c, h, and p are obtained through , and :
(7-180)
The anisotropy parameter is calculated implicitly. According to Barlat and Lian the value, width to
thickness strain ratio, for any angle can be calculated from:
(7-181)
where is the uniaxial tension in the direction. This expression can be used to iteratively calculate
the value of . Let and define a function as
(7-182)
An iterative search is used to find the value of .
For face-centered-cubic (FCC) materials m=8 is recommended and for body-centered-cubic (BCC)
materials m=6 may be used. The yield strength of the material can be expressed in terms of and :
(7-183)
where is the elastic strain to yield and is the effective plastic strain (logarithmic). If is set to
zero, the strain to yield if found by solving for the intersection of the linearly elastic loading equation
with the strain hardening equation:
(7-184)
which gives the elastic strain at yield as:
o
Y
K
i
1 2 . =
K
1
o
x
ho
y

2
--------------------- =
K
2
o
x
ho
y

2
---------------------
\ .
| |
2
p
2
t
xy
2
+ =
R
00
R
45
. R
90
a 2 2
R
00
1 R
00
+
------------------
1 R
90
+
R
90
------------------ – =
c 2 a – =
h
R
00
1 R
00
+
------------------
1 R
90
+
R
90
------------------ =
p R
u
R
o
2mo
Y
m
cu
co
x
---------
cu
co
y
--------- +
\ .
| |
o
o
-------------------------------------- 1 – =
o
o
u
p u 45 = g
g p ( )
2mo
Y
m
cu
co
x
---------
cu
co
y
--------- +
\ .
| |
o
o
-------------------------------------- 1 – R
45
– =
p
k n
o
y
kc
n
k c
yp
c
p
+ ( )
n
= =
c
yp
c
p
o
Y
o Ec =
o kc
n
=
Main Index
289 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
(7-185)
If yield is nonzero and greater than 0.02 then:
(7-186)
Material Model 37: Transversely Anisotropic Elastic-Plastic
This fully iterative plasticity model is available only for shell elements. The input parameters for this
model are: Young’s modulus ; Poisson’s ratio ; the yield stress; the tangent modulus ; and the
anisotropic hardening parameter .
Consider Cartesian reference axes which are parallel to the three symmetry planes of anisotropic
behavior. Then the yield function suggested by Hill [1948] can be written
(7-187)
where , and are the tensile yield stresses and , and are the shear yield stresses.
The constants , and are related to the yield stress by
. (7-188)
The isotropic case of von Mises plasticity can be recovered by setting
and .
c
yp
E
k
---
\ .
| |
1
n 1 –
------------
=
o
Y
c
yp
o
y
k
-----
\ .
| |
1
n
---
=
E u E
t
R
F o
22
o
33
– ( )
2
G o
33
o
11
– ( )
2
H o
11
o
22
– ( )
2
2Lo
23
2
2Mo
31
2
2No
12
2
1 – + + + + + 0 =
o
y1
o
y2
. o
y3
o
12
o
23
. o
y31
F G H L M . . . . N
2L
1
o
23
2
-------- =
2M
1
o
y31
2
----------- =
2N
1
o
y12
2
----------- =
2F
1
o
y2
2
--------
1
o
y3
2
--------
1
o
y1
2
-------- – + =
2G
1
o
y3
2
--------
1
o
y1
2
--------
1
o
y2
2
-------- – + =
2H
1
o
y1
2
--------
1
o
y2
2
--------
1
o
y3
2
-------- – + =
F G H
1
2o
y
2
---------- = = =
L M N
1
2o
y
2
---------- = = =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
290
For the particular case of transverse anisotropy, where properties do not vary in the plane, the
following relations hold:
(7-189)
where it has been assumed that .
Letting , the yield criterion can be written
, (7-190)
where
The rate of plastic strain is assumed to be normal to the yield surface so is found from
. (7-191)
Now consider the case of plane stress, where . Also, define the anisotropy input parameter as
the ratio of the in-plane plastic strain rate to the out-of-plane plastic strain rate:
. (7-192)
It then follows that
. (7-193)
Using the plane stress assumption and the definition of , the yield function may now be written
(7-194)
x
1
x
2

2F 2G
1
o
y3
2
-------- = =
2H
2
o
y
2
------
1
o
y3
2
-------- – =
N
2
o
y
2
------
1
2
--- –
1
o
y3
2
-------- – =
oy
1
oy
2
oy = =
K
o
y
o
y3
-------- =
F o ( ) o
e
o
y
= =
F o ( ) o
11
o
22
2
K
2
o
33
2
K
2
o
33
o
11
o
22
+ ( ) – 2 K
2
– ( )o
11
o
22
– 2Lo
y
2
o
23
2
o
31
2
+ ( ) 2 2
1
2
-- - K
2

\ .
| |
o
12
2
+ + + +
1 2
÷
c
·
y
p
c
·
y
p
ì
cF
co
i j
---------- =
o
33
0 = R
R
c
·
22
p
c
·
33
p
------- =
R
2
K
2
------ 1 – =
R
F o ( ) o
11
2
o
22
2 2R
R 1 +
------------- o
11
o
22
– 2
2R 1 +
R 1 +
----------------- o
12
2
+ +
1 2
=
Main Index
291 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Model 38: Blatz-Ko Compressible Foam
(7-195)
where is the shear modulus and , and are the strain invariants. Blatz and Ko [1962] suggested
this form for a 47 percent volume polyurethane foam rubber with a Poisson’s ratio of 0.25. The second
Piola-Kirchhoff stresses are given as
(7-196)
where
after determining , it is transformed into the Cauchy stress tensor:
where and are the initial and current density, respectively.
Material Model 39: Transversely Anisotropic Elastic-Plastic
With FLD
See Material Model 37 for the similar model theoretical basis. The first history variable is the maximum
strain ratio defined by:
(7-197)
corresponding to . This history variable replaces the effective plastic strain in the output.
Plastic strains can still be obtained but one additional history variable must be written into the D3PLOT
database.
The strains on which these calculations are based are integrated in time from the strain rates:
(7-198)
and are stored as history variables. The resulting strain measure is logarithmic.
W I
1
I
2
I
3
. . ( )
u
2
---
I
2
I
3
---- 2 I
3
5 – +
\ .
| |
=
u I
1
I
2
. I
3
S
i j
u Io
i j
G
i j
– ( )
1
I
3
---- I
3
I
2
I
3
---- –
\ .
| |
G
i j
+ =
G
i j
cx
k
cX
i
--------
cx
k
cX
j
-------- =
G
i j
cX
i
cx
k
--------
cX
j
cx
k
-------- =
S
i j
o
i j
p
p
o
-----
cx
i
cX
k
---------
cx
j
cX
l
-------- S
kl
=
p
o
p
c
major
workpiece
c
major
fld
--------------------------------
min
workpiece
or
c
c
i j
n 1 +
c
i j
n
c
Vn
1
2
--- +
At
n
1
2
-- - +
+ =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
292
Figure 7-9 Flow Limit Diagram
Material Model 53: Low Density Closed Cell
Polyurethane Foam
A rigid, low density, closed cell, polyurethane foam model developed at Sandia Laboratories [Neilsen et.
al., 1987] has been recently implemented for modeling impact limiters in automotive applications. A
number of such foams were tested at Sandia and reasonable fits to the experimental data were obtained.
In some respects this model is similar to the crushable honeycomb model type 26 in that the components
of the stress tensor are uncoupled until full volumetric compaction is achieved. However, unlike the
honeycomb model this material possesses no directionality but includes the effects of confined air
pressure in its overall response characteristics.
(7-199)
where is the skeletal stress and is the air pressure computed from the equation:
(7-200)
-50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 +10 +20 +30 +40 +50
% MINOR STRAIN
10
20
30
40
50
c
mj r
c
mnr
0 =
Plane Strain
c
mj r
c
mj r
c
mnr
c
mnr
Stretch
Draw
%

M
A
J
O
R

S
T
R
A
I
N
60
70
80
o
i j
o
i j
sk
o
i j
o
ai r
– =
o
i j
sk
o
ai r
o
ai r
p
0
¸
1 ¸ o – +
---------------------- – =
Main Index
293 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
where is the initial foam pressure usually taken as the atmospheric pressure and defines the
volumetric strain
(7-201)
where is the relative volume and is the initial volumetric strain which is typically zero. The yield
condition is applied to the principal skeletal stresses which are updated independently of the air pressure.
We first obtain the skeletal stresses:
(7-202)
and compute the trial stress,
(7-203)
where is Young’s modulus. Since Poisson’s ratio is zero, the update of each stress component is
uncoupled and where is the shear modulus. The yield condition is applied to the principal
skeletal stresses such that if the magnitude of a principal trial stress component, , exceeds the yield
stress, , then
. (7-204)
The yield stress is defined by
(7-205)
where , and are user defined input constants. After scaling the principal stresses they are
transformed back into the global system and the final stress state is computed
.
Material Models 54 and 55: Enhanced Composite
Damage Model
These models are very close in their formulations. Material 54 uses the Chang matrix failure criterion (as
Material 22), and Material 55 uses the Tsai-Wu criterion for matrix failure.
Arbitrary orthothropic materials, e.g., unidirectional layers in composite shell structures can be defined.
Optionally, various types of failure can be specified following either the suggestions of [Chang and
Chang, 1984] or [Tsai and Wu, 1981]. In addition special measures are taken for failure under
compression. See [Matzenmiller and Schweizerhof, 1990]. This model is only valid for thin
shell elements.
The Chang/Chang criteria is given as follows:
p
0
¸
¸ V 1 – ¸
0
+ =
V ¸
0
o
i j
sk
o
i j
o
i j
o
ai r
+ =
o
i j
skt
o
i j
skt
o
i j
sk
Ec
·
i j
At + =
E
2G E = G
o
i
skt
o
y
o
i
sk
mi n o
y
o
i
sk
. ( )
o
i
skt
o
i
skt
------------- =
o
y
a b 1 c¸ + ( ) + =
a b . c
o
i j
o
i j
sk
o
i j
o
ai r
– =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
294
for the tensile fiber mode,
then , (7-206)
for the compressive fiber mode,
then , (7-207)
for the tensile matrix mode,
then , (7-208)
and for the compressive matrix mode,
then (7-209)
In the Tsai/Wu criteria the tensile and compressive fiber modes are treated as in the Chang/Chang criteria.
The failure criterion for the tensile and compressive matrix mode is given as:
(7-210)
For , we get the original criterion of Hashin [1980] in the tensile fiber mode.
For , we get the maximum stress criterion which is found to compare better to experiments.
Failure can occur in any of four different ways:
1. If DFAILT is zero, failure occurs if the Chang/Chang failure criterion is satisfied in the tensile fiber
mode.
2. If DFAILT is greater than zero, failure occurs if the tensile fiber strain is greater than DFAILT or
less than DFAILC.
3. If EFS is greater than zero, failure occurs if the effective strain is greater than EFS.
4. If TFAIL is greater than zero, failure occurs according to the element time step as described in the
definition of TFAIL above.
o
aa
0 > e
f
2
o
aa
X
t
--------
\ .
| |
2
|
o
ab
S
c
--------
\ .
| |
1 – + =
> 0 failed
< 0 elastic
E
a
E
b
G
ab
v
ba
v
ab
0 = = = = =
o
aa
0 > e
c
2
o
aa
X
c
--------
\ .
| |
2
1 – =
> 0 failed
< 0 elastic
E
a
v
ba
v
ab
0 = = =
o
bb
0 > e
m
2
o
bb
Y
t
--------
\ .
| |
2
o
ab
S
c
--------
\ .
| |
2
1 – + =
> 0 failed
< 0 elastic
E
b
v
ba
0. G
ab
÷ 0 = = =
o
bb
0 < e
d
2
o
bb
2S
c
--------
\ .
| |
2
Y
c
2S
t
--------
\ .
| |
2
1 –
o
bb
Y
c
--------
o
ab
S
c
--------
\ .
| |
2
1 – + + =
> 0 failed
< 0 elastic
E
b
v
ba
v
ab
0. G
ab
÷ 0 = = = =
X
c
2Y
c
= for 50% fiber volume
e
md
2
o
bb
2
Y
c
Y
t
-----------
o
ab
S
c
--------
\ .
| |
2
Y
c
Y
t
– ( )o
bb
Y
c
Y
t
------------------------------- 1 – + + =
> 0 failed
< 0 elastic
| 1 =
| 0 =
Main Index
295 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
When failure has occurred in all the composite layers (through-thickness integration points), the element
is deleted. Elements which share nodes with the deleted element become “crashfront” elements and can
have their strengths reduced by using the SOFT parameter with TFAIL greater than zero.
Information about the status in each layer (integration point) and element can be plotted using additional
integration point variables. The number of additional integration point variables for shells written to the
database is input by the PARAM, DYNEIPS definition as variable NEIPS. For Models 54 and 55 these
additional variables are tabulated below (i = shell integration point):
These variables can be plotted in MD Patran as element components 81, 82, ..., 80+ NEIPS. The
following components, defined by the sum of failure indicators over all through-thickness integration
points, are stored as element component 7 instead of the effective plastic strain:
Material Model 57: Low Density Urethane Foam
The urethane foam model is available to model highly compressible foams such as those used in seat
cushions and as padding on the Side Impact Dummy (SID). The compressive behavior is illustrated in
Figure 7-10 where hysteresis on unloading is shown. This behavior under uniaxial loading is assumed not
to significantly couple in the transverse directions. In tension the material behaves in a linear fashion until
tearing occurs. Although our implementation may be somewhat unusual, it was first motivated by
History
Variable Description Value
d3plot
Component
1. ef(i) tensile fiber mode 81
2. ec(i) compressive fiber mode 1 - elastic 82
3. em(i) tensile matrix mode 0 - failed 83
4. ed(i) compressive matrix mode 84
5. efail max[ef(ip)] 85
6. dam damage parameter
-1 - element intact
10
-8
- element in crashfront
+1 - element failed
86
Description Integration Point
1
2
3
1
ni p
-------- ef i ( )
i 1 =
ni p
¯
1
ni p
-------- ec i ( )
i 1 =
ni p
¯
1
ni p
-------- cm i ( )
i 1 =
ni p
¯
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
296
Shkolnikov [1991] and a paper by Storakers [1986]. The recent additions necessary to model hysteretic
unloading and rate effects are due to Chang, et. al., [1994]. These latter additions have greatly expanded
the usefulness of this model.
Figure 7-10 Behavior of the Low-density Urethane Foam Model
The model uses tabulated input data for the loading curve where the nominal stresses are defined as a
function of the elongations, , which are defined in terms of the principal stretches, , as:
(7-211)
The stretch ratios are found by solving for the eigenvalues of the left stretch tensor, , which is obtained
via a polar decomposition of the deformation gradient matrix, :
(7-212)
The update of follows the numerically stable approach of Taylor and Flanagan [1989]. After solving
for the principal stretches, the elongations are computed and, if the elongations are compressive, the
corresponding values of the nominal stresses, . are interpolated. If the elongations are tensile, the
nominal stresses are given by
(7-213)
The Cauchy stresses in the principal system become
(7-214)
The stresses are then transformed back into the global system for the nodal force calculations.
Typical unloading curves determined
by the hysteric unloading factor. With
the shape factor equal to unity.
Unloading
Strain
o
Strain
Typical unloading for a large shape
factor; e.g., 5.-8 and a small hysteric
factor; e.g., .010.
o
Curves
c
i
ì
i
c
i
ì
i
1 – =
V
i j
F
i j
F
i j
R
i k
U
kj
V
i k
R
kj
= =
V
i j
t
i
t
i
Ec
i
=
o
i
t
i
ì
i
ì
k
---------- =
Main Index
297 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
When hysteretic unloading is used, the reloading will follow the unloading curve if the decay constant,
, is set to zero. If is nonzero the decay to the original loading curve is governed by the expression:
(7-215)
The bulk viscosity, which generates a rate dependent pressure, may cause an unexpected volumetric
response and, consequently, it is optional with this model.
Rate effects are accounted for through linear viscoelasticity by a convolution integral of the form
(7-216)
where is the relaxation function. The stress tensor, , augments the stresses determined from
the foam, ; consequently, the final stress, , is taken as the summation of the two contributions:
(7-217)
Since we wish to include only simple rate effects, the relaxation function is represented by one term from
the Prony series:
(7-218)
given by,
(7-219)
This model is effectively a Maxwell fluid which consists of a damper and spring in series. We
characterize this in the input by a Young's modulus, , and decay constant, . The formulation is
performed in the local system of principal stretches where only the principal values of stress are
computed and triaxial coupling is avoided. Consequently, the one-dimensional nature of this foam
material is unaffected by this addition of rate effects. The addition of rate effects necessitates twelve
additional history variables per integration point. The cost and memory overhead of this model comes
primarily from the need to “remember” the local system of principal stretches.
Material Model 58: Laminated Composite Fabric
Parameters to control failure of an element layer are: ERODS, the maximum effective strain; i.e.,
maximum 1 = 100 % straining. The layer in the element is completely removed after the maximum
effective strain (compression/tension including shear) is reached. The stress limits are factors used to
limit the stress in the softening part to a given value,
, (7-220)
| |
1 e
|t –

o
i j
g
i j kl
t t – ( )
cc
kl
ct
----------
0
t
í
=
g
i j kl
t t – ( ) o
i j
r
o
i j
f
o
i j
o
i j
o
i j
f
o
i j
r
+ =
g t ( ) o
0
o
m
e
|t –
m 1 =
N
¯
+ =
g t ( ) E
d
e
|
1
t –
=
E
d
|
1
o
mi n
SLIMxx st rengt h · =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
298
thus, the damage value is slightly modified such that elastoplastic like behavior is achieved with the
threshold stress. As a factor for a number between 0.0 and 1.0 is possible. With a factor of 1.0,
the stress remains at a maximum value identical to the strength, which is similar to ideal elastoplastic
behavior. For tensile failure a small value for is often reasonable; however, for compression
is preferred. This is also valid for the corresponding shear value. If is smaller than
1.0, then localization can be observed depending on the total behavior of the lay-up. If the user is
intentionally using , it is generally recommended to avoid a drop to zero and set the value to
something in between 0.05 and 0.10.
Then elastoplastic behavior is achieved in the limit which often leads to less numerical problems.
Defaults for .
The crashfront-algorithm is started if and only if a value for TSIZE (time step size, with element
elimination after the actual time step becomes smaller than TSIZE) is input
The damage parameters can be written to the postprocessing database for each integration point as the
first three additional element variables and can be visualized.
Material models with FS=1 or FS=-1 are favorable for complete laminates and fabrics, as all directions
are treated in a similar fashion.
For material model FS=1, an interaction between normal stresses and shear stresses is assumed for the
evolution of damage in the a- and b-directions. For the shear damage is always the maximum value of
the damage from the criterion in a- or b- direction is taken.
For material model FS=-1, it is assumed that the damage evolution is independent of any of the other
stresses. A coupling is present only via the elastic material parameters and the complete structure.
In tensile and compression directions and in a- as well as in b- direction, different failure surfaces can be
assumed. The damage values, however, increase only when the loading direction changes.
Special Control of Shear Behavior of Fabrics
For fabric materials a nonlinear stress strain curve for the shear part of failure surface FS=-1 can be
assumed as given below. This is not possible for other values of FS. The curve, shown in Figure 19.58.1,
is defined by three points:
a. a) the origin (0,0) is assumed,
b. the limit of the first slightly nonlinear part (must be input), stress (TAU1) and strain
(GAMMA1), see below.
c. the shear strength at failure and shear strain at failure.
In addition, a stress limiter can be used to keep the stress constant via the SLIMS parameter. This value
must be less than or equal to 1.0 and positive, which leads to an elastoplastic behavior for the shear part.
The default is 1.0E-08, assuming almost brittle failure once the strength limit SC is reached.
SLIMxx
SLIMTx
SLIMCx 1.0 = SLIMxx
SLIMxx 1.0 <
SLIMxx 1.0E-8 =
Main Index
299 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-11 Stress-strain Diagram for Shear
Material Model 62: Viscous Foam
This model was written to represent the energy absorbing foam found on certain crash dummies, i.e., the
‘Confor Foam’ covering the ribs of the Eurosid dummy.
The model consists of a nonlinear elastic stiffness in parallel with a viscous damper. A schematic is
shown in Figure 7-12. The elastic stiffness is intended to limit total crush while the viscous damper
absorbs energy. The stiffness prevents timestep problems.
Figure 7-12 Schematic of Material Model 62
Both and are nonlinear with crush as follows:
(7-221)
where is the relative volume defined by the ratio of the current to initial volume. Typical values are
(units of )
SLIMS*SC
GMS GAMMA1
TAU1
SC
t
¸
E
2
E
1
V
2
E
2
E
1
V
2
E
1
t
E
1
V
n
1

( ) =
V
2
t
V
2
abs 1 V – ( ) ( )
n
2
=
V
N mm s . ,
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
300
Material Model 63: Crushable Foam
The intent of this model is model crushable foams in side impact and other applications where cyclic
behavior is unimportant.
This isotropic foam model crushes one-dimensionally with a Poisson’s ratio that is essentially zero. The
stress versus strain behavior is depicted in Figure 7-13 where an example of unloading from point a to
the tension cutoff stress at b then unloading to point c and finally reloading to point d is shown. At point
the reloading will continue along the loading curve. It is important to use nonzero values for the tension
cutoff to prevent the disintegration of the material under small tensile loads. For high values of tension
cutoff the behavior of the material will be similar in tension and compression.
In the implementation we assume that Young’s modulus is constant and update the stress assuming
elastic behavior.
(7-222)
The magnitudes of the principal values, , are then checked to see if the yield stress, , is
exceeded and if so they are scaled back to the yield surface:
if then (7-223)
After the principal values are scaled, the stress tensor is transformed back into the global system. As seen
in Figure 7-13, the yield stress is a function of the natural logarithm of the relative volume, ; i.e., the
volumetric strain.
E
1
0.0036 =
n
1
4.0 =
V
2
0.0015 =
E
2
100.0 =
n
2
0.2 =
v 0.05 =
o
i j
t ri al
o
i j
n
Ec
·
i j
n
1 2 +
At
n 1 2 +
+ =
o
i
t ri al
i , 1 3 , = o
y
o
y
o
i
t ri al
< o
i
n 1 +
o
y
o
i
t ri al
o
i
t ri al
----------------- =
V
Main Index
301 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-13 Yield Stress Versus Volumetric Strain Curve for the Crushable Foam
Material Model 64: Strain Rate Sensitive Power-Law Plasticity
This material model follows a constitutive relationship of the form:
(7-224)
where is the yield stress, is the effective plastic strain, is the effective plastic strain rate, and the
constants, , , and can be expressed as functions of effective plastic strain or can be constant with
respect to the plastic strain. The case of no strain hardening can be obtained by setting the exponent of
the plastic strain equal to a very small positive value; i.e., 0.0001.
This model can be combined with the superplastic forming input to control the magnitude of the pressure
in the pressure boundary conditions in order to limit the effective plastic strain rate so that it does not
exceed a maximum value at any integration point within the model.
A fully viscoplastic formulation is optional. An additional cost is incurred but the improvement is results
can be dramatic.
Material Model 65: Modified Zerilli/Armstrong
The Armstrong-Zerilli Material Model expresses the flow stress as follows.
For fcc metals,
(7-225)
effective plastic strain
o
i j
d
a
E
b c
Volumetric Strain V ln –
o kc
m
c
· n
=
o c c
·
k m n
o C
1
C
2
c
p
( )
1 2
e
C
3
– C
4
c
· *
( ) ln + ( )t
C
3
+
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
u T ( )
u 293 ( )
------------------
\ .
| |
+ =
c
p
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
302
effective plastic strain rate where , 1e-3, le-6 for time units
of seconds, milliseconds, and microseconds, respectively.
For bcc metals,
(7-226)
where
(7-227)
The relationship between heat capacity (specific heat) and temperature may be characterized by a cubic
polynomial equation as follows:
(7-228)
A fully viscoplastic formulation is optional. An additional cost is incurred but the improvement in results
can be dramatic.
Material Model 67: Nonlinear Stiffness/Viscous 3-D
Discrete Beam
The formulation of the discrete beam (Model 6) assumes that the beam is of zero ngth and requires no
orientation node. A small distance between the nodes joined by the beam is permitted. The local
coordinate system which determines (r, s, t) is given by the coordinate ID in the cross-sectional input
where the global system is the default. The local coordinate system axes rotate with the average of the
rotations of the two nodes that define the beam.
For null TABLED1 IDs, no forces are computed. The force resultants are found from TABLED1s (see
Figure 7-14) that are defined in terms of the force resultant versus the relative displacement in the local
coordinate system for the discrete beam. The resultant forces and moments are determined by a table
lookup, if the origin of the TABLED1 is at [0,0], as shown in Figure 7-14b, and the tension and
compression responses are symmetric.
c
· *
c
·
c
·
0
----- = c
·
0
1 =
o C
1
C
2
e
C
3
– c
4
l m c
· *
( ) + ( )t
C
5
c
p
( )
n
C
6
+ | |
u T ( )
u 293 ( )
------------------
\ .
| |
+ + =
u T ( )
u 293 ( )
------------------ B
1
B
2
T B
3
T
2
+ + =
C
p
G
1
G
2
T G
3
T
2
G
4
T
3
+ + + =
Main Index
303 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-14 Resultant Forces and Moments Determined by Table Lookup
Material Model 68: Nonlinear Plastic/Linear Viscous 3-D
Discrete Beam
The folmulation of the discrete beam (Model 6) assumes that the beam is of zero length and requires no
orientation node. A small distance between the nodes joined by the beam is permitted. The local
coordinate system, which determines (r, s, t) is given by the coordinate ID in the cross-sectional input
where the global system is the default. The local coordinate system axes rotate with the average of the
rotations of the two nodes that define the beam. Each force resultant in the local system can have a
limiting value defined as a function of plastic displacement by using a TABLED1 (see Figure 7-15). For
the degrees of freedom where elastic behavior is desired, the TABLED1 ID is simply set to zero.
Figure 7-15 Resultant Forces and Moments Limited by the Yield Definition
DISPLACEMENT
R
E
S
U
L
T
A
N
T
R
E
S
U
L
T
A
N
T
DISPLACEMENT
(a) (b)
R
E
S
U
L
T
A
N
T
PLASTIC DISPLACEMENT
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
304
Catastrophic failure, based on force resultants, occurs if the following inequality is satisfied:
(7-229)
Likewise, catastrohic failure based on displacement resultants occurs if:
(7-230)
After failure, the discrete element is deleted. If failure is included, either one or both of the criteria may
be used.
Material Model 69: Side Impact Dummy Damper (SID Damper)
The side impact dummy uses a damper that is not adequately treated by nonlinear force versus relative
velocity curves, since the force characteristics are also dependent on the displacement of the piston. As
the damper moves, the fluid flows through the open orifices to provide the necessary damping resistance.
While moving as shown in Figure 7-16, the piston gradually blocks off and effectively closes the orifices.
The number of orifices and the size of their openings control the damper resistance and performance. The
damping force is computed from the equation.
(7-231)
where is a user defined constant or a tabulated function of the absolute value of the relative velocity,
is the piston's relative velocity, is the discharge coefficient, is the piston area, is the total
open areas of orifices at time , is the fluid density, is the coefficient for the linear term, and
is the coefficient for the quadratic term.
In the implementation, the orifices are assumed to be circular with partial covering by the orifice
controller. As the piston closes, the closure of the orifice is gradual. This gradual closure is taken into
account to insure a smooth response. If the piston stroke is exceeded, the stiffness value, , limits further
movement; i.e., if the damper bottoms out in tension or compression, the damper forces are calculated by
replacing the damper by a bottoming out spring and damper, and , respectively. The piston stroke
must exceed the initial length of the beam element. The time step calculation is based in part on the
stiffness value of the bottoming out spring. A typical force versus displacement curve at constant relative
velocity with only the linear velocity term active is shown in Figure 7-17. The factor, , which scales
the force defaults to 1.0 and is analogous to the adjusting ring on the damper.
F
r
F
r
f ai l
-----------
\ .
|
| |
2
F
s
F
s
f ai l
-----------
\ .
|
| |
2
F
t
F
t
f ai l
-----------
\ .
|
| |
2
M
r
M
r
f ai l
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
M
s
M
s
f ai l
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
M
t
M
t
f ai l
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
1 0 > – + + + + +
u
r
u
r
f ai l
----------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
s
u
s
f ai l
----------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
t
u
t
f ai l
----------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
r
u
r
f ai l
-----------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
s
u
s
f ai l
-----------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
t
u
t
f ai l
-----------
\ .
|
| |
2
1 0 > – + + + + +
F SF KA
p
V
p
C
l
A
0
t
------ C
2
V
p
p
f l ui d
A
p
CA
0
t
-----------
\ .
|
| |
2
1 – +
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
f s s
0
+ ( ) – V
p
g s s
0
+ ( ) } +
¹
´
¦
=
K
V
p
C A
p
A
0
t
t p
f l ui d
C
1
C
2
k
k c
SF
Main Index
305 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-16 Mathematical Model for Side Impact Dummy Damper
Figure 7-17 Force Versus Displacement
F
O
R
C
E
Displacement
Force increases as orfice
is gradually covered
Last orfice
closes
Linear loading after
ofifices close
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
306
Material Model 70: Hydraulic/Gas Damper
This special purpose element represents a combined hydraulic and gas-filled damper which has a variable
orifice coefficient. A schematic of the damper is shown in Figure 7-18. Dampers of this type are
sometimes used on buffers at the end of railroad tracks and as aircraft undercarriage shock absorbers.
This material can be used only as a discrete beam element.
Figure 7-18 Schematic of Hydraulic/Gas Damper
As the damper is compressed two actions contribute to the force that develops. First, the gas is
adiabatically compressed into a smaller volume. Secondly, oil is forced through an orifice. A profiled pin
may occupy some of the cross-sectional area of the orifice; thus, the orifice area available for the oil
varies with the stroke. The force is assumed proportional to the square of the velocity and inversely
proportional to the available area. The equation for this element is:
(7-232)
where is the element deflection and is the relative velocity across the element.
Material Model 71: Cable
This material can be used only as a discrete beam element. The force, , generated by the cable is
nonzero only if the cable is in tension. The force is given by:
(7-233)
where is the change in length
(7-234)
and the stiffness is defined as:
(7-235)
F SCLF K
h
V
a
0
-----
\ .
| |
2
P
0
C
0
C
0
S –
----------------
\ .
| |
n
P
a
– A
p
· +
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
· =
S V
F
F K max AL 0. . ( ) · =
AL
AL current l engt h i ni t i al l engt h of f set – ( ) – =
K
E area ·
i ni t i al l engt h of f set – ( )
----------------------------------------------------------------- =
Main Index
307 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
The area and offset are defined on either the cross section or element cards in the SOL 700 input. For a
slack cable the offset should be input as a negative length. For an initial tensile force the offset should be
positive. If a TABLED1 is specified, the Young’s modulus will be ignored and the TABLED1 will be used
instead. The points on the TABLED1 are defined as engineering stress versus engineering strain; i.e., the
change in length over the initial length. The unloading behavior follows the loading.
Material Model 73: Low Density Viscoelastic Foam
This viscoelastic foam model is available to model highly compressible viscous foams. The hyperelastic
formulation of this model follows that of material 57.
Rate effects are accounted for through linear viscoelasticity by a convolution integral of the form
(7-236)
where is the relaxation function. The stress tensor, , augments the stresses determined from
the foam, ; consequently, the final stress, , is taken as the summation of the two contributions:
(7-237)
Since we wish to include only simple rate effects, the relaxation function is represented by up to six terms
of the Prony series:
(7-238)
This model is effectively a Maxwell fluid which consists of a dampers and springs in series. The
formulation is performed in the local system of principal stretches where only the principal values of
stress are computed and triaxial coupling is avoided. Consequently, the one-dimensional nature of this
foam material is unaffected by this addition of rate effects. The addition of rate effects necessitates 42
additional history variables per integration point. The cost and memory overhead of this model comes
primarily from the need to “remember” the local system of principal stretches and the evaluation of the
viscous stress components
Material Model 74: Elastic Spring for the Discrete Beam
This model permits elastic springs with damping to be combined and represented with PBDISCR
property. Linear stiffness and damping coefficients can be defined and, for nonlinear behavior, a force
versus deflection and force versus rate curves can be used. Displacement based failure and an initial force
are optional
If the linear spring stiffness is used, the force, , is given by:
(7-239)
o
i j
r
g
i j kl
t t – ( )
cc
kl
ct
---------- t d
0
t
í
=
g
i j kl
t t – ( ) o
i j
r
o
i j
f
o
i j
o
i j
o
i j
f
o
i j
r
+ =
g t ( ) o
0
o
m
e
|t –
m 1 =
N
¯
+ =
F
F F
0
FAL DAL + + =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
308
where is the stiffness constant, and is the viscous damping coefficient.
If the TABLED1 ID for . is specified, nonlinear behavior is activated. For this case the force is
given by:
(7-240)
where and are damping coefficients for nonlinear behavior, is a factor to scale time units,
and . is an optional TABLED1 defining a scale factor versus deflection for TABLED1 ID, .
In these equations, is the change in length
.
Failure can occur in either compression or tension based on displacement values of CDF and TDF,
respectively. After failure no forces are carried. Compressive failure does not apply if the spring is
initially zero length.
The cross sectional area is defined on the beam property card for the discrete beam elements. The
square root of this area is used as the contact thickness offset if these elements are included in the
contact treatment.
Material Model 76: General Viscoelastic
Rate effects are taken into account through linear viscoelasticity by a convolution integral of the form:
(7-241)
where is the relaxation function.
If we wish to include only simple rate effects for the deviatoric stresses, the relaxation function is
represented by six terms from the Prony series:
(7-242)
We characterize this in the input by shear modulii, , and decay constants, . An arbitrary number of
terms, up to 6, may be used when applying the viscoelastic model.
K D
f AL ( )
F F
0
Kf AL ( ) 1 C1 AL
·
C2 AL
·
( ) max 1.
AL
·
DLE
------------ ,
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
\ .
|
| |
ln sgn · + · + + =
+DAL
·
g AL ( )h AL
·
( ) +
C1 C2 DLE
g AL ( ) h AL dt ( )
AL
AL currentlength initiallength – =
o
i j
g
i j kl
t t – ( )
cc
kl
ct
---------- t d
0
t
í
=
g
i j kl
t t – ( )
g t ( ) G
m
e
|
m
t –
m 1 =
N
¯
=
G
i
|
i
Main Index
309 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-19 Relaxation Curve
For volumetric relaxation, the relaxation function is also represented by the Prony series in terms of
bulk modulii:
(7-243)
Material Model 77: Hyperviscoelastic Rubber
Rubber is generally considered to be fully incompressible since the bulk modulus greatly exceeds the
shear modulus in magnitude. To model the rubber as an unconstrained material a hydrostatic work term,
, is included in the strain energy functional which is function of the relative volume, ,
[Ogden, 1984]:
Note: This curve defines stress versus time where time is defined on a logarithmic scale. For best
results, the points defined in the TABLED1 should be equally spaced on the logarithmic
scale. Furthermore, the TABLED1 should be smooth and defined in the positive quadrant.
If nonphysical values are determined by least squares fit, SOL 700 will terminate with an
error message after the initialization phase is completed. If the ramp time for loading is
included, then the relaxation which occurs during the loading phase is taken into account.
This effect may or may not be important.
k t ( ) K
m
e
|
k
m
t –
m 1 =
N
¯
=
W
H
J ( ) J ( )
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
310
(7-244)
In order to prevent volumetric work from contributing to the hydrostatic work the first and second
invariants are modified as shown. This procedure is described in more detail by Sussman and Bathe
[1987]. For the Ogden model the energy equation is given as:
(7-245)
where the asterisk indicates that the volumetric effects have be eliminated from the principal
stretches, . See Ogden [1984] for more details.
Rate effects are taken into account through linear viscoelasticity by a convolution integral of the form:
(7-246)
or in terms of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, , and Green's strain tensor, ,
(7-247)
where and are the relaxation functions for the different stress measures. This stress
is added to the stress tensor determined from the strain energy functional.
If we wish to include only simple rate effects, the relaxation function is represented by six terms from the
Prony series:
(7-248)
given by,
(7-249)
This model is effectively a Maxwell fluid which consists of a dampers and springs in series. We
characterize this in the input by shear moduli, , and decay constants, . The viscoelastic behavior is
optional and an arbitrary number of terms may be used.
The Mooney-Rivlin rubber model is obtained by specifying . In spite of the differences in
formulations with MATD027, we find that the results obtained with this model are nearly identical with
those of MATD027 as long as large values of Poisson’s ratio are used.
W J
1
J
2
J , , ( ) C
pq
J
1
3 – ( )
p
J
2
3 – ( )
q
W
H
J ( ) +
p q , 0 =
n
¯
=
J
1
I
1
I
3
1 2 –
=
J
2
I
2
I
3
1 2 –
=
W
-
u
j
o
j
----- ì
i
*o
1
1 – ( )
1
2
-- - K J 1 – ( )
2
+
j 1 =
n
¯
i 1 =
3
¯
=
* ( )
ì
j
*
o
i j
g
i j kl
t t – ( )
cc
kl
ct
---------- t d
0
t
í
=
S
i j
E
i j
S
i j
G
i j kl
t t – ( )
cE
kl
ct
----------- t d
0
t
í
g
i j kl
t t – ( ) G
i j kl
t t – ( )
g t ( ) o
0
o
m
e
|t –
m 1 =
N
¯
+ =
g t ( ) G
i
e
|
i
t –
j 1 =
n
¯
=
G
i
|
i
n 2 +
Main Index
311 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
When viscoelastic terms are not included, this model is similar to the use of the Ogden model in solution
600, defined on the MATHE option.
Material Model 78: Soil/Concrete
Concrete pressure is positive in compression. Volumetric strain is defined as the natural log of the relative
volume and is positive in compression where the relative volume, , is the ratio of the current volume to
the initial volume. The tabulated data should be given in order of increasing compression. If the pressure
drops below the cutoff value specified, it is reset to that value and the deviatoric stress state is eliminated.
If the TABLED1 ID is provided as a positive number, the deviatoric perfectly plastic pressure dependent
yield function , is described in terms of the second invariant, , the pressure, , and the table, , as
where is defined in terms of the deviatoric stress tensor as:
assuming that. If the ID is given as negative, the yield function becomes:
being the deviatoric stress tensor.
If cracking is invoked, the yield stress is multiplied by a factor which reduces with plastic stain
according to a trilinear law as shown in Figure 7-20.
Figure 7-20 Strength Reduction Factor
V
o J
2
p F p ( )
o 3J
2
F p ( ) – o
y
F p ( ) – =
J
2
J
2
1
2
-- - S
i j
S
i j
=
o J
2
Fp – =
f
f
1.0
b
c
1
c
2
c
p
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
312
and are tabulated functions of pressure that are defined by TABLED1s (see Figure 7-21). The values
on the curves are pressure versus strain and should be entered in order of increasing pressure. The strain
values should always increase monotonically with pressure.
By properly defining the TABLED1s, it is possible to obtain the desired strength and ductility over a range
of pressure. (see Figure 7-22).
Figure 7-21 Cracking Strain Versus Pressure
Figure 7-22 Strength and Ductility Over a Range of Pressures
= residual strength factor
= plastic stain at which cracking begins.
= plastic stain at which residual strength is reached.
b
c
1
c
2
c
1
c
2
c
c
2
c
2
P
Yield Stress
Plastic Strain
p
3
p
2
p
1
Main Index
313 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Model 79: Hysteretic Soil
This model is a nested surface model with five superposed “layers” of elasto-perfectly plastic material,
each with its own elastic modulii and yield values. Nested surface models give hysteretic behavior, as the
different “layers” yield at different stresses.
The constants ( , , ) govern the pressure sensitivity of the yield stress. Only the ratios between
these values are important - the absolute stress values are taken from the stressstrain curve.
The stress strain pairs ( , ) define a shear stress versus shear strain curve. The first point
on the curve is assumed by default to be (0,0) and does not need to be entered. The slope of the curve
must decrease with increasing . Not all five points need be to be defined. This curve applies at the
reference pressure; at other pressures, the curve variesaccording to , , and as in the soil and
crushable foam model, Material 5.
The elastic moduli G and K are pressure sensitive.
where and are the input values, is the current pressure, the cut-off or referencepressure (must
be zero or negative). If attempts to fall below (i.e., more tensile) the shear stresses are set to zero
and the pressure is set to . Thus, the material has no stiffness orstrength in tension. The pressure in
compression is calculated as follows:
where is the relative volume; i.e., the ratio between the original and current volume.
Material Model 80: Ramberg-Osgood Plasticity
The Ramberg-Osgood equation is an empirical constitutive relation to represent the one-dimensional
elastic-plastic behavior of many materials, including soils. This model allows a simple rate independent
representation of the hysteretic energy dissipation observed in soils subjected to cyclic shear
deformation. For monotonic loading, the stress-strain relationship is given by:
(7-250)
a
0
a
1
a
2
¸1 t1 , ( ) . ¸5 t5 , ( )
¸
a
0
a
1
a
2
G G
0
p p
0
– ( )
b
=
K K
0
p p
0
– ( )
b
=
G
0
K
0
p p
o
p p
o
p
o
p K
0
V ( ) ln – | |
1
1 b –
------------
=
V
¸
¸
y
----
t
t
y
---- o
t
t
y
----
r
+ =
i f ¸ 0 >
¸
¸
y
----
t
t
y
---- o
t
t
y
----
r
– =
i f ¸ 0 <
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
314
where is the shear strain and is the shear stress. The model approaches perfect plasticity as the stress
exponent . These equations must be augmented to correctly model unloading and reloading
material behavior. The first load reversal is detected by . After the first reversal, the stress-strain
relationship is modified to
(7-251)
where and represent the values of strain and stress at the point of load reversal. Subsequent load
reversals are detected by .
The Ramberg-Osgood equations are inherently one-dimensional and are assumed to apply to shear
components. To generalize this theory to the multidimensional case, it is assumed that each component
of the deviatoric stress and deviatoric tensorial strain is independently related by the one-dimensional
stress-strain equations. A projection is used to map the result back into deviatoric stress space if required.
The volumetric behavior is elastic, and, therefore, the pressure is found by
(7-252)
where is the volumetric strain.
Material Model 81 and 82: Plasticity with Damage and
Orthotropic Option
With this model an elasto-viscoplastic material with an arbitrary stress versus strain curve and arbitrary
strain rate dependency can be defined. Damage is considered before rupture occurs. Also, failure based
on a plastic strain or a minimum time step size can be defined.
An option in the keyword input, ORTHO, is available, which invokes an orthotropic damage model. This
option, which is implemented only for shell elements with multiple integration points through thickness,
is an extension to include orthotropic damage as a means of treating failure in aluminum panels.
Directional damage begins after a defined failure strain is reached in tension and continues to evolve until
a tensile rupture strain is reached in either one of the two orthogonal directions.
The stress versus strain behavior may be treated by a bilinear stress strain curve by defining the tangent
modulus, ETAN. Alternately, a curve similar to that shown in Figure 7-23 is expected to be defined by
(EPS1,ES1) - (EPS8,ES8); however, an effective stress versus effective plastic strain curve (LCSS) may
be input instead if eight points are insufficient. The cost is roughly the same for either approach. The most
general approach is to use the table definition (LCSS) discussed here.
¸ t
r · ÷
¸¸
·
0 <
¸ ¸
0
– ( )

y
-------------------
t t
0
– ( )
2t
y
------------------- o
t t
0
– ( )
2t
y
-------------------
r
+ =
i f ¸ 0 >
¸ ¸
0
– ( )

y
-------------------
t t
0
– ( )
2t
y
------------------- o
t t
0
– ( )
2t
y
-------------------
r
– =
i f ¸ 0 <
¸
0
t
0
( )
0
0 ¸ ¸ ¸ ÷ < 
p
p Kc
v
=
c
v
Main Index
315 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-23 Stress Strain Behavior When Damage is Included.
Two options to account for strain rate effects are possible. Strain rate may be accounted for using the
Cowper and Symonds model which scales the yield stress with the factor,
(7-253)
where is the strain rate, . If the viscoplastic option is active, VP=1.0, and if SIGY is > 0 then
the dynamic yield stress is computed from the sum of the static stress, , which is typically given
by a TABLED1 ID, and the initial yield stress, SIGY, multiplied by the Cowper-Symonds rate term as
follows:
(7-254)
where the plastic strain rate is used. If SIGY=0, the following equation is used instead where the static
stress, , must be defined by a TABLED1:
(7-255)
This latter equation is always used if the viscoplastic option is off.
0
Failure Begins
Rupture
Damage increases linearly with
plastic strain after failure
Nominal stress
after failure
Yield stress versus
effective plastic strain
for undamaged material
o
yi el d
e 0 =
e 1 =
c
ef f
p
1
c
·
C
----
\ .
| |
1 p
+
c
·
c
·
c
i j
c
·
i j
=
o
y
s
c
ef f
p
( )
o
y
c
ef f
p
c
·
ef f
p
, ( ) o
y
s
c
ef f
p
( ) SIGY
c
·
ef f
p
C
--------
\ .
| |
1 p
· + =
o
y
s
c
ef f
p
( )
o
y
c
ef f
p
c
·
ef f
p
, ( ) o
y
s
1
c
·
ef f
p
C
--------
\ .
| |
1 p
+ =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
316
For complete generality a TABLED1 (LCSR) to scale the yield stress may be input instead. In this curve
the scale factor versus strain rate is defined.
The constitutive properties for the damaged material are obtained from the undamaged material
properties. The amount of damage evolved is represented by the constant, , which varies from zero if
no damage has occurred to unity for complete rupture. For uniaxial loading, the nominal stress in the
damaged material is given by:
(7-256)
where is the applied load and A is the surface area. The true stress is given by:
(7-257)
where is the void area. The damage variable can then be defined:
(7-258)
In this model damage is defined in terms of plastic strain after the failure strain is exceeded:
if (7-259)
After exceeding the failure strain softening begins and continues until the rupture strain is reached.
By default, deletion of the element occurs when all integration points in the shell have failed.
Note in Figure 7-24 that the origin of the curve is at (0,0). It is permissible to input the failure strain, ,
as zero for this option. The nonlinear damage curve is useful for controlling the softening behavior after
the failure strain is reached.
Figure 7-24 A Nonlinear Damage Curve (Optional)
e
o
nomi nal
P
A
--- =
P
o
t rue
P
A A
l oss

---------------------- =
A
l oss
e
A
l oss
A
------------ =
0 e 1 s s
e
c
ef f
p
c
f ai l ure
p

c
rapt ure
p
c
f ai l ure
p

------------------------------------------- = c
f ai l ure
p
c
ef f
p
c
rupt ure
p
s s
f s
1
D
a
m
a
g
e
Failure
c
ef f
p
f s –
Main Index
317 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Model 83: Fu-Chang’s Foam With Rate Effects
This model allows rate effects to be modeled in low and medium density foams, see Figure 7-25.
Hysteretic unloading behavior in this model is a function of the rate sensitivity with the most rate
sensitive foams providing the largest hysteresis and visa versa. The unified constitutive equations for
foam materials by Fu-Chang [1995] provide the basis for this model. This implementation incorporates
the coding in the reference in modified form to ensure reasonable computational efficiency. The
mathematical description given below is excerpted from the reference.
Figure 7-25 Rate Effects in Fu Chang's Foam Model
The strain is divided into two parts: a linear part and a non-linear part of the strain
(7-260)
and the strain rate become
(7-261)
is an expression for the past history of . A postulated constitutive equation may be written as:
(7-262)
where is the state variable and is a functional of all values of in and
(7-263)
E t ( ) E
L
t ( ) E
N
t ( ) + =
E
·
t ( ) E
· L
t ( ) E
· N
t ( ) + =
E
· N
E
N
o t ( ) E
t
N
t ( ) S t ( ) , | | t d
t = 0
·
í
=
S t ( )
t = 0
·
í
t T
t
: 0 t · s s
E
t
N
t ( ) E
N
t t – ( ) =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
318
where is the history parameter:
(7-264)
It is assumed that the material remembers only its immediate past, i.e., a neighborhood about .
Therefore, an expansion of in a Taylor series about yields:
(7-265)
Hence, the postulated constitutive equation becomes:
(7-266)
where we have replaced by , and is a function of its arguments.
For a special case,
(7-267)
we may write
(7-268)
which states that the nonlinear strain rate is the function of stress and a state variable which represents
the history of loading. Therefore, the proposed kinetic equation for foam materials is:
(7-269)
where and are material constants, and is the overall state variable. If either or
then the nonlinear strain rate vanishes.
(7-270)
(7-271)
(7-272)
(7-273)
where and are material constants and:
(7-274)
t
E
t
N
t = · ( ) the virgin material ·
t 0 =
E
t
N
t ( ) t 0 =
E
t
N
t ( ) E
N
0 ( )
cE
t
N
ct
---------- 0 ( )dt + =
o t ( ) o
-
E
N
t ( ) E
· N
t ( ) S t ( ) . . ( ) =
cE
t
N
ct
---------- E
· N
o
-
o t ( ) o
-
E
· N
t ( ) S t ( ) . ( ) =
E
·
t
N
f S t ( ) s t ( ) . ( ) =
E
· N
o
o
--------- D
0
c
0
t r oS ( )
o
2
( )
-----------------
\ .
| |
2n
0
– exp =
D
0
c
0
. n
0
S D
0
0 =
c
0
· ÷
S
·
i j
c
1
a
i j
R c
2
S
i j
– ( )P c
3
W
n
1
W
· N
( )
n
2
I
i j
+ | |R =
R 1 c
4
E
· N
c
5
------------ 1 –
\ .
| |
n
3
+ =
P t r oE
· N
( )
í
=
W t r o E d ( )
í
=
c
1
c
2
c
3
c
4
c
5
n
1
n
2
n
3
. . . . . . . . a
i j
o o
i j
o
i j
( )
1 2 /
=
E
·
E
·
i j
E
·
i j
( )
1 2 /
=
E
N
·
E
·
i j
N
E
·
i j
N
( )
1 2 /
=
Main Index
319 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
In the implementation by Fu Chang the model was simplified such that the input constants and the
state variables are scalars.
Material Model 87: Cellular Rubber
This material model provides a cellular rubber model combined with linear viscoelasticity as outlined by
Christensen [1980].
Rubber is generally considered to be fully incompressible since the bulk modulus greatly exceeds the
shear modulus in magnitude. To model the rubber as an unconstrained material a hydrostatic work term,
, is included in the strain energy functional which is function of the relative volume, ,
[Ogden, 1984]
(7-275)
In order to prevent volumetric work from contributing to the hydrostatic work the first and second
invariants are modified as shown. This procedure is described in more detail by Sussman and
Bathe [1987].
The effects of confined air pressure in its overall response characteristics are included by augmenting the
stress state within the element by the air pressure.
(7-276)
where is the bulk skeletal stress and is the air pressure computed from the equation:
(7-277)
where is the initial foam pressure usually taken as the atmospheric pressure and defines the
volumetric strain
(7-278)
where is the relative volume of the voids and is the initial volumetric strain which is typically zero.
The rubber skeletal material is assumed to be incompressible.
Rate effects are taken into account through linear viscoelasticity by a convolution integral of the form:
(7-279)
or in terms of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, , and Green's strain tensor, ,
a
i j
S
i j
W
H
J ( ) J
W J
1
J
2
J , , ( ) C
pq
J
1
3 – ( )
p
J
2
3 – ( )
q
W
H
J ( ) +
p q . 0 =
n
¯
=
J
1
I
1
I
3
1 3 –
=
J
2
I
2
I
3
2 3 –
=
o
i j
o
i j
sk
o
i j
o
ai r
– =
o
i j
sk
o
ai r
o
ai r
p
0
¸
1 ¸ o – +
---------------------- – =
p
0
¸
¸ V 1 – ¸
0
+ =
V ¸
0
o
i j
g
i j kl
t t – ( )
cc
kl
ct
---------- t d
0
t
í
=
S
i j
E
i j
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
320
(7-280)
where and are the relaxation functions for the different stress measures. This stress
is added to the stress tensor determined from the strain energy functional.
Since we wish to include only simple rate effects, the relaxation function is represented by one term from
the Prony series:
(7-281)
given by
. (7-282)
This model is effectively a Maxwell fluid which consists of a damper and spring in series. We
characterize this in the input by a shear modulus, , and decay constant, .
The Mooney-Rivlin rubber model is obtained by specifying . In spite of the differences in
formulations with MATD027, we find that the results obtained with this model are nearly identical with
those of MATD027 as long as large values of Poisson’s ratio are used. By setting the initial air pressure to
zero, an open cell, cellular rubber can be simulated as shown in Figure 7-26.
Figure 7-26 Cellular Rubber with Entrapped Air
S
i j
G
i j kl
t t – ( )
cE
kl
ct
----------- t d
0
t
í
=
g
i j kl
t t – ( ) G
i j kl
t t – ( )
g t ( ) a
0
o
m
e
|t –
+
m 1 =
N
¯
+ =
g t ( ) E
d
e
|
1
t –
=
G |
1
n 1 =
Main Index
321 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Model 89: Plasticity Polymer
Unlike other MD Nastran SOL 700 material models, both the input stress-strain curve and the strain to
failure are defined as total true strain, not plastic strain. The input can be defined from uniaxial tensile
tests; nominal stress and nominal strain from the tests must be converted to true stress and true strain. The
elastic component of strain must not be subtracted out.
The stress-strain curve is permitted to have sections steeper (i.e. stiffer) than the elastic modulus. When
these are encountered the elastic modulus is increased to prevent spurious energy generation.
Material Model 94: Inelastic Spring Discrete Beam
The yield force is taken from the TABLED1:
(7-283)
where is the plastic deflection. A trial force is computed as:
(7-284)
and is checked against the yield force to determine :
(7-285)
The final force, which includes rate effects and damping, is given by:
(7-286)
where , are damping coefficients, is a factor to scale time units.
Unless the origin of the curve starts at (0,0), the negative part of the curve is used when the spring force
is negative where the negative of the plastic displacement is used to interpolate, . The positive part of
the curve is used whenever the force is positive. In these equations, is the change in length
Material Model 97: General Joint Discrete Beam
For explicit calculations, the additional stiffness due to this joint may require additional mass and inertia
for stability. Mass and rotary inertia for this beam element is based on the defined mass density, the
volume, and the mass moment of inertia defined in the beam property input.
The penalty stiffness applies to explicit calculations. For implicit calculations, constraint equations
are generated and imposed on the system equations; therefore, these constants, RPST and RPSR, are
not used.
F
Y
F
y
AL
pl ast i c
( ) =
L
pl ast i c
F
T
F
n
K AL
·
At · · + =
F
F
F
Y
F
T
¹
´
¦
=
if F
T
F
Y
>
if F
T
F
Y
s
F
n 1 +
F 1 C1 AL
·
C2 AL
·
( ) max 1.
AL
·
DLE
------------ ,
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
\ .
|
| |
ln sgn · + · + DAL
·
g AL ( )h AL
·
( ) + + · =
C1 C2 DLE
F
y
AL
AL current length initial length – =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
322
Material Model 98: Simplified Johnson Cook
Johnson and Cook express the flow stress as
where
The maximum stress is limited by sigmax and sigsat by:
Failure occurs when the effective plastic strain exceeds psfail.
If the viscoplastic option is active, VP=1.0, the SIGMAX and SIGSAT parameters are ignored since these
parameters make convergence of the viscoplastic strain iteration loopdifficult to achieve. The
viscoplastic option replaces the plastic strain in the forgoing equationsby the viscoplastic strain
and the strain rate by the viscoplastic strain rate. Numerical noise issubstantially reduced by the
viscoplastic formulation.
Material Model 100: Spot Weld
This material model applies to PBSPOT for spot welds. These beam elements may be placed between
any two deformable shell surfaces, see Figure 7-27, and tied with SPOTWELD contact which eliminates
the need to have adjacent nodes at spot weld locations. Beam spot welds may be placed between rigid
bodies and rigid/deformable bodies by making the node on one end of the spot weld a rigid body node
which can be an extra node for the rigid body. In the same way, rigid bodies may also be tied together
with this spot weld option.
It is advisable to include all spot welds which can be arbitrarily placed within the structure, which provide
the slave nodes, and spot welded materials, which define the master segments, within a single
SPOTWELD contact interface. As a constraint method, multiple SPOTWELD contact interfaces are
treated independently which can lead to significant problems if such interfaces share common nodal
points. The offset contact option should not be used with spot welds.
The weld material is modeled with isotropic hardening plasticity coupled to two failure models. The first
model specifies a failure strain which fails each integration point in the spot weld independently. The
second model fails the entire weld if the resultants are outside of the failure surface defined by:
(7-287)
A, B, C and n are input constants
ellective plastic strain
effective strain rate for
o
y
A Bc
p
n
+ ( ) 1 c c
·
* ln + ( ) =
c
p
c
·
*
c
·
c
·
0
----- =
c
·
0
1s
1 –
=
o
y
mi n mi n A Bc
p
n
si gmax , + | | 1 c c
·
* ln + ( ) si gsat , { } =
N
rr
N
rr
F
-----------
\ .
|
| |
2
N
rs
N
rs
F
-----------
\ .
|
| |
2
N
rt
N
rt
F
----------
\ .
|
| |
2
M
rr
M
rr
F
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
M
ss
M
ss
F
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
1
T
rr
T
rr
F
----------
\ .
|
| |
2
– + + + + 0 =
Main Index
323 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-27 Deformable Spotwelds
where the numerators in the equation are the resultants calculated in the local coordinates of the cross
section, and the denominators are the values specified in the input. If the user defined parameter, NF,
which the number of force vectors stored for filtering, is nonzero the resultants are filtered before failure
is checked. The default value is set to zero which is generally recommended unless oscillatory resultant
forces are observed in the time history databases. Even though these welds should not oscillate
significantly, this option was added for consistency with the other spot weld options. NF affects the
storage since it is necessary to store the resultant forces as history variables.
If the failure strain is set to zero, the failure strain model is not used. In a similar manner, when the value
of a resultant at failure is set to zero, the corresponding term in the failure surface is ignored. For example,
if only is nonzero, the failure surface is reduced to . None, either, or both of the failure
models may be active depending on the specified input values.
The inertias of the spot welds are scaled during the first time step so that their stable time step size is At.
A strong compressive load on the spot weld at a later time may reduce the length of the spot weld so that
stable time step size drops below . If the value of is zero, mass scaling is not performed, and the
spot welds will probably limit the time step size. Under most circumstances, the inertias of the spot welds
are small enough that scaling them will have a negligible effect on the structural response and the use of
this option is encouraged.
Spotweld force history data is written into the SWFORC data of binout file. In this database the resultant
moments are not available, but they are in the binary time history database.
N
rr
F
N
rr
N
rr
F
=
At At
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
324
The constitutive properties for the damaged material are obtained from the undamaged material
properties. The amount of damage evolved is represented by the constant, , which varies from zero if
no damage has occurred to unity for complete rupture. For uniaxial loading, the nominal stress in the
damaged material is given by
(7-288)
where is the applied load and is the surface area. The true stress is given by:
(7-289)
where is the void area. The damage variable can then be defined:
(7-290)
In this model damage is defined in terms of plastic strain after the failure strain is exceeded:
(7-291)
After exceeding the failure strain softening begins and continues until the rupture strain is reached.
Material Model 116: Composite Layup
This material is for modeling the elastic responses of composite lay-ups that have an arbitrary number of
layers through the shell thickness. A pre-integration is used to compute the extensional, bending, and
coupling stiffness for use with the Belytschko-Tsay resultant shell formulation. The angles of the local
material axes are specified from layer to layer in the PCOMP or PSHELLD input. This material model
must be used with the user-defined integration rule for shells, which allows the elastic constants to change
from integration point to integration point. Since the stresses are not computed in the resultant
formulation, the stress output to the binary databases for the resultant elements are zero.
This material law is based on standard composite lay-up theory. The implementation, [See Jones 1975],
allows the calculation of the force, , and moment, , stress resultants from:
(7-292)
e
o
nomi nal
P
A
--- =
P A
o
t rue
P
A A
l oss

---------------------- =
A
l oss
e
A
l oss
A
------------ = 0 e 1 s s
e
c
ef f
p
c
f ai l ure
p

c
rupt ure
p
c
f ai l ure
p

------------------------------------------ i f c
f ai l ure
p
c
ef f
p
c
rupt ure
p
s s =
N M
N
x
N
y
N
xy
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
A
11
A
12
A
16
A
21
A
22
A
26
A
16
A
26
A
66
c
x
0
c
y
0
c
z
0
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
B
11
B
12
B
16
B
21
B
22
B
26
B
16
B
26
B
66
k
x
k
y
k
xy
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
+ =
M
x
M
y
M
xy
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
B
11
B
12
B
16
B
21
B
22
B
26
B
16
B
26
B
66
c
x
0
c
y
0
c
z
0
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
D
11
D
12
D
16
D
21
D
22
D
26
D
16
D
26
D
66
k
x
k
y
k
xy
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
+ =
Main Index
325 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
where is the extensional stiffness, is the bending stiffness, and is the coupling stiffness, which
is a null matrix for symmetric lay-ups. The mid-surface strains and curvatures are denoted by and ,
respectively. Since these stiffness matrices are symmetric, 18 terms are needed per shell element in
addition to the shell resultants, which are integrated in time. This is considerably less storage than would
typically be required with through thickness integration which requires a minimum of eight history
variables per integration point; e.g., if 100 layers are used, 800 history variables would be stored. Not
only is memory much less for this model, but the CPU time required is also considerably reduced.
Material Model 119: General Nonlinear Six Degrees of
Freedom Discrete Beam
Catastrophic failure, which is based on displacement resultants, occurs if either of the following
inequalities are satisfied:
(7-293)
After failure the discrete element is deleted. If failure is included either the tension failure or the
compression failure or both may be used.
Figure 7-28 Load and Unloading Behavior
A
i j
D
i j
B
i j
c
i j
0
k
i j
u
r
u
r
t f ai l
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
s
u
s
t f ai l
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
t
u
t
t f ai l
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
t
u
r
t f ai l
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
s
u
s
t f ai l
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
t
u
t
t f ai l
------------
\ .
|
| |
2
1. 0 > – + + + + +
u
r
u
r
cf ai l
-------------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
s
u
s
cf ai l
-------------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
t
u
t
cf ai l
-------------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
t
u
r
cf ai l
-------------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
s
u
s
cf ai l
-------------
\ .
|
| |
2
u
t
u
t
cf ai l
-------------
\ .
|
| |
2
1. 0 > – + + + + +
Unload = 0 Unload = 1
Unload = 2 Unload = 3
R
E
S
U
L
T
A
N
T
R
E
S
U
L
T
A
N
T
R
E
S
U
L
T
A
N
T
R
E
S
U
L
T
A
N
T
DISPLACEMENT
DISPLACEMENT
DISPLACEMENT
DISPLACEMENT
Unloading Curve
Unloading Curve
Loading-unloading Curve
Unloading Curve
OFFSET x U
min
U
min
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
326
Material Model 124: Tension-Compression Plasticity
This is an isotropic elastic-plastic material where a unique yield stress versus plastic strain curve can be
defined for compression and tension. Failure can occur based on plastic strain or a minimum time step
size. Rate effects are modeled by using the Cowper-Symonds strain rate model.
The stress-strain behavior follows one curve in compression and another in tension. The sign of the mean
stress determines the state where a positive mean stress (i.e., a negative pressure) is indicative of tension.
Two TABLED1s, and , are defined, which give the yield stress, , versus effective plastic strain
for both the tension and compression regimes. The two pressure values, and , when exceeded,
determine if the tension curve or the compressive curve is followed, respectively. f the pressure, , falls
between these two values, a weighted average of the two curves are used:
if
Strain rate is accounted for using the Cowper and Symonds model, which scales the yield stress with
the factor
(7-294)
where is the strain rate .
Material Model 126: Modified Honeycomb
For efficiency it is strongly recommended that the TABLED1 ID’s: LCA, LCB, LCC, LCS, LCAB,
LCBC, and LCCA, contain exactly the same number of points with corresponding strain values on the
abscissa. If this recommendation is followed the cost of the table lookup is insignificant. Conversely, the
cost increases significantly if the abscissa strain values are not consistent between TABLED1s.
The behavior before compaction is orthotropic where the components of the stress tensor are uncoupled;
i.e., a component of strain will generate resistance in the local o-direction with no coupling to the local
b and c directions. The elastic modulii vary from their initial values to the fully coaaumpacted values
linearly with the relative volume:
(7-295)
where
(7-296)
f
t
p ( ) f
c
p ( ) o
y
p
t
p
c
p
p
t
p p
c
scal e
p
c
p –
p
c
p
t
+
---------------- =
o
y
scal e f
t
p ( ) 1 scal e – ( ) f
c
p ( ) · + · =
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
s s –
1
c
·
C
----
\ .
| |
1 p /
+
c
·
c
·
c
·
i j
c
·
i j
=
E
aa
E
aau
|
aa
E E
aau
– ( ) + =
E
bb
E
bbu
|
bb
E E
bbu
– ( ) + =
E
cc
E
ccu
|
cc
E E
ccu
– ( ) + =
G
ab
G
abu
| G G
abu
– ( ) + =
G
bc
G
bcu
| G G
bcu
– ( ) + =
G
ca
G
cau
| G G
cau
– ( ) + =
B max mi n
1 v –
1 v
f

------------- 1 ,
\ .
| |
0 .
\ .
| |
=
Main Index
327 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
and is the elastic shear modulus for the fully compacted honeycomb material
(7-297)
The relative volume, , is defined as the ratio of the current volume over the initial volume, and typically,
at the beginning of a calculation.
The TABLED1s define the magnitude of the stress as the material undergoes deformation. The first value
in the curve should be less than or equal to zero corresponding to tension and increase to full compaction.
Care should be taken when defining the curves so the extrapolated values do not lead to negative
yield stresses.
At the beginning of the stress update we transform each element’s stresses and strain rates into the local
element coordinate system. For the uncompacted material, the trial stress components are updated using
the elastic interpolated modulii according to:
(7-298)
We then independently check each component of the updated stresses to ensure that they do not exceed
the permissible values determined from the TABLED1s, e.g., if
(7-299)
then
(7-300)
The components of are defined by TABLED1s. The parameter is either unity or a value taken
from the TABLED1 number, LCSR, that defines as a function of strain-rate. Strain-rate is defined here
as the Euclidean norm of the deviatoric strain-rate tensor.
For fully compacted material we assume that the material behavior is elastic-perfectly plastic and updated
the stress components according to:
(7-301)
where the deviatoric strain increment is defined as
(7-302)
G
G
E
2 1 u + ( )
---------------------- =
v
V 1 =
o
aa
n 1
t ri al
+
o
aa
n
E
aa
Ac
aa
+ =
o
bb
n 1
t ri al
+
o
bb
n
E
bb
Ac
bb
+ =
o
cc
n 1
t ri al
+
o
cc
n
E
cc
Ac
cc
+ =
o
ab
n 1
t ri al
+
o
ab
n
2G
ab
Ac
ab
+ =
o
bc
n 1
t ri al
+
o
bc
n
2G
bc
Ac
bc
+ =
o
ca
n 1
t ri al
+
o
ca
n
2G
ca
Ac
ca
+ =
o
i j
n 1
t ri al
+
ìo
i j
c
i j
( ) >
o
i j
n 1 +
o
i j
c
i j
( )
ìo
i j
n 1
t ri al
+
o
i
n 1
t ri al
+
--------------------------- =
o
i j
c
i j
( ) ì
ì
s
i j
t ri al
s
i j
n
2GAc
i j
dev
n 1 + 2
+ =
Ac
i j
dev
Ac
i j
1
3
-- - Ac
kk
o
i j
– =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
328
We now check to see if the yield stress for the fully compacted material is exceeded by comparing
(7-303)
the effective trial stress to the yield stress, . If the effective trial stress exceeds the yield stress, we
simply scale back the stress components to the yield surface
(7-304)
We can now update the pressure using the elastic bulk modulus,
(7-305)
and obtain the final value for the Cauchy stress
(7-306)
After completing the stress update we transform the stresses back to the global configuration.
In Figure 7-29, note that the "yield stress" at a strain of zero is nonzero. In the TABLED1 definition, the
"time" value is the directional strain and the "function" value is the yield stress.
Figure 7-29 Stress Quantity Versus Strain
s
ef f
t ri al
3
2
-- - s
i j
t ri al
s
i j
t ri al
\ .
| |
1 2
=
o
y
s
i j
n 1 +
o
y
s
ef f
t ri al
------------ s
i j
t ri al
=
K
p
n 1 +
p
n
KAc
kk
n 1 2 +
– =
K
E
3 1 2u – ( )
------------------------- =
o
i j
n 1 +
s
i j
n 1 +
p
n 1 +
o
i j
– =
Curve extends into negative strain quadrant
since SOL 700 will extrapolate using the two
end points. It is important that the
extrapolation does not extend into the
negative stress region.
Unloading is based on the interpolated
Young’s moduli which must provide an
unloading tangent that exceeds the loading
tangent.
Main Index
329 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Model 127: Arruda-Boyce Hyperviscoelastic Rubber
This material model, described in the paper by Arruda and Boyce [1993], provides a rubber model that
is optionally combined with linear viscoelasticity. Rubber is generally considered to be fully
incompressible since the bulk modulus greatly exceeds the shear modulus in magnitude; therefore, to
model the rubber as an unconstrained material, a hydrostatic work term, , is included in the strain
energy functional which is function of the relative volume, :
(7-307)
The hydrostatic work term is expressed in terms of the bulk modulus, , and , as:
(7-308)
Rate effects are taken into account through linear viscoelasticity by a convolution integral of the form:
(7-309)
or in terms of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress, , and Green's strain tensor, ,
(7-310)
where and are the relaxation functions for the different stress measures. This stress
is added to the stress tensor determined from the strain energy functional.
If we wish to include only simple rate effects, the relaxation function is represented by six terms from the
Prony series:
(7-311)
given by,
(7-312)
This model is effectively a Maxwell fluid which consists of a dampers and springs in series. We
characterize this in the input by shear moduli, , and decay constants, . The viscoelastic behavior is
optional and an arbitrary number of terms may be used.
W
H
J ( )
J
W J
1
J
2
J . . ( ) nku
1
2
-- - J
1
3 – ( )
1
20N
---------- J
1
2
9 – ( )
11
1050N
2
------------------- J
1
3
27 – ( ) + +
nku
19
7000N
----------------
\ .
| |
3
J
1
4
81 – ( )
519
673750N
4
------------------------- J
1
5
243 – ( ) + W
H
J ( ) + +
=
J
1
I
1
J
1 3 –
=
J
2
I
2
J =
K J
W
H
J ( )
K
2
---- H 1 – ( )
2
=
o
i j
g
i j kl
t t – ( )
cc
kl
ct
---------- t d
0
t
í
=
S
i j ij
E
S
i j
G
i j kl
t t – ( )
cE
kl
ct
----------- t d
0
t
í
=
g
i j kl
t t – ( ) G
i j kl
t t – ( )
g t ( ) o
0
o
m
e
|t –
m 1 =
N
¯
+ =
g t ( ) G
i
e
|
i
t –
i 1 =
N
¯
=
G
i
|
i
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
330
When viscoelastic terms are not included, this model is similar to the use of the Arruda Boyce model in
solution 600, defined in the MATHE option. When viscoelasticity is included, the formulation of these
two models are different.
Material Model 130: Special Orthotropic
The in-plane elastic matrix for in-plane plane stress behavior is given by:
(7-313)
where the terms are defined as:
(7-314)
The elastic matrix for bending behavior is given by:
(7-315)
where the terms are similarly defined.
Material Model 147: FHWA Soil Model
A brief discussion of the FHWA soil model is given. The elastic properties of the soil are isotropic. The
implementation of the modified Mohr-Coulomb plasticity surface is based on the work of Abbo and
Sloan. The model is extended to include excess pore water effects, strain softening, kinematic hardening,
strain rate effects, and element deletion.
C
i npl ane
Q
11p
Q
12p
0 0 0
Q
12p
Q
22p
0 0 0
0 0 Q
44p
0 0
0 0 0 Q
55p
0
0 0 0 0 Q
66p
=
Q
11p
E
11p
1 v
12v
v
21p

------------------------------ =
Q
22p
E
22p
1 v
12v
v
21p

------------------------------ =
Q
12p
v
12p
E
11p
1 v
12v
v
21p

------------------------------ =
Q
44p
G
12p
=
Q
55p
G
23p
=
Q
66p
G
31p
=
C
bendi ng
Q
11b
Q
12b
0
Q
12b
Q
22b
0
0 0 Q
44b
=
Q
i j b
Main Index
331 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
The modified yield surface is a hyperbola fitted to the Mohr-Coulomb surface. At the crossing of the
pressure axis (zero shear strength) the modified surface is a smooth surface and it is perpendicular to the
pressure axis. The yield surface is given as
(7-316)
where
If the user-defined parameter, , is input as zero, the standard Mohr-Coulomb surface is recovered.
The parameter should be set close to zero, based on numerical considerations, but always less than
. It is best not to set the cohesion, , to very small values as this causes excessive iterations in the
plasticity routines.
To generalize the shape in the deviatoric plane, we have changed the standard Mohr- Coulomb
function to a function used by Klisinski [1985]
(7-317)
where
If is set equal to 1, then a circular cone surface is formed. If is set to 0.55, then a triangular surface
is found. is defined for .
To simulate nonlinear strain hardening behavior the friction angle, , is increased as a function of the
effective plastic strain,
, (7-318)
is the pressure
is the internal friction angle
is a function of the angle in the deviatoric plane
is the square root of the second invariant of the stress deviator
is the amount of cohesion and
is the third invariant of the stress deviator
is a parameter for determining how close to the standard Mohr-Coulomb yield surface the
modified surface is fitted
is a material parameter describing the ratio of triaxial extension strength to triaxial
compression strength
F P m J
2
K u ( )
2
ahyp
2
u
2
sin + c m cos – + sin 0 = =
P
m
K u ( )
J
2
c 3u cos
3 3J
3
2J
2
3 2
---------------- =
J
3
ahyp
ahyp
ahyp
c m cos c
K u ( )
K u ( )
4 1 e
2
– ( ) u 2e 1 – ( )
2
+
2
cos
2 1 e
2
– ( ) u 2e 1 – ( ) 4 1 e
2
– ( ) u 5e
2
4e – +
2
cos | |
1 2 /
+ cos
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ =
e
e e
K u ( ) 0.5 e 1.0 s <
m
Ao E
t
1
o o
i ni t

A
n
o
max
-------------------- –
\ .
| |
Ac
eff plas
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
332
where
To simulate the effects of moisture and air voids including excess pore water pressure, both the elastic
and plastic behaviors can be modified. The bulk modulus is
(7-319)
where
Figure 7-30 shows the effect of the parameter on the pressure-volumetric strain relationship (bulk
modulus). The bulk modulus will always be a monotonically increasing value, i.e.,
(7-320)
is the effective plastic strain
is the fraction of the peak strength internal friction angle where nonlinear behavior begins,
in the inputparameter which determines the rate of the nonlinear hardening
is the initial bulk modulus
is the current porosity =
is the volumetric strain corresponding to the volume of air voids
is the total volumetric strain
is the material constant controlling the stiffness before the air voids are collapsed
is the porosity of the soil
is the void ratio
is the degree of saturation =
is the soil density
is the specific gravity
is the moisture content
c
eff plas
A
n
0 A
n
1 s <
E
t
K
K
i
1 K
i
D
1
n
cut
+
--------------------------------- =
K
i
n
cur
Max 0 w c
v
– ( ) . | |
W n 1 S – ( ) =
c
v
D
1
n
e
1 e +
------------ =
e
¸
sp
1 m
c
+ ( )
p
----------------------------- 1 – =
S
pm
c
n 1 m
c
+ ( )
------------------------- =
p
¸
m
c
D
1
K
j 1 +
K
i
1 K
i
D
1
n
cur
+
---------------------------------
K
j ¹
¦
´
¦
¦
=
if c
v j 1 +
c
vj
>
if c
v j 1 +
c
vj
s ( )
Main Index
333 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-30 Pressure vs Volumetric Strain showing the Effects of D
1
Parameter
Note that the model is following the standard practice of assuming compressive stresses and strains are
positive. If the input parameter is zero, then the standard linear elastic bulk modulus behavior is used.
To simulate the loss of shear strength due to excess pore water effects, the model uses a standard soil
mechanics technique of reducing the total pressure, , by the excess pore water pressure, , to get an
“effective pressure”, ; therefore,
Figure 7-31shows pore water pressure will affect the algorithm for the plasticity surface. The excess pore
water pressure reduces the total pressure, which will lower the shear strength, . A large excess pore
water pressure can cause the effective pressure to become zero.
D
1
P u
P'
P' P u – =
J
2
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
334
Figure 7-31 The Effect on Pressure due to Pore Water Pressure
To calculate the pore water pressure, , the model uses an equation similar to the equation used for the
moisture effects on the bulk modulus.
where
is the bulk modulus for soil without air voids (skeletal bulk modulus)
is the current porosity
is volumetric strain corresponding to the volume of air voids
is the total volumetric strain
is the material constant controlling the pore water pressure before the air voids are
collapsed
is the porosity of the soil =
is the void ratio
is the degree of saturation
is the soil density
u
u
K
sk
1 K
sk
D
2
n
cur
+
------------------------------------ c
v
=
K
sk
n
cur
Max 0 2 c
v
– ( ) , | | =
w n 1 S – ( ) =
c
v
D
2
D
2
0 >
n
e
1 e +
------------ =
e
¸
sp
1 m
c
+ ( )
p
----------------------------- 1 – =
S
pm
c
n 1 m
c
+ ( )
------------------------- =
p
Main Index
335 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
The pore water pressure will not be allowed to become negative, .
Figure 7-32 is a plot of the pore pressure versus volumetric strain for different parameter values. With the
parameter set relatively high compared to , there is no pore pressure until the volumetric strain is
greater than the strains associated with the air voids. However, as is lowered, the pore pressure starts
to increase before the air voids are totally collapsed. The parameter affects the slope of the post-void
collapse pressure - volumetric behavior.
Figure 7-32 The Effects of D
2
and K
sk
Parameters on Pore Water Pressure
The parameter can be found from Skempton pore water pressure parameter , where is defined as:
(7-321)
.
To simulate strain softening behavior the FHWA soil model uses a continuum damage algorithm. The
strain-based damage algorithm is based on the work of J. W. Ju and J. C. Simo. They proposed a strain
based damage criterion, which is uncoupled from the plasticity algorithm.
is the specific gravity
is the moisture content
¸
m
c
u 0 >
D
2
K
sk
D
2
K
sk
D
2
B B
B
1
1 n
K
sk
K
v
-------- +
---------------------- =
D
2

1 B –
BK
sk
n 1 S – ( ) | |
--------------------------------------- =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
336
For the damage criterion,
(7-322)
where
The damaged stress is found from the undamaged stresses.
where
The damage parameter is found at step as:
(7-323)
where
is a damage threshold surface, , and (Dint). The mesh sensitivity
parameter, , is described below.
Typically, the damage, , varies from 0 to a maximum of 1. However, some soils can have a residual
strength that is pressure dependent. The residual strength is represented by , the minimum internal
friction angle.
The maximum damage allowed is related to the internal friction angle of residual strength by:
If , then , the maximum damage, will not reach 1, and the soil will have some residual
strength.
When material models include strain softening, special techniques must be used to prevent mesh
sensitivity. Mesh sensitivity is the tendency of the finite element model/analysis to produce significantly
different results as the element size is reduced. The mesh sensitivity occurs because the softening in the
model concentrates in one element. As the element size is reduced the failure becomes localized in
smaller volumes, which causes less energy to be dissipated by the softening leading to instabilities or at
least mesh sensitive behavior.
is the pressure
is the plastic volumetric strain
is the isotropic damage parameter.
c
1
K
i
----- P c
pv
d
í
– =
P
c
pv
o 1 d – ( )o =
d
j 1 +
d
j 1 +
d
j
=
d
j 1 +
c
j 1 +
c
0

o c
0

------------------------ =
if c
j 1 +
r
j
s
if c
j 1 +
r
j
>
r
j
r
j 1 +
max r
j
c
j 1 +
, ( ) = c
0
r
0
=
o
d
m
res
d
max
m m
res
sin – sin
m sin
------------------------------------- =
m
res
0 > d
max
Main Index
337 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
To eliminate or reduce the effects of strain softening mesh sensitivity, the softening parameter, (the
strain at full damage), must be modified as the element size changes. The FHWA soil model uses an input
parameter, “void formation”, , that is like fracture energy material property for metals. The void
formation parameter is the area under the softening region of the pressure volumetric strain curve times
the cube root of the element volume, .
(7-324)
with , the volumetric strain at peak pressure (strain at initial damage, Dint). Then can be found as a
function of the volume of the element :
(7-325)
If is made very small relative to , then the softening behavior will be brittle.
Strain-rate enhanced strength is simulated by a two-parameter Devaut-Lions viscoplastic update
algorithm, developed by Murray. This algorithm interpolates between the elastic trial stress (beyond the
plasticity surface) and the inviscid stress. The inviscid stresses are on the plasticity surface.
(7-326)
where and
As approaches 1, then the viscoplastic stress becomes the elastic trial stress. Setting the input value
eliminates any strain-rate enhanced strength effects.
The model allows element deletion, if needed. As the strain softening (damage) increases, the effective
stiffness of the element can get very small, causing severe element distortion and hourglassing. The
element can be “deleted” to remedy this behavior. There are two input parameters that affect the point of
element deletion. DAMLEV is the damage threshold where element deletion will be considered. EPSPRMAX
is the maximum principal strain where element will be deleted. Therefore,
and
for element deletion to occur. If DAMLEV is set to zero, there is no element deletion. Care must be taken
when employing element deletion to assure that the internal forces are very small (element stiffness is
zero) or significant errors can be introduced into the analysis.
Material Model 158: Rate Sensitive Composite Fabric
See material type 58, Laminated Composite Fabric, for the treatment of the composite material. Rate
effects are taken into account through a Maxwell model using linear viscoelasticity by a convolution
integral of the form:
o
G
f
V
1 3 /
G
f
V
1 3 /
P c
v
d
c
0
o
í
P
peak
o c
0
– ( )V
1 3 /
2
---------------------------------------------- = =
c
0
o
V
o
2G
f
Kc
0
V
1 3 /
--------------------- c
0
+ =
G
f
Kc
0
V
1 3 /
o ( )
o
vp
1 c – ( )o co
t ri al
+ =
c
n
At n +
---------------- = n
¸
r
c
·
----
\ .
| |
vn 1 – ( ) vn
=
.
¸
r
0 =
d DAMLEV > c
pr max
EPSPRMAX >
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
338
(7-327)
where is the relaxation function for different stress measures. This stress is added to the stress
tensor determined from the strain energy functional. Since we wish to include only simple rate effects,
the relaxation function is represented by six terms from the Prony series:
We characterize this in the input by the shear moduli, , and the decay constants, . An arbitrary
number of terms, not exceeding 6, may be used when applying the viscoelastic model. The composite
failure is not directly affected by the presence of the viscous stress tensor.
Material Model 163: Modified Crushable Foam
The volumetric strain is defined in terms of the relative volume, V , as:
The relative volume is defined as the ratio of the current to the initial volume. In place of the effective
plastic strain in the D3PLOT database, the integrated volumetric strain is output.
This material is an extension of MAD063. It allows the yield stress to be a function of both volumetric
strain rate and volumetric strain. Rate effects are accounted for by defining a table of curves using
TABLED1. Each curve defines the yield stress versus volumetric strain for a different strain rate. The
yield stress is obtained by interpolating between the two curves that bound the strain rate.
To prevent high frequency oscillations in the strain rate from causing similar high frequency oscillations
in the yield stress, a modified volumetric strain rate is used when interpolating to obtain the yield stress.
The modified strain rate is obtained as follows. If NCYCLE is >1, then the modified strain rate is obtained
by a time average of the actual strain rate over NCYCLE solution cycles. For SRCLMT > 0, the modified
strain rate is capped so that during each cycle, the modified strain rate is not permitted to change more
than SRCLMT multiplied by the solution time step.
o
i j
g
i j kl
t t – ( )
cc
kl
ct
---------- t d
0
t
í
=
g
i j kl
t t –
g t ( ) G
m
e
|
m
t –
m 1 =
N
¯
=
G
i
|
i
V
¸ 1 V – =
Main Index
339 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
Figure 7-33 Rate Effects are defined by a Family of Curves giving Yield Stress versus
Volumetric Strain
Material Model 170: Resultant Anisotropic
The in-plane elastic matrix for in-plane plane stress behavior is given by:
(7-328)
The terms are defined as:
C
i npl ane
Q
11p
Q
12p
0 0 0
Q
12p
Q
22p
0 0 0
0 0 Q
44p
0 0
0 0 0 Q
55p
0
0 0 0 0 Q
66p
=
Q
11p
E
11p
1 v
12p
v
21p

------------------------------ =
Q
22p
E
22p
1 v
12p
v
21p

------------------------------ =
Q
11p
v
12p
E
11p
1 v
12p
v
21p

------------------------------ =
Q
44p
G
12p
=
Q
55p
G
23p
=
Q
66p
G
31p
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
340
The elastic matrix for bending behavior is given by:
(7-329)
The terms are similarly defined.
Material Model 181: Simplified Rubber Foam
Material type 181 in SOL 700is a simplified “quasi”-hyperelastic rubber model defined by a single
uniaxial TABLED1 or by a family of curves at discrete strain rates. The term “quasi” is used because there
is really no strain energy function for determining the stresses used in this model. However, for deriving
the tangent stiffness matrix we use the formulas as if a strain energy function were present. In addition,
a frequency independent damping stress is added to model the energy dissipation commonly observed in
rubbers.
Hyperelasticity Using the Principal Stretch Ratios
A hyperelastic constitutive law is determined by a strain energy function that here is expressed in terms
of the principal stretches; i.e., ) , . To obtain the Cauchy stress , as well as the
constitutive tensor of interest, , they are first calculated in the principal basis after which they are
transformed back to the “base frame”, or standard basis. The complete set of formulas is given by
Crisfield [1997] and is for the sake of completeness recapitulated here.
The principal Kirchhoff stress components are given by
(7-330)
that are transformed to the standard basis using the standard formula
(7-331)
The are the components of the orthogonal tensor containing the eigenvectors of the principal basis.
The Cauchy stress is then given by
(7-332)
where is the relative volume change.
The constitutive tensor that relates the rate of deformation to the Truesdell (convected) rate of Kirchhoff
stress can in the principal basis be expressed as
C
bendi ng
Q
11b
Q
12b
0
Q
12b
Q
22b
0
0 0 Q
44b
=
Q
i j b
W W ì
1
ì
2
ì
3
, , ( ) = o
i j
C
i j kl
TC
t
i j
E
ì
i
cW

i
-------- =
no sum ( )
t
i j
q
i k
q
j l
t
kl
E
=
q
i j
o
i j
J
1 –
ti j =
J ì
1
ì
2
ì
3
=
Main Index
341 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
(7-333)
These components are transformed to the standard basis according to
(7-334)
and finally the constitutive tensor relating the rate of deformation to the Truesdell rate of Cauchy stress
is obtained through
(7-335)
Stress and Tangent Stiffness
The principal Kirchhoff stress is in material model 181 given by
(7-336)
where is a TABLED1 determined from uniaxial data (possible at different strain rates). Furthermore,
is the bulk modulus and is the relative volume change of the material. This stress cannot be deduced
from a strain energy function unless for some constitutive parameter . A consequence of
this is that when using the formulas in the previous section the resulting tangent stiffness matrix is not
necessarily symmetric. We remedy this by symmetrizing the formulas according to
(7-337)
Two Remarks
The function introduced in the previous section depends not only on the stretches but for some choices
of input also on the strain rate. Strain rate effects complicate things for an implicit analyst and here one
also has to take into account whether the material is in tension/compression or in a loading/unloading
stage. We believe that it is of little importance to take into account the strain rate effects when deriving
the tangent stiffness matrix and therefore this influence has been disregarded.
For the fully integrated brick element, we have used the approach in material model 77 to account for the
constant pressure when deriving the tangent stiffness matrix. Experiments have shown that this is crucial
to obtain a decent implicit performance for nearly incompressible materials.
C
i i j j
TKE
ì
j
c
i i
E

j
-------- 2t
i i
E
o
i j
– =
C
i j i j
TKE
ì
j
2
t
i i
E
ì
i
2
t
j j
E

ì
1
2
ì
j
2

-------------------------------- =
C
i j i j
TKE
ì
i
2
----
ct
i i
E

i
---------
ct
i i
E

j
--------- –
\ .
| |
=
i j ì
i
ì
j
= ( ) (no sum) , =
i j ì
i
, = ì
j
=
C
i j kl
TKE
q
i p
q
j g
q
kr
q
l s
C
pqrs
TKE
=
C
i j kl
TC
J
1 –
C
i j kl
TK
=
t
i
E
f ì
i
( ) K J 1 – ( )
1
3
--- f ì
k
( )
k 1 =
3
¯
– + =
f K
J
f ì ( ) E ì ln = E
ì
j
ct
i i
E

j
---------
\ .
| |
symn
1
2
-- - ì
j
ct
i i
E

j
--------- ì
i
ct
j j
E

i
--------- +
\ .
| |
KJ
2
3
-- - ì
i
f' ì
i
( )
1
6
-- - ì
i
f
·
ì
i
( ) ì
j
f' ì
j
( ) + ( ) –
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
¦
¦
+ = =
if i j =
otherwise
f
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
342
Modeling of the Frequency Independent Damping
An elastic-plastic stress is added to model the frequency independent damping properties of rubber.
This stress is deviatoric and determined by the shear modulus and the yield stress . This part of the
stress is updated incrementally as
(7-338)
where . is the strain increment. The trial stress is then radially scaled (if necessary) to the yield surface
according to
where is the effective von Mises stress for the trial stress
The elastic tangent stiffness contribution is given by
(7-339)
and if yield has occurred in the last time step the elastic-plastic tangent is used
(7-340)
Here is the deviatoric fourth order identity tensor.
Material Model 196: General Spring Discrete Beam
If TYPE=0, elastic behavior is obtained. In this case, if the linear spring stiffness is used, the force, , is
given by:
(7-341)
but if the TABLED1 ID is specified, the force is then given by:
In these equations, .L is the change in length
If TYPE=1, inelastic behavior is obtained. In this case, the yield force is taken from the TABLED1:
(7-342)
o
d
G o
Y
o
˜
d
n 1 +
o
d
n
2GI
dev
Ac + =
Ac
o
d
n 1 +
o
˜
d
n 1 +
mi n 1
o
Y
o
ef f
--------- ,
\ .
| |
=
o
ef f
o
˜
d
n 1 +
C
d
2GI
dev
=
C
d
2GI
dev
3G
o
Y
2
------- o
d
o
d
© – =
I
dev
F
F F
0
KAL DAL
·
+ + =
F F
0
Kf AL ( ) 1 C1 AL
·
C2 AL
·
( ) sgn max 1.
AL
·
DLE
------------ ,
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
\ .
|
| |
ln · + · + DAL
·
g AL ( )h AL
·
( ) + + + =
AL current length initial length – =
F
Y
F
y
AL
pl ast i c
( ) =
Main Index
343 Chapter 7: Materials
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
where is the plastic deflection. A trial force is computed as:
(7-343)
and is checked against the yield force to determine :
(7-344)
The final force, which includes rate effects and damping, is given by:
Unless the origin of the curve starts at (0,0), the negative part of the curve is used when the spring force
is negative where the negative of the plastic displacement is used to interpolate, . The positive part of
the curve is used whenever the force is positive.
The cross-sectional area is defined on the section card for the discrete beam elements. See PBDISCR.
The square root of this area is used as the contract thickness offset if these elements are included in the
contact treatment.
Grunseisen Equation of State (EOSGRUN)
The Gruneisen equation of state with cubic shock velocity-particle velocity defines pressure for
compressed material as
(7-345)
where is the internal energy per initial volume, is the intercept of the curve, , and
are the coefficients of the slope of the curve, is the Gruneisen gamma, and a is the first order
volume correction to . Constants, , and , are user-defined input parameters. The
compression is defined in terms of the relative volume, , as:
.
For expanded materials as the pressure is defined by:
(7-346)
L
pl ast i c
F
T
F
n
KAL
·
At + =
F
F
F
Y
F
T
¹
´
¦
=
if F
T
F
Y
>
if F
T
F
Y
s
F
n 1 +
F 1 C1 AL
·
C2 AL
·
( ) max 1.
AL
·
DLE
------------ ,
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
\ .
|
| |
ln sgn · + · + DAL
·
g AL ( )h AL
·
( ) + + · =
F
y
p
p
0
C
2
u 1 1
¸
0
2
---- –
\ .
| |
u
o
--- u
2
– +
1 S
1
1 – ( )u – s
2
u
2
u 1 +
------------- – s
3
u
3
u 1 + ( )
2
-------------------- –
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ¸
0
ou + ( )E + =
E C u
s
u
p
– S
1
S
2
. S
3
u
s
u
p
– ¸
0
¸
0
C S
1
S
2
S
3
¸
0
. . . . o
V
u
1
V
--- 1 – =
p p
0
C
2
u ¸
0
ou ( )E + =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Lagrangian Material Models for SOL 700
344
Tabulated Compaction Equation of State (EOSTABC)
Pressure is positive in compression, and volumetric strain is positive in tension. The tabulated
compaction model is linear in internal energy per unit volume. Pressure is defined by
(7-347)
during loading (compression). Unloading occurs at a slope corresponding to the bulk modulus at the peak
(most compressive) volumetric strain, as shown in Figure 7-34. Reloading follows the unloading path to
the point where unloading began, and then continues on the loading path described by Equation (7-347)).
In the compacted states, the bulk unloading modulus depends on the peak volumetric strain.
Figure 7-34 Pressure vs Volumetric Strain Curve for EOSTABC
Tabulated Equation of State (EOSTAB)
The tabulated equation of state model is linear in internal energy. Pressure is defined by
(7-348)
The volumetric strain is given by the natural algorithm of the relative volume. Up to 10 points and as
few as 2 may be used when defining the tabulated functions. The pressure is extrapolated if necessary.
Loading and unloading are along the same curve unlike tabulated compaction equation of state
(EOSTABC).
c
V
p C c
V
( ) ¸T c
V
( ) E + =
Volumetric Strain c
V
– ( )
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

p
A
B
C
Kc
v
C
Kc
v
B
Kc
v
A
c
v
A
c
v
B
c
v
C
p C c
V
( ) ¸T c
V
( ) E + =
c
V
Main Index
345 Chapter 7: Materials
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
MATDEUL – Eulerian Material
The MATDEUL material entry is a general material definition and provides a high degree of flexibility in
defining material behavior. The basis of the MATDEUL entry is the reference of a combination of material
descriptions: equation of state, yield model, shear model, failure model, and spall model. The only
material parameter defined on the MATDEUL entry is the reference density.
The MATDEUL entry can be used to define all types of material behavior from materials with very
simple linear equations of state to materials with complex yielding and shearing behavior and different
failure criteria.
The required input is the reference density, the number of an EOSxxx entry defining the equation of state,
and the number of an SHRxxx entry defining the shear properties of the material. The equation of state
defines the bulk behavior of the material. It may be a polynomial equation, a gamma law gas equation,
or an explosive equation. A single-term polynomial equation produces a linear elastic behavior.
Further material property definitions are optional. A referenced YLDxxx entry selects one of the
following: a hydrodynamic response (zero yield stress), a von Mises criterion that gives a bilinear
elastoplastic behavior, or a Johnson-Cook yield model where the yield stress is a function of plastic strain,
strain rate, and temperature. If no YLDxxx model is referenced, the material is assumed to be fully elastic.
A FAILxxx entry can be referenced to define a failure model for the material. This failure model can be
based on a maximum plastic strain limit or Johnson Cook failure model. If no FAILxxx entry is referenced,
the material has no failure criterion.
A PMINxxx entry can be referenced to define the spall characteristics of the material. Currently, only the
PMINC entry is available. The entry provides a constant spall limit for the material. When no PMINxxx
entry is referenced, the material has a zero spall limit.
Shear Models
The shear model is referenced from a MATDEUL entry. It defines the shear behavior of the material. At
present, an elastic shear model is available with a constant or polynomial shear modulus.
SHREL – Constant Modulus Shear Model
The SHREL entry defines a shear model with a constant shear modulus G. The model is referenced from
a MATDEUL entry that defines the general material properties.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
346
Figure 7-35 Elastic Shear as Function of Strain.
SHRPOL – Polynomial Shear Model
The SHRPOL model defines a polynomial shear model where the shear modulus is related to the effective
plastic shear strain by a cubic equation.
where = effective plastic shear strain and and

are constants.
Yield Models
Yield models is referenced by MATDEUL entries. The yield models can be used to model elastic perfectly
plastic behavior, bilinear elastoplastic behavior, piecewise linear behavior, or hydrodynamic behavior
(zero yield stress).
YLDHY – Hydrodynamic Yield Model
The YLDHY entry defines a yield model with constant zero yield stress. This model should be used for
fluids that have no shear strength and are, therefore, hydrodynamic.
YLDVM – von Mises Yield Model
The YLDVM entry defines a von Mises yield model. The yield stress and hardening modulus are defined
by giving either a bilinear or piecewise linear stress-strain curve. Only an elastic perfectly plastic yield
model can be used. The hardening modulus is not used.
G
Strain
Shear Stress
G G
0
G
1
¸ G
2
¸
2
G
3
¸
3
+ + + =
¸ G
0
G
1
G
2
. . G
3
Main Index
347 Chapter 7: Materials
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
Bilinear Representation
where the yield stress is given by
Piecewise Linear Representation
During every iteration, the stress s is determined from the current equivalent strain by interpolating
from the stress-strain table
where and are the points in the table. The stress-strain characteristic used internally in MD Nastran
Nonlinear Explicit (SOL 700) is in terms of true stress and equivalent plastic strain. However, for
convenience, the stress-strain characteristic can be input in any of the following ways:
• True stress/true strain
• Engineering stress/engineering strain
• True stress/plastic strain
• True stress/plastic modulus
where = yield stress
= Youngs modulus
= hardening modulus
= equivalent plastic strain
o
c
E
E
h
o
0
o
y
o
y
o
0
EE
h
E E
h

---------------- c
p
+ =
o
0
E
E
h
c
p
o
c
c
o o
i
o
i 1 –
– ( ) c
i
c
i 1 –
– ( ) c
i
c
i 1 –
( ) | | o
i 1 –
+ =
o
j
c
j
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
348
True stress is defined as
where = current force, = current area.
Plastic strain is
where = true strain, = elastic strain
True strain is defined as
where = incremental change in length, = current length.
By comparison, engineering stress and strain are given by
where = original area
where = original length
True stress/true strain and engineering strain are related by the following formulas:
At small strains, there is little difference between true stress-strain and engineering stress-strain.
However, at moderate and large strains there can be very large differences, and it is important that the
correct stress-strain characteristic is input.
When defining the material properties using Young’s modulus, yield stress, and hardening modulus, the
hardening modulus must be estimated from a plot of true stress versus true strain. This estimate may well
require a measured material characteristic to be replotted.
Some simple examples follow:
o
t rue
F
A
--- =
F A
c
pl
c
pl
c
t rue
c
el
– =
c
t rue
c
el
c
t rue
dl
l
-----
í
=
dl l
o
eng
c
eng
o
eng
F
A
0
------ = A
0
c
eng
I I
0
– ( )
I
0
------------------ = I
0
o
t rue
o
eng
1 c
eng
+ ( ) =
c
t rue
1 c
eng
+ ( ) ln =
Main Index
349 Chapter 7: Materials
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
True Stress Versus True Strain
Figure 7-36 True Stress vs True Strain Curve
The slope of the first segment of the curve gives the Young’s modulus for the material (when it is not
defined explicitly) and the first nonzero stress point gives the yield stress . The point corresponding to
the origin can be omitted.
Engineering Stress Versus Engineering Strain
Figure 7-37 Engineering Stress vs Engineering Strain Curve
True Stress Versus Plastic Strain
Figure 7-38 True Stress vs Plastic Strain Curve
Since the curve is defined in terms of the equivalent plastic strain, there is no elastic part in the curve.
The first point must be the yield stress of the material at zero plastic strain. Young’s modulus is
defined separately.
o
y
E
True Strain
True Stress
o
y
o
y
E
Engineering Strain
Engineering Stress
True Stress
Plastic Strain
o
y
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
350
True Stress Versus Plastic Modulus
Figure 7-39 True Stress vs Plastic Strain Curve
This option is slightly different since the curve is specified as a series of pairs of stress and hardening
moduli, rather than as a series of pairs of stress and strain. Young’s modulus and yield stress are defined
explicitly so that the table consists of pairs of values with the hardening modulus (x-axis) and the true
stress (y-axis) at the end of the segment.
Yielding occurs when the von Mises stress
exceeds the yield stress . The principal stresses are , and .
Isotropic hardening is assumed, which means that the yield surface increases in diameter as yielding
occurs, but its center does not move.
This yield model can be used with beam, shell, and solid elements. When used with shell or solid
elements, strain-rate sensitivity and failure can be included. Strain-rate sensitivity can be defined in
two ways:
1. You can specify a table giving the variation of a scale factor with strain-rate . The scale
factor is multiplied by the stress found from the stress-strain characteristic to give the actual stress.
The failure criterion is based on plastic strain. When the plastic strain exceeds the specified value,
the element fails. All the stresses are set to zero, and the element can carry no load. (This failure
criterion is referred to from the DMATEP or the DYMAT24 entry.)
where is the dynamic yield stress, is the static yield stress and is the equivalent strain rate.
YLDJC – Johnson-Cook Yield Model
The YLDJC entry defines a Johnson-Cook yield model in which the yield stress is a function of the
plastic strain, strain rate, and temperature
o
1
Eh
2
o
2
Eh
1
True Stress
Plastic Strain
o
vm
o
1
o
2
– ( )
2
o
2
o
3
– ( )
2
o
3
o
1
– ( )
2
+ + | | 2 =
o
y
o o
2
. o
3
S dc dt
o
d
o
y
------ 1
c
·
D
----
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
1 P + =
o
d
o
y
c
·
o
y
A Bc
p
n
+ ( ) 1 C c
·
c
·
o
( ) ln + ( ) 1 T
*m
– ( ) =
Main Index
351 Chapter 7: Materials
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
YLDTM – Tanimura-Mimura Yield Model
The YLDTM entry defines a Tanimura-Mimura yield model in which the yield stress is a function of the
plastic strain, strain rate, and temperature
This yield model is suitable for a wide range of strain rates, strains and temperatures.
where =
= effective plastic strain
= effective strain rate
= reference strain rate
= temperature
= room temperature
= melt temperature
, and are constants
where =
= Temperature
= room temperature
= melt temperature
= effective plastic strain
= effective strain rate
= Quasi-static strain rate
= reference strain rate
= Critical yield stress
, and are constants
T
*
T T
r
– ( )
T
m
T
r
– ( )
-----------------------
c
p
c
·
c
·
0
T
T
t
T
m
A B n C . . . m
o
y
A Bc
p
C Dc
p
+ ( ) 1
A Bc
p
+
o
cr
-------------------- –
\ .
| |
c
·
c
·
s
----
\ .
| |
ln + + 1 T
*m
– ( ) E
c
·
c
·
0
-----
\ .
| |
k
+ =
T
*
T T
r
– ( )
T
m
T
r
– ( )
-----------------------
T
T
r
T
m
c
p
c
·
c
·
s
c
·
0
o
cr
A B C D m E . . . . . k
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
352
YLDZA – Zerilli-Armstrong Yield Model
The YLDZA entry defines a Zerilli-Armstrong yield model in which the yield stress is a function of the
plastic strain, strain rate, and temperature
for Fcc metals
for Bcc metals
This yield model can be used for both Fcc type of metals, like iron and steels, as well as Bcc type of
metals, like aluminum and alloys.
YLDRPL – Rate Power Law Yield Model
The YLDRPL entry defines a rate power law yield model in which the yield stress is a function of the
plastic strain and strain rate.
YLDPOL – Polynomial Yield Model
The YLDPOL entry defines a polynomial yield model in which the yield stress is a function of the
plastic strain
where = effective plastic strain
= effective strain rate
= reference strain rate
= Temperature
, and are constants
where =effective plastic strain
=effective strain rate
, and are constants
where = effective plastic strain
= Maximum yield stress
, and are constants
o
y
A Bc
p
n
+ ( )e
mT – CT
c
·
c
·
0
-----
\ .
|
| |
ln +
=
o
y
A Bc
p
n
+ ( )D e +
mT – CT
c
·
c
·
0
-----
\ .
|
| |
ln +
=
c
p
c
·
c
·
0
T
A B n C m . . . . D
o
y
MAX C A Bc
p
n
c
· m
+ . ( ) =
c
p
c
·
A B n m . . . C
o
y
MIN o
max
A Bc
p
Cc
p
2
Dc
p
3
Ec
p
4
Fc
p
5
+ + + + + . ( ) =
c
p
o
max
A B C D E . . . . F
Main Index
353 Chapter 7: Materials
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
YLDSG – Steinberg-Guinan Yield Model
The YLDSG entry defines a Steinberg-Guinan yield model in which the yield stress is a function of the
plastic strain, strain rate, and temperature.

YLDMSS – Multi-surface Yield Model for Snow
Defines the yield model for snow material. This card must be used in combination with MATDEUL,
EOSPOL, and SHREL.
Snow is a very specific material that lies between water and ice. In micro term, the structure of snow
looks like general porous materials where the degree of compaction can vary quite large. Therefore, from
the constitutive equation point of view, snow belongs to the family of soil. One of plasticity models
applied for snow is a multi-surface one.
The multi-surface plasticity model for snow, see references 1 and 2 (there are misprinting in those papers)
is characterized by two independent hardening (softening) mechanisms and a set of yield functions as
shown in the following form:
and are the first and second invariant of the stress tensor and . The material parameter
is related to the cohesion of snow. is the hardening (softening) parameter associated with the yield
surface . determines the shape of . Hence, it is a model parameter that may be set independently
where = effective plastic strain
= temperature
= room temperature
= melt temperature
= Pressure
= density
, and are constants
A
T
A
1
1 A
3
c
p
+ ( )
A
4
=
o
y
mi n A
2
A
T
. ( ) 1 H T T
r
– ( ) – Bp
p
p
ref
---------
\ .
| |
1
3
---
+ T T
m
< . =
o
y
0 T T
m
> . =
c
p
T
T
r
T
m
p
p
A . A
4
H . . . B
f
c
I
1
J
2
q
c
o
c
( ) . . ( ) J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
4
+ k
c
I
1
– c
c
q
c
3
+ 0 = =
f
t
I
1
q
t
o
t
( ) . ( ) I
1
3
---
q
t
– 0 = =
I
1
J
2
I
1
T I
1
– = T
q
c
q
t
( )
f
c
f
t
( ) c
c
f
c
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
354
from the specific type of snow. is a material parameter related to the angle of friction. Figure 7-40
contains plots of the yield functions and in the meridian plane at different stages of the hardening
process of and the softening process of , respectively.
Figure 7-40 Snow Model: Plots of Loading Functions in the Meridian Plane
defines a so-called “tension-cut-off”-plane perpendicular to the hydrostatic axis. For simplicity, a
linear softening law is adopted:
where is the hydrostatic tensile strength of snow, is the softening modulus and represents the
accumulated plastic volumetric tensile strain.
For the implementation in MD Nastran Nonlinear Explicit (SOL 700), the accumulated plastic strain is
updated if the tensile-pressure is bigger than the current . The incremental strain is calculated using the
difference of the pressure divided by the bulk modulus. Then the new is updated to be used in the next
cycle. Furthermore, the deviatoric stresses are brought to zero.
constitutes a smooth yield function closed along the compressive and the tensile branch of the
hydrostatic axis. Its shape in the stress space changes continuously in the course of hardening, see
Figure 7-40. A specific hardening law, similar to the one used in the Cap Model (reference 3) was adopted
for snow on the basis of results from hydrostatic compression tests:
k
c
f
c
f
t
f
c
f
t
Hardening
Softeningg
-I
1
2
J
Drucker-Prager failure surface
Tension cut-off planes
Yield surfaces
f
t
q
t
f
t t
D
s
o
t
– =
f
t u
D
s
o
t
q
t
q
t
f
c
q
c
1
2a
c
-------- 1
o
c
b
c
------ –
\ .
| |
ln =
q
c
o
c
f
c
b
c

2 a
c
b
c
1 f
c
– ( ) ( )
--------------------------------------
1 f
c
– ( ) ln
2a
c
------------------------ – =
if
o
c
f
c
b
c
s
o
c
f
c
b
c
s
if
Main Index
355 Chapter 7: Materials
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
are parameters determined from hydrostatic compression tests. is a parameter that avoids
singularity in above equations at . It will be set to 0.99. As grows, the model obtains a shape
similar to the Drucker-Prager failure criterion, see Figure 7-40. The following relation obtains the
correlation between the proposed model for snow and the Drucker-Prager model.
The plasticity evolution is done using an additive plasticity model and associative flow rule (with
isotropic hardening law) as follows:
The incremental plastic strains can be derived as follows:
They consist of deviatoric and volumetric plastic strains as follows:
is calculated according to the following procedure. First the trial stresses are updated using
elastic assumption.
From the above formulation we can derive the following relation:
a
c
b
c
. f
c
o
c
b
c
= o
c
k
c
o
Dp
=
c c
e
c
p
+ =
o C: c c
p
– ( ) =
c
·
ì
·
cf
v
co
------- =
Ac
p
At ì
·
cf
c
co
-------
n 1 +

cf
c
cJ
2D
------------
cJ
2D
co
------------
cf
c
cI
1
--------
cI
1
co
-------- +
n 1 +

S
2 J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( ) +
----------------------------------------------- k
c
4
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
3
2 J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
4
+
-------------------------------------------------- –
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
+ = = =
Ae
p

S
2 J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
4
+
-------------------------------------------------- =
Ac
v
p
3Aì k
c
4
c
s
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
3
2 J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
4
+
-------------------------------------------------- – =

o
n 1 +
Kt racec
n 1 +
e
2Ge
n 1 +
e
+ o
E
Kt raceAc
n 1 +
p
– 2Ge
n 1 +
p
– = =
o
n 1 +
o
E
– Aì 3K k
c
4
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
3
2 J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
4
+
-------------------------------------------------- –
¹ )
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
1 – 2G
S
2 J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
4
+
-------------------------------------------------- – =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
356
Using the Newton iteration scheme as follows:
The following relation is obtained.
Therefore, can be calculated as follows:
In this way the volumetric equivalent plastic strain can be updated with the consequence that the yield
surface is growing. Therefore a few iterations are needed to bring the trial stresses, , back to the
updated yield surface with a chosen accuracy.
Using this model an excellent agreement between simulation and the experiment results has been
achieved as mentioned in reference 1 and 4.
References
1. “Friction Mechanisms of Tread Blocks on Snow Surfaces”, R. Mundl, G. Meschke and W.
Liederer, Tire Science and Technology, TSTCA, vol. 25, no. 4, 1997, pp. 245-264.
2. “A New Visco-plastic Model for Snow at Finite Strains”, G. Meschke, 4
th
International
Conference on Computational Plasticity, Barcelona, April 3-6, 1995, Pineridge Press, pp. 2295-
2306
3. “Material Models for Granular Soils”, F.L. DiMaggio and I.S. Sandler, Journal of Engineering
Mechanics A.S.C.E., 1971, pp. 935-950
4. “Implementation and Verification of Snow Material in Euler Scheme; Using the type-10 element
(hydrodynamic material with strength)”, M. Mahardika, MSC.Software, 2001, to be published.
Equations of State
Equations of state are referenced from the MATDEUL entry. The equation of state for a material is of the
basic form
Pressure = f (density, specific internal energy)
f
c
o
n 1 +
( ) f
c
o
E
( )
cf
c
co
-------
J
1
E
: o
n 1 +
o
E
– ( ) + ~
f
c
o
E
( )
S
2 J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
4
+
--------------------------------------------------
\ .
|
|
|
|
| |
: Aì o
n 1 +
o
E
– ( ) + 0 =


f
c
o
E
( )
G
J
2D
J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
4
+
----------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------
f
c
o
E
( )
9K k
c
4
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
3
2 J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
4
+
-------------------------------------------------- –
\ .
|
|
|
|
| |
2
G
J
2D
J
2
c
c
q
c
----- I
1
q
c
+ ( )
4
+
------------------------------------------ +
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = =
o
n 1 +
Main Index
357 Chapter 7: Materials
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
The simplest equation of state is the gamma law equation of state, defined by the EOSGAM entry. The
only input required is the ratio of specific heats for an ideal gas.
The EOSPOL entry defines a polynomial equation of state.
The EOSTAIT entry defines an equation of state based on the Tait model in combination with a
cavitation model.
The EOSJWL entry defines an equation of state based on the JWL explosive model. It is used to calculate
the pressure of the detonation products of high explosives. The JWL model is empirically based and
requires the input of five constants.
The EOSIG entry defines the properties of Ignition and Growth equation of state and the reaction rate
equation used to model high explosives.
EOSGAM – Gamma Law Equation of State
The EOSGAM model defines a gamma law equation of state for gases where the pressure is a function of
the density, the specific internal energy, and the ideal gas ratio of specific heats of an ideal gas
The EOSGAM equation of state can also be used to model viscous gases.
EOSPOL – Polynomial Equation of State
The EOSPOL model defines a polynomial equation of state where the pressure is related to the relative
volume and specific internal energy by a cubic equation.
In compression
In tension
where = specific internal energy unit mass
= overall material density
= ratio of specific heats
where =
=
= overall material density
¸
p ¸ 1 – ( )pe =
e
p
¸
C
p
C
v
( )
u 0 > ( )
p a
1
u a
2
u
2
a
3
u
3
b
0
b
1
u b
2
u
2
b
3
u
3
+ + + ( )p
0
e + + + =
u 0 s ( )
p a
1
u b
0
b
1
u ÷ ( )p
0
e + =
u n 1 –
n p p
0

p
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
358
The EOSPOL equation of state can also be used to model viscous fluids.
EOSTAIT – Tait Equation of State
The EOSTAIT model defines a equation of state based on the Tait model in combination with a cavitation
model where the pressure is defined as follows:
No cavitation ,
Cavitation ,
The pressure can not fall below the cavitation pressure , although the density
can continue to decrease below its critical value .
The EOSTAIT equation of state can als be used to model viscous fluids.
EOSJWL – JWL Equation of State
This equation of state can be used only with Eulerian elements.
These parameters are defined in Reference 3.
= reference density
= specific internal energy per unit mass
where =
= overall material density
= reference density
= critical density which produces the cavitation pressure
where = specific internal energy per unit mass
= reference density
= overall material density
=
, and are constants.
p
0
e
p
p p
c
> ( )
p a
0
a
1
n
¸
1 – ( ) + =
p p
c
s ( )
p p
c
=
n p p
0

p
p
0
p
c
p
c
p
c
a
0
a
1
p
c
( ) p
0
( ) ( )
¸
1 – ( ) + =
p
c
E
p
0
p
P
A 1
en
R
1
-------- –
\ .
| |
e
R
1
n –
B 1
en
R
2
-------- –
\ .
| |
e
R
2
n –
enp
0
e + +
n p p
0
=
A B e R
1
. . . R
2
Main Index
359 Chapter 7: Materials
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
A DETSPH entry must be used to specify the detonation time, the location of the detonation point, and the
velocity of a spherical detonation wave. When no DETSPH entry is present, all the material detonates
immediately and completely.
EOSMG - Mie-Gruneisen Equation of State
The Mie-Gruneisen equation is useful in high-strain rate processes. The pressure is split in a part that only
depends on density and a part that only depends on temperature.
The cold pressure is computed from the Rankine-Hugenot equations and is given by
Here is the reference density, is the speed of sound, is the volumetric compressive
strain. The defining equation for the parameter s is the linearization of the relationship between linear
shock speed and particle velocity .
The thermal part of the pressure follows from thermodynamic considerations and reads
where is the specific internal energy and the parameter is given by
where is the isothermal bulk modulus, the specific heat at constant volume and the volumetric
thermal expansion coefficient. is the Gruneisen parameter at reference density. The Gruneisen
parameter at other densities is given by .
Material Failure
One of the nonlinear features of a material's behavior is failure. When a certain criterion -the failure
criterion- is met, the material fails and can no longer sustain its loading and breaks. In a finite-element
method this means that the element where the material reaches the failure limit, cannot carry any stresses
anymore. The stress tensor is effectively zero. The element is flagged for failure and essentially is no
longer part of the structure.
Failure criteria can be defined for a range of materials and element types. The failure models are
referenced from the material definition entries.
p p
c
p
T
+ =
p
c
p
0
c
0
2
n
1 sn – ( )
2
----------------------- 1
I
0
n
2
---------- –
\ .
| |
=
p
0
c
0
n 1
p
0
p
----- – =
U
s
U
p
U
s
c
0
sU
p
+ =
p
T
I
0
p
0
e =
e I
0
I
0
p
0
|K
T
C
V
---------- =
K
T
C
V
|
I
0
I I
0
p
0
p
----- =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
360
There are several different failure models available:
FAILMPS – Maximum Plastic Strain Failure Model
The most commonly used failure model is the one that is based on a maximum equivalent plastic strain.
The material fails completely when the plastic strain reaches beyond the defined limit.
FAILJC – Johnson-Cook Failure Model
Failure is determined from a damage model. Damage is an element variable and increments are given by
the plastic strain increment divided by a fracture strain. In addition the damage variable is transported
along with material as it move from one Euler element to the other.
It is only available for the Multi-material Euler solver with strength. The use of coupling surfaces is
not supported.
Spallation Models
A spallation model defines the minimum pressure prior to spallation. At present there is only one
spallation model, PMINC, that defines a constant spallation pressure.
PMINC – Constant Minimum Pressure
A constant minimum pressure must be defined that must be less than or equal to zero. Note that the
pressure is positive in compression. If the pressure in an element falls below the minimum pressure, the
element spall and the pressure and yield stress are set to zero. The material then behaves like a fluid.
When the pressure subsequently becomes positive, the material will no longer be in a spalled state.
The pressure can then decrease again to the specified minimum (the spall limit) before spallation
occurs again.
Figure 7-41 Minimum Pressure Cutoff
FAILMPS Constant, maximum plastic strain.
FAILJC The Johnson-cook failure model
PMINC
Pressure
Volume
Main Index
361 Chapter 7: Materials
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
Material Viscosity
Viscous fluid material models are available for the Roe fluid solver only. The viscous behavior is
referenced from the entry to define the equation of state (EOSPOL or EOSTAIT). For these viscous
materials, the stress tensor is defined as:
and
where denotes the bulk modulus, the density, the deviatoric stress tensor, the pressure, the
deviatoric strain tensor, and the coefficient of viscosity. The Roe solver computes the stresses directly
from the velocity gradients.
t
i j
t
i j
p o
i j
S
i j
+ · =
dp
dt
------
K
p
----
dp
dt
------ =
S
i j
2u
de
i j
d
dt
--------- · =
K p S
i j
p e
i j
d
u
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Eulerian Material Models for SOL 700
362
Main Index
Chapter 8: Contact Impact Algorithm
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
8
Contact Impact Algorithm

Overview 364

Penalty Methods 365

Preliminaries 365

Slave Search 366

Contact Force Calculation 370

Improvements to the Contact Searching 371

Bucket Sorting 373

Accounting For the Shell Thickness 376

Initial Contact Penetrations 377

Contact Energy Calculation 378

Friction 378
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Overview
364
Overview
The input of contact data, Contact for Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700), is defined similarly as for Implicit
Nonlinear (SOL 600). It is instructive to first read Chapter 12 of the SOL 600 User’s Guide where an
overview is given of the nonlinear contact methods.
This section will summarize those parts of the contact methods applicable to SOL 700, and will describe
the theory of the algorithms used.
To activate contact in SOL 700, the Case Control entry BCONTACT must be given. There are three
methods available to define contact:
1. All elements in the model in one contact definition, using default settings
Case Control: BCONTACT=ALL
This will result in automatic contact detection between all elements in the model. For SOL 700,
it is advisable to use this method.
2. User defined Contact Bodies, using default or non-default settings
Case Control: BCONTACT = n
Bulk Data: BCBODY, BSURF, or BCBOX or BCPROP or BCMATL, and BCTABLE
It is possible to define contact bodies (BCBODY), and specify which contact bodies need to be
checked for contact (BCTABLE). This method using BCBODY definitions provides extreme
flexibility and is compatible with the Implicit Nonlinear solution (SOL 600).
A contact body is defined by the Bulk Data entry BCBODY, which references a set of elements
(BSURF), a set of elements inside a box (BCBOX), or certain property IDs (BCPROP) or with
certain material IDs (BCMATL).
Often used definitions related to contact methods are:
Single Surface Contact: This refers to any contact definition where no master is defined.
Master Slave Contact: This refers to any contact definition where a master is defined.
Notes on Rigid Body Modeling in SOL 700:
Currently, only BEHAV = DEFORM is supported in SOL 700 on the BCBODY option. Rigid body
modeling is possible, however, by defining a rigid material (MATD020).
• Elements belonging to a MATD020 are properly treated in the contact calculations, and it is
allowed to include them in a BCBODY with BEHAV = DEFORM. The contact calculations will
operate as if the material is rigid. The penalty based contact forces applied on the nodes are
accumulated for the whole rigid body and applied as an external force and moment to the center-
of-gravity of the rigid body.
• Rigid body motion is allowed and properly simulated by SOL 700.
• Initial velocities and boundary conditions acting on the nodes will be applied to the rigid body.
• Rigid body must be assigned in “Masters” field in BCTABLE.
Main Index
365 Chapter 8: Contact Impact Algorithm
Penalty Methods
With these capabilities, a faceted rigid body, similar to a BCBODY with BEHAV=RIGID can be easily
modeled. The BEHAV=RIGID logic will be implemented in the next release of SOL 700.
SOL 600 Contact Limitations that do not apply to SOL 700
To allow switching between SOL 700 and SOL 600, it is advisable to work within these limits.
In SOL 600, each node and element should be in at most one contact body. When using the penalty
method of SOL 700 (the default), this limitation does not apply. Forces as calculated by each contact are
simply accumulated and applied as an external force vector.
In SOL 600, only 1000 contact bodies are allowed. This limit does not apply to SOL 700.
In SOL 600, it is important to properly define the order in which contact bodies are defined for
deformable-to-deformable contact. The order of contact body definition has no influence on the results
in SOL 700.
Penalty Methods
The treatment of sliding and impact along interfaces is an important capability in SOL 700.
Internally, the interfaces are defined in three dimensions by listing in arbitrary order all triangular and
quadrilateral segments that comprise each side of the interface. One side of the interface is designated as
the slave side, and the other is designated as the master side. Nodes lying in those surfaces are referred
to as slave and master nodes, respectively. When slave nodes penetrate the master, normal interface
springs are placed between the penetrated nodes and the master surface. See Slave Search in this chapter
for details on the contact force calculations.
Preliminaries
Consider the time-dependent motion of two bodies occupying regions and in their undeformed
configuration at time zero. Assume that the intersection
(8-1)
is satisfied. Let and denote the boundaries of and , respectively. At some later time, these
bodies occupy regions and bounded by and as shown in Figure 8-1. Because the deformed
configurations cannot penetrate,
(8-2)
B
1
B
2
B
1
B
2
·
o =
cB
1
cB
2
B
1
B
2
b
1
b
2
cb
1
cb
2
b
1
cb
1
– ( ) b
2
·
o =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Slave Search
366
Figure 8-1 Reference and Deformed Configuration
As long as , the equations of motion remain uncoupled. In the foregoing and following
equations, the right superscript denotes the body to which the quantity refers.
Before a detailed description of the theory is given, some additional statements should be made
concerning the terminology. The surfaces and of the discretized bodies and become the
master and slave surfaces respectively. Choice of the master and slave surfaces is arbitrary when the
symmetric penalty treatment is employed. Otherwise, the more coarsely meshed surface should be
chosen as the master surface, nodal points that define are called master nodes and nodes that define
are called slave nodes. When , the constraints are imposed to prevent penetration.
Right superscripts are implied whenever a variable refers to either the master surface , or slave
surface, ; consequently, these superscripts are dropped in the development which follows.
Slave Search
The slave search is common to all interface algorithms implemented in SOL 700. This search finds for
each slave node its nearest point on the master surface. Lines drawn from a slave node to its nearest point
will be perpendicular to the master surface, unless the point lies along the intersection of two master
segments, where a segment is defined to be a 3- or 4-node element of a surface.
Consider a slave node, , sliding on a piecewise smooth master surface and assume that a search of the
master surface has located the master node, , lying nearest to . Figure 8-2 depicts a portion of a
master surface with nodes and labeled. If and do not coincide, can usually be shown to
lie in a segment via the following tests:
cb
2
cB
1
cb
1
cB
2
B
0
1
B
0
2
b
1
b
2
cb
1
cb
2
·
o =
o 1 2 . = ( )
cb
1
cb
2
b
1
b
2
cb
1
cb
2
cb
1
cb
2
·
( ) o =
cb
1
cb
2
n
s
m
s
n
s
m
s
n
s
m
s
n
s
n
s
s
s
Main Index
367 Chapter 8: Contact Impact Algorithm
Slave Search
(8-3)
where vector and are along edges of and point outward from . Vector s is the projection of
the vector beginning at , ending at , and denoted by , onto the plane being examined (see
Figure 8-3).
Figure 8-2 Four Master Segments can Harbor Slave Node given that is the Nearest
Master Node
Figure 8-3 Projection of onto Master Segment

(8-4)
where for segment
(8-5)
c
i
s × ( ) c
i
c
i 1 +
× ( ) 0 > ·
c
i
s × ( ) s c
i 1 +
× ( ) 0 > ·
c
i
c
i 1 +
s
1
m
s
m
s
n
s
g
n
s
m
s
g s
1
s g g m · ( )m – =
s
1
m
c
i
c
i 1 +
×
c
i
c
i 1 +
×
-------------------------- =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Slave Search
368
Since the sliding constraints keep close but not necessarily on the master surface and since may lie
near or even on the intersection of two master segments, the inequalities of Equation (8-3) may be
inconclusive; i.e., they may fail to be satisfied or more than one may give positive results. When this
occurs is assumed to lie along the intersection which yields the maximum value for the quantity
(8-6)
When the contact surface is made up of badly shaped elements, the segment apparently identified as
containing the slave node actually may not, as shown in Figure 8-4.
Assume that a master segment has been located for slave node and that is not identified as lying on
the intersection of two master segments. Then the identification of the contact point, defined as the point
on the master segment which is nearest to , becomes nontrivial. Each master surface segment , is
given the parametric representation:
(8-7)
where
(8-8)
When the nearest node fails to contain the segment that harbors the slave node, segments numbered 1-8
are searched in the order shown in Figure 8-4.
Figure 8-4 Search Order for Segments
Note that is at least once continuously differentiable and that
(8-9)
n
s
n
s
n
s
g c
i
·
c
i
------------ i 1 2 3 4 . . . . . =
n
s
n
s
n
s
s
1
r f
1
c n , ( ) i
1
f
2
c n , ( )i
2
f
3
c n , ( )i
3
+ + =
f
i
c n . ( ) o
j
x
i
j
j 1 =
4
¯

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
r
1
cr
cc
------
cr
cn
------- × 0 =
Main Index
369 Chapter 8: Contact Impact Algorithm
Slave Search
Thus, represents a master segment that has a unique normal whose direction depends continuously on
the points of .
Let be a position vector drawn to slave node and assume that the master surface segment has
been identified with . The contact point coordinates on must satisfy
(8-10)
(8-11)
The physical problem is illustrated in Figure 8-5, which shows lying above the master surface.
Equations (8-10) and (8-11) are readily solved for and . One way to accomplish this is to solve
Equation (8-10) for in terms of , and substitute the results into (8-11). This yields a cubic equation
in .
Figure 8-5 Location of Contact Point when lies above Master Segment
The equations are solved numerically. When two nodes of a bilinear quadrilateral are collapsed into a
single node for a triangle, the Jacobian of the minimization problem is singular at the collapsed node.
Fortunately, there is an analytical solution for triangular segments since three points define a plane.
Newton-Raphson iteration is a natural choice for solving these simple nonlinear equations. The method
diverges with distorted elements unless the initial guess is accurate. An expanded search procedure as
discussed in Improvements to the Contact Searching section is used.
Three iterations with a least-squares projection are used to generate an initial guess:
r
s
1
t n
s
s
1
s
n c
c
n
c
. ( ) s
1
cr
cc
------ c
c
n
c
. ( ) t r c
c
n
c
. ( ) – | | · 0 =
cr
cn
------- c
c
n
c
. ( ) t r c
c
n
c
. ( ) – | | · 0 =
n
s
c
c
n
c
c
c
n
c
n
c
x
3
x
2
x
1
t
r
1
2
3
4
n
s
n
c
cr
cn
-------
cr
cc
------
n
s
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Contact Force Calculation
370
(8-12)
followed by the Newton-Raphson iterations which are limited to ten iterations, but which usually
converges in four or less.
(8-13)
In concave regions, a slave node may have isoparametric coordinates that lie outside of the range
for all of the master segments, yet still have penetrated the surface. A simple strategy is used for handling
this case, but it can fail. The contact segment for each node is saved every time step.
If the slave node contact point defined in terms of the isoparametric coordinates of the segment, is just
outside of the segment, and the node penetrated the isoparametric surface, and no other segment
associated with the nearest neighbor satisfies the inequality test, then the contact point is assumed to
occur on the edge of the segment.
In effect, the definition of the master segments is extended so that they overlap by a small amount. In the
hydrocode literature, this approach is similar to the slide line extensions used in two dimensions. This
simple procedure works well for most cases, but it can fail in situations involving sharp concave corners.
Contact Force Calculation
Each slave node is checked for penetration through the master surface. If the slave node does not
penetrate, nothing is done. If it does penetrate, an interface force is applied between the slave node and
its contact point. The magnitude of this force is proportional to the amount of penetration. This may be
thought of as the addition of an interface spring.
Penetration of the slave node through the master segment which contains its contact point is
indicated if
(8-14)
where
(8-15)
c
0
0 n
0
. 0, = =
r
, c
r
, n
r
, c
r
, n
| |
Ac
An ¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹ r
, c
r
, n
r c
i ,
n
i
( ) t – { }, =
c
i 1 +
c
i 1 +
Ac, n
i 1 +
+ n
i
An + = =
H | |
Ac
An
¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
r
c ,
r
n , ¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
r c
i
n
i
. ( ) t – { } – =
H | |
r
; ,
r
n , ¹ )
´ `
¦ ¹
r
c ,
r
n ,
| |
0 r r
cn ,
·
r r
cn ,
· 0
+
c
i 1 +
c
i
Ac + =
n
i 1 +
n
i
An + =
1 +1 , – | |
n
s
l n
i
t r c
c
n
c
. ( ) – | | 0 < ( ) =
n
i
n
i
c
c
n
c
. ( ) =
Main Index
371 Chapter 8: Contact Impact Algorithm
Improvements to the Contact Searching
is normal to the master segment at the contact point. The amount of penetration is equal to the value of l.
If slave node has penetrated through master segment ,

we add an interface force vector
:
if l < (8-16)
to the degrees of freedom corresponding to and
if (8-17)
to the four nodes that comprise master segment . By default, SOFT=1 on the BCTABLE
entry, and the stiffness factor is given in terms of the nodal masses and the global timestep, as
(8-18)
With SOFT=1, it is mostly not needed to scale the contact stiffness, even if materials with very different
stiffness properties come into contact.
When SOFT=0 on the BCTABLE entry, the stiffness factor for master segment is given in terms of
the bulk modulus , the volume , and the face area of the element that contains as
(8-19)
for brick elements and
(8-20)
for shell elements. When too much penetration is observed, the contact stiffness can be increased by the
interface stiffness scale factor, . This scale factor is 0.1 by default, and can be defined by FACT on the
BCTABLE entry. Larger values may cause instabilities unless the time step size is scaled back in the time
step calculation.
Improvements to the Contact Searching
A number of recent changes have been made in the surface-to-surface contact including contact
searching, accounting for thickness, and contact damping.
n
s
s
i
f
s
f
s
l k
i
– n
i
= l 0 <
n
s
f
m
i
o
2
c
c
n
c
. ( )f
s
= l 0 <
i 1 2 3 4 . . . = ( ) s
i
k
i
dt
k
i
f
si
m
sl ave
m
mast er
m
sl ave
m
mast er
+
-----------------------------------------
1
dt
2
------- · · =
k
i
s
i
K
i
V
i
A
i
s
i
k
i
f
si
K
i
A
i
2
V
i
------------------ =
k
i
f
si
K
i
A
i
max shell diagonal ( )
-------------------------------------------------- =
f
si
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Improvements to the Contact Searching
372
Sometimes problems with the closest master node contact searching were found. The nearest node
algorithm described above can break down since the nearest node is not always anywhere near the
segment that harbors the slave node as is assumed in Figure 8-4 (see Figure 8-6). Such distorted elements
are commonly used in rigid bodies in order to define the geometry accurately.
Figure 8-6 Failure to find the Contact Segment can be caused by Poor Aspect Ratios in the
Finite Element Mesh
To circumvent the problem caused by bad aspect ratios, an expanded searching procedure is used in
which we attempt to locate the nearest segment rather than the nearest nodal point.
Nodes 2 and 4 share segments with node 3. Therefore, the two nearest nodes are 1 and 5. The nearest
contact segment is not considered since its nodes are not members of the nearest node set.
The nearest contact segment to a given node, , is defined to be the first segment encountered when
moving in a direction normal to the surface away from . A major deficiency with the nearest node
search is depicted in Figure 8-7 where the nearest nodes are not even members of the nearest contact
segment. Obviously, this would not be a problem for a more uniform mesh. To overcome this problem
we have adopted segment based searching in both surface to surface and single surface contact.
Figure 8-7 Expanded Search
slave node
closest nodal point
k
k
1 2 3 4 5
Normal vector
at node 3
Main Index
373 Chapter 8: Contact Impact Algorithm
Bucket Sorting
Bucket Sorting
Bucket sorting is now used extensively in the SOL 700 contact algorithms.
The reasons for eliminating slave node tracking by incremental searching is illustrated in Figure 8-8
where surfaces are shown which cause the incremental searches to fail. With bucket sorting incremental
searches may still be used but for reliability they are used after contact is achieved. As contact is lost, the
bucket sorting for the affected nodal points must resume.
Figure 8-8 Examples of Models where Incremental Searching may Fail
In a direct search of a set of nodes to determine the nearest node, the number of distance comparisons
required is . Since this comparison needs to be made for each node, the total number of comparisons
is , with each of these comparisons requiring a distance calculation
(8-21)
that uses eight mathematical operations. The cumulative effect of these mathematical operations for
compares can dominate the solution cost at less than 100 elements.
The idea behind a bucket sort is to perform some grouping of the nodes so that the sort operation need
only calculate the distance of the nodes in the nearest groups. With this partitioning the nearest node will
either reside in the same bucket or in one of the two adjoining buckets. The number of distance
calculations is now given by
(8-22)
tied interface
not yet supported
N
N 1 –
N N 1 – ( )
1
2
x
i
x
j
– ( )
2
y
i
y
j
– ( )
2
z
i
z
j
– ( )
2
+ + =
N N 1 – ( )
3N
o
------- 1 –
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bucket Sorting
374
where is the number of buckets. The total number of distance comparisons for the entire one-
dimensional surface is
(8-23)
Thus, if the number of buckets is greater than 3, then the bucket sort will require fewer distance
comparisons than a direct sort. It is easy to show that the corresponding number of distance comparisons
for two-dimensional and three-dimensional bucket sorts are given by
for 2-D (8-24)
for 3-D (8-25)
where and are the number of partitions along the additional dimension.
Incremental searching may fail on surfaces that are not simply connected. The contact algorithm in SOL
700 avoids incremental searching for nodal points that are not in contact and all these cases are
considered (see Figure 8-6).
The cost of the grouping operations, needed to form the buckets, is nearly linear with the number of nodes
. For typical SOL 700 applications, the bucket sort is 100 to 1000 times faster than the corresponding
direct sort. However, the sort is still an expensive part of the contact algorithm, so that, to further
minimize this cost, the sort is performed every ten or fifteen cycles and the nearest three nodes are stored.
This can be specified by BSORT on the BCTABLE entry. Typically, three to five percent of the
calculational costs will be absorbed in the bucket sorting when most surface segments are included in the
contact definition.
Bucket Sorting in Single Surface Contact
We set the number of buckets in the x, y, and z coordinate directions to NX, NY, and NZ, respectively.
The product of the number of buckets in each direction always approaches NSN or 5000 whichever is
smaller,
(8-26)
where the coordinate pairs , , and span the entire contact surface. In this
procedure, we loop over the segments rather than the nodal points. For each segment we use a nested DO
LOOP to loop through a subset of buckets from to , to , and to
where:
o
N
3N
o
------- 1 –
\ .
| |
N
9N
ob
------- 1 –
\ .
| |
N
27N
obc
---------- 1 –
\ .
| |
b c
N
NX NY NZ MIN NSN 5000 , ( ) s · ·
x
mi n
x
max
. ( ) y
mi n
y
max
. ( ) z
mi n
z
max
. ( )
IMIN IMAX JMIN JMAX KMIN KMAX
Main Index
375 Chapter 8: Contact Impact Algorithm
Bucket Sorting
(8-27)
and , , are the bucket pointers for the kth node. Figure 8-9 shows a segment passing through
a volume that has been partitioned into buckets. The orthogonal distance of each slave node contained in
the box from the segment is determined. The box is subdivided into sixty buckets.
Figure 8-9 The Orthogonal Distance of each Slave Node
We check the orthogonal distance of all nodes in the bucket subset from the segment. As each segment
is processed, the minimum distance to a segment is determined for every node in the surface and the two
nearest segments are stored. Therefore the required storage allocation is still deterministic. This would
not be the case if we stored for each segment a list of nodes that could possibly contact the segment.
We have now determined for each node, , in the contact surface the two nearest segments for contact.
Having located these segments we permanently store the node on these segments which is nearest to node
. When checking for interpenetrating nodes we check the segments surrounding the node including the
nearest segment since during the steps between bucket searches it is likely that the nearest segment may
change. It is possible to bypass nodes that are already in contact and save some computer time; however,
if multiple contacts per node are admissible then bypassing the search may lead to unacceptable errors.
IMIN MIN PXI PX2 PX3 PX4 . . . ( ) =
IMAX MAX PX1 PX2 PX3 PX4 . . . ( ) =
JMIN MAX PY1 PY2 PY3 PY4 . . . ( ) =
JMAX MAX PY1 PY2 PY3 PY4 . . . ( ) =
KMIN MAX PZ1 PZ2 PZ3 PZ4 . . . ( ) =
kMAX MAX PZ1 PZ2 PZ3 PZ4 . . . ( ) =
PXk PYk PZk
z
x
y
Nodes in buckets shown are checked
for contact with the segment
k
k
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Accounting For the Shell Thickness
376
Accounting For the Shell Thickness
Shell thickness effects are important when shell elements are used to model sheet metal. Unless thickness
is considered in the contact, the effect of thinning on frictional interface stresses due to membrane
stretching will be difficult to treat. In the treatment of thickness we project both the slave and master
surfaces based on the mid-surface normal projection vectors as shown in Figure 8-10. The surfaces,
therefore, must be offset by an amount equal to 1/2 their total thickness (Figure 8-11). This allows the
program to check the node numbering of the segments automatically to ensure that the shells are
properly oriented.
Figure 8-10 Contact Surface Based Upon Midsurface Normal Projection Vectors
Figure 8-11 The Slave and Master Surfacess
Thickness changes in the contact are accounted for “if and only if” the shell thickness change option is
flagged on the PARAM* DYCONTHKCHG. Each cycle, as the shell elements are processed, the nodal
thicknesses are stored for use in the contact algorithms. The interface stiffness may change with thickness
depending on the input options used.
To account for the nodal thickness, the maximum shell thickness of any shell connected to the node is
taken as the nodal thickness and is updated every cycle. The projection of the node is done normal to the
contact surface:
Length of projection vector
is 1/2 the shell thickness
Projected Contact Surface
Main Index
377 Chapter 8: Contact Impact Algorithm
Initial Contact Penetrations
Initial Contact Penetrations
The need to offset contact surfaces to account for the thickness of the shell elements contributes to initial
contact penetrations. These penetrations can lead to severe numerical problems when execution begins
so they should be corrected if SOL 700 is to run successfully. Often an early growth of negative contact
energy is one sign that initial penetrations exist. Currently, warning messages are printed to the D3HSP
file to report penetrations of nodes through contact segments and the modifications to the geometry made
by SOL 700 to eliminate the penetrations. Sometimes such corrections simply move the problem
elsewhere since it is very possible that the physical location of the shell mid-surface and possibly the shell
thickness are incorrect. In the single surface contact algorithms any nodes still penetrating on the second
time step are removed from the contact with a warning message.
In some geometry's, penetrations cannot be detected since the contact node penetrates completely
through the surface at the beginning of the calculation. Such penetrations are frequently due to the use of
coarse meshes. This is illustrated in Figure 8-12. Another case contributing to initial penetrations occurs
when the edge of a shell element is on the surface of a solid material as seen in Figure 8-13. Currently,
shell edges are rounded with a radius equal to one-half the shell thickness.
Figure 8-12 Undetected Penetration
Figure 8-13 Undetected Penetration due to rounding the Edge of the Shell Element
To avoid problems with initial penetrations, the following recommendations should be considered:
• Adequately offset adjacent surfaces to account for part thickness during the mesh
generation phase.
• Use consistently refined meshes on adjacent parts which have significant curvatures.
• Be very careful when defining thickness on shell and beam section definitions - especially for
rigid bodies.
Detected Penetration Undetected Penetration
shell
brick
Inner penetration if
edge is too close
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Contact Energy Calculation
378
• Scale back part thickness if necessary. Scaling a 1.5mm thickness to .75mm should not cause
problems but scaling to .075mm might. Alternatively, define a smaller contact thickness by part
ID. Warning: if the part is too thin contact failure will probably occur
• Use spot welds instead of merged nodes to allow the shell mid surfaces to be offset.
Contact Energy Calculation
Contact energy, , is incrementally updated from time to time for each contact interface as:
Where is the number of slave nodes, is the number of master nodes, is the interface force
between the ith slave node and the contact segment is the interface force between the ith master
node and the contact segment, is the incremental distance the ith slave node has moved during
the current time step, and is the incremental distance the ith master node has moved during
the current time step. In the absence of friction the slave and master side energies should be close in
magnitude but opposite in sign. The sum, , should equal the stored energy. Large negative contact
energy is usually caused by undetected penetrations. Contact energies are reported in the GLSTAT file.
In the presence of friction and damping discussed below the interface energy can take on a substantial
positive value especially if there is, in the case of friction, substantial sliding.
Friction
Friction in SOL 700 is based on a Coulomb formulation. Let be the trial force, the normal force,
k the interface stiffness, the coefficient of friction, and the frictional force at time n. The frictional
algorithm, outlined below, uses the equivalent of an elastic plastic spring. The steps are as follows:
1. Compute the yield force, :
(8-28)
2. Compute the incremental movement of the slave node
(8-29)
3. Update the interface force to a trial value:
(8-30)
4. Check the yield condition:
if (8-31)
E
cont act
n n 1 +
E
cont act
n 1 +
E
cont act
n
AF
i
sl ave
Adi st
i
sl ave
AF
i
mast er
Adi st
i
mast er
×
i 1 =
nmn
¯
+ ×
i 1 =
nsn
¯
n
1
2
--- +
+ =
nsn nmn AF
i
sl ave
AF
i
mast er
Adi st
i
sl ave
Adi st
i
mast er
E
cont act
f

*
f
n
u f
n
F
y
F
y
u f
n
=
Ae r
n 1 +
c
c
n 1 +
n
c
n 1 +
. ( ) r
n 1 +
c
c
n
n
c
n
. ( ) – =
f
-
f
n
kAe – =
f
n 1 +
f
-
= f
-
F
y
s
Main Index
379 Chapter 8: Contact Impact Algorithm
Friction
5. Scale the trial force if it is too large:
if (8-32)
An exponential interpolation function smooths the transition between the static, , and dynamic, ,
coefficients of friction where is the relative velocity between the slave node and the master segment:
(8-33)
where
(8-34)
is the time step size, and is a decay constant.
Typical values of friction, see Table 8-1, can be found in Marks Engineering Handbook.
Table 8-1 Typical Values of Coulomb Friction [Marks]
MATERIALS STATIC SLIDING
Hard steel on hard steel 0.78 (dry) .08 (greasy), .42 (dry)
Mild steel on mild steel 0.74 (dry) .10 (greasy), .57 (dry)
Aluminum on mild steel 0.61 (dry) .47 (dry)
Aluminum on aluminum 1.05 (dry) 1.4 (dry)
Tires on pavement (40psi) 0.90 (dry) .69(wet), .85(dry)
f
n 1 +
F
y
f
-
f
-
----------- = f
-
F
y
>
u
s
u
d
v
u u
d
u
s
u
d
– ( )e
c v –
+ =
v
AeAT
--------------- =
At C
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Friction
380
Main Index
Chapter 9: Fluid Structure Interaction
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
9
Fluid Structure Interaction

General Coupling 382

Multiple Coupling Surfaces with Multiple Euler Domains 388

Fluid- and Gas Solver for the Euler Equations 391

Modeling Fluid Filled Containers 392

Hotfilling 393
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
General Coupling
382
General Coupling
Fluid-structure Interaction
The objective of fluid-structure interaction using the coupling algorithm is to enable the material modeled
in Eulerian and Lagrangian meshes to interact. Initially, the two solvers are entirely separate. Lagrangian
elements that lie within an Eulerian mesh do not affect the flow of the Eulerian material and no forces
are transferred from the Eulerian material back to the Lagrangian structure. The coupling algorithm
computes the interaction between the two sets of elements. It thus enables complex fluid-structure
interaction problems to be analyzed.
The first task in coupling the Eulerian and Lagrangian sections of a model is to create a surface on the
Lagrangian structure. This surface is used to transfer the forces between the two solver domains. The
surface acts as a boundary to the flow of material in the Eulerian mesh. At the same time, the stresses in
the Eulerian elements cause forces to act on the coupling surface, distorting the Lagrangian elements.
By means of a BSURF, BCPROP, BCMATL, or BCSEG entry, you can define a multifaceted surface on
the Lagrangian structure. A set of BCSEGs, element numbers, property numbers, material numbers, or
any combination of these identify the element faces in this surface. The method of defining of the surface
is therefore extremely flexible and can be adapted to individual modeling needs.
The coupling algorithm is activated using the COUPLE entry. It specifies that the surface is used for
Euler-Lagrange coupling. You can define whether the inside or the outside domain is covered by the
coupling surface by setting the COVER field on the entry. This means that the Euler domain cannot contain
material where it is covered by the outside or the inside of the Lagrangian structure. For problems where
the Eulerian material is inside a Lagrangian structure (for example, an inflating air bag), COVER should
be set to OUTSIDE since the Eulerian elements outside the coupling surface must be covered. For
problems where the Eulerian material is outside the Lagrangian structure (for example a projectile
penetrating soft material), the inside of the coupling surface must covered, and COVER should be set
to INSIDE.
The coupling surface must have a positive volume. This means that the normals of all the segments of
the surface must point outwards. By default, the solver will check the direction of the normal vectors and
automatically reverse them when necessary. However, if you wish to switch off the check to save some
computational time in the generation of the problem, you can define this using the REVERSE field on the
COUPLE entry.
The coupling algorithm activated using the COUPLE entry is the most general interaction algorithm. It can
handle any Euler mesh. There is an option, however, to switch to a faster algorithm by setting the
parameter DYPARAM, FASTCOUP. This algorithm makes use of knowledge of the geometry of the Euler
mesh. As a result, the requirement is that the Euler mesh must be aligned with the basic coordinate
system axes.
Main Index
383 Chapter 9: Fluid Structure Interaction
General Coupling
Closed Volume
The coupling surface must form a closed volume. This requirement is fundamental to the way the
coupling works. It means that there can be no holes in the surface and the surface must be closed.
In order to create a closed volume, it may be necessary to artificially extend the coupling surface in some
problems. In the example shown below, a plate modeled with shell elements is interacting with an
Eulerian mesh. In order to form a closed coupling surface, dummy shell elements are added behind the
plate. Dummy shell elements can be created using material MATD009. The shape of these dummy shell
elements does not matter and it is best to use as few as possible to make the solution more efficient.
The closed volume formed by the coupling surface must intersect at least one Euler element otherwise
the coupling surface is not recognized by the Eulerian mesh.
Care must be taken when doing so, however. The additional grid points created for the dummy elements
do not move, since they are not connected to any structural elements. When the shell elements move so
far that they pass beyond these stationary grid points, the coupling surface turns inside out and has a
negative volume causing the solver to terminate.
Dummy Elements
to Form a Closed
Coupling Surface
(Property 200)
Lagrangian
Shell Elements
(Property 200)
Eulerian Domain
COUPLE, 1, 10, INSIDE
BCPROP, 10, 100, 200
PSHELL, 100, 100, 0.05
PSHELL, 200, 999, 1.0E-6
MATD009, 999, 1.0E-20
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
General Coupling
384
Porosity
There is a general purpose capability to model porosity of a coupling surface. Porosity allows material to
flow from the Eulerian region through the coupling surface or vice-versa. This method is addressed using
the PORFLOW, PORFCPL entry. PORFLOW is used to model the interaction between an Eulerian region
to the environment while PORFCPL is used for flow from an Eulerian region to another one. For air bags,
a newer and better methodology for modeling porosity has been implemented.
The coupling surface or parts of it can be made porous by referring to a LEAKAGE entry from the COUPLE
entry. This will be further explained by means of two examples. The first example models an air bag with
porous material and two holes using PORFLOW:
The required input is:
PSHELL, 1, 100 , 1.E-3
PSHELL, 100, 999, 1.E-6
BCPROP, 11, 1, 100
BCPROP, 100, 1
COUPLE, 1, 11, OUTSIDE, , , 55
LEAKAGE, 1, 55, , PORFLOW, 42, CONSTANT, 0.009
LEAKAGE, 2, 55, 22, PORFLOW, 42, CONSTANT, 1.0
PORFLOW, 42, , MATERIAL, 33, PRESSURE, 1.E-5, METHOD, PRESSURE
The second example models two chambers divided by a membrane with a hole. Two sets of Euler
elements must be defined in which each set belongs to each coupling surface (COUPLE). The interaction
between the two sets of Euler elements is defined by using a hole. The hole is modeled by using
LEAKAGE that refers to PORFCPL.
Membrane Elements with PID = 1
Dummy Elements with PID = 100
Dummy Elements with PID = 100
Hole
High Pressure
Low Pressure
Main Index
385 Chapter 9: Fluid Structure Interaction
General Coupling
The required input is:
chamber 1 (low pressure)
BSURF,1,.....
BSURF,10,1,....
COUPLE,60,1,,,,70,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,21
LEAKAGE,80,70,10,PORFCPL,50, ,<coeffv>
PORFCPL,50,,,,1020
MESH,21,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0.,0.,0.,1.,1.,1.,,,+
+,10,10,10,,,,EULER,500
PEULER1,500,,HYDRO,19
TICEUL1,19,1 (initialization to low pressure)
chamber 2 (high pressure)
BSURF,2,.....
COUPLE,1020,2,,,,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,22
MESH,22,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0.8,0.8,0.8,2.,2.,2.,,,+
+,10,10,10,,,,EULER,600
PEULER1,600,,HYDRO,20
TICEUL1,20,20 (initialization to high pressure)
Note that the porosity characteristics need to be defined for chamber 1 only. The gas automatically flows
from chamber 2 into 1 and vice versa.
Two different algorithms are available to calculate the mass transport through the coupling surface. These
are the pressure method and velocity method. The pressure method only applies to small porous
subsurfaces. For porous subsurfaces that are not small, the velocity method should be used. To activate
transport of mass trough, a porous subsurface in or out of an Euler domain PORFLOW is used. The
METHOD option of PORFLOW allows switching between the pressure and velocity method. To activate
flow through a porous subsurface from one Euler domain to the other, the PORFLCPL and PORFCPL
entries are used. PORFLCPL uses the velocity method and PORFCPL uses the pressure method.
1. Velocity method
This algorithm is activated by:
PORFLOW, 42, , MATERIAL, 33, PRESSURE, 1.E-5, METHOD, VELOCITY
The transport of mass through the porous area is based on the velocity of the gas in the Eulerian
elements, relative to the moving coupling surface.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
General Coupling
386
.
The volume of the Eulerian material transported through the faces of the coupling surface that
intersect an Eulerian element is equal to
The transported mass through the porous area is equal to the density of the gas times the transported
volume.
2. Pressure Method
This algorithm is activated by:
PORFLOW, 42, , MATERIAL, 33, PRESSURE, 1.E5, METHOD, PRESSURE.
The transport of mass through the porous area is based on the pressure difference between the gas
in the Eulerian element and the outside pressure. The outside pressure is the pressure as specified
on the PORFLOW entry.
where = transported volume during one time step ( for outflow;
for inflow)
= time step
= porosity coefficient
= velocity vector of the gas in the Eulerian mesh
= area of the face of the coupling surface that intersects the Eulerian
element is equal to the area of the face that lies inside the
Eulerian element.
Face of the coupling
surface that intersects
the Eulerian element
v
Eulerian Element
Coupling Surface
SX
int
V
t rans
dt o v A · ( ) · · =
V
t rans
V
t rans
0 >
V
t rans
0 <
dt
o
v
A
A
Main Index
387 Chapter 9: Fluid Structure Interaction
General Coupling
The volume of the Eulerian material transported through the faces of the coupling surface that
intersect an Eulerian element is equal to:
The pressure at the face is approximated by the one-dimensional isentropic expansion of the gas
to the critical pressure or the environmental pressure according to
where is the critical pressure:
where = transported volume during one time step ( for outflow;
for inflow)
= time step
= porosity coefficient
= area of the face of the coupling surface that intersects the Eulerian
element is equal to the area of the face that lies inside the
Eulerian element
= pressure of the gas in the Eulerian element
= density of the gas in the Eulerian element
= adiabatic exponent
= pressure at the face
Face of the coupling
surface that intersects
the Eulerian element
v
Eulerian Element
Coupling Surface
SX
int
V
t rans
dt o A
2
¸ 1 –
------------
p
p
---
p
exh
p
----------
\ .
| |
2
¸
---
p
exh
p
----------
\ .
| |
¸ 1 +
¸
------------
– · · · · =
V
t rans
V
t rans
0 >
V
t rans
0 <
dt
o
A
A
p
p
¸ C
p
C
v
=
p
exh
p
p
env
p
env
p
c
> ( )
p
c
p
env
p
c
< ( )
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
=
p
c
p
c
p
2
¸ 1 +
------------
\ .
| |
¸
¸ 1 –
------------
· =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Multiple Coupling Surfaces with Multiple Euler Domains
388
In case the outside pressure is greater than the pressure of the gas, inflow through the coupling
surface will occur. This porosity model can only be used for ideal gases; i.e., materials modeled
with the gamma law equation of state (EOSGAM).
Multiple Coupling Surfaces with Multiple
Euler Domains
Multiple coupling surfaces are available for HYDRO, MMHYDRO, and MMSTREN Euler Solvers in
combination with the fast coupling algorithm. It is not available for the Strength Euler solver. The fast
coupling algorithm is activated by the DYPARAM,FASTCOUP entry. Each couple surface is associated
with an Eulerian domain. An Eulerian domain is a mesh that is aligned with the basic coordinate axes.
You can define such a domain using the MESHID on the COUPLE entry. See the example of Blastwave
Hitting a Bunker for modeling details with SimXpert.
Through a surface that is shared by two coupling surfaces, mass can flow from one coupling surface to
the other. Such a surface is called a hole. A hole can be either a porous subsurface of a coupling surface
or be part of a coupling surface with interactive failure.
If all Euler domains are defined by MESH, BOX, or MESH, ADAPT, then there are no restrictions on the
use multiple coupling surfaces. In that case, a simulation may both contain porous holes that connect one
Euler domain to another as well as coupling surfaces with interactive failure.
With the multi-material solver, Multiple Euler domains are only supported if all Euler domains are
defined by either MESH,BOX or MESH,ADAPT.
Coupling Surface with Failure
A coupling surface is always associated with a Lagrangian structure. When the material model used in
the Lagrangian structure supports failure (for example, by defining a failure model for the material), the
faces in the coupling surface can fail when the underlying material in the structure fails. You can define
the failure mode for the coupling surface by specifying DYPARAM,FASTCOUP, ,FAIL.
When a Lagrangian element fails and the element is shared by two coupling surfaces, mass from one
Eulerian domain flows to the other Eulerian domain through the hole. The interaction between these
Eulerian domains is defined through a COUPINT entry. When you do not define the interaction between
the Eulerian domains but the coupling surface fails, default ambient values for the state variables are used
to compute the in- or outflow through the hole in the surface. The ambient values of the variables can be
defined on the COUP1FL entry.
Coupling Surfaces with Porous Holes
The porous hole is a surface that is shared by two coupling surfaces and connects the two coupling
surfaces to each other. By selecting either the porosity model PORFLCPL or PORFCP, flow is enabled
from the Euler domain in one coupling surface to the Euler domain in the other coupling surface. The
model PORFCPL with SIZE=LARGE uses the velocity method and is for general use whereas PORFCPL
Main Index
389 Chapter 9: Fluid Structure Interaction
Multiple Coupling Surfaces with Multiple Euler Domains
with SIZE=SMALL uses the pressure method and is only for small holes. The porous hole can be either
partially or fully porous and can be a subsurface of the whole coupling surface. A major application is
the flow inside multi-compartment air bags.
To activate flow between two coupling surfaces through a porous hole the following steps have to
be taken:
• Associate an Euler domain to each of the two coupling surfaces
• Make a subsurface of the elements of the coupling surfaces that models the hole. The elements in
this subsurface should be shared by both coupling surfaces.
• Define a LEAKAGE entry for one of the coupling surfaces. This LEAKAGE references a
PORFLCPL entry.
• Create a PORLCPL entry. The other coupling surface has to be referenced by this
PORFLCPL entry.
Flow Between Domains
The facets in the coupling surfaces that represent an open area are subdivided into smaller facets, that
each connect exactly to one Euler element in the first Euler domain and to exactly one Euler element in
the second Euler domain. Material flow takes place across these smaller, subdivided facets which are
called POLPACKs. This is the most accurate method.
This method has the following limitations:
• Flow faces and wallets are not supported. Note: flowdef is supported
• Viscosity is not supported
• All Euler domains have to be created by the mesh entry. Euler domains consisting of a set of
Euler elements are not supported.
Euler meshes should have at least one element overlapping at the hole. When the meshes are created
dynamically using MESH,ADAPT, this is taken care of automatically. When mesh sizes are comparable
for two Euler meshes that are connected by a hole some reduction in costs is achieved by choosing the
same mesh size and the same reference point for the two Euler meshes.
In general holes should not be precisely on Euler element faces.
Deactivation
Deactivation is only supported by the Roe solver. In case you are using the multiple coupling surfaces
functionality, it is also possible to deactivate a coupling surface and the associated Eulerian domain at a
certain time using the TDEAC field on the COUPLE entry. The deactivation stops the calculation of the
coupling algorithm and its associated Eulerian domain. The analysis of the Lagrangian structure
continues. Activation of the coupling surface is not possible.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Multiple Coupling Surfaces with Multiple Euler Domains
390
Initialization
To initialize Euler elements several PEULER1 and TICEUL1 entries are used as follows:
PEULER1,6,,HYDRO,19
TICEUL1,19,19
TICREG,1,19,SPHERE,1,3,5,1.0
SPHERE,1,,0.0,0.0,0.0,500.0
TICVAL,5,,SIE,400000.,DENSITY,0.2
MESH,22,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-0.01001,-0.01001,-0.01001,0.14002,0.12002,0.12002,25,OUTSIDE,+
+,14,12,12,,,,EULER,6
$
PEULER1,7,,HYDRO,20
TICEUL1,20,20
TICREG,2,20,SPHERE,2,3,6,2.0
SPHERE,2,,0.0,0.0,0.0,500.0
TICVAL,6,,SIE,400000.,DENSITY,1.9
MESH,23,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,0.11499,-0.00501,-0.00501,0.1302,0.11002,0.11002,50,OUTSIDE,+
+,26,22,22,,,,EULER,7
The MESH entry references a unique property number that is also used by the PEULER1 entry. So the
PEULER1 entry provides the link between the MESH entry and a TICEUL1 entry. In this way, each Euler
domain references a unique TICEUL1 entry. The level indicators that occur on a TICEUL1 entry only
apply to the Euler mesh that is linked to this TICEUL1 entry.
To initialize all meshes to one initial state, only one property set is used in combination with only one
PEULER1 and TICEUL1 entry. Also, the PEULER entry may be used in this case.
Output
Euler archive output is restricted when this option facet has not been set. The restrictions are:
• The entry ELEMENTS on an Euler archive output request is required to be ALLEULHYDRO,
ALLMULTIEULHYDRO, or ALLMULTIEULSTREN. Specifying element numbers is not supported.
• For each mesh, a separate Euler archive file is created. Thus, one Euler archive output request
gives multiple archive files. Each of these archive files may contain more than one cycle. To
distinguish the Euler archive files from each other, the Euler archive files have a tag that
specifies to what mesh they belong. This tag has the form: FV_(Mesh-ID). Here FV is an
acronym for “Finite Volume”.
• When one of the Euler meshes is of TYPE ADAPT, all Euler archives will contain only one cycle.
• To make postprocessing easy with adaptive meshing, it is possible to map Euler results of the
adaptive mesh to a fixed background mesh. This mapping is one-to-one. This option is activated
by setting the XOBX,YOBX,ZOBX and the DXBX,DYBX,DZBX options on the MESH,ADAPT entry.
Example: A mesh with ID=22 and a mesh with ID=23 have been defined. Then this output request would
generate the archives ALLEULER_FV22_0 and ALLEULER_FV23_0.
Main Index
391 Chapter 9: Fluid Structure Interaction
Fluid- and Gas Solver for the Euler Equations
Fluid- and Gas Solver for the Euler Equations
For gases and fluids flow, a state-of-the-art Eulerian solver is available that is based on the ideas of
Professor Philip Roe. The fluid and gas Euler solver is based on the solution of so-called Riemann
problems at the faces of the finite-volume elements. The mathematical procedure amounts to a
decomposition of the problem into a discrete wave propagation problem. By including the physics of the
local Riemann solution at the faces, a qualitatively better and physically sounder solution is obtained. The
fluid- and gas solver is also known as an approximate Riemann solver.
The solver can be either first or second order accurate in space in the internal flow field. Second order
spatial accuracy is obtained by applying a so-called MUSCL scheme in combination with a nonlinear
limiter function. The MUSCL approach guarantees that no spurious oscillations near strong
discontinuities in the flow field will occur. The scheme is total variation diminishing (TVD), meaning it
does not produce new minima or maxima in the solution field. The original Roe solver can be activated
by using the DYPARAM,LIMITER,ROE entry in the input file.
Improvements have been made to arrive at a full second order scheme in the fluid- and gas solver to
further gain accuracy in the solution. All boundary conditions –that is, the flow boundary conditions, and
the wall boundary conditions, are fully second order accurate in space. You can use the new and improved
solver (either first- or second-order) by entering the keyword 2ndOrder or 1stOrder on the PEULER
or PEULER1 entry.
Furthermore, a so-called “entropy fix” has been added to avoid the sharp discontinuities in those areas
where the eigenvalues of the local Riemann problem vanish. In effect, the entropy fix ensures that an
expansion shock (although mathematically sound) is broken down into a correct expansion fan. The
expansion shock would yield a physical impossibility of decreasing entropy in the system. That is the
reason for the name “entropy fix”. The entropy fix brings a very, almost unnoticeable, form of locally
necessary dissipation into the solution to improve the differentiability of the equations where the
eigenvalues vanish.
The time integration in the fluid- and gas solver is performed by a multi-stage time integrator, also know
as a Runge-Kutta type scheme. Higher-order temporal accuracy can be achieved by applying multiple
stages in the time integration. The required number of stages is automatically selected when you select
either a first order or a second order solution. A first order spatial accurate solution uses a one-stage
time integration scheme; a second order spatial accurate solution applies a three-stage time
integration scheme.
Multiple coupling surfaces with failure can be requested if the fast coupling algorithm is used by setting
the DYPARAM,FASTCOUP, ,FAIL entry. You can also define interaction between multiple coupling
surfaces, like in cases where you wish to model “chambers” that after structural failure will show a
“connection” between them through which fluid or gas could flow. A typical example is an explosion in
the cargo space of an aircraft after which the floor may be ruptured and the high-pressure gas can vent
into the passenger cabin.
The fluid solver allows you to introduce viscosity into the solution. You use Tait’s equation of state to
model the fluid with additional viscosity terms.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Modeling Fluid Filled Containers
392
There are some limitations in the current implementation. Eulerian elements must be completely filled
with materials, so void or partial void elements are not allowed. For fluid flows where voids sometimes
may occur, we recommend that you use Tait’s equation of state. This equation of state is fully supported
by the improved second order Euler solver, and allows you to define a so-called critical density. When
the fluid’s density falls below the critical value, the fluid cavitates (i.e., the pressure retains the value
associated with the critical density). The density can further drop, but the pressure remains constant. In
this fashion, you avoid the creation of voids and still allow the fluid to cavitate. When you only have data
available for the fluid that satisfies the simple bulk equation of state, you can still use Tait’s model by
setting the parameter to zero, to one, and add the critical density value at which cavitation occurs.
Especially for blast wave types of problems, the full second order solution is recommended because of
the accuracy it inherently brings. The JWL equation of state is not supported. A major advantage of using
the blast wave approach is the speed at which the analysis can be performed. Especially spherical wave
propagation through a Cartesian mesh is much more accurate in a full second order solution than in first
order, or second order with (cheaper) first order accurate boundary conditions.
Modeling Fluid Filled Containers
Containers, for example plastic bottles, are often subjected to axial loading. Axial loading occurs when
the bottle is crushed, or for example, stacked. It may concern both empty and (partially) filled bottles.
Fluid filled containers or bottles can be modeled using a full multi-material Euler description. However,
using full multi-material Euler fluid dynamics solver is a quite expensive method to solve the quasi-static
behavior of the fluid. An alternative way of modeling is available through the FFCONTR (Fluid Filled
CONTaineR) option. Using this option removes the need for a full fluid dynamics solution.
The FFCONTR option uses the uniform pressure algorithms to calculate the pressure increase due to the
compression of the container. The pressure is uniformly distributed but may change in time due to
volume changes that occur when the container deforms.
You need to define a surface to indicate the boundary of the container. The volume enclosed by the
surface then equals the volume of the container.
The normals of the faces of the surface must point outwards in order to compute the correct (positive)
volume. When the normals point inwards, they are automatically reversed such that the resulting volume
is positive. The surface must be closed to ensure a correct volume calculation.
You must define the amount of fluid in the container or bottle. The volume of the gas above the fluid
then follows immediately from the difference between the volume of the container and the fluid volume
in the container. Obviously, the fluid volume cannot exceed the volume enclosed by the surface. The
fluid is assumed to be incompressible. Thus, any volume change directly translates to a volume change
of the gas above the fluid. The gas above the fluid is assumed to behave as an ideal gas under
iso-thermal conditions:
where is the pressure, is the volume, and represents a constant.
A
0
¸
p V · C =
p V C
Main Index
393 Chapter 9: Fluid Structure Interaction
Hotfilling
To define the constant , you have to specify the initial pressure of the gas above the fluid on the
FFCONTR entry. The initial pressure is only used for the calculation of the pressure changes and does
not have an effect on other boundary conditions that you may have applied. If an over-pressure (for
example, a carbonated soft drink) or an under-pressure (for example, a hot filled container) is present,
you must model this separately using a PLOAD definition. The values for the pressure on the PLOAD
entry and the pressure generated by the FFCONTR are superimposed for the calculation.
Hotfilling
Filling bottles with hot liquid can cause large deformations during cooling. To simulate these
deformations the Fluid filled functionality container option can be used. Since MD Nastran Nonlinear
Explicit (SOL 700) has only a limited cooling functionality the temperature of the fluid has to be
specified by the user. In addition, the volume of the fluid will depend on temperature. A temperature
versus time table and water density versus temperature table are input options for the fluid filled
container. If these are set the gas is no longer iso-thermal but satisfies
Here is the volume of the gas. This volume is computed as the difference between the total volume and
the volume of fluid. The volume of the fluid is given by
,
Here the fluid density depends on the temperature as specified by table entry.
C
PV T C =
V
V
M
wat er
p
----------------- =
p
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Hotfilling
394
Main Index
Chapter 10: Eulerian Solvers
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
10
Eulerian Solvers

The Standard Euler Solver 396

Approximate Riemann Euler Solver 406
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
The Standard Euler Solver
396
The Standard Euler Solver
In the Eulerian approach material is not attached to elements but can move from one Euler element to the
other. Mass, momentum and energy are element averages and are defined in the centers of the elements.
This property is called cell-centered.
The equations solved are the conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy as given in equation
(10-1). Here, is the material density, are the velocity components, is the pressure, is the bulk
viscosity, is gravity and is the specific total energy. is a volume and is its boundary.
(10-1)
For Eulerian materials with strength the pressure is replaced by the stress tensor. The volume integrals
represent the total mass, momentum and energy in the Volume V. The surface integrals on the left signify
transport out of the volume through parts of the area A. The surface integrals on the right represent the
momentum and energy increase caused by forces acting on the boundary of the volume. The numerical
scheme is a finite volume method. It is obtained by applying equation (10-1) to the material inside an
Euler element and by specifying how transport terms are computed. The first equation signifies that the
decrease of mass in an element equals the loss of mass trough the element boundary. In transporting mass
between elements mass should be conserved globally. This is achieved by looping across the element
interfaces and adding the transported mass, momentum and energy to the acceptor element and
subtracting it from the donor element. In this way the finite volume scheme conserves mass, momentum
and energy.
In applying equation (10-1), it is assumed that density, velocity, and specific energy are constant across
an Euler element and only depend on time. In addition, they are constant within one time step. This is
consistent with a first-order approach. The evolved time at cycle n will be denoted by . Element density,
velocity, and specific total energy inside an element at cycle n will be denoted by , , and ,
respectively.
p u
i
p q
g e V A
d
dt
----- p V p u n · ( )
A
í
+ d A d
V
í
0 =
d
dt
----- pu
i
V pu
i
u n · ( ) A d
A
í
+ d
V
í
p q + ( )n
i
A pge
3
V – d
A
í
– =
d
dt
----- pe V pe u n · ( )
A
í
+ d A d
V
í
u
i
pn
i
A d
A
í
– =
p
t
n
p
n
u
n
e
n
Main Index
397 Chapter 10: Eulerian Solvers
The Standard Euler Solver
(10-2)
Applying first-order time integration gives equation (10-2). The integration is from to . Here,
denotes the mass inside the element, momentum, and energy.
For the surface integrals that represent transport, the forward Euler method is used. Consequently, surface
integrals are evaluated at the beginning of the time step. The surface integral with the pressure terms is
evaluated using the new density and specific total energy.
The transport velocity depends on both the donor as well as the acceptor element and is given by the
average of the donor and acceptor velocity. Multiplying the transport velocity with surface area and time
step yields the transport volume. This volume is filled up with mass of the donor element. Multiplying
this volume with the density of the donor element gives the transported mass. Likewise the transport
volume times the donor velocity gives the transported momentum.
Since the fluid-structure interaction forms an integral part of the numerical scheme we first discuss
fluid-structure interaction.
Fluid-structure Interaction
Material in an Euler mesh can interact with Lagrangian structures. Eulerian material can exert forces on
a structure causing displacement and deformation. On the other hand structures provide a barrier to
Eulerian material. That is Eulerian material cannot penetrate the structure and the structural surface
determines which Euler element have the capacity to hold mass. Consider for example a tank shell
surface. Euler Elements that are outside the tank surface cannot hold material and only elements that are
partially or completely inside the surface have the capacity to contain mass. This surface defines the
effective boundary of the Euler domain and will be called the coupling surface. In most cases the
coupling surface will consist of Lagrangian Elements. But also the interaction of Eulerian material with
a Lagrangian solid is possible. Then the coupling surface consists of surface elements that have no
Lagrangian model attached but only serve to enable interaction. In the following we shall assume that the
coupling surface is a Lagrangian shell surface. The coupling surface will also be referred to as the
structural surface.
M
n 1 +
M
n
– p u n · ( ) AAt d
A
í
t
n
– =
P
n 1 +
P
n
– pu
i
u n · ( ) A d
A
í
t
n
At – p p s . ( )n
i
A pge
3
V + d
A
í
t
n 1 +
At – =
E
n 1 +
E
n
– pe u n · ( ) A u
i
p p e . ( )n
i
A d
A
í
+ d
A
í
– =
p
n 1 +
M
n 1 +
V
n 1 +
--------------- e
n 1 +
,
E
n 1 +
M
n 1 +
--------------- s
n 1 +
, e
n 1 +
1
2
--- u
k
2
k 1 =
3
¯
– = = =
t
n
t
n 1 +
M
P E
u n ·
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
The Standard Euler Solver
398
The coupling surface consists of shell elements that deform under pressure loads from material inside the
Eulerian domain. An explicit finite element solver solves the shell dynamics, and an explicit Euler solver
solves the fluid dynamics for the inside region of the coupling surface. The interaction between these two
solvers takes place in two ways.
• The mass in the Euler elements exerts a pressure load on the lagrangian elements associated with
the structural surface. These loads constitute an additional set of boundary conditions for the
finite element solver, resulting in new grid point accelerations and velocities for the structure.
From the updated plastic strain or updated stresses of the shell elements it is determined which
elements are failing. Finally the structural grid points are moved using the new velocities
• The structural grid points move and so the Euler mesh has a new effective boundary.
Consequently, the volume of mass in each element may change. Since density is mass divided by
the volume of the mass, densities will also change, and so will the pressures. In the following we
shall assume that the material is insides the coupling surface.
The Numerical Scheme
The Euler elements are integrated in time by applying a finite volume method directly to the physical
domain, avoiding the use of coordinate transformations. Therefore the finite volume method is applied
to the 3D object that consists of that part of the Euler element that is inside the coupling surface. This is
in general not a cube but a multi-faceted object. For the 2D case this is sketched in Figure 10-1.
Figure 10-1 The Boundary of an Euler Element
In this figure the square represents an Euler element that is intersected by the coupling surface. Only
that part of the square that is inside the coupling surface can contain mass. Therefore this part is the
effective volume of material in the element. The boundary of this effective volume consists of two
types of surfaces:
• Euler element boundaries that connect two neighboring elements called ‘Euler faces’.
Main Index
399 Chapter 10: Eulerian Solvers
The Standard Euler Solver
• Parts of the coupling surface that are within the Euler element. They will be called ‘polpacks’,
which is short for “polyhedron packets”.
The effective boundary of an Euler element consists of Euler faces and polpacks.
A polpack is the intersection of a coupling surface shell element with an Euler element and is completely
inside an Euler element and completely inside a coupling surface shell element. An algorithm is available
that computes these polpacks for any given, closed 3-D faceted surface, and any 3-D Euler domain.
Faces refer to two Euler elements, whereas polpacks refer to only one Euler element. For both faces and
polpacks, areas and normals are computed.
The finite volume method results from applying equation (10-2) to these 3-D objects. The volume
in equation (10-2) is the effective volume of the Euler element. Furthermore, the surface integrals are
computed by summing over the faces and polpacks. A contribution of a polpack or a face to integrals
signifying transport is called a flux.
When there is more than one material present in the simulation the mass conservation law applies to each
material separately. This means that for each material inside an Euler element the density has to be
monitored. In applying the momentum law, it does not matter whether there are several materials since
all materials inside an Element are assumed to have the same velocity. The energy equation is also applied
to each material separately.
First consider simulations with only one material present. In the mass conservation law, the mass flux
across a face gives:
Here is the mass in the Euler element, is the velocity vector, denotes the area vector of the face,
is the time step, denotes the element supplying mass, and denotes the element
receiving mass. In most cases, the coupling surface is not permeable and there is no transport across the
polpacks. However, in case coupling surface shell elements have a porosity model assigned, the flux
equations take that into account.
The momentum in an element can increase by either transport of momentum or by a pressure load
working on the polpacks and faces. The pressure load contribution to this momentum increase is the
surface integral . The force contribution of a face to the momentum increase of the element left
to the face and right to the face reads:
V
n 1 +
AM
DONOR
p –
DONOR
V A · At =
AM
ACCEPTOR
+p
DONOR
V A · At =
M V A
At DONOR ACCEPTOR
pn
i
AAt d
A
í

AP
Lef t
p
Face
AAt – =
AP
Ri ght
p
Face
AAt =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
The Standard Euler Solver
400
Here is the momentum of an element, is the area vector pointing from the left element to the right
element and is a weighted average of the pressure in the two elements that are on the left and
right of the face. These momentum updates clearly conserve the combined momentum of the left and
right element.
For polpacks, the contribution is likewise, but now the pressure at the polpack is given by the pressure in
the Euler element that contains the polpack. To conserve momentum, the negative of this momentum
contribution is put as a force on the coupling surface shell element that hosts the polpack. This is the way
boundary conditions are imposed on the Lagrangian element constituting the coupling surface.
In a similar way the energy equation is applied.
The procedure for advancing the Euler domain with one time step is as follows:
• Do all finite element objects and contact. Move the finite element objects in accordance to their
grid point velocities.
• Using the new position of the finite element structures compute new polpacks. Using polpacks
and faces compute for all Euler elements the volume of the portion that is inside the coupling
surface.
• Transport mass, momentum, and energy across all faces and permeable polpacks using the
conservation laws. The flux velocity is the average of the left and right Euler element velocity. In
case no right Euler element is available the flux velocity is determined from an inflow condition
and in some cases the velocity of the Euler element. Examples are holes and parts of surfaces
that enable flow into the inside region of the coupling surface as a means of filling the inside
region of the coupling surface. At the end of this step, element masses are fully updated.
• For each Euler element, compute density from the new mass and volume and compute pressure
from the equation of state using the new density.
• Compute the effect of Euler element pressures to both structure as well as other Euler elements
by going over respectively polpacks and Euler faces. This effect will contribute to the Euler
element momentum. The transport contribution to the momentum increase has already been
computed in step 3. At the end of this step the element momentum and energy are fully updated.
• Advance the Lagrangian shell elements associated with the coupling surface with one time step
using the internal shell element forces, contact forces, and external forces from the Euler domain
and compute new velocities on the grid points.
• Compute a new stable time step based on the mesh size, speed of sound and velocity. The
stability criterion used is the CFL condition and applies to both the tank surface as well as to the
Euler elements.
The Time Step Criterion
To maintain stability of the explicit scheme the time step should not exceed:
(10-3)
P A
p
f ace
At
max
Ax
u c +
------------ =
Main Index
401 Chapter 10: Eulerian Solvers
The Standard Euler Solver
Euler with Strength
Deviatoric stress is a property of mass and is transported along with mass. Deviatoric stress in an element
changes because masses with different stresses can enter the element and because strain increments raise
stresses. When moving along with a piece of material the change in deviatoric stress denoted by is
given by:
(10-4)
Here the derivative is along the path of the moving mass and denotes the velocity in the Euler
element. Since the velocity of the moving mass equals the velocity in the Euler element the total
derivative is given by
(10-5)
Therefore the change of deviatoric stress in an Euler element is given by
(10-6)
This equation is not in conservation form and using the equation as it is would require the additional
computation of shear stress gradients. By putting the equation in conservation form, gradient
computations are not needed and the equation be solved using the divergence theorem.
To enable further use for other quantities like plastic strain consider
(10-7)
By using the continuity equation it can be written in conservative form.
(10-8)
This gives
(10-9)
For stresses this becomes:
(10-10)
s
ds
i j
dt
--------- 2u
de
i j
dev
dt
------------- u
cu
i
cx
i
--------
cu
j
cx
j
--------
1
3
-- -
cu
k
cx
k
-------- o
i j
– +
\ .
| |
= =
u
k
( )
ds
i j
dt
---------
cs
i j
ct
---------
cs
i j
cx
k
---------
cx
k
ct
-------- +
cs
i j
ct
--------- u
k
cs
i j
cx
k
--------- + = =
cs
i j
ct
--------- u
k
cs
i j
cx
k
--------- + 2u
de
i j
dev
dt
------------- =
co
ct
------ u
k
co
cx
k
-------- + D =
c po ( )
ct
---------------
cp
ct
------ o p
co
ct
------ +
c pu
k
( )
cx
k
----------------- o – p D u
k
co
cx
k
-------- –
\ .
| |
+
c pu
k
o ( )
cx
k
--------------------- – pD + = = =
c po ( )
ct
---------------
c pou
k
( )
cx
k
--------------------- + pD =
1
p
---
c po ( )
ct
---------------
c pou
k
( )
cx
k
--------------------- +
\ .
| |
D =
1
p
---
c ps
i j
( )
ct
-----------------
c pu
k
s
i j
( )
cx
k
----------------------- +
\ .
| |
2ue
i j
dev
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
The Standard Euler Solver
402
In this way, transport of stresses can be computed in close analogy to mass and momentum by
transporting mass times shear stress. In the same way transport of plastic strain is carried out.
Strain rates are computed from velocity gradients. They are obtained by use of the divergence theorem
as follows:
(10-11)
Pressure can be either computed from density or updated from volume strain rates. The first corresponds
to splitting the stress tensor computation into a hydrostatic part and a deviatoric part. The second
computes the stress tensor without any splitting and uses the isotropic Hooke’s law in terms of strain
rates. We show that the two approaches are equivalent. Consider computing pressure from the volume
strain rates. Differentiation of the isotropic Hooke’s law gives
(10-12)
with the bulk modulus. Using the continuity equation in the form
(10-13)
yields
(10-14)
The pressure in an element can be traced back by using equation (10-14).
(10-15)
So to first-order in density, Hooke’s law and the equation of state give the same pressure. Basing the
pressure on the logarithm of the density ratio is expensive and the linearization is sufficiently accurate.
Pressures are computed using the linearization.
To account for rotation of material the Jaumann correction is applied.
The Multi-material Solver
In simulations with multiple materials, it is important to keep track of the interfaces between materials.
For example, in fuel tank sloshing simulations, there is an interface visible between regions filled with
fuel and regions filled with air. To handle these interfaces, several extensions of the transport logic and
pressure computation are necessary. The extended transport logic is known as preferential transport and
V
cu
i
cx
j
--------
cu
i
cx
j
-------- V d
í
div e
j
u
i
( ) V d
í
u
i
e
j
S d
í
u
i
Face
S
j
Face
f aces
¯
= = = =
dp
dt
------ K
cu
i
cx
i
-------- – =
K
dp
dt
------
cp
ct
------ u
i
cp
cx
i
------- + p
cu
i
cx
i
-------- – = =
dp
dt
------
K
p
----
dp
dt
------ =
dp
dt
------
d
dt
----- K p ln ( ) =
p d K p ln ( )
p
ref
p
í
K
p
p
ref
---------
\ .
| |
ln K 1
p p
ref

p
ref
------------------- +
\ .
| |
K
p p
ref

p
ref
-------------------
\ .
| |
~ ln = = =
Main Index
403 Chapter 10: Eulerian Solvers
The Standard Euler Solver
tries to maintain interfaces between materials. Consider, for example, the case of a blast wave of air in
water. It is important that the interface between water and air during the expansion of the blast wave is
maintained and does not deteriorate by the unphysical mixing of water and air.
To enable a multi-material simulation, a certain amount of bookkeeping is needed. For every Euler
element, the following information is available:
• The number of materials inside the Euler elements
• For each material, the volume fraction, the material ID, the density, the mass, the specific energy,
the total energy, and volume strain rates are stored. The volume fraction of a material is defined
as the fraction of Element volume that is filled with that material.
The transport logic for multi-material amounts to:
• Compute the volume to be transported. This is and this volume flux gives rise to a mass
flux. If there is only one material, the mass flux is the density times the volume flux, but now the
donor element has several materials and each material has a distinct density and, therefore, the
mass flux is split into several mass fluxes. Each material in the donor element has a distinct mass
flux and this material specific mass flux is easily converted into a volume flux by using the
material density. Using this conversion, the mass fluxes should give rise to volume fluxes that
add up to a total volume flux that equals . Materials are transported out of the element
until the prescribed total volume flux is reached. The only remaining issue is which materials are
transported first.
• Determine for both donor element as well as acceptor element which materials are present in
the element.
• Look which materials are common to both elements.
• First transport any material that is common to both elements. Transport these common materials
in proportion to their acceptor material fraction. A material is transported with the material
density of the donor element and this material density translates a volume flux into a mass flux
and vice versa. Subtract any mass that is transported from the flux volume. If there is sufficient
mass of the common materials in the donor element the whole flux volume will be used to
transport the common materials.
• If after transport of the common materials the flux volume is not fully used yet, transport
materials in ratio to their donor material fraction.
To illustrate how this procedure aims at preserving material interfaces, consider two adjacent Euler
elements and assume that flow is from the left element to the right element. The left element is filled with
fuel and air and the right one is filed with only air. Since air is the only material common to both elements,
it is transported first. If there is sufficient air, only air will be transported. If during transport there is no
air left, transport of this common material is not able to use the full flux volume and fuel has to also be
transported. In both cases, the interface between fuel and air is maintained.
The pressure computation for Euler elements with only one material is straightforward: the pressure
readily follows from the equation of state and the density. For elements with more than one material, each
material has a distinct equation of state and a distinct density and this results in a distinct pressure for
each material. The pressure computation for these elements is based on the thermodynamic principle of
V A · At
V A · At
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
The Standard Euler Solver
404
pressure equilibrium. Since masses of materials in Euler elements are only changed by the transport
computation, these masses are fixed during the pressure computation. The volume taken up by each
material in an Euler element is not known but determines the pressure inside the material. By adjusting
the volumes of the materials simultaneously, pressure equilibrium is achieved. Therefore, the pressure
computation amounts to an iterative process that iterates on the volumes of the materials inside the
Euler element.
To understand the influence of the material volumes consider an element with fuel and air. Suppose that
at the start of a cycle, there is pressure equilibrium and that during transport, air enters the element.
Because of the surplus of air there is no longer pressure equilibrium. Physically, it is expected that the air
very slightly compresses the fuel until pressure equilibrium is achieved. The compression of the air is just
the adjustment of the material volumes of fuel and air. The material volume of air increases while the
material volume of fuel decreases.
Viscosity
Viscous stresses only contribute to the momentum balance:
(10-16)
Here, the deviator shear stress tensor is given by
(10-17)
The contribution of viscous dissipation to the energy balance law is small and is not taken into account.
Velocity gradients are computed by Gauss’s law as given by equation (10-18). For boundary
contributions, the imposed velocity boundary condition is used. Material in one element exerts a viscous
force on material in the adjacent elements and leads to changes in momentum. The momentum
transferred across an Euler element face is given by
(10-18)
The second term is most significant and requires a special treatment. This term is proportional to the
normal velocity derivative at the face. It can be obtained by averaging the normal derivative over the left
and right Euler element:
(10-19)
This leads to decoupling. To show this, consider an Euler element and two of its opposing faces. For both
opposing faces, a viscous flux that is proportional to equation (10-18) is added to the Euler element. The
net contribution is proportional to the difference of equation (10-18) for the two faces. In this subtraction,
the normal velocity derivative of the element itself drops out. As a result, the contribution of viscous
d
dt
----- pu
i
V pu
i
u n · ( ) A d
A
í
+ d
V
í
pn
i
A s
i j
n
j
A d
A
í
+ d
A
í
– =
s
i j
s
i j
u e
i j
1
3
--- e
kk

\ .
| |
=
e
i j
1
2
-- -
cu
i
cx
j
--------
cu
i
cx
j
-------- +
\ .
| |
=
s
i j
n
j
A d t d
í
2
3
-- - uu
k k .
n
i
– u
cu
i
cn
-------- u
cu
n
cx
i
--------- + +
\ .
| |
FACEAREA*At =
cu
i
cn
--------
Face
1
2
-- -
cu
i
cn
--------
L
cu
i
cn
--------
R
+
\ .
| |
=
Main Index
405 Chapter 10: Eulerian Solvers
The Standard Euler Solver
fluxes to the momentum increase of the Euler elements is only weakly coupled to the velocity gradient
in the Euler element. In practice, decoupling follows. To avoid this decoupling, the gradient is computed
directly using the velocity difference between across the face, giving:
(10-20)
Furthermore, walls exert viscous stress on material and, at the wall, a no-slip condition is applied.
Computing these in a specific local system enables a straightforward use of the no-slip condition. In this
local system, the x-axis is along the normal of the boundary. The no-slip condition ensures that all
tangential velocity derivatives are zero. In addition, normal derivatives are computed directly from the
velocity difference between element and wall. This leads to shear stresses at the wall:
(10-21)
These shear stresses are added to the momentum balance.
Fluid-structure Interaction with Interactive Failure
Consider a box filled with gas. If a blast wave is initiated inside the box, some parts of the box may fail
and gas can escape through ruptures. To simulate this flow, the gas inside the box is modeled by an Euler
domain and the box surface by shell elements. These shell elements form the coupling surface for this
Euler domain. Once shell elements of this box have failed, gas flows from the inner domain to an outer
Euler domain that models the ambient. The shell surface also forms the coupling surface for this outer
Euler domain and is, therefore, able to connect Euler elements inside the shell surface to elements outside
the shell surface. Flow from one Euler domain to another is also possible through fully or partly
porous segments.
Figure 10-2 The Overlapping Mesh
cu
i
cn
--------
Face
u
i
R
u
i
L

Ax
------------------- =
s
xx
l oc 4
3
-- - u
cu
cx
------
4
3
--- u
u
wal l
u
el ement

x
wal l
x
el ement

-------------------------------------- = =
s
xy
l oc
u
cv
cx
------ u
v
wal l
v
el ement

x
wal l
x
el ement

-------------------------------------- = =
s
zx
l oc
u
cw
cx
------- u
w
wal l
w
el ement

x
wal l
x
el ement

---------------------------------------- = =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Approximate Riemann Euler Solver
406
Flow Between Domains
Flow from one Euler domain to another takes place through either shell elements that are porous or that
have failed. Flow through a segment can only take place if it is inside both Euler domains. In the
following, let us assume that both Euler domains are sufficiently large. In general, a segment can intersect
several Euler elements of the first Euler domain and the same applies to the second domain. Therefore,
the segment connects several Euler elements in the first Euler domain to several Euler elements in the
second domain. For an accurate and straightforward computation of flow through the segment, it is
partitioned into sub segments such that each sub segment is in exactly one Euler element of each Euler
domain. To carry out this partitioning, an overlapping Euler mesh is created that is the union of both Euler
meshes. Then, for each element in this overlapping domain, the intersection with the segment is
determined. Each intersection gives one sub segment that refers to both the original segment and to the
element in the overlap domain. Since an element in the overlap domain is in exactly one element of both
domains, the sub segment connects exactly one element in the first Euler domain to exactly one element
in the second domain. Transport across this sub segment is straightforward because it closely resembles
transport that takes place between the Euler elements that are within an Euler domain. In computing
transport across the sub segment, the velocity of the segment has to be taken into account. If the segment
is moving with the same velocity as the material on either side, no material will flow through the segment.
Approximate Riemann Euler Solver
Euler Equations of Motion
The analysis of the physical behavior of fluids and gases is best solved using a Eulerian approach. The
nature of the behavior of these types of materials is represented in a natural way using a finite volume
description based on the Euler equations of motion. An accurate solver is available that allows you to
analyze the behavior of fluids and gases, coupled to structures if necessary. The solution approach is
based on a so-called Riemann solution at the element faces that defines the fluxes of mass, momentum
and energy, the conserved problem quantities.
This section gives a more detailed explanation of the theory behind the Riemann-based Euler solver, its
boundary condition treatment, and accuracy in time and space.
The inviscid flow of a fluid or a gas is fully governed by the Euler equations of motion. We will use the
equations in their conservative form:
(10-22)
where is the state vector and , and represent the fluxes of the conserved state variables.
They are defined as follows:
cq
ct
------
cf q ( )
cx
-------------
cg q ( )
cy
---------------
ch q ( )
cz
--------------- + + + 0 =
q f q ( ) g q ( ) . h q ( )
Main Index
407 Chapter 10: Eulerian Solvers
Approximate Riemann Euler Solver
(10-23)
Equation (10-22) describes the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. In equation (10-23), is
the material density, the velocity components, the pressure, and the total energy. For a gas,
we can close the system (note that we have five equations, with six unknowns) by adding the equation of
state for a calorically perfect gas (the “gamma law equation of state in MD Nastran Nonlinear Explicit
(SOL 700)).
(10-24)
In equation (10-24), denotes the specific internal energy of the gas and is the ratio of specific heats.
There exist more equations of state for gases, but most gases can be described as calorically perfect gases,
in which case equation (10-24) applies.
For a fluid in its simplest form, we may use a so-called “simple bulk” equation of state:
(10-25)
In equation (10-24), is the material bulk modulus and is the reference density at which the material
has no pressure. Also, for fluids, there are more equations of state, like a full polynomial or Tait’s
equation of state. Both are implemented in the approximate Riemann solver that MD Nastran Nonlinear
Explicit (SOL 700) uses, but the method of implementation is similar to the simple bulk equation of state
and is not described in detail here.
Numerical Approach
The conservation laws as described by equation (10-23) are numerically solved by an upwind, cell-
centered finite volume method on unstructured 3-D meshes. We will briefly describe the solution
method here.
When the conservation laws are written in integral form, by integrating over an arbitrary volume, the
finite volume (discretized) method becomes apparent when we consider each element in an Eulerian
mesh as a finite volume on which we have to solve the conservation laws as described by equation
(10-23). The integral form of equation (10-23)) when using Gauss’ integral theorem:
(10-26)
From equation (10-26), it becomes apparent that the fluxes of mass, momentum, and energy have to be
integrated normal to the boundary of the volume or its surface. When we use the rotational invariance of
the Euler equations of motion, the integral form can be rewritten using the transformation matrix that
describes the transformation of the state variables in a direction normal to the surface:
q
p
pu
pv
pw
E \ .
|
|
|
|
|
|
| |
= f q ( )
pu
pu
2
p +
puv
puw
E p + ( )u \ .
|
|
|
|
|
|
| |
= g q ( )
pv
puv
pv
2
p +
pvw
E p + ( )v \ .
|
|
|
|
|
|
| |
= h q ( )
pw
puw
pvw
pw
2
p +
E p + ( )w \ .
|
|
|
|
|
|
| |
=
p
u v w . . p E
p ¸ 1 – ( ) p e · · =
e ¸
p K
p
p
0
----- 1 –
\ .
| |
=
K p
0
c
ct
----- q V f q ( ) n
x
g q ( ) n
y
h q ( ) n
z
· + · + · ( ) dS ·
cv
í
+ d
V
í
0 =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Approximate Riemann Euler Solver
408
(10-27)
where denotes the state vector transformed to a coordinate system with the local x-axis in the direction
of the normal to the surface. When we then make the step to a discretized form, by defining the volume
as the volume of a finite element (an element of the Euler mesh), and the surface defined by the faces
spanning the element, equation (10-27) becomes a local one-dimensional system of equations for each
face of the element with the local x-axis in the direction of the normal to the element’s face. Note that the
fluxes in the local y- and z-direction do not contribute to the change of the state variable. The system of
equations to solve for each element face thus becomes:
(10-28)
where defines the x-direction normal to the element’s face. Considering the fact that each face has a left
and a right element connected to it, we can view the state variables in the left- and right connected
element as initial conditions for the solution of the flux normal to the face:
(10-29)
Equations (10-28) and (10-29) describe a so-called Riemann problem. Thus, the solution for the fluxes at
the element faces amounts to solving a local 1-D Riemann problem for each of the faces of the element,
considering the left and right state of the fluid or the gas. The contribution of the face fluxes result in the
state change in the element as a function of time as denoted by the first term in equation (10-28). The
fluxes on the faces are determined using a flux function, by which, using equations (10-27),
(10-28), and (10-29), the discretization becomes:
(10-30)
In equation (10-30), denotes the element number, the element volume, the face numbers of the
element, and the associated face area.
Using a flux difference scheme, the flux function can be written as:
(10-31)
The flux difference terms in equation (10-31) are defined as:
(10-32)
c
ct
-----
q
˜
V f
q
˜
( ) dS ·
cV
í
+ d
V
í
0 =
q
˜
c
q
˜
ct
------
cf
q
˜
( )
c
x
˜
------------- + 0 =
x
˜
q
˜
x
˜
0 , ( )
q
˜ L
x
˜
0 <
q
˜
R
x
˜
0 > ¹
´
¦
=
f
R
q
L
q
R
. ( )
dq
i
dt
--------
1
V
i
----- f
R
q
L
q
R
. ( ) A
n
·
n 1 =
6
¯
– =
i V
i
n
A
n
f
R
q
L
q
R
. ( )
1
2
-- - f q
L
( ) f q
R
( ) + { }
1
2
--- Af
+
Af
-
– { } – =
Af
+
f
R
q
L
q
R
. ( ) f q
L
( ) – =
Af
-
f q
R
( ) f
R
q
L
q
R
. ( ) – =
Main Index
409 Chapter 10: Eulerian Solvers
Approximate Riemann Euler Solver
When we use the eigenvectors, the eigenvalues, and the wave strengths that can be found from a
diagonalization of the Jacobian matrix of the Euler equations, we arrive at a simple definition of the flux
function. Note that the shape of the eigenvectors, eigenvalues, and the wave strengths depend on the type
of equation of state the flux function is constructed for. In general terms, the numerical flux function used
in the scheme is defined as:
(10-33)
After some rewriting of equation (10-33), we find:
(10-34)
Using the ideal gas equation of state (gamma-law equation of state), we find for the wave strengths:
(10-35)
And for the associated eigenvectors:
(10-36)
In the above equations, the quantities denoted by a “tilde” are weighted quantities according to:
(10-37)
All quantities are averaged using the above definition, except for the density:
(10-38)
The above described flux evaluation scheme is called an approximate Riemann scheme due to the fact a
linearization using the weighted quantities at the element faces is applied. As a result, the scheme exhibits
an artifact, namely that it does not satisfy the entropy inequality. The entropy inequality states that the
entropy of a system can only remain constant or increase. Due to the artifact, the scheme is able to also
capture mathematically sound, but physically impossible discontinuities like expansion shocks. This is
easily “repaired” by adding a so-called entropy fix to the scheme as described in the next section.
f
R
q
L
q
R
. ( )
1
2
-- - f q
L
( ) f q
R
( ) + { }
1
2
--- o
˜
i
ì
˜
i R
˜
i
· ·
i 1 =
5
¯
¹ )
¦ ¦
´ `
¦ ¦
¦ ¹
– =
f
R
q
L
q
R
. ( )
1
2
-- - f q
L
( ) f q
R
( )
u
˜
Aq
u
˜
a
˜

u
˜
– ( ) o
˜
1
R
˜
1 u
˜
a
˜
+
u
˜
– ( ) o
˜
2 R
˜
2
· · + · · + · | | – + { } =
o
˜
1
Ap p
˜
a
˜
Au · –
2
a
˜
2
--------------------------------- =
o
˜
2
Ap p
˜
a
˜
Au · +
2
a
˜
2
--------------------------------- =
R
˜
1
1
u
˜
a
˜

v
˜
w
˜
H
˜
u
˜
a
˜

\ .
| |
T
=
R
˜
2
1
u
˜
a
˜
+
v
˜
w
˜
H
˜
u
˜
a
˜
+
\ .
| |
T
=
o
˜
u o
L
1 u – ( ) o
R
· + · =
u
p
L
p
L
p
R
+
---------------------------- =
p
˜
p
L
p
R
· =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Approximate Riemann Euler Solver
410
Entropy Fix for the Flux Difference Riemann Scheme
As described in the earlier section, a so-called entropy fix must be added to the scheme in order to have
the scheme correctly decompose a expansion discontinuity into a physically correct expansion fan. The
entropy fix in fact amounts to adding some numerical viscosity or dissipation to sonic points, shocks and
contact discontinuities. The dissipation is added only at those points where any one of the system’s
eigenvalues vanishes.
The entropy fix can be written in terms of a simple function.
(10-39)
The function works automatically on the eigenvalues of the system, represented in equation (10-39) by
, and is governed by a single parameter that depends on the flow field:
(10-40)
Second Order Accuracy of the Scheme
When we consider the flux function as given in general by equation (10-34), it does not say anything
about the order of accuracy at which the face fluxes are computed. The accuracy is governed by the way
in which the left and the right state variables are determined.
A first order scheme results when the left and the right state variables are taken as the values the state
variables have at the left and the right element center; a so-called first order extrapolation to the face.
When we increase the stencil by which we determine the left and right state variable values at the face
by including the left-left and the right-right element, we arrive at a second order accurate scheme in
space. A so-called nonlinear limiter that avoids the creation of new minimum or maximum values limits
the second order left- and right face values of the state variables. Such a scheme is called total variation
diminishing, (TVD). Near sharp discontinuities the scheme reverts to locally first order as to introduce
the necessary numerical viscosity to avoid oscillations in the solution near the discontinuity.
The second order approximate Riemann solver in MD Nastran Non-linear explicit (SOL 700) applies the
Superbee limiter. The second order scheme can be formally written as:
(10-41)
for the left side of the face, with:
(10-42)
v z ( )
z
z
2
o
1
2
+ ( )
2o
1
----------------------
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
=
a o
1
>
a o
1
<
z o
1
o
1
o
u
˜
a
˜
-- -
v
˜
a
˜
-- -
w
˜
a
˜
----
+ +
\ .
| |
· =
q
i 1 2 +
L
q
i
1
2
--- +
L
q
i
q
i 1 –
– ( ) · + =
+
L
1
2
-- - 1 k – ( ) u r
L
( ) 1 k + ( ) r
L
u
1
r
L
-----
\ .
| |
· · + · =
r
L
q
i 1 +
q
i

q
i
q
i 1 +

----------------------- =
Main Index
411 Chapter 10: Eulerian Solvers
Approximate Riemann Euler Solver
For the right side of the face, the second order approximation is defined by:
(10-43)
with:
(10-44)
The upwind scheme is defined for and the limiter function is the Superbee limiter:
(10-45)
Time Integration
The set of equations is integrated in time using a multi-stage scheme. For the second order accurate
solution, a three-stage time integration scheme is used:
(10-46)
In equation (10-46), denotes the state variable value in the kth integration stage, the stage
coefficients, and the flux contributions are defined as
(10-47)
using the state variables at each stage of the integration. The final step gives the solution of the state
variables at the new time level.
q
i 1 2 +
R
q
i 1 +
1
2
-- - +
R
q
i 2 +
q
i 1 +
– ( ) · – =
+
R
1
2
--- 1 k – ( ) u r
R
( ) 1 k + ( ) r
R
u
1
r
R
-----
\ .
| |
· · + · =
r
R
q
i 1 +
q
i

q
i 2 +
q
i 1 +

------------------------------ =
k 1 – = u
u r ( ) max 0 mi n 2r 1 , ( ) mi n r 2 , ( ) , , | | =
q
0 ( )
q
i
n
=
q
1 ( )
q
0 ( )

o
1
At ·
V
i
----------------- F
0 ( )
·
\ .
| |
– =
q
2 ( )
q
0 ( )

o
2
At ·
V
i
----------------- F
1 ( )
·
\ .
| |
– =
q
3 ( )
q
0 ( )

o
3
At ·
V
i
----------------- F
2 ( )
·
\ .
| |
– =
q
i
n 1 +
q
3 ( )
=
q
k ( )
o
k
F
k ( )
F
k ( )
f
R
q
L
k ( )
q
R
k ( )
, ( ) A
n
·
n 1 =
6
¯
=
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Approximate Riemann Euler Solver
412
Main Index
Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
11
Airbags and Occupant Safety

Introduction 414

Airbag Definition 415

Seatbelts 425

Occupant Dummy Models 433

Pre- and Postprocessing 434
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Introduction
414
Introduction
The MD Nastran r2 release, SOL 700 includes a Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) capability that is based
on the advanced Finite Volume (Eulerian) and General Coupling Technology available in MSC.Dytran.
The objective of fluid-structure interaction using the coupling algorithm is to enable the material modeled
in Eulerian and Lagrangian meshes to interact. Initially, the two solvers are entirely separate. Lagrangian
elements that lie within an Eulerian mesh do not affect the flow of the Eulerian material and no forces
are transferred from the Eulerian material back to the Lagrangian structure. The coupling algorithm
computes the interaction between the two sets of elements. It thus enables complex fluid-structure
interaction problems to be analyzed.
The first task in coupling the Eulerian and Lagrangian sections of a model is to create a surface on the
Lagrangian structure. This surface is used to transfer the forces between the two solver domains. The
surface acts as a boundary to the flow of material in the Eulerian mesh. At the same time, the stresses in
the Eulerian elements cause forces to act on the coupling surface, distorting the Lagrangian elements.
The method used for airbag simulation is full gas dynamics and is based on General Coupling with
adaptive Euler. Unlike other techniques such as the ALE (Arbitrary Lagrange Euler) where the Eulerian
mesh is fixed in space or GBAG method where the gas flow is modeled by applying a pre-determined
pressure profile to inflate the bag, in the General Coupling technique, the Eulerian mesh will “adapt”
itself to the Lagrangian fabric model as the airbag is inflated. In other words, when the airbag is initially
at the folded stage, there is a small Eulerian domain encapsulating the Lagrangian mesh. When the airbag
is inflated, the Eulerian mesh expands as the gas jet flows through the airbag compartments and adapts
itself to follow the airbag fabric. This technique is unique in MD Nastran r2 and is considered the most
accurate method to predict the complex airbag behavior such as Out-of-Position (OOP) simulation, as
required by FMVSS 208, where the occupant is already leaning forward when the airbag is inflated. In
addition, CFD deployment of multi-compartmented airbags can easily be modeled with this technique by
using multiple, fully automatic, adaptive Euler domains. The following capabilities are available:
• Analyze multiple compartments with the CFD approach.
• Simulate flow from one CFD domain into another CFD domain.
• The individual CFD domains are dynamic and adaptive. The user does not need to mesh the CFD
domains, nor does he have to worry about the size, since the CFD domains will automatically
follow the deploying airbag compartments.
• Flow through both small and large holes is accurately calculated.
• Inflator models
Main Index
415 Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
Airbag Definition
Figure 13-1 Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag
Airbag Definition
The airbags are defined by using the AIRBAG entry in SOL 700. Airbags can be automatically inflated
by defining a gas flow rate in Eulerian domain using full gas dynamics method. A second method, the
conventional uniform pressure method, is also available but it is not as accurate as the full gas dynamics.
All related airbag input definitions such as inflator and porosity models, environmental parameters, are
grouped in entries that can be directly input in the AIRBAG entry. Every entity has certain parameters
associated with it that has to be input immediately following the name of the entity. The order of which
entity is entered first in the AIRBAG card is immaterial as long as the associated parameters are defined
right after the name of the entity. The following entity groups are available:
(a) Shape of Side Curtain airbag at Start of Simulation
(b) Euler Meshes for all Six Regions
(c) Shape of Bag after 20 milliseconds
“CFD” Entries for this entity describe the properties of the Eulerian domain. Only one
“CFD” section can be defined. If this section is not defined, the uniform pressure
method is used.
“ENVIRONM” Entries for this entity describe the properties of the environmental conditions for the
airbag. Only one “ENVIRONM” section can be defined. If not defined, the values
for “INITIAL” will be used.
“INITIAL” Entries for this entity describe the properties of the environmental conditions for the
airbag. Only one “INITIAL” section can be defined and is required.
“INFLATOR” Entries for this entity describe the properties of an inflator that is attached to the
airbag. More than one inflator may be defined.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbag Definition
416
There are other entries in SOL 700 to define airbag properties. These are:
Please see MD Nastran r2 QRG for more details.
“CGINFLTR” Entries for this entity describe the properties of a cold gas inflator that is attached to
the airbag. More than one inflator may be defined.
“SMALHOLE

Entries for this entity describe the properties of a small hole in the airbag. More than
one SMALHOLE may be defined. A small hole should be used when the size of the
hole is of the same order as the size of the elements of the Euler mesh.
“LARGHOLE” Entries for this entity describe the properties of a large hole in the airbag. More than
one LARGHOLE may be defined. A large hole should be used when the size of the
hole is of the larger than the size of the elements of the Euler mesh.
“PERMEAB” Entries for this entity describe the properties of the permeability of the airbag fabric.
More than one PERMEAB may be defined.
“CONVECT” Entries for this entity describe the properties of the loss of energy of the gas in the
airbag by means of convection through the airbag surface. More than one
CONVECT may be defined.
“RADIATE” Entries for this entity describe the properties of the loss of energy of the gas in the
airbag by means of radiation through the airbag surface. More than one RADIATE
may be defined. When this option is used, the Stephan-Boltzmann constant must be
defined by PARAM, SBOLTZ.
“GAS” Entries for this entity describe the properties of gases. More than 1 GAS may be
defined and the gases defined in one AIRBAG entry can be referenced by other
AIRBAG entries.
PARAM, UGASC defines a value for the universal gas constant.
PARAM, SBOLTZ defines a value for the Stephan-Boltzmann constant
PARAM,
DYDEFAUL
controls the default setting of the simulation
INFLFRC defines the hybrid inflator gas fraction
EOSGAM Gamma Law Gas Equation of State
GRIA grid point in airbag reference geometry
Main Index
417 Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
Airbag Definition
Inflator Models in Airbags
There are several methods available to define an inflator in airbag analyses. The most general inflator
definitions are:
Figure 13-2 Airbag and Occupant Safety using SOL 700
For both the uniform pressure model and the full gas dynamics (CFD) method, the inflator location and
area are defined by means of a subsurface created by a BSURF, BCPROP, BCMATL, or BCSEG
parameters. These parameters are referenced by BFID field on the INFLTR entity. It can only reference
shell elements that belong to the airbag surface, as defined by BFID. The characteristics of the inflator
are specified on an INFLTR entity on AIRBAG card. This entry references tables for the mass flow rate
and the temperature of the inflowing gas.
A model can be defined containing both (CFD) and uniform pressure model for the airbag. These two
options can be defined with identical inflator characteristics. When the CFD entity and its associated
parameters are omitted from the AIRBAG card, the uniform pressure method will be used. In case the
CFD entity is present, the airbag will use the Euler method from the start of the simulation. In case the
value of SWITCH is nonzero, the airbag will switch from an Eulerian representation to a Uniform
Pressure formulation.
Hybrid Inflator Model
The hybrid inflator supports the inflow of multiple gases through an inflator subsurface, as well as
providing a type of thermally ideal gas for which the specific heat at constant pressure can be
dependent on temperature.
In addition, the properties of the gas contained in an air bag will be changed based on the gas composition
and temperature. Updating of gas constants is available for use together with INFLTR, INFLHB, INFLTNK,
and INFLCG inflator definitions, and with PORHOLE, PERMEAB, PERMGBG, PORFCPL, and
PORFGBG porosity definitions.
INFLTR Standard inflator defined by mass flow rate and static temperature of a
single inflowing gas.
INFLHB Hybrid inflator defined by mass flow rate and static temperature of multiple
inflowing gasses.
INFLCG Coldgas inflator behaves like a reservoir filled with high pressure gas that
flows into the airbag.
c
p
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbag Definition
418
Ideal gas description
A thermally ideal gas is specified by the specific gas constant and the variation of specific heat at constant
pressure with temperature.
The specific gas constant for a gas is defined as:
where is the universal gas constant and the gas molar weight.
Using the specific heat as function of temperature, the specific internal energy of a gas as a function of
temperature is found as:
We can now define so that:
Mixture of gas
A hybrid inflator is specifically meant to give an inflow of several gases with different properties. To
account for the properties of these gases, it is necessary to keep track of the composition of a gas at a
certain time, not only for the inflator but also for the gas mixture inside the air bag. For use with hybrid
inflators, it is assumed that instantaneous mixing takes place. This means the gas composition are the
same throughout the volume.
For an inflator, gas fractions are given as user input. For gasbags and Eulerian, gas fractions are based on
the total mass of each gas at a certain time. Gas fractions are defined as follows:
Properties of the gas mixture inside a surface are based upon the principle that a mixture of (thermally)
ideal gases is itself an ideal gas. This yields for the properties of the mixture:
R R
uni
M =
R
uni
M
e T ( ) c
p
T ( ) R – ( ) dT e
ref
+ ·
T
ref
T
í
=
c
v
e T ( ) c
v
T ( ) T · =
mf rac
i
t ( )
mass
i
t ( )
mass
t ot
t ( )
-------------------------- =
R
*
mf rac
i
t R
i
·
i 1 =
m
¯
=
c
v
*
mf rac
i
t ( ) c
v
i
T ( ) ·
i 1 =
m
¯
=
c
p
*
c
v
*
R
*
+ =
¸
*
c
p
*
c
v
*
----- =
Main Index
419 Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
Airbag Definition
Here is the temperature of the gas mixture. This may be the inflow temperature of the inflator, the
temperature inside a constant pressure gasbag, or the average temperature of all Eulerian elements that
are not covered by the coupling surface. The latter is found as:
Energy/work
A formulation for the change of energy in a closed volume can be found when and are a function
of temperature and gas composition. This takes into account inflow (by hybrid inflators), outflow (by
porosity), and energy loss (through convection and radiation).
We know:
where:
For inflow of a certain mixture, we find:
Similarly, for outflow:
For the work done by the gas mixture, the following holds:
Given the expressions above for a thermally ideal gas and a general mixture of these gases, this finally
yields for the rate of temperature change in an enclosed volume:
T
T
Eul er
e
cel l ¯
c
v
Eul er
----------------- =
c
p
c
v
pdV dU dQ + =
dQ dq
i n
dq
l oss
– dq
out
– =
dU m de e dm · + · =
dq
i n
dt
---------- M
·
i n
t ( ) c
p
i n
*
T
i n
( ) · | | T
i n
· =
dq
out
dt
------------- M
·
out
t ( ) c
p
out
*
T
out
( ) · | | T
out
· =
p
dV
dt
------- M c
p
*
c
v
*
– ( ) T
V
·
V
--- · · · =
1
T
c
v
*
-----
dc
v
*
dT
--------- +
\ .
|
| |
T
·
T
--- ·
1
M e ·
------------ M
·
i n
c
p
i n
*
t T
i n
, ( ) · | | T
i n
M
·
out
c
p
out
*
t T
out
, ( ) · | | T
out
Q
l oss
– · – · ( )+ · =
c
v
i
T ( ) m
·
i
· ( )
i
¯
M c
v
*
·
-------------------------------------- – ¸
*
1 – ( )
V
·
V
--- · –
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbag Definition
420
Constant Volume Tank Tests
Constant volume tank tests are used to characterize inflators. The inflator is ignited within the tank and,
as the propellant burns, gas is generated. The inflator temperature is assumed to be constant. From
experimental measurements of the time history of the tank pressure it is straightforward to derive the
mass flow rate, .
From energy conservation, where and are defined to be the temperature of the inflator and tank,
respectively, we obtain:
For a perfect gas under constant volume, , hence,
and, finally, we obtain the desired mass flow rate:
Porosity in Airbags
Porosity is defined as the flow of gas through the airbag surface. There are two ways to model this:
1. Holes: The airbag surface contains a discrete hole.
2. Permeability: The airbag surface is made from material that is not completely sealed.
The same porosity models are available for both the uniform pressure airbag model as the Eulerian
coupled (CFD) airbag model. The porous flow can be either to and from the environment or into and from
another uniform pressure model.
Holes
Flow through holes as defined on the SMALHOLE entries is based on the theory of one-dimensional gas
flow through a small orifice. LARGHOLE entries define flow through a hole with the velocity method.
The velocity method can only be active for Eulerian airbags. When the SMALHOLE is used on the
AIRBAG card, the theory of one-dimensional gas flow through a small orifice is applied.
Velocity Method
The transport of mass through the porous area is based on the velocity of the gas in the Eulerian elements,
relative to the moving of coupling surface (airbag fabric).
m
·
T
i
T
t
c
p
m
·
T
i
c
v
m
·
T
t
c
v
m
·
T
·
t
+ =
V
·
0 =
p
·
V m
·
RT
t
mRT
·
t
+ =
m
·
c
v
p
·
V
c
p
RT
t
-------------- =
Main Index
421 Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
Airbag Definition
The volume of the Eulerian materian transported through the faces of the coupling surface that intersect
an Eulerian element is equal to
where
The transport mass through the porous area is equal to the density of the gas times the
transported volume.
Pressure Method
The transport of mass through the porous area is based on the pressure difference between the gas in the
Eulerian element and the outside pressure. The outside pressure is the pressure as specified on the
ENVIRONM section in the AIRBAG entry.
= transported volume during one time step ( for the outflow; for
the inflow).
= time step.
= porosity coefficient.
= velocity vector of the gas in the Eulerian mesh
= area of the face of the coupling surface that intersects the Eulerian element is equal to
the area of the face that lies inside the Eulerian element.
SX
i nt
v
Face of the coupling
surface that intersects
the Eulerian element
Coupling Surface
Eulerian Element
V
trans
d – t o v A · ( ) · · =
V
trans
V
trans
0 > V
trans
0 <
dt
o
v
A
A
SX
i nt
v
Face of the coupling
surface that intersects
the Eulerian element
Coupling Surface
Eulerian Element
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbag Definition
422
The volume of the Eulerian material transported through the faces of the coupling surface that intersect
an Eulerian element is equal to:
where
The pressure at the face is approximated by the one-dimensional isentropic expansion of the gas to the
critical pressure or the environmental pressure ascending to
where is the critical pressure:
In case the outside pressure is greater than the pressure of the gas, inflow through the coupling surface
occurs. This porosity model can only be used for ideal gases; i. e., materials modeled with the gamma
law equation of state (EOSGAM).
Permeability
Permeability is defined as the velocity of gas through a surface area depending on the pressure difference
over that area.
= transported volume during one time step ( for outflow; for inflow).
= time step.
= porosite coefficient.
= velocity vector of the gas in the Eulerian mesh.
= area of the face of the coupling surface that intersects the Eularian element is equal to
the area of the face that lies inside the Eulerian element.
= = pressure of the gas in the Eulerian element.
= density of the gas in the Eulerian element.
= adiabatic exponent = .
= pressure of the face.
V
trans
dt o A A · ( )
2pp¸
¸ 1 –
-------------
p
exh
p
---------
\ .
| |
2 ¸ /
p
exh
p
---------
\ .
| |
¸ 1 +
¸
------------
– · · · =
V
trans
V
trans
0 > V
trans
0 <
dt
o
v
A
A
p
p
¸ C
p
C
v

p
exh
p
p
env
p
c
>
p
env
p
c
<
¹
¦
´
¦
¦
=
p
c
p
c
p
2
¸ 1 +
------------
\ .
| |
r
r 1 –
-----------
·
Main Index
423 Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
Airbag Definition
On the PERMEAB entity in AIRBAG card, permeability can be specified by either a coefficient or a
pressure dependent table:
1. Coefficient: Massflow = coeff * pressure_difference
2. Table
The velocity of the gas flow can never exceed the sonic speed:
where is the gas constant of in- or outflowing gas and is the critical temperature.
The critical temperature can be calculated as follows:
where is the temperature of outflowing gas.
Initial Metric Method for Airbags
If the reference configuration of the airbag is taken as the folded configuration, the geometrical accuracy
of the deployed bag will be affected by both the stretching and the compression of elements during the
folding process. Such element distortions are very difficult to avoid in a folded bag. By reading in a
reference configuration such as the final unstretched configuration of a deployed bag, any distortions in
the initial geometry of the folded bag will have no effect on the final geometry of the inflated bag. This
is because the stresses depend only on the deformation gradient matrix:
Coeff
press_diff
coeff
o massflow) ( )
o pressdiff ( )
--------------------------------- =
Gas Velocity
press_diff
Pressure Dependent Table
Gas Velocity
V
max
V
sonic
– ¸RT
crit

¸ T
crit
T
crit
T
gas
---------
2
¸ 1 + ( )
----------------- –
T
gas
F
i j
cx
i
cX
j
-------- =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbag Definition
424
where the choice of may coincide with the folded or unfold configurations. It is this unfolded
configuration which may be specified here.
Note that a reference geometry which is smaller than the initial airbag geometry will not induce initial
tensile stresses.
If a liner is included and the LNRC parameter set to 1 in MATD034, compression is disabled in the liner
until the reference geometry is reached; i.e., the fabric element becomes tensile.
Heat Transfer in Airbags
For airbags with high temperature, energy is exchanged with the environment. There are two ways to
define heat transfer in airbags, convection (CONVECT) and radiation (RADIATE).
The heat-transfer rates due to convection and radiation are defined by:
1. Convection:
where is the time-dependent heat transfer coefficient, is the (sub)surface area for heat
transfer, is the temperature inside the airbag, and is the environment temperature.
2. Radiation:
where is the gas emissivity, is the (sub)surface area for heat transfer, is the temperature
inside the airbag, and is the environment temperature.
X
j
q
conv
h t ( )A T T
env
– ( ) –
h t ( ) A
T T
env
q
rad
eAs T
A
T
env
A
– | | =
e A T
T
env
Main Index
425 Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
Seatbelts
Seatbelts
Belt elements are single degree of freedom elements connecting two nodes. When the strain in an element
is positive (i.e. the current length is greater then the unstretched length), a tension force is calculated from
the material characteristics and is applied along the current axis of the element to oppose further
stretching. The unstretched length of the belt is taken as the initial distance between the two nodes
defining the position of the element plus the initial slack length.
Seatbelt shell elements must be used with caution. The seatbelt shells distribute the loading on the surface
of the dummy more realistically than the two node belt elements. For the seatbelt shells to work with
sliprings and retractors it is necessary to use a logically regular mesh of quadrilateral elements.
Figure 13-3 Seatbelt Shell Elements Definition
The ordering of the nodes and elements are important for seatbelt shells.
Slipring
Retractor
Top View:
RE3
RE4
RE2
RN5 SN5
SN4 RN4
RN3
RN2
RN1
RE1
SN3
SN2
SN1
SRE14 SRE24
SRE13
SRE23
SRE12 SRE22
SRE11 SRE21
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Seatbelts
426
Seatbelt Pretensioner
Pretensioners allow modeling of five types of active devices which tighten the belt during the initial
stages of a crash. Types 1 and 5 represent a pyrotechnic device which spins the spool of a retractor,
causing the belt to be reeled in. The user defines a pull-in versus time curve which applies once the
pretensioner activates. Types 2 and 3 represent preloaded springs or torsion bars which move the buckle
when released. The pretensioner is associated with any type of spring element including rotational. Note
that when the preloaded spring, locking spring, and any restraints on the motion of the associated nodes
are defined in the normal way; the action of the pretensioner is merely to cancel the force in one spring
until (or after) it fires. With the second type, the force in the spring element is canceled out until the
pretensioner is activated. In this case, the spring in question is normally a stiff, linear spring which acts
as a locking mechanism, preventing motion of the seat belt buckle relative to the vehicle. A preloaded
spring is defined in parallel with the locking spring. This type avoids the problem of the buckle being free
to ‘drift’ before the pretensioner is activated. Type 4, a force type, is described below.
To activate the pretensioner, the following sequence of events must occur:
1. Any one of up to four sensors must be triggered.
2. Then a user-defined time delay occurs.
3. Then the pretensioner acts.
Type 1 pretensioner is intended to simulate a pyrotechnic retractor. Each retractor has a loading (and
optional unloading) curve that describes the force on the belt element as a function of the amount of belt
that has been pulled out of the retractor since the retractor locked. The type 1 pretensioner acts as a shift
of this retractor load curve. An example will make this clear. Suppose at a particular time that 5mm of
belt material has left the retractor. The retractor responds with a force corresponding to 5mm pull-out on
it's loading curve. But suppose this retractor has a type 1 pretensioner defined, and, at this instant of time,
the pretensioner specifies a pull-in of 20mm. The retractor then responds with a force that corresponds
to (5mm + 20mm) on it's loading curve. This results in a much larger force. The effect can be that belt
material will be pulled in, but there is no guarantee. The benefit of this implementation is that the force
vs. pull-in load curve for the retractor is followed and no unrealistic forces are generated. Still, it may be
difficult to produce realistic models using this option, so two new types of pretensioners have been added.
These are available in MD Nastran r2 and later versions.
Types 2 and 3 are simple triggers for activating or deactivating springs, which then pull on the buckle.
No changes have been made to these, and they are not discussed here.
The type 4 pretensioner takes a force vs. time curve (see Figure 13-4). Each time step, the retractor
computes the desired force without regard to the pretensioner. If the resulting force is less than that
specified by the pretensioner load curve, then the pretensioner value is used instead. As time goes on,
the pretensioner load curve should drop below the forces generated by the retractor, and the pretensioner
is then essentially inactive. This provides for good control of the actual forces, so no unrealistic values
are generated. The actual direction and amount of belt movement is unspecified, and depends on the
other forces being exerted on the belt. This is suitable when the force the pretensioner exerts over time
is known.
Main Index
427 Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
Seatbelts
Figure 13-4 Force versus Time Pretensioner. At the intersection, the retractor locks.
The type 5 pretensioner is essentially the same as the old type 1 pretensioner, but with the addition of a
force limiting value. The pull-in is given as a function of time, and the belt is drawn into the retractor
exactly as desired. However, if at any point the forces generated in the belt exceed the pretensioner force
limit, then the pretensioner is deactivated and the retractor takes over. In order to prevent a large
discontinuity in the force at this point, the loading curve for the retractor is shifted (in the abscissa) by
the amount required to put the current (pull-out, force) on the load curve. For example, suppose the
current force is 1000, and the current pull-out is -10 (10mm of belt has been pulled in by the
pretensioner). If the retractor would normally generate a force of 1000 after 25mm of belt had been pulled
OUT, then the load curve is shifted to the left by 3, and remains that way for the duration of the
calculation. So that at the current pull-in of 10, it generates the force normally associated with a pull out
of 25. If the belt reaches a pull out of 5, the force is as if it were pulled out 40 (5 + the shift of 35), and
so on. This option is included for those who liked the general behavior of the old type 1 pretensioner, but
has the added feature of the force limit to prevent unrealistic behavior.
The type 6 pretensioner is a variation of the type 4 pretensioner, with features of the type 5 pretensioner.
A force vs. time curve is input and the pretensioner force is computed each cycle. The retractor linked to
this pretensioner should specify a positive value for PULL, which is the distance the belt pulls out before
it locks. As the pretensioner pulls the belt into the retractor, the amount of pull-in is tracked. As the
pretensioner force decreases and drops below the belt tension, belt will begin to move back out of the
retractor. Once PULL amount of belt has moved out of the retractor (relative to the maximum pull in
encountered), the retractor will lock. At this time, the pretensioner is disabled, and the retractor force
curve is shifted to match the current belt tension. This shifting is done just like the type 5 pretensioner. It
is important that a positive value of PULL be specified to prevent premature retractor locking which
could occur due to small outward belt movements generated by noise in the simulation.
Force
Defined Force
vs.
Time Curve
Retractor Lock Time
Retractor Pull-out Force
Time
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Seatbelts
428
Seatbelt Retractor
The unloading curve should start at zero tension and increase monotonically (i.e., no segments of
negative or zero slope).
Retractors allow belt material to be paid out into a belt element. Retractors operate in one of two regimes:
unlocked when the belt material is paid out, or reeled in under constant tension and locked when a user
defined force-pullout relationship applies.
The retractor is initially unlocked, and the following sequence of events must occur for it to
become locked:
1. Any one of up to four sensors must be triggered. (The sensors are described below.)
2. Then a user-defined time delay occurs.
3. Then a user-defined length of belt must be paid out (optional).
4. Then the retractor locks and once locked, it remains locked.
In the unlocked regime, the retractor attempts to apply a constant tension to the belt. This feature allows
an initial tightening of the belt and takes up any slack whenever it occurs. The tension value is taken from
the first point on the force-pullout load curve. The maximum rate of pull out or pull in is given by 0.01 ×
fed length per time step. Because of this, the constant tension value is not always achieved.
In the locked regime, a user-defined curve describes the relationship between the force in the attached
element and the amount of belt material paid out. If the tension in the belt subsequently relaxes, a
different user-defined curve applies for unloading. The unloading curve is followed until the minimum
tension is reached.
The curves are defined in terms of initial length of belt. For example, if a belt is marked at 10mm intervals
and then wound onto a retractor, and the force required to make each mark emerge from the (locked)
retractor is recorded, the curves used for input would be as follows:
Pyrotechnic pretensions may be defined which cause the retractor to pull in the belt at a
predetermined rate. This overrides the retractor force-pullout relationship from the moment when the
pretensioner activates.
If desired, belt elements may be defined which are initially inside the retractor. These will emerge as belt
material is paid out, and may return into the retractor if sufficient material is reeled in during unloading.
Elements e2, e3 and e4 are initially inside the retractor, which is paying out material into element e1.
When the retractor has fed

into e1, where
0 Minimum tension (should be > zero)
10mm Force to emergence of first mark
20mm Force to emergence of second mark
.
.
.
.
.
.
L
crit
L
crit
fed length 1.1 minimum length × – =
Main Index
429 Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
Seatbelts
(minimum length defined on belt material input)
(fed length defined on retractor input)
Element e2 emerges with an unstretched length of ; the unstretched length of element
e1 is reduced by the same amount. The force and strain in e1 are unchanged; in e2, they are set equal to
those in e1. The retractor now pays out material into e2.
If no elements are inside the retractor, e2 can continue to extend as more material is fed into it.
As the retractor pulls in the belt (for example, during initial tightening), if the unstretched length of the
mouth element becomes less than the minimum length, the element is taken into the retractor.
To define a retractor, the user enters the retractor node, the ‘mouth’ element (into which belt material will
be fed), e1 in Figure 13-5, up to 4 sensors which can trigger unlocking, a time delay, a payout delay
(optional), load and unload curve numbers, and the fed length. The retractor node is typically part of the
vehicle structure; belt elements should not be connected to this node directly, but any other feature can
be attached including rigid bodies. The mouth element should have a node coincident with the retractor
but should not be inside the retractor. The fed length would typically be set either to a typical element
initial length, for the distance between painted marks on a real belt for comparisons with high speed film.
The fed length should be at least three times the minimum length.
If there are elements initially inside the retractor (e2, e3 and e4 in the Figure 13-5) they should not be
referred to on the retractor input, but the retractor should be identified on the element input for these
elements. Their nodes should all be coincident with the retractor node and should not be restrained or
constrained. Initial slack will automatically be set to 1.1 × minimum length for these elements; this
overrides any user-defined value.
Weblockers can be included within the retractor representation simply by entering a ‘locking up’
characteristic in the force pullout curve (see Figure 13-6. The final section can be very steep (but must
have a finite slope).
1.1·minimum length
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Seatbelts
430
Figure 13-5 Elements in a Retractor
Figure 13-6 Retractor Force Pull Characteristics
Before
Element 1
Element 2
Element 3
Element 4
All nodes within this area are coincident
Element 1
Element 2
Element 3
Element 4
After
without weblockers
with weblockers
PULLOUT
F
O
R
C
E
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431 Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
Seatbelts
Seatbelt Sensor
Sensors are used to trigger locking of retractors and activate pretensioners. Four types of sensors are
available which trigger according to the following criteria:
By default, the sensors are inactive during dynamic relaxation. This allows initial tightening of the belt
and positioning of the occupant on the seat without locking the retractor or firing any pretensioners.
However, a flag can be set in the sensor input to make the sensors active during the dynamic
relaxation phase.
Seatbelt Slipring
Sliprings allow continuous sliding of a belt through a sharp change of angle. Two elements (1 & 2 in
Figure 13-7) meet at the slipring. Node B in the belt material remains attached to the slipring node, but
belt material (in the form of unstretched length) is passed from element 1 to element 2 to achieve slip.
The amount of slip at each time step is calculated from the ratio of forces in elements 1 and 2. The ratio
of forces is determined by the relative angle between elements 1 and 2 and the coefficient of friction, .
The tension in the belts are taken as and , where is on the high tension side and T
1
is the force
on the low tension side. Thus, if is sufficiently close to , no slip occurs; otherwise, slip is just
sufficient to reduce the ratio to . No slip occurs if both elements are slack. The out-of-balance
force at node B is reacted on the slipring node; the motion of node B follows that of slipring node.
If, due to slip through the slipring, the unstretched length of an element becomes less than the minimum
length (as entered on the belt material card), the belt is remeshed locally: the short element passes through
the slipring and reappears on the other side (see Figure 13-7). The new unstretched length of e1 is
. Force and strain in e2 and e3 are unchanged; force and strain in e1 are now equal to
those in e2. Subsequent slip will pass material from e3 to e1. This process can continue with several
elements passing in turn through the slipring.
To define a slipring, the user identifies the two belt elements which meet at the slipring, the friction
coefficient, and the slipring node. The two elements must have a common node coincident with the
slipring node. No attempt should be made to restrain or constrain the common node for its motion will
Type 1 – When the magnitude of x-, y-, or z- acceleration of a given node has remained
above a given level continuously for a given time, the sensor triggers. This does
not work with nodes on rigid bodies.
Type 2 – When the rate of belt payout from a given retractor has remained above a given
level continuously for a given time, the sensor triggers.
Type 3 – The sensor triggers at a given time.
Type 4 – The sensor triggers when the distance between two nodes exceeds a given
maximum or becomes less than a given minimum. This type of sensor is intended
for use with an explicit mass/spring representation of the sensor mechanism.
u
T
1
T
2
T
2
T
2
T
1
T
2
T
1
e
uO
1.1 minimum length ×
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MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Seatbelts
432
automatically be constrained to follow the slipring node. Typically, the slipring node is part of the vehicle
body structure and, therefore, belt elements should not be connected to this node directly, but any other
feature can be attached, including rigid bodies.
Figure 13-7 Elements Passing Through Slipring
Before
After
Slipring
Element 1
Element 2
Element 1
Element 2
B
Element 3
Element 3
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433 Chapter 11: Airbags and Occupant Safety
Occupant Dummy Models
Occupant Dummy Models
The occupant dummy models, also known as ATDs (Anthropomorphic Test Devices) were introduced in
the previous release of SOL 700 for those applications that airbag was not needed. Many applications
such as sled test and aircraft seat design, or armored vehicle design where the occupant behavior is
studied when a land mine is detonated do not require airbag simulation.
SOL 700 supports occupant dummies that are readily available in LS-DYNA *key file format.
These include:
1. LS-DYNA public domain dummies:
• 5th percentile deformable female dummy
• 50th percentile deformable male dummy
• 95th percentile deformable male dummy
• 5th percentile rigid female dummy
• 50th percentile rigid male dummy
• 95th percentile rigid male dummy
2. ETA (Engineering Technology Associates) calibrated dummies. The calibrated dummies are
similar to LS-DYNA dummies except that they are validated against a set of standard tests.
The calibration tests are conducted on all Hybrid III, SID and EUROSID models to assure
model fidelity.
• 5th percentile deformable female dummy
• 50th percentile deformable male dummy
• 95th percentile deformable male dummy
• 5th percentile rigid female dummy
• 50th percentile rigid male dummy
• 95th percentile rigid male dummy
• EUROSID - 1 (Euro Side Impact Dummy)
• US DOT SID
• EEVC Upper Legform
• FMVSS 201 Headform
Figure 13-8 Typical Occupant Dummies in VPG (courtesy of ETA)
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Pre- and Postprocessing
434
There are many other ATD models available through ETA VPG (Virtual Proving Ground) pre-
post processor. In addition VPG supports the following barriers:
Barriers
• FMVSS & ECE Side Impact Barriers
• 0-Degree Front Rigid Barrier
• 30deg Rigid Front Barrier
• Front Offset Deformable Barrier
• Rear Impact Barrier
Impactors
• Rams
• Pendulums
• Head Forms
For more details, contact ETA in Troy, Michigan.
3. FTSS (First Technology Safety Systems) ATDs.
The FTSS ATD’s are high fidelity dummies and are available with additional licensing. The
following FTSS dummies are supported through SimX Crash or ETA – VPG:
• 5% Female dummy
• SID II
• Hybrid III - 3% Child Dummy (W.I.P.)
• Hybrid III - 6% Child Dummy (W.I.P.)
• BIOSID (W.I.P.)
Pre- and Postprocessing
Even though MD Patran supports SOL 700, it lacks a versatile dummy positioner or airbag folder.
Dummy positioning can be done using pre-post processing tools such as MSC Software SimX Crash and
ETA-VPG, both of which support SOL 700.
Main Index
Chapter 12: System Information and Parallel Processing
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
12
System Information and
Parallel Processing

Introduction 436

General Information 436

User Notes 439

Additional information of Different Platforms 441
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Introduction
436
Introduction
This chapter supports
• A general description about the hardware and software requirements and definitions.
• How to use parallel operation for different platforms.
General Information
Release Platforms
MD Nastran SOL 700 was built and tested on the following hardware with the listed software installed
as given in Table 12-1.
Table 12-1 Supported Hardware Configuration
Platform Operating System
Windows 32 Windows XP-SP2
Windows 64 Windows XP-SP2
SGI ** R10K/R12K IRIX64 6.5.22m
SGI Altix Propack 4
HP-UX – PA RISC 2.0 ** HPUX B.11.11
HP-UX Itanium2 HPUX B.11.23
Sun Sparc Solaris (**) Solaris 10 ( = SunOS 5.10 )
Solaris X64 Solaris 10
IBM RS/6000 AIX 5.3
Linux Itanium2 IA64 *) RedHat 4 update 5
Linux EM64T x86_64 RedHat 4 update 5
Intel Linux ** Red Hat 4 update 5
*For correct operation of the Intel Fortran compiler, MS Visual Studio .NET
must be installed prior to installing the Intel 8.1 compiler. For SOL 700,
these installs are not mandatory.
**The SOL 700 in MD Nastran 2006r2 does not support the
following configurations:
SGI: R4k and R5k; HP: HP-UX 10.20; SUN: Solaris 7; Linux: Redhat
7.3, Windows NT
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437 Chapter 12: System Information and Parallel Processing
General Information
MPI for MD Nastran SOL 700
SOL 700 requires MPI to be installed on every machine used. This is true even for single
processor machines.
SOL 700 expects hardware-specific native MPI to have been installed at default locations. When MPI is
not properly installed on your Unix/Linux machine or is not installed at the expected default location, a
job submission will exit with an error message to this effect. To avoid problems of this nature, or
problems caused by different versions of MPI, on several of the supported platforms the MPI version is
now part of the release and will be installed at a defined location. See Table 12-2 for details.
Table 12-2 MPI Version and Expected Location
Platform MPI Version MPI Location
Windows 32 MPIch V.1.2.5 1
Windows 64 MS CCP 1.0 C:\Program Files\Micsosoft Compute Cluster
SGI R10K/R12K SGI MPT 1.9 2
SGI Altix MPT 1.13 2
HP-UX – PA RISC 2.0 HP MPI 2.2 3
HP-UX Itanium2 HP MPI 2.2 3
Sun Sparc Solaris SUN HPC 7.1 /opt/SUNWhpc/HPC7.1
Solaris x64 SUN HPC 7.1 /opt/SUNWhpc/HPC7.1
IBM RS/6000 POE 4.2.2.14 /usr/lpp/ppe.poe
Linux Itanium2 IA64 HP-MPI 2.2.7/Openmpi-1.2.5 3
Linux EM64T x86_64 HP-MPI 2.2.7/Openmpi-1.2.5 3
Linux 32 HP-MPI 2.2.7/Openmpi-1.2.5 3
1. Exact location not important as long as it is installed. Install location will be picked up from the
registry.
2. Proper install will provide soft links to /usr/bin, /usr/lib.
3. MPI is part of the release and automatically installed in $installdir/bin/exe/mpi
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General Information
438
Hardware and Software Requirements
For the Linux platforms, the OpenMPI or HP MPI is required on all the machines that are clustered for
the job submission. The installation of these MPE versions is made available and is installed with the
Nastran SOL 700 installation.
For HP (HPUX Risc2 and HPUX Itanium2), the HP MPI is required on all the machines that are
clustered for the job submission. HP MPI is made available and is installed with the MD Nastran SOL
700 installation.
For all other Unix platforms, it is assumed that a native MPI program is pre-installed. For SGI IRIX64,
"Array Services" should be available. For Sun/Solaris and Solaris x64, it is "HPC", and for IBMAIX
"POE".
Although no specific hardware requirements exist for MD Nastran SOL 700 to run in distributed memory
parallel mode, it is preferable to have fast network connections between the machines if more than one
machine is used. It is recommended that the network should have a speed of at least 100 MBit per second.
The appropriate licenses are required in all machines used.
For windows, "MP-MPICH" from University of Aachen, Lehrstuhl für Betriebssysteme is required on
all the machines that are clustered for the job submission. MPICH is made available on the Nastran 2005
installation CD. Install MPIch version 1.2.5, by "default" and then the MPIch service will be installed.
And, make sure you define MSC_LICENSE_FILE and/or LM_LICENSE_FILE environment variables
correctly. If you make any changes make sure you always reboot your machine. The Windows Services
manager that is running the MPIch service needs to get these new settings and that is why a reboot
is necessary.
One workaround is to make a registry entry setting for MSC_LICENSE_FILE in the Flexlm key
location. This change is immediate and doesn’t need a reboot.
The head node is used to check your licenses. So make sure the head node has correctly defined
license settings.
If only two machines are to be used, you can use a hub or a cross-over cable to connect them. If more
than two machines are to be used, a switch is preferable. TCP/IP is used for communications.
Compatibility
Version 2006r2 only support connection of homogeneous networks with machines of the same type. Two
machines are compatible if they can both use the same executables. Some examples of compatible
machines are:
1. Several machines with exactly the same processor type and O/S.
2. One SGI R8000/Irix 6.5 and one SGI R10000/Irix 6.5 machine.
3. One HP J-Class/HPUX-11.0 and one HP C-Class/HPUX-11.0.
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439 Chapter 12: System Information and Parallel Processing
User Notes
Definition
1. Root machine: The machine on which the job is started.
2. Remote machine: Any machine other than the root machine that is part of a distributed parallel
run on the network.
User Notes
This section assumes that MD Nastran has been successfully installed on at least one of the machines that
are to be used in a distributed analysis, and that the appropriate SOL 700 licenses are in order. Assume
that host1 is the host name of the machine on which the job is to be started (the root machine). The host
names of the other machines (remote machines) are host2, host3, etc.
MD Nastran SOL 700 will always use one of the CPU's of the root machine. Additional slave nodes can
be used in a single calculation by using a hostfile. The hostfiles between windows and Linux/Unix
are different.
Specification of the Host file for Windows
See below for an example of a hostfile for windows:
segers 1 D:\MSC.Software\nastran\2006r2\dytran-lsdyna\dytran-lsdyna.exe
weenix 2 C:\MSC.Software\nastran\2006r2\dytran-lsdyna\dytran-lsdyna.exe
Specification of the Host file for UNIX and LINUX
To use more than one platform, a host file is must be used. The host file has the following general format.
hostname1 [number 1 of CPUs] [working directory] [executable location 1]
hostname2 [number 2 of CPUs] [working directory] [executable location 2]
hostname3 [number 3 of CPUs] [working directory] [executable location 3]
...
For example,
hostnamei =
name of the machine in the network. Each new hostname
must be on a new line.
number i CPUs = number of CPU’s to be used on each machine. Default is 1.
working directory =
working directory on each machine. This is dummy input
for this version.
executable location =
location of executable on each machine. Default for
executable location 1 is the script will figure out MSC
installation on hostname1. Default for other executable
location is executable location 1.
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User Notes
440
Start run on four CPU’s: two on the root machine, bari and two on the remote machine, pisa. Both
machines have exactly the same location of executable. Then hostfile has the following lines:
bari 2
pisa 2
And, if two CPU’s on bari and one CPU on pisa are used and pisa has different executable location, then
the following lines must be specified in hostfile:
bari 2
pisa 1 /tmp /app2/msc/nastran/msc2006r2/dyna (note the blank
after /tmp)
How to Run MD Nastran SOL 700 in Parallel
This section explains how to run SOL 700 using mutiparallel processors.
If test.dat file is submitted to analyze and host file name is hostlist.txt in UNIX, the command is:
nastran test1.dat hlist=hostfile
If more than one processor on one machine is used, sol700.pth file can be used using PATH=3.
sol700.pth includes how many number of processors are used, the full path of Dytran-LSDYNA
executable, amount of memory, etc. The details of this file are found in MD Nastran Quick
Reference Guide.
For example, sol700.pth includes the commands below if four processors, 20 Mb memories are used
in this machine:
/users/joe/sol700/run_dytran
exe=/users/joe/sol700/dytran-lsdyna
nproc=4
memory=20m
The name of script is run_dytran located to /users/joe/sol700/ and the executive dytran-
lsdyna located to /users/joe/sol700/dytran-lsdyna.
In this case, SOL 700 entry in the Executive Control Statement must have PATH=3.
SOL700, 129, PATH=3
Or without sol700.pth, the command can control the number of processors:
/users/joe/sol700/run_dyna exe=/users/joe/sol700/dytran-lsdyna
jid=abcd.dat nproc=4 memory=20m
In the case of Windows, the sequence for multiparallel processing is similar to that of UNIX and Linux.
For example, if PC’s named bari and pisa will use two and four processors respectively, sol700.pth
must include following lines (additional options are shown in the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide
for the SOL 700 entry).
E:\users\joe\sol700\ryn_dytran
nproc=6 steps=2
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441 Chapter 12: System Information and Parallel Processing
Additional information of Different Platforms
memory=90m
machine=bari#2+pisa#4
For SOL 700 parallel runs, PATH=3 must be set on the SOL 700 executive control entry and a file named
sol700.pth similar to the above must be used. The option to use a separate hostfile for PC’s is not
presently available.
How to Run Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) in Parallel
In order to run an FSI application on multiple processors, add fsidmp=yes in the sol700.pth file.
Additional information of Different Platforms
HPUX11 & HPUX IA64
The MD Nastran installation will create a full installation of HP MPI in the MSC installation directory.
It is important to note that MD Nastran version 2006r2 is used on all the platforms in the cluster. Using
different versions of MD Nastran for DMP calculations is not allowed.
Linux X8664 & Linux i386 & Linux Itanium2
1. First check that rsh is installed by doing:
rpm -qa | grep rsh
The answer should be:
rsh-server-0.17-14
rsh-0.17-14
2. If installed then check the following two files:
/etc/xinetd.d/rsh
/etc/xinetd.d/rlogin
There is a line that should say:
disable = no
If it says yes, change it to no.
3. Check the following file:
/etc/nsswitch.conf
It should say:
hosts: files dns nis
files should come before anything else
4. Restart after making changes:
/etc/init.d/xinetd restart
5. Add in .rhosts file to your home directory that contains the following entries:
{machine1} {user}
{machine1 full name} {user}
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442
{machine2} {user}
{machine2 full name} {user}
+
For example:
murano walter
murano.adams.com walter
usher walter
usher.adams.com walter
miller walter
miller.adams.com walter
+
6. Make sure that rsh does not show any echo's from the .cshrc file. You must modify
your .cshrc file such with if (! $?prompt) that no echo's or clear's are done. You can
check that by:
rsh {remote system} date
7. Set the path such that hboot can be executed. This means that the path must be set correctly by
the .cshrc on the remote machine. You can test this by:
rsh {remote system} 'echo $path'
rsh {remote system} 'which hboot'
Do not omit the quotes from the command line. Without them, the actual path of the machine you are on
will be echoed.
The same working directory as used on the root machine does not have to exist on the remote machines.
AIX
The same working directory on the remote machines (the full path) must exist as the one used on the
root machine.
Solaris
The same working directory on the remote machines (the full path) must exist as the one used on the
root machine.
SGI Altix & Irix64
Before you can start the MPI on SGI, you first need to setup and start the array services. This array keeps
track of which machines belong to the MPI Universe. Unfortunately you need to be root to define one:
<> su root
First check if the array services are enabled:
# vi /usr/lib/array/arrayd.auth
The variable AUTHENTICATION must be set from NOREMOTE to NONE.
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443 Chapter 12: System Information and Parallel Processing
Additional information of Different Platforms
Create the array:
# vi /usr/lib/array/arrayd.conf
[add in the following lines:]
array {array name}
machine {machine1}
machine {machine2}
Add as many as desired. For instance:
array irixaa
machine zephyr
machine tigra
Restart (or start) the array:
# /etc/init.d/array restart
You also need to add a special login name:
#vi /etc/passwd
guest:x:81:99:array services guest:/dev/null:/bin/tcsh
#vi /etc/group
guest:x:99:
Exit root login:
# exit
To check which arrays are active you can do:
<> /usr/sbin/ainfo array
Arrays known to array services daemon
ARRAY me
IDENT 0x78ea
ARRAY {array name}
IDENT 0x78f2
The first array is the one for the machine itself (so you can DMP on the machine itself if it has more than
1 CPU). The second one is the one we defined ourselves and can be used for DMP with other machines.
To see which machines are defined in the array:
<> /usr/sbin/ainfo -a {array name} machines
For instance:
<> /usr/sbin/ainfo -a irixaa machines
Machines in array "irixaa" per default server
MACHINE zephyr
HOSTNAME zephyr
PORT 5434
IP_ADDR 192.168.22.196
IDENT unknown
MACHINE tigra
HOSTNAME tigra
PORT 5434
IP_ADDR 192.168.22.194
IDENT unknown
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444
So this array has two machines available: zephyr and tigra. To check if the array was able to access the
remote machines:
<> /usr/sbin/array -a {array name} who
The return should be "who" from all machines. For instance:
<> /usr/sbin/array -a irixaa who
The same working directory on the remote machines (the full path) must exist as the one used on the root
machine. To start a SOL 700 calculation, you must specify the array to use:
Add array=irixaa to sol700.pth file and use PATH=3 on the SOL 700 executive
control entry
For Altix, the user has two options. He may use SGI MPI or Open MPI. The Open MPI is default. To use
the SGI MPI the user must use the option: sgimpi=yes. When using SGI MPI the user should not forget
to specify also the array. For example:
Add sgimpi=yes array=irixaa to sol700.pth file and use PATH=3 on the SOL 700
executive control entry
Windows XP and 2000
MPIch (service) needs to be running on all the machines you are planning to use.
You should either start MPIch manually using “%MPI_ROOT%\mpd\bin\mpd -install” or make
sure the service runs by default. Automatically starting the MPIch daemon is not supported.
Run MPIRegister to allow your account to be used to run MPIch.
"%MPI_ROOT%\mpd\bin\MPIRegister.exe"
Define your specific account settings DOMAIN\user. Supply your domain password.
Option "Do you want this action to be persistent (y/n)?" ->> y
(not sure what happens once your password will be changed though)
If ever needed, to clean your registry, use: "%MPI_ROOT%\mpd\bin\MPIRegister.exe -remove"
The most important thing is that you define two shares correctly.
Share 1: %NASTRAN_INSTALLDIR%\%NASTRAN_VERSION%\dyna
Preferably this share should have full read access for everyone.
User Machine From What
walter tigra.dtw.macsch.com 172.31.188.227 /bin/tcsh
walter zephyr 72.31.188.227 array -a irixaa who
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445 Chapter 12: System Information and Parallel Processing
Additional information of Different Platforms
Share 2: %YOUR_RUN_DIR%
This should be the directory where your input file is located. So it might be a good idea to define a single
location to run all your jobs. Access should be rather open on this share. You will need to have write
permissions and most likely the MPIch "service" too. All tests have been performed with Full Access
for everyone.
Extra MPIch information
For more information please visit:
http://www-unix.mcs.anl.gov/mpi/mpich/mpich-nt/mpich.nt.faq.html
Why do I get this error "LaunchProcess failed, CreateProcessAsUser failed, No more connections
can be made to this remote computer at this time because there are already as many connections
as the computer can accept."?
This error usually occurs when you try to launch an executable from a shared directory on WindowsNT
Workstation, Windows 2000 Professional, or WindowsXP Professional. The professional versions
of Windows as apposed to the server editions have limitations on the file sharing capabilities. Place
the executable on a network share on a server machine or copy the executable to the local drive of
each machine.
Why do I get this error, "Logon failure: unknown user name or bad password"?
You must have the same account credentials on all the nodes participating in the mpich job. If your cluster
is set up with a domain controller then you can use a domain account to launch an mpich job. If you do
not have a domain controller then you must set up user accounts on all the nodes individually with the
same credentials on each node. Each user can have whatever password they choose, but they must use
the same password on all the nodes. In other words, UserA-PasswordA must be the same on all the nodes
and UserB-PasswordB must be the same on all the nodes, etc.
Why do I get this error, "LaunchProcess failed, CreateProcessAsUser failed, The system cannot
find the file specified."?
The executable used in an mpich job must be available to all the nodes participating in the job. The path
to the executable must be valid on all the nodes. This can be accomplished by copying the executable to
a common location on all the nodes or copying it to a shared location. For example, you could copy
cpi.exe to c:\temp\cpi.exe on all the nodes and run "mpirun -np 3 c:\temp\cpi.exe". Or you
could copy cpi.exe to a shared directory \\myhost\myshare\cpi.exe and then execute.
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Main Index
Chapter 13: Examples
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
13
Examples

Crash 448

Airbags and Occupant Safety 464

Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO) 479

Drop Test 530

Defense 544

Time Domain NVH 575

Prestress 584

Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) 596

Sheet Metal Forming 602

Miscellaneous 616
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MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Crash
448
Crash
Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash
Description
Auto companies perform crash tests simulation to increase safety of the passengers and comply with
government regulations such as those of FMVSS (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards). This is an
example of a pick-up truck frontal crash at 15 m/s (34 m.p.h.) against a rigid wall. To model the
simulation, contact was defined between the truck and the rigid wall to predict the stress and
deformations of the structure.
SOL 700 Entries Included
SOL 700
TSTEPNL
PARAM, DYDTOUT
PARAM, DYSHELLFORM
PARAM, DYSHINP
BCTABLE
BCBODY
BCPROP
BSURF
MATD020
MATD024
CSPOT
MATD20M
Model
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449 Chapter 13: Examples
Crash
The model has a total of 62984 grid points and 55572 elements as follow:
• 346 Bars
• 1815 Trias
• 49954 Quads
• 3458 Hexas
The rigid wall and the ground are modeled by 500 and 25 shell elements, respectively. All shell elements
are Belytschko-Tsay formulation. The crash speed of the truck is modeled by defining an initial velocity
of 15 m/s, applied on all the grid points of the truck in a horizontal direction towards the wall. Gravity
load is included to take into account the mass of the truck. The simulation time is 0.09 seconds. The unit
system is Newtons, seconds, and millimeters.
Input
All nodes of the truck have an initial velocity specified by the TIC entry. All nodes of the rigid wall and
the ground have been constrained in all the degrees of freedom. Contact is defined between:
1. The truck and rigid wall surface
2. The truck tires and the ground surface
3. Self contact for the truck to avoid penetration among various components.
Input file:
SOL 700 is a executive control that activates an explicit nonlinear transient analysis.
SOL 700,NLTRAN path=3 stop=1
TIME 10000
CEND
ECHO = NONE
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,print,PLOT) = ALL
Stress(SORT1,PLOT) = ALL
Strain(SORT1,PLOT) = ALL
accel(print,plot)= ALL
velocity(print,plot)= ALL
echo=both
SET 990009 = 105843 105655
..
..
SET 990619 = 74752 77110
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Crash
450
SET is an executive control entry that defines a set that contains some grid points. The set will later be
referenced by the CSPOT entry in the bulk entry section.
The bulk entry section starts…
TSTEPNL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the number of Time Steps (10) and Time
Increment (9e-3 seconds) of the simulation. The total time is the product of the two entries. Notice here
the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time Increments and the exact value
of the Time Steps is determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The time step is a function of the
smallest element dimension during the simulation.
PARAM, DYDTOUT is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the time interval of d3plot outputs.
PARAM*, DYSHELLFORM is a SOL 700 bulk data entry to define the shell formulation. If
DYSHELLFORM = 2, the default shell formulation is Belytschko-Tsay.
PARAM,DYSHINP is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that specifies the number of integration points for SOL
700 shell elements.
LOADSET = 1
SPC = 2
DLOAD = 2
IC=1
TSTEPNL = 20
BCONTACT = 1
weightcheck=yes
page
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE 1.truck.bdf
INCLUDE rconn.bdf
TSTEPNL 20 10 9e-3 1 5 10
+
+
+
+ 0
PARAM,OGEOM,NO
PARAM,AUTOSPC,YES
PARAM,GRDPNT,0
PARAM,dydtout,0.001
PARAM*,DYSHELLFORM,2
PARAM,DYSHNIP,2
Main Index
451 Chapter 13: Examples
Crash
Bulk data entry that defines gravity load effects:
GRAV is a bulk data entry that defines acceleration vectors for gravity or other acceleration loading.
Bulk data entry that defines Contact relations and Contact bodies:
BCTABLE is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is also used by SOL 600 and it is meant to define Master-
Slave as well as self contact.
BCBODY is a bulk data entry that is used by MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) and SOL 700
only, which defines a flexible or rigid contact body in 2-D or 3-D.
$ ------- GRAVITATION -----
LSEQ 1 5 4
TLOAD1 4 3 100
GRAV 4 0 9806. 0. 0. -1.
DLOAD 2 1. 1. 4
TABLED1 100
0. 1. 1. 1. ENDT
BCTABLE 1 4
SLAVE 1
MASTERS 2
SLAVE 3
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 5
BCBODY 1 3 DEFORM 1 0
BCBODY 2 3 DEFORM 2 0
BCBODY 3 3 DEFORM 3 0
BCBODY 4 3 DEFORM 4 0
BCBODY 5 3 DEFORM 5 0
BCPROP,1,1,2,3,4,10,11,12,+
..
..
+,268,269,270,271,24,67,70,195
$ rigid wall
BCPROP,2,266
$ tires
BCPROP,3,168,169,185,187
$ ground
BCPROP,4,272
Main Index
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Crash
452
BCPROP is a bulk data entry that is used by MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) and SOL 700
only, which defines a 3-D contact region by element properties. All elements with the specified properties
define a contact body.
BSURF is a bulk data entry that is used by MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) and SOL 700 only,
which defines a contact surface or body by element IDs. All elements with the specified IDs define a
contact body.
Bulk data entry that defines properties for shell and beam elements:
Bulk data entry that defines concentrated mass at grid points:
$ Single Surface Contact
BSURF 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
..
..
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
PSHELL 1 63 3.137 63 63
..
..
PBEAM 224 208 452.4 16290. 16290. 32570.
..
..
$ * conm2 *
$
CONM2 1990624 91344 1e-06
..
..
CONM2 1990693 983105 1e-06
Main Index
453 Chapter 13: Examples
Crash
Bulk data entry that continues defining properties for elements, spring, damper, rigid wall and ground:
Bulk data entry that defines material properties:
MATD020 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is used to model rigid materials.
MATD024 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry. It is used to model an elasto-plastic material with an yield stress
versus strain curve and arbitrary strain rate dependency. Failure can also be defined based on the plastic
strain or a minimum time step size.
$ * mpc158 *
PBAR 226 158 .01 1e-05 1e-05
..
..
$ * mpc408 *
PBAR 263 224 .01 1e-05 1e-05
$
$ * spring *
PELAS 264 14.4
$
$ * damper *
PVISC 265 2.935
$
$ * rigid *
PSHELL 266 70 2. 70 70
..
..
* ground_prop *
PSHELL 272 71 2.0 71 71
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
$
$ -------- Material MATRIG.21 id =21
MATD020 217.89e-09 210000. .3
..
..
MATD024 637.89e-09 210000. .3 0.9
1
..
..
Main Index
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Crash
454
Bulk data entry that defines tables:
Bulk data entry that defines rigid body elements:
Bulk data entry that defines boundary conditions and initial velocity of the pick-up truck:
TIC is a bulk data entry that defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural
transient analysis. Both displacement and velocity values may be specified at independent degrees
of freedom.
Bulk data entry that defines spot-weld with failure:
CSPOT is a SOL 700 bulk data entry and was used to define spot-weld with failure. The number of a
specific SET defined in the executive control section was referred in the entry.
$ ================ TABLES =================
$
$ ------- TABLE 1: table270 -------
TABLES1 1
+B000710
+B000710 0. 270. .04879 320.3 .09531 366.3 .1398
402.5+B000711
+B000711 .2231 438.8 .2624 448.5 2.398 449. ENDT
..
..
$ ------- Nodal Rigid Body: NodalRigid_5 -----
RBE2 5 104247 123456 104272 104614 104615 105038
105039+B000181
+B000181 105043 105044
..
..
SPC1 1 123456 990803 THRU 991384
SPCADD 2 1
TIC 1 1 1 15000.
..
..
TIC 1 510439 1 15000.
CSPOT,990009,990009
+,,,1e+08
..
..
CSPOT,990619,990619
+,,,1e+08
Main Index
455 Chapter 13: Examples
Crash
Bulk data entry that merges and defines joint between rigid bodies:
MATD20M is a SOL 700 bulk data entry. It was used to merges MATD020 rigid bodies into one assembly
for SOL 700 only.
RBJOINT is a supported bulk data entry in SOL 700, which defines a Joint between two rigid bodies.
End of input file.
MATD20M,181,180,221,182,183
..
..
RBJOINT,1,REVOLUTE,903453,903456,101294,903455
..
..
RBJOINT,18,UNIVERS,983102,983103,983104,983105
ENDDATA
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Crash
456
Results
t = 0.0 seconds
t = 0.035 seconds
t = 0.09 seconds
Main Index
457 Chapter 13: Examples
Crash
Train-barrier Impact
Description
This is an example of a train frontal crash at 30.559 meter/second against two rigid barrier cylinders to
represent an inability to stop at the end of the line. To model the simulation, Contact was defined between
the train and the rigid barrier to predict the stress and deformations of the structure.
SOL 700 Entries Included
SOL 700
TSTEPNL
PARAM,DYDTOUT
PARAM*,DYTSTEPDT2MS
BCTABLE
BCBODY
BCPROP
MATD024
MATD001
MATD020
CSPOT
Model
Because of symmetry, only half of the actual structures (train and barrier) were modeled in this example.
Boundary conditions were applied along the center line of the structures to ensure symmetric behavior.
The model has a total of 117820 grid points and 113770 elements as follow:
• 586 Bars
• 1533 Trias
• 107047 Quads
The train model contains 112530 elements in the form of shell and beam. The rigid barrier cylinder model
contains 1240 shell elements. All shell elements are Belytschko-Wong-Chiang formulation. The crash
speed of the train is modeled by defining an initial velocity of 30.559 meter/second, applied on all the
grid points of the train in a horizontal direction towards the barrier. The simulation time is 0.35 seconds.
The unit system is Kilonewton, millimeters, and milliseconds.
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Crash
458
Input
All nodes of the train have an initial velocity specified by the TIC card. All nodes along the center line
have a boundary condition that ensures symmetric behavior of the structure. Adaptive contact relation
was defined as follows:
1. Contact between the train and the barrier
2. Self-Contact of the train components
Input file:
SOL 700 is a executive control that activates an explicit nonlinear transient analysis.
SET is an executive control entry that defines a set that contains some grid points. The set will later be
referenced by the CSPOT entry in the Bulk Entry Section.
SOL 700,NLTRAN path=3 stop=1
TIME 10000
CEND
ECHO = NONE
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,print,PLOT) = ALL
Stress(SORT1,PLOT) = ALL
Strain(SORT1,PLOT) = ALL
accel(print,plot)= ALL
velocity(print,plot)= ALL
echo=both
SET 26148 = 92304 92319 92334
..
..
SET 84302 = 98670 103916
$ LOADSET = 1
SPC = 2
$ DLOAD = 2
IC=1
TSTEPNL = 20
BCONTACT = 1
weightcheck=yes
page
Main Index
459 Chapter 13: Examples
Crash
The bulk entry section starts...
TSTEPNL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the number of Time Steps (10) and Time
Increment (35 milliseconds) of the simulation. The total time is the product of the two entries. Notice
here the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time Increments and the exact
value of the Time Steps is determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The time step is a function of the
smallest element dimension during the simulation.
PARAM, DYDTOUT is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the time interval for d3plot outputs.
PARAM*,DYTSTEPDT2MS is a SOL 700 bulk data entry card. When it is specified, mass scaling will be
activated. The value given will be the minimum time step with which the model will run. If the stable
time step of an element is smaller than this value, its density will be increased.
Bulk data entry that defines Contact relations and Contact bodies:
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE modelini.dat
INCLUDE cspot_new.dat
INCLUDE cspot_old.dat
$
TSTEPNL 20 10 35.0 1 5 10 +
+ +
+ 0
PARAM,OGEOM,NO
PARAM,AUTOSPC,YES
PARAM,GRDPNT,0
PARAM,dydtout,5.0
PARAM*,DYTSTEPDT2MS,-5e-3
BCTABLE 1 4
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0.7 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
0.3 0.0 full
+
0
1
SLAVE 2 0. 0. 0.7 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
0.3 0.0
MASTERS 3
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Crash
460
BCTABLE is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is also used by SOL 600 and it is meant to define
Master-Slave as well as self contact.
BCBODY is a bulk data entry that is used by MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) and SOL 700
only, which defines a flexible or rigid contact body in 2-D or 3-D.
BCPROP is a bulk data entry that is used by MD Nastran Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600) and SOL 700
only, which defines a 3-D contact region by element properties. All elements with the specified properties
define a contact body.
Bulk data entry that defines grid points and elements:
Bulk data entry that defines concentrated mass at grid points:
BCBODY 1 3 DEFORM 1 0
BCBODY 2 3 DEFORM 2 0
BCBODY 3 3 DEFORM 3 0
$ Single Surface Contact
BCPROP,1,585,772,586,587,634,635,636,+
..
..
BCPROP,2,585,731,1079,4915,4916,4364,4368,+
..
..
BCPROP,3,4381,4382
GRID 1 -12750. 586.2983.919
..
..
GRID 117820 -6002. 1145.5 950.
..
..
$DBLOCK FS_AB_SIDEPOSTS
$ CQUAD4 ELEMENTS IN PART - FS_AB_SIDEPOSTS (PID = 584)
$
CQUAD4 1914 584 6594 6597 6544 6545
..
..
$DBLOCK Added Masses
$ CONM2 ELEMENTS IN PART - Added Masses (PID = 5242)
CONM2 101538 6729 1.972 Added
Ma
..
..
CONM2 107566 104763 30000. Added
Ma
Main Index
461 Chapter 13: Examples
Crash
Bulk data entry that defines boundary conditions along the center line:
Bulk data entry that defines material properties.
MATD024 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is used to model an elasto-plastic material with an yield stress
versus strain curve and arbitrary strain rate dependency. Failure can also be defined based on the plastic
strain or a minimum time step size.
MATD001 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is used to model an isotropic elastic material available for
beam, shell, and solid elements.
MATD020 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is used to model rigid materials.
Bulk data entry that defines properties for bar, elastic and shell elements:
$ SPC BCS IN BCSET - Nodal SPC (SID = 2)
SPC 2 11 246 0.0
..
..
SPC 2 104764 23456 0.0
MATD024,59,7.900-6 ,200.000, 0.30, 0.340,,,,+
+,,,10
..
..
MATD001, 61,7.800-6 ,200.000, 0.30,
..
..
MATD020,62, 7.800-6, 200.000, 0.30,,,,,+
+1.0,0,0
..
..
PBAR 687 61 156. 24760. 24760.
..
..
PELAS 5235 5.0
Section_
..
..
PSHELL 5241 60 3. 60 60
FS_FR_FR
Main Index
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Crash
462
Bulk data entry that defines tables:
Bulk data entry that defines initial velocities for train model:
TIC is a bulk data entry that defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural
transient analysis. Both displacement and velocity values may be specified at independent degrees
of freedom.
Bulk data entry that defines spot-weld with failure:
CSPOT is a SOL 700 bulk data entry and was used to define spot-weld with failure. The number of a
specific SET defined in the executive control section was referred in the entry.
Bulk data entry that defines spot-weld with failure:
CSPOT is a SOL 700 bulk data entry and was used to define spot-weld with failure. The number of a
specific SET defined in the executive control section was referred in the entry.
End of input file.
TABLES1,5,,,,,,,,+
+,0.0,3.494E-1,5.00E-02,4.58E-01,2.0E-01,5.749E-1,3.02E-
01,6.119E-1,+
+,4.0E-01,6.33E-01,ENDT
..
..
TIC,1,1,1,,30.559
..
..
TIC,1,117820,1,,30.559
CSPOT,26148,26148,,,1e+20 ,0.5
..
..
CSPOT,48348,48348,,,1e+20 ,0.5
CSPOT,1099,1099,,,40,100,1,1
..
..
CSPOT,84302,84302,,,40,100,1,1
Main Index
463 Chapter 13: Examples
Crash
Results
t = 0.0 seconds
t = 0.12 seconds
t = 0.24 seconds
t = 0.35 seconds
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbags and Occupant Safety
464
Airbags and Occupant Safety
Simulation of Multi-compartment Airbag
Description
The purpose of this example is to demonstrate the simulation of an multi-compartment airbag in MD R2
Nastran SOL 700.
Multi-compartment airbag analysis is a new capability that is introduced in MD R2 SOL 700. New
entries (AIRBAG, GRIA, EOSGAM) are added in Bulk Data entries to support the capability.
SOL 700 Entries Included
SOL 700
TSTEPNL
PARAM, DYDTOUT
AIRBAG
EOSGAM
GRIA
Analysis Scheme
Airbag Model (BDF)
MD Nastran SOL 700
Obtain Binary Results
• Deformation (AIRBAG)
• CFD results (GAS)
Main Index
465 Chapter 13: Examples
Airbags and Occupant Safety
Model
There are five compartments in the airbag as shown in the figure below. These compartments were
folded, and each compartment was connected to the gas supply bag through a large hole. An inflator was
modeled next to the gas supply bag. The gas jet is initiated from the inflator and running into the gas
supply bag. Fixed boundary conditions were applied to the brackets attached to the gas supply bag. The
simulation time was 0.02 seconds.
Unit used for this analysis was kg for weight, meter for length, second for time, Kelvin for temperature.
Input
Detail for AIRBAG card was described below:
AIRBAG , 1 , 25 , , , , , , ,+
+ ,CFD , 3 , , 1.527 ,0.009 ,0.009 ,0.009 , ,+
Within the CFD keyword line, CFD related data was defined. Gamma low equation of state was defined
referring to the EOSGAM card as shown below.
+ ,INITIAL , 101325., 293. , 1.4 , 294. , , , ,+
AIRBAG , 1 , 25 , , , , , , ,+
+ ,CFD , 3 , , 1.527 ,0.009 ,0.009 ,0.009 , ,+
+ ,INITIAL , 101325., 293. , 1.4 , 294. , , , ,+
+ ,INFLATOR , 1001 , 1 , 350. , , ,0.7 , ,+
+ , , 1.557 , 243. , , , , , ,+
+ ,LARGHOLE , 301 , 2 , , 1.0 , , , ,+
+ ,LARGHOLE , 302 , 3 , , 1.0 , , , ,+
+ ,LARGHOLE , 303 , 4 , , 1.0 , , , ,+
+ ,LARGHOLE , 304 , 5 , , 1.0 , , , ,+
+ ,LARGHOLE , 305 , 6 , , 1.0
Inflator
Compartment
Fix
Gas supply bag
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbags and Occupant Safety
466
Within the INITIAL keyword line, initial conditions of gas property inside an airbag were defined.
Initial pressure was , initial temperature was 293 K, initial gamma gas constant was 1.4,
initial R gas constant was .
+ ,INFLATOR , 1001 , 1 , 350. , , ,0.7 , ,+
+ , , 1.557 , 243. , , , , , ,+
Within the INFLATOR keyword line, gas property from an inflator was defined. Mass flow rate was
defined referring a table data (TABLED1). Temperature of inflowing gas was 350 K, a scale factor of
available inflow area was 0.7, and the gamma gas constant of the inflator gas was 1.557, and the R gas
constant of the inflator gas was
+ ,LARGHOLE , 301 , 2 , , 1.0 , , , ,+
Within the LARGEHOLE keyword line, the airbag into which gas flowed was defined. Here, the airbag
ID 2 was the airbag to which this airbag gave gas. A scale factor of available inflow area was 1.0
Each compartment airbag must be defined with AIRBAG card. The reference density must be the same
for all AIRBAGs that were defined in one simulation.
The new card which describes gas state was provided. EOSGAM was the card which defined the gamma
low gas equation of state where the pressure p was defined as:

where was a constant, was specific internal energy per unit mass, was overall material density.
A gamma constant was 1.517, R gas constant was in this model.
GRIA card is a SOL 700 Bulk Data entry which defines the final unstretched configuration of a deployed
bag. All IDs of GRIA cards must exist in GRID cards and the same as the IDs of GRID cards.
AIRBAG , 1 , 25 , , , , , , ,+
AIRBAG , 2 , 35 , , , , , , ,+
+ ,CFD , 3 , , 1.527 ,0.011 ,0.011 ,0.011 , ,+
+ ,INITIAL , 101325., 293. , 1.4 , 294. , , , ,
EOSGAM,3,1.517,226.4
GRIA 1 .0009375-.626128 .230000
GRIA 2 .0009375-.626128 .220000
GRIA 61 .0005000-.414100 .450000
GRIA 62 .0005000-.339100 .450000
...
101,325N m
2

294m
2
s
2
K
243m
2
s
2
K
p ¸ 1 – ( ) pe · =
¸ e p
226.4m
2
s
2
K
Main Index
467 Chapter 13: Examples
Airbags and Occupant Safety
Result
There are two types of results files, ARC and d3plot. The ARC file which is the original Dytran result
file format is for the results of Euler elements (fluid) and d3plot file which is the native LS-DYNA
result file format. The deformation results between SOL 700 and Dytran are compared to be identical.
These results were from the binary result files (ARC file for both cases).
Deformation Result of Airbag (d3plot)
Time MD Nastran SOL 700 Dytran 2005
0.000
0.002
0.004
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbags and Occupant Safety
468
0.006
0.008
0.010
Time MD Nastran SOL 700 Dytran 2005
Main Index
469 Chapter 13: Examples
Airbags and Occupant Safety
Euler Regions for Multi-compartment (ARC)
0.0148
0.020
Time MD Nastran SOL 700 MSC.Dytran 2005
0.020
Time MD Nastran SOL 700 Dytran 2005
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbags and Occupant Safety
470
Airbag with Dummy
Description
Automotive companies perform crash simulations including airbags and dummies to predict the forces
that would be exerted on the passenger. For people of average size the airbag can be computed using a
uniform gas bag method. In other cases the airbag can hit the passenger before the airbag is fully
deployed. Then the flow is not uniform yet and to get an accurate force prediction the flow inside the
airbag has to be computed by a CFD approach. The following simulation demonstrates the CFD
capability of the SOL 700 to predict the interaction of the airbag and the occupant model during a
crash event.
SOL 700 Entries Included
SOL 700
TSTEPNL
PARAM, DYDTOUT
AIRBAG
BCTABLE
BCBODY
BCGRID
BCPROP
BCSEG
BSURF
EOSGAM
MATD001
MATD009
MATD020
SPC1
SPCADD
SPCD2
Main Index
471 Chapter 13: Examples
Airbags and Occupant Safety
Model
The model has a total of 10868 grid points and 9594 elements as follows:
• 3 Bars
• 23 Beams
• 2078 Quads
• 3626 Trias
• 3410 Hexas
• 454 Pentas
The dummy is modeled by several types of elements and the floor, chair and window are modeled by
shell elements. The airbag surface is meshed with membrane elements. To simulate the gas jet inside the
airbag, no elements need to be defined because that is done by the adaptive hex mesher of the Eulerian
solver of SOL 700. In other words, the adaptive Euler solver automatically creates the elements inside
the bag. As the airbag is inflated, these elements are expanded and “adapt” to follow the fabric surface
of the bag. This mesher provides an Euler mesh that is large enough to cover the whole airbag membrane
but at the same time keeps the elements that are outside the airbag surface limited. Too many empty
elements outside the airbag surface increases runtime without benefit.
Input
Several contacts are defined between airbag, dummy and parts of the car.
Input file
SOL 700,NLTRAN stop=1
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbags and Occupant Safety
472
SOL 700 is an executive control entry similar to SOL 600. It activates an explicit nonlinear transient
analysis using MD Nastran solver.
This parameter set defaults to original LS-Dyna values.
The bulk entry section begins with...
TSTEPNL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the number of Time Steps (50) and Time
Increment (0.0012 sec) of the simulation. End time is the product of the two entries. Notice here the Time
Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time Increments and the exact value of the Time
Steps is determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The time step is a function of the smallest element
dimension during the simulation.
Bulk data entry that defines the airbag:
AIRBAG is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that instructs SOL 700 to create an airbag using either the CFD
solver or a uniform gas bag method. Here, the CFD solver will be used. Inflow of gas into the airbag is
defined by the entries following the INFLATOR key word. Outflow is defined by adding SMALHOLE.
Bulk data entries defining materials:
MATD001 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that models an isotropic elastic material. It represents the
membrane material.
SUBCASE 1
TITLE=This is a default subcase.
TSTEPNL = 1
SPC = 2
BCONTACT = 1
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
PARAM,DYDEFAUL,DYNA
TSTEPNL 1 50 .0012 1 ADAPT 2 10
AIRBAG 10 25 ON +
+ CFD 1 1.025-12 20.0 20.0 20.0
+
+ NONE 11. 11. 11. +
+ INITIAL .101325 297. 1.4 226.45E6 +
+ INFLATOR 82 100 102 +
+ 1.4 286.E6 +
+ SMALHOLE 81 OUT 0.9
$ PERMEAB OUT 20 0.8
MATD001,111,6.E-10,6.E1,0.3
Main Index
473 Chapter 13: Examples
Airbags and Occupant Safety
EOSGAM is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that defines the ideal gas inside the airbag.
MATD009 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that models materials without resistance to deviatoric stresses.
MATD020 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that models rigid objects.
All other MATD** entries model the various parts of the dummy.
Bulk data entries entry that defines geometric properties of the various surfaces
All properties that are not part of the dummy are defined by the PSHELL1 entry. The dummy is modeled
by using many element types and joints: CPENTA, CHEXA , RBJOINT, RBJSTIFF, CBAR, CBEAM,
HGSUPPR, CSPR, PSPRMAT, MAT1, and MATRIG.
EOSGAM,1,1.4,226.45E6
MATD009,222,1.E-12
MATD020,444,7.8E-9, 2.1E05,0.3
MATD020,185,7.8E-9, 2.1E05,0.3
Surface Elements Grid Points Properties
Airbag membrane 20001-32132 20001- 32690 601-613 651-663 701-713 751-763
(CTRIA3)
Inflator 23225-23514 605 (CTRIA3)
Holes in the airbag 20655,20656,21461,
21462,22267,22268,
23073,23074
610,660,710,760 (CTRIA3)
Car Window +frame 31863-32102 2100 (CQUAD4)
Floor 31683-32132 2101 (CQUAD4)
dummy 1-5678 1 – 9015 All other properties. Various
element types
Gas inside the airbag Elements created by
adaptive Euler solver
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbags and Occupant Safety
474
Bulk data entries that define Contact relations and Contact bodies:
BCTABLE is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is also used by SOL 600 and it is meant to define Master-
Slave as well as self contact.
BCBODY is a bulk data entry that is used by SOL 600 and SOL 700 only. It defines a flexible or rigid
contact body in 2-D or 3-D. It could be specified with a BSURF, BCBOX, BCPROP, or BCMATL entry.
BPROP is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is used by SOL 600 and SOL 700 only, which defines 3-D
contact regions by element properties.
BSURF is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is used by SOL 600 and SOL 700 only. It defines a contact
surface or body by element IDs. All elements with the specified IDs define a contact body.
BCTABLE*1 7 *
* *
$
$ contact 1 :
$ ID = 1
$ TITLE = CHEST TO RIB
$
* SLAVE 1 *
* 0.9000000 *
* *
* *
* 0.9000000 SS2WAY *
* *
* 0.1000000 1.0000000E+20 *
* 1.000000 1.000000 *
* *
* 2 1 *
* *
* 20.00000 *
* 5.000000 5.000000 *
* 1 1.000000 YES *
* *
$ Deform Body Contact LBC set: airbag
BCBODY 21 26 0
BCPROP 3 26 601 602 2119 2120 2121 2122
$ Deform Body Contact LBC set: plate
BCBODY 4 3D DEFORM 4 0
BSURF 4 2801 2802 2803 2804 2805 2806 2807
..
..
Main Index
475 Chapter 13: Examples
Airbags and Occupant Safety
BCSEG is a bulk data entry that is used by SOL 600 and SOL 700 only. It specifies grid points to be used
in a contact analyses.
Using the BCTABLE and several BCBODY, BCSEG, and BCSURF entries the following contacts
are defined
Bulk data entries that defines output at specific positions
BCSEG* 1 1 2680 3399 *
* 3400
Slave Master
1 Chest rib
2 neck Self contact
3 Rib shoulder
4 Rib Jacket
5 Neck cable
6 Shoulder belt chest
7 Lap pelvic
8 Airbag Self contact
9 Airbag Dummy front
10 Dummy Chair
11 Dummy shoes Ground
$ Number of Seatbelt elements = 6
$
$ to compare simulation results with actual measurements
ACCMETR*1 9001 8316 8317 *
* 0 0
..
..
$ five more
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbags and Occupant Safety
476
Bulk data entry that defines constraints:
End of input file.
$ constraint for inflator
SPCADD 2 1 2 5 6
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : spc1.1
SPC1 1 123456 20253 20254 20255 20256 20257 20258
..
..
Frame chair floor
SPCD2, 2,RIGID,MR185,1,2,101, 0.,,+
+, 0., 10.
SPCD2, 2,RIGID,MR185,2,2,101, 0.,,+
+, 0., 10.
SPCD2, 2,RIGID,MR185,3,2,101, 0.,,+
+, 0., 10.
SPCD2, 2,RIGID,MR185,5,2,101, 0.,,+
+, 0., 10.
SPCD2, 2,RIGID,MR185,6,2,101, 0.,,+
+, 0., 10.
SPCD2, 2,RIGID,MR185,7,2,101, 0.,,+
+, 0., 10.
RBE2A* 2 MR2 *
* *
* 3922 3923 8297 8319 *
* 8463 8465
Main Index
477 Chapter 13: Examples
Airbags and Occupant Safety
Results
t = 0 sec
t = 0.02999 sec
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Airbags and Occupant Safety
478
t = 0.0444 sec
t = 0.0444 sec
Main Index
479 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
Bird Strike Simulation on Composite Glass Panel
Description
Aerospace companies perform bird strike test simulation to predict the impact-resistance properties of
the aircraft structure. This is an example of a 3.8 lbs bird, impacting against the composite glass panel of
an aircraft canopy. The bird’s velocity is 7874 in/s (447 m.p.h.).
SOL 700 Entries Included
SOL 700
TSTEPNL
PARAM, DYDTOUT
BCTABLE
BCBODY
BCPROP
BSURF
PCOMP
MATD054
MATD010
PSOLIDD
EOSPOL
Model
To model the bird, a cylinder with 2.42 inch radius and 6 inch length was built. Material model MATD010
was used to simulate the elastic-plastic hydrodynamic properties of the bird with parameters as follows:
The relation between density and pressure ( ) of the bird material was specified through an equation of
linear polynomial:
p 9E-5lb-mass/in
3
=
o
y
2.9 psi =
G 145 psi =
E
h
0.145 psi =
P
P aeu
3
b0 b1u b2u
2
b3u
3
+ + + ( )p
0
E + =
u p p
0
1 – =
p
0
reference density =
a1 0.0 =
a3 4.25 E6 psi =
p overall material density =
E specific internal energy per unit mass =
a2 0.0 =
b1 b2 b3 0.0 = = =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
480
To model the composite glass canopy, a curved composite plate was built. The composite plate was
modeled using PCOMP and MATD054 material.
A picture of the model is shown below.
The model has a total of 7082 grid points and 6200 elements as follows:
• 2000 Quads
• 4200 Hexas
The glass plate was modeled with composite shell elements. The bird was modeled with solid elements.
The relative speed of the bird to the airplane is modeled by defining an initial velocity of 7874 in/s (447
m.p.h.), applied on all the grid points of the bird. The simulation time is 0.002 seconds. The unit
system is inch, lb-force, second.
Input
All nodes of the bird have an initial velocity specified by the TIC entry. Nodes on the straight edges of
the curved plate have translational constrains in all directions. Contacts are defined between the plate
(master) and the bird (slave).
Input File:
SOL 700 is a executive control that activates an explicit nonlinear transient analysis.
SOL 700,NLTRAN path=3 stop=1
Main Index
481 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
The bulk entry section starts…
TSTEPNL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the number of Time Steps (100) and Time
Increment (2e-5 seconds) of the simulation. The total time is the product of the two entries. Notice here
the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time Increments and the exact value
of the Time Steps is determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The time step is a function of the
smallest element dimension during the simulation.
PARAM, DYDTOUT is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the time interval of d3plot outputs.
Bulk data entry that defines Contact relations and Contact bodies:
BCTABLE is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is also used by SOL 600 and it is meant to define Master-
Slave as well as self-contact.
$ Direct Text Input for Executive Control
CEND
TITLE = JOBNAME IS: BIRD_STRIKE2
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
TSTEPNL = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
IC = 1
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
INCLUDE final_scale2.bdf
TSTEPNL 20 100 2e-5 1 ADAPT 2 10
PARAM,DYDTOUT,4e-4
$ Define contact
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 3 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 4
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
482
BCBODY is a bulk data entry that is used by SOL 600 and SOL 700 only and defines a flexible or rigid
contact body in 2-D or 3-D. It could be specified with a BSURF, BCBOX, BCPROP or BCMATL entry.
BCPROP is a bulk data entry that is used by SOL 600 and SOL 700 only. It defines a 3-D contact region
by element properties. All elements with the specified properties define a contact body.
BSURF is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is used by SOL 600 and SOL 700 only and defines a contact
surface or body by element IDs. All elements with the specified IDs define a contact body.
Bulk data entry that defines material and element properties for composite glass plate:
PCOMP is a bulk data entry. It was used to define the properties of a 5-ply composite material laminate.
MATD054 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that is used to model arbitrary orthotropic materials, e.g.,
unidirectional layers in composite shell structures. Various types of failure could be specified for the
model. This model is only valid for thin shell elements.
$ Deform Body Contact LBC set: bird
BCBODY 3 3D DEFORM 3 0
BCPROP 3 2
$ Deform Body Contact LBC set: plate
BCBODY 4 3D DEFORM 4 0
BSURF 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
..
..
PCOMP 1 70. 0.
1 .012 0. YES 2 .012 0. YES
1 .012 0. YES 2 .012 0. YES
1 .012 0. YES
..
..
Main Index
483 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
Bulk data entry that defines material and element properties for bird:
MATD010 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry and is used to model elastic-plastic hydrodynamic material.
PSOLIDD is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that defines properties for solid elements. It refers to entry
MATD010 for material properties, and refers to entry EOSPOL for relation between the density and
pressure of the hydrodynamic material.
EOSPOL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that defines the properties of a polynomial equation of state.
$ Material Record : mat1.1
MATD054 1 2.33-4 1.16E7 1.16E7 1.16E7 0.223 0.223
0.223
4.74E6 4.74E6 4.74E6 0
,,,,,,,,,
,,,,,,,,,
,,,,,,,,0.02,
42000. 42000. 42000. 42000. 1035.
$ Material Record : mat1.2
$ Description of Material :
MATD054 2 9.53-5 2812 2812 2812 0.48 0.48
0.48
950. 950. 950. 0
,,,,,,,,,
,,,,,,,,,
,,,,,,,,2,
281.2 281.2 281.2 281.2 95
..
..
MATD010 3 9E-5 145 2.9 0.145
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : bird_prop
PSOLIDD 2 3 1 1
EOSPOL 1 0.0 0.0 4.25E6
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
484
Bulk data entry that defines geometric properties of the model:
Bulk data entry that defines boundary conditions and initial velocity of the bird:
TIC is a bulk data entry that defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural
transient analysis. Both displacement and velocity values may be specified at independent degrees
of freedom.
End of input file.
$ Pset: "plate_prop" will be imported as: "pshell.1"
CQUAD4 1 1 1 2 13 12 0.
..
..
$ Pset: "bird_prop" will be imported as: "psolid.2"
CHEXA 2001 2 2115 2133 2092 2093 2256
2253
22542255
..
..
$ Nodes of the Entire Model
GRID 1 11.2583 -4.72577-6.
..
$ Loads for Load Case : Default
SPCADD 2 1
$ Initial Velocities of Load Set : bird_vel
TIC 1 2092 1 4609.88
TIC 1 2092 3 -3601.6
..
..
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : fixed_end
SPC1 1 123456 1 THRU 11
..
..
$ Referenced Coordinate Frames
CORD2R* 1 -5.12207 0.
* 4.0018 2.12867-5 0. 2.72458-5
-1.1203 0. 9.12389
Main Index
485 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
Results
t = 0.0 seconds
t = 0.0008 seconds
t = 0.0016 seconds
t = 0.002 seconds
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
486
Bird Strike on Rotating Fan Blades with Prestress
Description
Aerospace companies perform bird strike test simulation to predict the impact-resistance behavior of the
aircraft engines. This is an example of a bird made by solid elements impacting against rotating fan
blades. The fan blades and the rotor are initially prestressed due to the high rotational velocity by the
implicit solver prior to the transient run that is simulated by the explicit solver.
SOL 700 Entries Included
SOL 700
TSTEPNL
PARAM, DYDEFAUL, DYNA
DYPARAM*, LSDYNA
PRESTRS
ISTRSSH
SPCD2
TIC3
BCTABLE
BCBODY
BCGRID
BCPROP
EOSPOL
HGSUPPR
MATD010
MATD024
MATDERO
PSOLIDD
RFORCE
TIC
TLOAD1
Model
The models for implicit and explicit runs are basically the same except that in the implicit run the bird
model is not included. The hourglass control and definition of rotational velocities between implicit and
explicit runs also differ.
The rotor, hub and fan blades are modeled by shell elements while the bird is modeled by solid elements.
The rotational speed of blades and rotor is 8000 rpm which is applied using RFORCE card (rotational
static force) in the prestress run, and TIC3 card (rotational initial speed) and SPCD2 cards in bird strike
run. The speed of the impacting bird to the fan blades is assigned by an initial velocity of 7692 inch/s
(437 mph), applied on all the grid points of the bird. The simulation time is 0.004 seconds. The unit
system is inch, lbf and second.
Main Index
487 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
The thickness of fan blades varies from 0.02659 to 0.40227 inch depending on the location of blade
element. The radius of fan blades is 13.6 inch and that of rotor is 0.9 inch. The length and radius of bird
model are 6.24 and 2.36 inches respectively.
Two material models are used in the analysis. All blades and rotors are elastic-plastic material and
modeled by MATD024. The material properties are:
Poisson’s ratio = 0.35
o
y
= 138000 psi Tangent modulus = 100000 psi
Young’s modulus = 1.60E+7 psiPlastic strain failure limit 0.2
To model the bird, a cylinder with 2.42 inch radius and 6 inch length was built. Material model MATD010
was used to simulate the elastic-plastic hydrodynamic properties of the bird with the following
properties:
G = 145 psi
Tangent modulus = 0.145 psi
8000 rpm
Fully fixed
Fixed (x,y direction)
(x,y rotation)

8000 rpm
(initial speed)
Fixed (x,y,z direction)
Fixed (x,y direction)
437 mph
8000 rpm
(enforced speed)
(a) Prestress Model (Implicit)
(b) Bird Strike Model (Explicit)
p 4.14e 4 lbf/inch
3
– s
2
inch – =
o
y
138000 psi =
p 9E-5 lbf/inch
3
s
2
inch – =
o
y
2.9 psi =
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
488
The relation between density and pressure (P) of the bird material was specified through an equation of
linear polynomial:
E = specific internal energy per unit mass
The model used for bird strike analysis (explicit) has a total of 20724 grid points and 19055 elements
as follows:
Input
The simulation consists of two runs. The first run is a prestress analysis that computes the deformations
and stresses due to rotation. This computation is essentially static using implicit solver. Conducting this
computation in the impact run would require structural relaxation. To speed up the process, the static part
of the computation is done by the double precision version of the implicit solver in the prestress run.
Boundary conditions and initial conditions of the prestress run differ from the second run. In the prestress
run the rear of the rotor is fixed and a force in circumferential direction is applied to the rotor and fan
blades. In the impact run the rear of the rotor is given an angular velocity and the bird is given an initial
velocity. Contacts are defined between the fan blades and the bird.
SOL 700 is a executive control entry that initiates the explicit nonlinear solver in the MD Nastran. PATH
is set to 3 because a different solver must be assigned for the implicit run (double precision solver.)
First, consider the prestress input deck. In this input deck, only the rotor and fan blades are included.
NUMBER OF CHEXA ELEMENTS = 10752
NUMBER OF CQUAD4 ELEMENTS = 8227
NUMBER OF CTRIA3 ELEMENTS = 76
SOL 700,NLTRAN STOP=1 PATH=3
P a1u a2u
2
a3u
3
b0 b1u b2u
2
b3u
2
+ + + ( )poE + + + =
u p po 1 – = p overall material density =
po reference density =
a1 0.0 = a2 0.0 =
a3 4.25 E6 psi = b1 b2 b3 0.0 = = =
Main Index
489 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
The bulk entry section begins with
TSTEPNL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the number of Time Steps (5) and Time
Increment (1e-5 sec) of the simulation. End time is the product of the two entries. Notice here the Time
Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time Increments and the exact value of the Time
Steps are determined by MD Nastran SOL 700 solver during the analysis. The time step is a function of
the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
By using the SOL 700 bulk data entry PRESTRS a prestress analysis is carried out. Here the implicit SOL
700 solver is used. This solver requires the analysis to be run with double precision executable. Final
deformations and stresses of elements are written to a text file named imput_file_name.nastin to
provide initial conditions for rotor and fan blades of the impact run.
Bulk data entries that define properties for shell elements.
These elements model the fan blades and rotor.
Bulk data entry that defines material properties for rotor and fan blade
MATD024 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that represents MD Nastran Material #24. It is used to model
elasto-plastic material.
LOADSET = 2
TITLE = MD Nastran job created on 18-Jan-07 at 10:58:50
$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
TSTEPNL = 1
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
DLOAD = 3
TSTEPNL 1 5 1.-5 1 ADAPT 2 10
$
PSHELL1 135 3001 KeyHoff Lobatto 5 Mid +
+ 0.05440
MATD024 1 4.14E-4 1.60E+7 0.35000 100000. 138000. 0.99000 +
+ 3001
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
490
Bulk data entry that defines geometric properties of the rotor and blades:
Bulk data entry that defines boundary conditions and loads:
RFORCE is a bulk data entry that defines a static loading condition due to angular velocity.
The following parameters are needed to get optimal results.
CQUAD4 6062 301 300425 300426 300446 300445
..
GRID 1 1.0762 4.6577 -1.945
..
TLOAD1 5 6 321
LSEQ 2 6 1
DLOAD 3 1. 1. 5
RFORCE 1 299999 -133.3330.0 0.0 1.
TABLED1 321
0. 1. .001 1. ENDT
SPC1 1 123456 300425 THRU 300443
SPC1 1 1245 400058
SPC1 1 1245 400115
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,ACCURACY,OSU,1
DYPARAM,lSDYNA,ACCURACY,INN,2
$
$ control_ENERGY
$
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,ENERGY,HGEN,2
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,ENERGY,RWEN,1
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,ENERGY,SLNTEN,1
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,ENERGY,RYLEN,1
$
$ control_HOURGLASS
$
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,HOURGLASS,IHQ,1
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,HOURGLASS,QH,0.100000001
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,DATABASE,D3PLOT,0.1
PARAM,DYDEFAUL,DYNA
Main Index
491 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
Now consider the bird strike run.
The bulk entry starts with:
TSTEPNL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the number of Time Steps (100) and Time
Increment (.4e-4 sec) of the simulation. End time is the product of the two entries. Notice here the Time
Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time Increments and the exact value of the Time
Steps are determined by MD Nastran solver during the analysis. The time step is a function of the smallest
element dimension during the simulation.
The prestress results file is prestress_rotor.dytr.nastin. The name of this file was changed
to rotor.dytr.nastin due to the long file name. It includes the information of grid points, elements
and initial conditions. This makes the shell elements that are defined in the prestress run available to the
impact run. Because the only properties of the rotor and fan blade that need to be defined in the impact
run are material properties and boundary conditions, all other information like GRID, CQUAD, etc must
be deleted in the explicit input deck.
The file rotor.dytr.nastin contains the entry ISTRSSH. This entry specifies the prestress condition of the
shell element. The information in the upper box are that element number 2275 has (1) in-plane integration
point and (5) through-thickness integration points followed by (5) additional history variables in the first
row. The contents from next row to the end include the initial conditions of this element such as the initial
TITLE = MD Nastran job created on 18-Jan-07 at 10:58:50
$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
TSTEPNL = 1
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
IC = 1
SPC = 1
BCONTACT = 1
BEGIN BULK
include rotor.dytr.nastin
TSTEPNL 1 100 .4e-4 1 ADAPT 2 10
ISTRSSH* 2275 1 5 5*
* *
* 0.000E+00 6.916E+03 7.371E+03 1.480E+02*
* 7.084E+03 -3.908E+01 1.150E+02 0.000E+00*
* 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 1.392E+05*
* 1.000E+05 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00*
* -1.000E+00 1.481E+04 1.149E+04 1.999E+03*
* 1.096E+04 5.499E+00 2.964E+03 0.000E+00*
* 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 1.392E+05*
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
492
stress in xx direction, yy direction and so on. These result variables of the prestress run are to be carried
over to the impact run. If other elements types instead of shell are used, ISTRSBE, ISTRSTS, and
ISTRSSO cards must be included in nastin file.
Bulk data entries that define Contact relations and Contact bodies:
BCTABLE is a SOL 700 bulk data entry and it is meant to define Master-Slave as well as self contact. In
this analysis, adaptive contacts between the bird and the fan blades are used.
BCBODY is a bulk data entry that is used by SOL 600 and SOL 700 only, which defines a flexible or rigid
contact body in 2-D or 3-D. It could be specified with a BSURF, BCBOX, BCPROP, or BCMATL entry.
In this analysis, BCPROP cards are used because adaptive contact is applied.
Bulk data entries that define material and properties for the shell as same as the prestress run:
HGSUPPR card is for the definition of the hourglass suppression method, the corresponding hourglass
damping coefficients and sets for the bulk viscosity method and coefficients.
Bulk data entry that defines boundary conditions and initial velocity:
BCTABLE 1 2
SLAVE 8001 0. 0. 0.1 0. 0
0 0 0
0.1 YES
+
+
+
MASTERS 1001
SLAVE 1001 0. 0. 0.1 0. 0
BCBODY 1001 3D DEFORM 1001 0
BCPROP 1001 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
MATD024 3001 4.14E-4 1.60E+7 0.35000 100000. 138000. 0.20000
+
+ 3001
...
PSHELL1 1 3001 KeyHoff Lobatto 5 Mid
+
+ 0.22768
...
HGSUPPR 1 SHELL 1 1
...
BCGRID 1 300425 THRU 300443
Main Index
493 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
BCGRID is also used to specify a set of nodes which are to be constrained with SPCD2 (angular velocity).
TIC3 defines the initial velocity as combination of translational part and a rotational part.
SPCD2 defines imposed nodal motion on a node or a set of nodes.
In bird1.dat, bulk data that defines the bird properties
PSOLIDD is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that defines properties for solid elements. It refers to entry
MATD010, EOSPOL for material properties.
MATD010 is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that represents MD Nastran Material #10, which is used to model
elastic-plastic hydrodynamic material.
EOSPOL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry that defines the properties of a polynomial equation of state.
MATERO is used to assign a failure criterion on material property.
Bulk data entry that defines geometric properties of the bird:
SPCD2 1 GRID 1 7 80 -1.
TABLED1 80 +
+ 0.0 837.758 1. 837.758 ENDT
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : Disp1
SPC1 1 3 21 THRU 31
..
..
$ Initial angular velocity for rotor +fan blade
TIC3 1 299999 1.
-837.758
1 THRU 6384 300000 THRU 300018 300020
THRU
...
PSOLIDD 3004 3004 1 3004
EOSPOL 3004 0.0 0.0 4.25E6
MATD010 3004 9E-5 145 2.9 0.145
CHEXA 1000001 3004 1000001 1000002 1000003 1000004 1000005
1000006
1000007 1000008
..
GRID 1000001 2.35785 10.7693 -17.238
..
TIC 1 1000001 3 7692.
TIC 1 1000002 3 7692.
..
..
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
494
TIC is a bulk data entry that defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural
transient analysis. Both displacement and velocity values may be specified at independent
degrees-of-freedom.
Results
Prestress Run
Using the TSTEPNL entry 5 results increments were archived. The results of all increments are
essentially the same which indicates that the implicit calculations are stable. The results of the last
increment were written to the file prestres_rotor.dytr.nastin.
Result Increment 2
Main Index
495 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
Result Increment 5: written to the .nastin file

Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
496
Impact run
The prestress result variables have been initialized at the begin of the analysis (Time = 0)
t = 0 seconds
t = 0.001 seconds
Main Index
497 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
t = 0.00152 seconds
t = 0.002 seconds
Main Index
MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
498
t = 0.003 seconds
t = 0.004 seconds
Main Index
499 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
Multiple Bird-strikes on a Box Structure
Problem Description
Bird strike on a box structure is a typical problem in aircraft industries. The box structure simulates the
leading edge of lifting surfaces, e.g. wing, vertical, and horizontal stabilizers. The box can be simplified
to consist of a curve leading edge panel and a front spar. The acceptable design criteria for bird strike are
that the leading edge panel may fail but the front spar strength may not degrade to a certain level.
In this example, two cylindrical panels are put in parallel. Two birds strike the upper panel. One bird
strikes in horizontal direction and the second one vertically. The second bird will perforate the first panel
and impact the second one. The birds are modeled as cylindrical slugs of jelly. The plate is constrained
in such a way that the edges can only move in radial direction.
Figure 13-1 Initial Situations
The properties and initial conditions of the plate and birds are as follows:
Plate Ambience B Bird 1 Bird 2
Material Titanium Air Jelly Jelly
Density (kg/m3) 4527 1.1848 930 930
Bulk modulus (Pa) 1.03e11 2.2e9 2.2e9
Poisson’s ratio 0.314
Yield stress (Pa) 1.38e8
Gamma 1.4
Thickness (m) 0.0015
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MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
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SOL 700 Model
Each curved plate is modeled using 33x16 BLT-shells. The boundary conditions applied at the edges of
the plate are defined within a cylindrical coordinate system, where the local z-axis is aligned with the
length axis of the plate. The cylindrical system is defined using a CORD2C entry. To create a closed
surface, required by COUPLING option, the two plates are connected with dummy quad elements.
The two birds and air are modeled using Multi Material Eulerian (FV) elements, also known as
MMHYDRO. The location of the bird in the Euler domain is defined using TICEUL option.
The material for the birds and air are modeled using EOSPOL and EOSGAM, respectively.
To allow the bird perforating the first plate and impact the second one, several modeling techniques can
be used. One of them is using two Eulerian domains and two coupling surfaces. Both the Eulerian
domains and the coupling surfaces have to be logically different. Each coupling surface associates with
one Eulerian domain.
In this model, the two coupling surfaces share the same physical space. By specifying that one domain is
covered outside and the other inside, the Eulerian domain represents the correct physical space. The two
Eulerian domains cannot interact with each other except through coupling surfaces. When coupling
surfaces share the same shell elements with some or all shells failing, then the material can flow from one
Eulerian domain into another one. The interaction between the Eulerian domains is activated using
COUP1INT option and PARAM, FASTCOUP, INPLANE, FAIL. The rest of the Euler domain is filled with
air. Please notice that when the effect of air is neglected, then the rest of the Eulerian domain should be
filled with void. It will speed up the analysis.
The first domain is associated with a coupling surface that is INSIDE covered. Therefore, it cannot be
adaptive and is defined using MESH,, BOX option. The second domain is adaptive and defined using
MESH,, ADAPT. The ADAPT option will let SOL 700 create and update the Eulerian domain to minimize
memory allocation and consequently lowered CPU time. The default Eulerian boundary condition is set
to that only outflow is allowed using FLOWDEF option. In this case, a bird that reaches the free face
boundary will flow out of the domain. The initial velocity of the birds is defined using TICVAL option.
Radius (m) 0.25
Length (m) 0.25
Mass (kg) 0.36 0.285
Initial velocity (m/s) 150 200
Fail (equiv. Plas. Strain) 0.1
Plate Ambience B Bird 1 Bird 2
Main Index
501 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
The finite element model of the upper and lower plates, the Eulerian domains and the initialization of the
birds are shown in the figure below. The dummy quad elements used to create closed coupling surfaces
are not shown in this figure.
Input File:
SOL 700 is an executive control that activates an explicit nonlinear transient analysis:
Case control cards for problem time, loads and initial conditions:
SOL 700,NLTRAN stop=1
$ Direct Text Input for Executive Control
CEND
TITLE = Multiple BIRD STRIKE on BOX Structure
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name: Default
SUBTITLE=Default
TSTEPNL = 1
SPC = 1
IC = 1
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MD Nastran Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700) User’s Guide
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
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TSTEPNL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the number of Time Steps (10) and Time
Increment (0.0015 seconds) of the simulation. The total time is the product of the two entries. Notice here
the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time Increments and the exact value
of the Time Steps is determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The time step is a function of the
smallest element dimension during the simulation.
Define the Initial, the Minimum and the Safety factor of the time step:
Define coupling surface that can fail and Multi material overflow array to store material data. In a
problem where more than 10% of the elements have more than one material, the default value of
FMULTI(0.1) must be increased.
Define Output results request for every 0.00015 s and time history output request for coupling surfaces:
Euler domain 1:
Define an Euler mesh with 50x28x44 elements reference to PEULER1 (=1):
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL 1 10 0.0015 1
PARAM*, DYINISTEP, 1e-7
PARAM*, DYMINSTEP, 1e-8
DYPARAM, STEPFCTL, 0.9
DYPARAM, FASTCOUP, INPLANE, FAIL
DYPARAM, FMULTI, 0.2
DYPARAM, LSDYNA, BINARY, D3PLOT, .00015
DYTIMHS,, .000001,,,,,,,+
+, CPLSOUT
$ domain 1
$
MESH, 1, BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-0.26,-0.015,-0.05,0.50,0.28,0.44,,,+
+, 50, 28, 44,,,, EULER, 1
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503 Chapter 13: Examples
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out (FBO)
Define FSI coupling surface from elements listed in the BSURF entry (covering inside):
Define Eulerian element properties with reference to TICEUL1 (=11).
The initial conditions of these elements are defined in geometric regions.
Define Regions with shapes, material, initial values and level indicators:
Define region shapes:
Define Initial values of the bi