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A Level

Biology A
(Salters-Nuffield)

SPECIMEN PAPERS
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced GCE in Biology A
(Salters-Nuffield) (9BN0)
Pearson
Edexcel Level 3
Advanced Level
GCE in Biology A
(Salters-Nuffield) (9BN0)
Specimen Papers

First certification 2016


Contents

1 Introduction 1
2 General marking guidance 3
3 Paper 1: The Natural Environment and
Species Survival 5
4 Paper 1 Mark Scheme 41
5 Paper 2: Energy, Exercise and Co-ordination 63
6 Paper 2 Mark Scheme 99
7 Paper 3: Pre-release material 121
8 Paper 3: General and Practical Applications
in Biology 133
9 Paper 3 Mark Scheme 159

References to third party materials are made in these specimen papers are made good faith.
Pearson does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which
may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks,
journals, magazines and other publications and websites.)

All information in this document is correct at time of publication.

All the material in this publication is copyright

Pearson Education Limited 2015


Introduction
These specimen papers have been produced to complement the sample assessment
materials for Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield)
and are designed to provide extra practice for your students. The specimen papers are
part of a suite of support materials offered by Pearson.

The specimen papers do not form part of the accredited materials for this qualification.

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 1


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
General marking guidance
All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners must mark the last
candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the first.
Mark schemes should be applied positively. Candidates must be rewarded for what
they have shown they can do rather than be penalised for omissions.
Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their
perception of where the grade boundaries may lie.
All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. Examiners should
always award full marks if deserved, i.e. if the answer matches the mark scheme.
Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidates response
is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme.
Where some judgement is required, mark schemes will provide the principles by
which marks will be awarded and exemplification/indicative content will not be
exhaustive.

Brackets around parts of words / phrases in this mark scheme indicate the
possible additional words / phrases candidates may write as their answer. They
must not be awarded twice for an answer relating to one bullet point.

Where a word is underlined, that word must be included in the answer to be


awarded a mark for that point.

When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a
candidates response, a senior examiner must be consulted before a mark is given.
Crossed-out work should be marked unless the candidate has replaced it with an
alternative response.

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 2 3


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Write your name here
Surname Other names

Pearson Edexcel Centre Number Candidate Number

Level 3 GCE
Biology A
(Salters Nuffield)
Advanced
Paper 1: The Natural Environment and Species Survival
Specimen Paper for first teaching September 2015 Paper Reference
Time: 2 hours 9BN0/01
You may need a ruler, a pencil and a calculator. Total Marks

Instructions
Fill
Use black ink or ball-point pen.
centrein the boxes at the top of this page with your name,
number and candidate number.
Show yourall questions.
Answer
answer whereworking in any calculation questions and include units in your
appropriate.
A nswer the questions in the spaces provided
there may be more space than you need.
You may use a scientific calculator.
toIn questions marked with an asterisk (*), marks will be awarded for your ability
structure your answer logically, showing how the points that you make are
related or follow on from each other where appropriate.

Information
The total mark for this paper is 100.
Theusemarks for each question are shown in brackets
this as a guide as to how much time to spend on each question.

Advice
Read each question carefully before you start to answer it.
Try to answer every question.
Check your answers if you have time at the end.
Turn over

S49421A
2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

3/2/3/

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 3


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Answer ALL questions.
Write your answers in the spaces provided.
Some questions must be answered with a cross in a box . If you change your mind about an
answer, put a line through the box and then mark your new answer with a cross .
1 Many animals reproduce sexually.
The diagram shows a healthy human sperm cell.

Q S
P

R
Magnification 4000
(a) (i) In which part of the sperm cell are the mitochondria located?
(1)
A P
B Q
C R
D S
(ii) Which of the following is the approximate diameter of the sperm cell nucleus?
(1)
A 0.4 m
B 4 m
C 0.4 nm
D 4 nm

(iii) Which of the following describes the chromosome number in this human sperm cell?
(1)
A diploid
B haploid
C polyploid
D tetraploid

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 4


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(b) Explain why a defective acrosome reaction may result in male infertility.
(4)

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(c) Males produce large numbers of sperm cells each with a different genotype.
Describe how the variation in sperm cell genotype arises.
(3)

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(Total for Question 1 = 10 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 5
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
2 The movement of materials into and out of a cell needs to be controlled.
(a) Describe what is meant by the term fluid mosaic with reference to cell membranes.
(2)

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(b) Goblet cells lining the bronchi produce mucus. This mucus is released by exocytosis.
(i) Explain how goblet cells release mucus by exocytosis.
(2)

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(ii) The consistency of the mucus is determined by the movement of water,


by osmosis, from the cells lining the bronchi.
Explain how the partial permeability of the surface membrane of the cells
lining the bronchi allows osmosis to take place.
(2)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 6


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(iii) Describe how thicker mucus would affect gas exchange across the walls of the alveoli.
(2)

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(Total for Question 2 = 8 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 7
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
3 Photosynthesis is the process by which plants fix carbon.
(a) The diagram shows some of the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis.

NADP

NADPH

PSII 2e Y PSI

H2O

(i) Complete the box with the products of the reaction at PSII.
(1)
(ii) Which of the following is the type of reaction taking place at X?
(1)
A condensation
B hydrolysis
C photolysis
D reduction
(iii) Which of the following molecules are found in the PSI and PSII?
(1)
A ATP
B ATP synthase
C chlorophyll
D RUBISCO
(iv) In which part of the chloroplast does the reduction of NADP take place?
(1)
A chloroplast outer membrane
B chloroplast stroma
C granum
D thylakoid lumen

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 8


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(v) Describe the role of the group of membrane proteins represented by Y in the
diagram.
(2)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 9
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(b) Wheat and maize are used as biofuel crops.
Scientists have investigated the effect of incident radiation and leaf nitrogen
concentration on the growth of wheat and maize.
Incident radiation is a measure of the useful light energy hitting the plant.
Leaf nitrogen concentration is a measure of the availability of nitrogen in the soil.
The results of these investigations are shown in the graphs.

3000
Key
Above ground dry mass / g m2

2500 Maize
Wheat
2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 200 400 600
Cumulative incident radiation / MJ m2

18
Key
16 Maize
Wheat
14
Carbon fixed / mg m2 s1

12

10

0
0 50 100 150
Leaf nitrogen concentration / au

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 10


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(i) Scientists calculated the dry mass produced per MJ of incident radiation for
wheat. This is shown in the table.

Above ground dry


Plant
mass / g MJ-1
Wheat 3.25

Calculate the above ground dry mass produced per MJ of incident radiation
for maize.
(2)

Answer ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g MJ1


(ii) Analyse the information provided about maize and wheat to determine which
crop should be used for the production of biofuels.
(2)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 11
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(iii) Sugar cane crops are also being grown for the production of biofuel.

Devise an experiment to investigate the effect of light intensity on the above


ground dry mass of sugar cane crops grown in a field.
(5)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 3 = 15 marks)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 12


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
4 Lysozyme is one component of the non-specific response to infection.
(a) Describe what is meant by a non-specific response to infection.
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 13
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(b) A student investigated the activity of lysozyme in tears.
A suspension of bacteria was mixed with molten agar and poured into a Petri dish.
After the agar had solidified, wells were cut and different dilutions of tear sample were
placed in the wells.
After 24 hours the Petri dish was inspected.

1 1
8 4
Control Well

Undiluted 1
2
Clear zone Bacterial
growth
Tear samples
24 hours later

(i) State the relationship between lysozyme dilution and the size of the clear
zone.
(1)

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(ii) Calculate the area of the clear zone for the undiluted tear sample.
(Area of a circle = r2)
(2)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 14


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) Explain how the student could adapt the investigation to study the effect of pH
on the activity of lysozyme.
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 4 = 9 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 15
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
5 Madagascar is an island rich in biodiversity.
Lemurs are a diverse group of primates endemic to Madagascar.
Scientist suggest there may be as many as 100 different species of lemur.
(a) (i) State what is meant by the term endemic.
(1)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Describe what is meant by biodiversity.


(2)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(iii) Explain how the biodiversity of lemurs in two different parts of Madagascar
could be compared.
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 16


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(b) One species of lemur, the Aye-aye, is found throughout the forests of Northern
Madagascar.
Deforestation is taking place in this part of Madagascar.
Scientists have identified three separate populations of Aye-aye in this area, as
shown on the map.

Location of the three


populations of Aye-aye
in Northern Madagascar

Explain how these three populations could become distinct species.


(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 5 = 9 marks)

Turn over
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 17
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
6 Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a life-threatening disease caused by the Ebola virus.
(a) Explain why antibiotics are not used to treat Ebola haemorrhagic fever.
(2)

............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) Some of the blood plasma of individuals who have survived infection with Ebola can be
collected. This can be used in the treatment of individuals currently infected with Ebola.
Explain why the blood plasma from survivors can be used to treat new cases of Ebola
infection.
(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 18


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) A study of the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone found that the Ebola virus was
evolving rapidly.
Explain why the evolution of the virus might reduce the effectiveness of any
vaccine being developed.
(4)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 6 = 9 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 19
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
7 Tissues of the human body have different stem cell populations.
These stem cells divide to replace and renew cells in these tissues.
(a) Describe the properties of a stem cell.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) Scientists have observed a relationship between the number of times a stem cell
population divides in a tissue and the risk of developing cancer in that tissue.
This relationship is shown in the graph.

Basal cell

0.1
Risk of developing cancer

Lung
(smokers) Colon

0.01 Leukaemia
Liver

Oesophagus Lung
(non-smokers)
0.001
Bone

0.0001
106 107 108 109 1010 1011 1012 1013

Number of stem cell divisions in an individuals lifetime

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 20


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(i) The correlation coefficient for the data is 0.937.
The table shows some critical values for this correlation coefficient.

Critical values for the


correlation coefficient
n p = 0.05
4 1.00
5 0.90
6 0.83
7 0.71
8 0.64
9 0.60
10 0.56

Which of the following correctly describes the correlation?


(1)
A non-significant and positive
B non-significant and negative
C significant and positive
D significant and negative

(ii) Explain the relationship between the number of stem cell divisions and the
risk of developing cancer.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 21
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(iii) The graph shows that the risk of developing lung cancer is greater in a
cigarette smoker compared to a non-smoker.
Calculate how many times greater.
(2)

Answer .............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(iv) Explain why cigarette smokers have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than
non-smokers.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 7 = 9 marks)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 22


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
8 Crustose coralline algae are a group of photosynthetic red algae that play an
important role in the formation of coral reefs.
These algae deposit calcium carbonate in their cell walls to form encrusting and
rock-like structures.
(a) (i) Write an expression that describes net productivity.
(1)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) The graph shows net productivity and respiration for one species of crustose
coralline algae found at different water depths.

2.5
Production and consumption of organic

2.0
carbon / g C m2 day1

1.5

1.0

0.5 Key
Respiration

Net productivity
0
0 5 10 15 20
Water depth / m

On the graph, plot the gross productivity for this species.


(1)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 23
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(iii) Analyse the data to explain the effect of water depth on net productivity.
(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

*(b) Scientists investigated the effect of water temperature and carbon dioxide
concentration on the growth of one species of crustose coralline algae.
The growth was measured by recording the percentage cover of the algae on a surface.
The results of this investigation are shown in the table.

Growth conditions
Percentage cover
Temperature CO2 concentration (%)
/ C / ppm
17 400 100
17 700 70
20 400 100
20 700 35

The normal temperature and carbon dioxide concentration in the natural habitat
of this species are 17C and 400 ppm CO2.

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 24


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Analyse the data in the graph and the table to assess the possible impact of the
continued burning of fossil fuels on crustose coralline algae.
(6)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 8 = 11 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 25
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
9 Liver cells synthesise and export a variety of proteins.
(a) The image is a transmission electron micrograph of part of a liver cell.

L
K

500 nm

(i) Which of the following structures is involved in respiration?


(1)
A K
B L
C M
D N
(ii) Which of the following structures is involved in synthesising lipids?
(1)
A K
B L
C M
D N

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 26


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(iii) The site of synthesis of proteins to be released by exocytosis is
(1)
A K
B L
C M
D N
(iv) Calculate the maximum width of the structure labelled K.
(2)

Maximum length ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nm


(b) Collagen is a fibrous protein.
Explain how the structure of collagen is related to its function.
(4)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 27
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) Fibrosis of the liver is a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and
liver failure.
In fibrosis of the liver, liver cells secrete excess collagen.
There is an association between fibrosis of the liver and alcohol consumption in humans.
Scientists have investigated the effects of alcohol intake on collagen synthesis in rats.
The results are shown in the table.

Synthesis of collagen in the


Alcohol intake / week
liver / au

none 14

small volume each day 16

one large volume on day one 19

one large volume on day one


and a small volume from day 27
two and day seven

(i) Deduce the effect of alcohol intake on fibrosis of the liver in rats.
(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 28


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(ii) The scientists have suggested that epigenetic events are involved in
regulating collagen synthesis in rats given alcohol.
Explain how epigenetic events might be involved in regulating collagen
synthesis in rats given alcohol.
(2)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 9 = 14 marks)

Turn over
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 29
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
10 Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most commonly diagnosed
immunodeficiency disorders.
The infection history of a group of individuals with CVID is summarised in the table.

Characteristics of infection
Type of infection
Frequency of infection Severity of infection
Effects of infection are more
Much more frequent than
Bacterial serious than in the general
expected
population
Effects of infection are
Slightly higher frequency than
Viral comparable to infection in the
expected
general population

The average antibody response of two groups, following immunisation with a


bacterial pneumococcal vaccine, is shown in the graph.
Concentration of antibody against

without CVID
pneumococcal antigens

with CVID

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Time / days

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
The distribution of lymphocytes in the blood for the two groups is shown in the table.

Percentage of white blood cells (%) T helper cell :


Group T killer cell
B lymphocytes T lymphocytes ratio
With CVID 8 78 1.7 : 1
Without CVID 14 80 1.5 : 1

Analyse the data to evaluate how the immunological defect in the group with CVID
might be treated.
(6)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 10 = 6 marks)

TOTAL FOR PAPER = 100 MARKS

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 32


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Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material.
Pearson Education Ltd. will, if notified, be happy to rectify any errors or omissions and include any such rectifications in
future editions

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 34


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Paper 1 (9BN0/01)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(a)(i)
B (Q)
(1)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(a)(ii)
B (4 m)
(1)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(a)(iii)
B (haploid)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(b) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

the {egg / oocyte} membrane is protected by the zona (1)


pellucida (and follicle cells)

(if acrosome reaction defective) enzyme not released (1)

{ digestive enzymes / acrosin } will not break down (1)


the zona pellucida

sperm will not be able to { fuse with the oocyte (1) Allow egg cell for oocyte
membrane / fertilise the oocyte }
(4)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 35


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(c) A description that makes reference to the following:

variation is produced in meiosis (1)

as a result of { crossing over / recombination } of (1)


alleles between chromatids

the independent assortment of chromosomes (1)


(3)

Total for Question 1 = 10 Marks

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 36


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(a) A description that makes reference to the following:

fluid refers to the movement of the phospholipids in (1)


the plane of the membrane

mosaic refers to the random association of proteins (1)


(of different shapes and sizes) within the membrane
(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(b)(i) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

mucus contained in membrane bound vesicles inside (1)


the cell

(these vesicles) fuse with the cell membrane releasing (1)


the mucus
(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(b)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

partially permeable membrane is a barrier to some (1)


solutes but not water

enables a concentration gradient of { solutes / water } (1)


(2)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 37


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(b)(iii) A description that makes reference to the following:

increased diffusion distance / decreased surface area (1)

reduced (rate of) gas exchange (1)


(2)

Total for Question 2 = 8 marks

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 38


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(a)(i) Allow hydrogen ions, protons
2H+ + O2
and oxygen (1)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(a)(ii)
C (photolysis)
(1)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(a)(iii)
C (chlorophyll)
(1)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(a)(iv)
B (chloroplast stroma)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(a)(v) A description that makes reference to two of the
following:

electron transport (1)

movement of hydrogen ions across thylakoid (1)


membrane

ATP production / photophosphorylation (1)


(2)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 39


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(b)(i) Example of Calculation:
appropriate x and y axis values identified (1) (1800 900) 200

correct answer 4.5 (1) = 4.5

Allow full marks for correct


answer with no working (2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(b)(ii) An answer that makes reference to two of the following:

maize produce more above ground dry mass for a (1)


particular amount of incident radiation

maize fix more carbon for a particular leaf nitrogen (1)


concentration

maize will grow in less optimum conditions so better for (1)


biofuel production
(2)

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(b)(iii) An answer that makes reference to the following:

{ select / plant } a field of sugar cane (1)

sample, at suitable time intervals, using randomly (1)


placed quadrats

measure light intensity (1)

harvest, dry and weigh sugar cane (1)

{ monitor / record } other abiotic factors (1)


(5)

Total for Question 3 = 15 marks

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(a) A description that makes reference to the following:

response that is effective against (wide) range of (1)


infectious agents

does not involve recognition of infectious agent (1)

does not react to specific antigens (1)


(3)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(b)(i)
positive correlation
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(b)(ii)
correct diameter or radius measured (1) 14 mm

correct answer (1) Example of Calculation


3.14 72 = 154 mm2

Allow full marks for correct


answer with no working
(2)

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(c) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

use of buffers of different pH (1)

control other variables e.g. temperature (1)

{ compare / measure } diameter of clear zone (1)


(3)

Total for Question 4 = 9 marks

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5(a)(i)
species found only in one geographical location
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5(a)(ii) A description that makes reference to the following:

the variety of species (in an ecosystem / community (1)


/ habitat)

the variety of alleles in a { gene pool / population / (1)


species }
(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5(a)(iii) An explanation that makes reference to three of the
following:

record the number of species of lemur and the number (1)


of individuals of each species

calculate the diversity index (for each location) (1)

so the higher the index, the greater the biodiversity (1)

DNA profiling / gel electrophoresis / molecular


phylogeny / proteomics (1)
(3)

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5(b) An explanation that makes reference to three of the
following:

deforestation results in (geographical) isolation of the (1)


populations of Aye-ayes

resulting in reduced gene flow between the populations (1)

different selection pressures leading to natural (1)


selection

leading to sympatric speciation (1)


(3)

Total for Question 5 = 9 marks

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 45


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
6(a) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

antibiotics target { organelles / structures / processes } (1)


found in bacteria

viruses therefore unaffected by antibiotics (1) (2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
6(b) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

survivors will have antibodies specific to the virus in (1)


their plasma

antibodies given to individuals infected with Ebola will (1)


provide passive immunity

the antibodies provided will therefore (1)


{ agglutinate / opsonise } the virus particles
(3)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
6(c) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

vaccine stimulates immune response to make antibodies (1) Accept reference to antigens
specific to viral proteins

mutations in the virus nucleic acid (1) Ebola is an RNA virus but allow
reference to mutations in DNA
results in a change in the shape of the viral proteins (1)

therefore antibodies can no longer bind to the virus (1) (4)


Total for Question 6 = 9 marks
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 46
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(a) A description that makes reference to the following:

a cell that can continue to divide (1) Allow no Hayflick limit

has the potential to give rise to specialised cells (1)


(2)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(b)(i)
C (significant and positive)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(b)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

greater number of cell divisions means more (1)


opportunities for errors in DNA replication

more mutations result in greater chance of cancer (1)


(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(b)(iii)
correct risks identified (1) 0.08 and 0.004

correct calculation (1) Example of calculation:


0.08 0.004
= 20.0

Allow full marks for correct


answer with no working (2)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 47


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(b)(iv) An explanation that makes reference to two of the
following:

cigarettes { are an environmental risk factor / contain (1)


carcinogens }

that increases the number of mutations in cells (1) Accept description of how
mutations arise
resulting in uncontrolled cell division (1)
(2)

Total for Question 7 = 9 marks

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 48


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
8(a)(i)
net (primary) productivity = gross (primary) productivity - respiration Allow NPP = GPP - R
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
8(a)(ii) 2.3 at 0
correctly plotted value 1.4 at 6
0.9 at 18 (1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
8(a)(iii) An explanation that makes reference to three of the
following:

there will be a large decrease in net productivity as (1)


depth increases

(due to) large decrease in gross productivity as (1)


depth increases

lower light intensity results in less photosynthesis (1)

and (only a) small decrease (in utilisation of carbon) (1)


in respiration as depth increases
(3)

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Indicative content
Number
*8(b) Answers will be credited according to candidate's deployment of knowledge and understanding of the material in
relation to the qualities and skills outlined in the generic mark scheme.

The indicative content below is not prescriptive and candidates are not required to include all the material which is
indicated as relevant. Additional content included in the response must be scientific and relevant.
burning fossil fuels increases atmospheric concentrations of CO2, a greenhouse gas leading to rising sea
levels, increased surface temperatures and increased CO2 concentration in oceans
small changes in sea level have limited effect on the crustose coralline algae
algae are adversely affected by increased carbon dioxide concentrations
there is a greater effect of increased carbon dioxide at higher temperatures
continued burning of fossil fuels may reduce productivity of crustose coralline algae
reefs will grow more slowly, become more susceptible to damage resulting in loss of habitat

Level Mark Descriptor


Level 0 Marks No awardable content
An answer may be attempted but with limited interpretation or analysis of the scientific information with
a focus on mainly just one piece of scientific information.
1-2
1
The answer will contain basic information with some attempt made to link knowledge and understanding
to the given context.
An answer will be given with occasional evidence of analysis, interpretation and/or evaluation of both
3-4 pieces of scientific information.
2
The answer shows some linkages and lines of scientific reasoning with some structure.
An answer is made which is supported throughout by sustained application of relevant evidence of
analysis, interpretation and/or evaluation of both pieces of scientific information.
3 5-6
The answer shows a well-developed and sustained line of scientific reasoning which is clear and logically
structured.

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(a)(i)
A (K)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(a)(ii)
C (M)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(a)(iii)
D (N)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(a)(iv) Example of calculation
measures width on diagram (1) (500 x width of K) length of bar

correct answer (1) = 940 nm

Allow full marks for correct


answer with no working (2)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 51


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(b) An explanation that makes reference to four of the
following:

three { polypeptide / collagen } chains tightly coiled (1)


around each other

due to every third amino acid { being glycine / having (1)


a small R group }

chains are held together by { hydrogen bonding / (1)


covalent cross links }

flexible without stretching (due to triple helix) (1)

chains of collagen associate together to form fibrils (1)

(fibrils) have a high tensile strength (and function to (1)


support tissues)
(4)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(c)(i) An answer that makes reference to any two of the
following:

alcohol intake increases collagen synthesis (1)


combined intake has greatest effect (1)

a greater level of collagen indicates a greater amount of (1)


fibrosis
AND
therefore the higher the alcohol intake the greater the (1)
level of fibrosis
(3)
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 52
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(c)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

exposure to alcohol may result in { changes of (1) Allow reference to other correct
methylation of DNA / modification of histones } epigenetic modifications

so that the collagen gene is more likely to be (1)


{ activated / expressed / transcribed }
(2)

Total for Question 9 = 14 marks

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 53


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Indicative content
Number
*10 Answers will be credited according to candidate's deployment of knowledge and understanding of the material in
relation to the qualities and skills outlined in the generic mark scheme.

The indicative content below is not prescriptive and candidates are not required to include all the material which
is indicated as relevant. Additional content included in the response must be scientific and relevant.

the CVID group is more susceptible to bacterial infections


the CVID group produces fewer antibodies to bacterial antigens
have a reduced percentage of B cells
have a similar ratio of T helper to T killer cells
have a normal percentage of T lymphocytes
can defend themselves against viruses but not bacteria
(therefore) antiviral medication not required
could prescribe (prophylactic) antibiotics
could provide passive immunity by giving them antibodies / immunoglobulins

Level Mark Descriptor


0 0 No awardable content
Limited scientific judgement made with a focus on mainly just one method, with a few
strengths/weaknesses identified.
1-2
1
A conclusion may be attempted, demonstrating isolated elements of biological knowledge and
understanding but with limited evidence to support the judgement being made.
A scientific judgement is made through the application of relevant evidence, with strengths and
weaknesses of each method identified.
3-4
2
A conclusion is made, demonstrating linkages to elements of biological knowledge and understanding,
with occasional evidence to support the judgement being made.
A scientific judgement is made which is supported throughout by sustained application of relevant
evidence from the analysis and interpretation of the scientific information.
5-6
3
A conclusion is made, demonstrating sustained linkages to biological knowledge and understanding with
evidence to support the judgement being made.
Total for Question 10 = 6 marks
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 54
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Write your name here
Surname Other names

Pearson Edexcel Centre Number Candidate Number

Level 3 GCE
Biology A
(Salters Nuffield)
Advanced
Paper 2: Energy, Exercise and Co-ordination
Specimen Paper for first teaching September 2015 Paper Reference
Time: 1 hour 30 minutes 9BN0/02
You do not need any other materials. Total Marks

Instructions
Fill
Use black ink or ball-point pen.
centrein the boxes at the top of this page with your name,
number and candidate number.
Answer allthequestions.
Answer
there may bequestions in the spaces provided
more space than you need.
Questions
You may use a scientific calculator.
communication
labelled with asterisk (*) are ones where the quality of your written
will be assessed
you should take particular care with your spelling, punctuation and grammar,
as well as the clarity of expression, on these questions.

Information
The total mark for this paper is 100.
Theusemarks for each question are shown in brackets
this as a guide as to how much time to spend on each question.

Advice
Read each question carefully before you start to answer it.
Checkanswer
Try to every question.
your answers if you have time at the end.
Turn over

S49422A
2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

3/3/3/

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 55


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Answer ALL questions.

Write your answers in the spaces provided.

Some questions must be answered with a cross in a box . If you change your mind about an
answer, put a line through the box and then mark your new answer with a cross .

1 Movement of the arm at the elbow joint results from the contraction of muscles.
The diagram shows some of the structures in a human arm.

(a) Give the term for a pair of muscles that brings about movement at a joint.
(1)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) (i) Give a reason why F can be described as a flexor muscle.


(1)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Describe how G interacts with E to enable movement at this joint.


(ii)
(2)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 56


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) (i) Muscle contains actin and myosin protein fibres.
Which of the following describes the primary structure of a protein?
(1)
A amino acids joined by hydrogen bonds
B amino acids joined by ester bonds
C amino acids joined by peptide bonds
D amino acids joined by phosphodiester bonds

(ii) Describe the structure of an amino acid.


(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 1 = 8 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 57
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
2 The diagram shows part of the membrane of the outer segment of a rod cell.

{

L M




(a) Which of the following is the part labelled L?


(1)
A fatty acid tail
B phosphate head
C phospholipid
D phospholipid bilayer

(b) (i) Give the name of the visual pigment labelled M.


(1)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Give the name of the light-absorbing part of the visual pigment labelled N.
(1)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 58


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) Describe how the absorption of light by the part labelled N results in an action
potential in the optic nerve.
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 2 = 6 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 59
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
3 There are many factors that affect the development of cardiovascular disease.
The table contains information about four different patients.

Systolic blood pressure


Patient Gender Age HDL: Total cholesterol
/ mm Hg

E Female 49 120 60 :160

F Female 67 150 60 :140

G Male 51 170 30 :180

H Male 67 140 60 :140

(a) (i) Which two of these patients are at the greatest risk of developing
cardiovascular disease?
(1)
A E and F
B F and G
C G and H
D H and E

(ii) Explain why these two patients have the greatest risk of developing
cardiovascular disease.
(4)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 60


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(b) Electrocardiograms can aid the diagnosis of heart conditions.
A doctor recorded the following electrocardiogram for a patient with a
healthyheart.

T
P
Q
S

(i) State what is measured along the xaxis and yaxis of this electrocardiogram.
(1)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Which part of an electrocardiogram indicates the depolarisation of the atria?


(1)
A P
B Q
C R
D S

(iii) Which part of the electrocardiogram indicates when the atrioventricular valves
would close?
(1)
A P to Q
B Q to R
C S to T
D T to P

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 61
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) The doctor recorded this electrocardiogram for another patient.

Explain why the electrocardiogram indicates that this patient has a heart condition.
(2)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 62


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(d) Another factor that is associated with an increased risk of heart disease is the use
of antidepressant drugs.
There are a number of drugs available for treating depression.
The graph shows some of the side effects of one of these drugs.

60

50
Number of patients

40

30

20

10

0
Weight gain

Dry mouth
Sleepiness

Insomnia

Dizziness
Fatigue

Nausea
Side effects of drug

Explain why the side effects of this antidepressant drug could increase the risk of
developing heart disease.
(4)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 3 = 14 marks)

Turn over
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 63
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
4 The maintenance of blood glucose levels is an example of homeostasis.
(a) State what is meant by the term homeostasis.
(1)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) People with type 1 diabetes have to inject insulin to control their blood glucose levels.
Blood glucose levels are normally maintained between 4 and 8mmoldm3.
The graph shows the changes in blood glucose over the course of two days for a
person with diabetes being treated with insulin.

15
Blood glucose / mmoldm3

10

0
08 12 16 20 24 04 08 12 16 20 24 04 08
Time of day

If insulin is injected and a meal is missed, blood glucose levels may fall toolow.
Calculate the change in mass of glucose in 1 dm-3 of blood between 10:00 h
and 17:00 h on Day 2.
A blood glucose level of 4 mmol dm-3 is equivalent to 72 mg 100 cm-3.
(3)

Answer .............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mg

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 64


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) Glucagon is a hormone that is usually released when the level of blood glucose
falls too low.
Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down glycogen into glucose.
(i) Which of the following processes breaks down glycogen into glucose?
(1)
A condensation
B hydrolysis
C methylation
D phosphorylation

(ii) Which arrangement shows the structure of the bond that is broken in this
process?
O (1)
A C O C

B C O C
H

C C N C
O

D C O P O C

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 65
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(d) Some people have a disorder that reduces their ability to produce an enzyme
required to break down glycogen. This enzyme is glycogen phosphorylase.
The symptoms of this disorder include muscle weakness and lack of stamina
when exercising.
(i) Explain why a low concentration of this enzyme would cause the symptoms
described.
(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Devise an experiment to investigate the effect of glycogen phosphorylase


concentration on the breakdown of glycogen.
(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 4 = 12 marks)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 66


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
5 Mitochondria are organelles found in eukaryotic cells.
The diagram shows a mitochondrion.

ribosome
matrix

DNA
inner membrane
outer membrane

(a) Where in the mitrochondrion does the Krebs cycle take place?
(1)
A inner membrane
B matrix
C outer membrane
D ribosome

(b) Compare and contrast the structure of a prokaryotic with that of a mitochondrion,
as shown in the diagram.
(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Turn over
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 67
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) Mitochondrial diseases are caused by mutations in the DNA of the mitochondria.
One type of mitochondrial disease is caused by the production of defective ATP
synthase.
(i) Explain how a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA could result in defective
ATP synthase being produced.
(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Mitochondrial myopathy is a mitochondrial disease. The symptoms of this


disease vary in severity.
The table shows the relationship between the percentage of mitochondria
with mutated DNA in parents and the severity of the symptoms in their child.

Percentage of
mitochondria Percentage of mitochondria with mutated DNA in the father (%)
with mutated
DNA in the 0 20 50 80
mother (%)

0 No symptoms No symptoms No symptoms No symptoms

20 No symptoms No symptoms No symptoms No symptoms

50 Mild symptoms Mild symptoms Mild symptoms Mild symptoms

80 Severe symptoms Severe symptoms Severe symptoms Severe symptoms

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 68


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Explain the effects that the percentage of mitochondria with mutated DNA in
the parents has on the severity of symptoms in their child.
(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 5 = 10 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 69
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
6 An investigation was carried out to test the effect of temperature on the rate of
respiration in germinating seeds.
The diagram shows the respirometer that was used to carry out this investigation.

Capillary tube (0.7mm Germinating seeds


internal diameter)
containing coloured oil Potassium hydroxide
solution

Tube A Tube B

(a) (i) Describe the purpose of the potassium hydroxide solution in this respirometer.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 70


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(ii) The level of the coloured oil dropped on the left-hand side by 8.2mm in
12minutes.
Calculate the rate of respiration of these seeds. Express your answer as
volume of oxygen used per minute to two decimal places.
(Volume of cylinder = r 2h )
(3)

Answer ................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

*(b) Devise an investigation, using this respirometer, to obtain valid data to show the
effect of temperature on the rate of respiration in germinating seeds.
(6)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 6 = 11 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 71
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
7 Haemophilia is a genetic disorder where blood does not clot normally.
It can be treated by injecting factor VIII, a protein involved in the blood-clotting
process that is not produced by people with haemophilia type A.
Bacteria can be genetically modified to produce factor VIII.
(a) The diagram shows some of the steps involved in genetically modifying bacteria
to produce factor VIII.

Step 1
Gene coding for factor VIII is removed from
the human genome

Step 2
Gene for factor VIII is inserted into a vector

Step 3
Vector is inserted into bacteria

Step 4
Bacteria are grown in large numbers and
factor VIII is produced

(i) Describe the difference between a gene and the genome


(2)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 72


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(ii) Give the name of the type of enzyme that would be used to insert the gene
into the DNA of the vector at Step 2.
(1)

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(iii) Give an example of a suitable vector that would be used in Step 2 or 3.


(1)

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(iv) Describe how the genetically modified bacteria would use the gene from the
human genome to produced factor VIII in Step 4.
(2)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 73
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(b) Factor VIII is required for the activation of prothrombin.
Explain why the blood-clotting process does not take place normally when a
person with haemophilia type A cuts their hand.
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 7 = 9 marks)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 74


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
8 Some marine snails produce chemicals called conotoxins. These chemicals paralyse
the prey of these snails by interfering with the conduction of nerve impulses to
muscles.
Conotoxins can be modified to produce painkillers.
The table shows the membrane proteins affected by different conotoxins.

Type of conotoxin Membrane protein affected

Alpha acetylcholine receptors

Delta voltage-gated sodium ion channels

Kappa voltage-gated potassium ion channels

Omega calcium ion channels

*(a) Analyse the data to explain how conotoxins can interfere with the conduction of
nerve impulses to muscles.
(6)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 75
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(b) The effects of conotoxins on the nervous system were first demonstrated in
experiments involving animals.
These experiments were involved in the development of painkillers from conotoxins.
(i) Describe the ethical issues concerning the use of animals in this research.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 76


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(ii) After testing on animals, painkillers undergo three-phased testing.
In an investigation testing the effectiveness of a painkiller produced from
conotoxin, the new painkiller was tested on a group of healthy volunteers.
Explain the reasons for this stage in the testing of the painkiller.
(2)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 8 = 10 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 77
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
9 An experiment was carried out to investigate mineral deficiencies on the growth of
seedlings.
The effects of two mineral deficiencies on two different species of plant were
investigated.
Test tubes were half filled with an aqueous gel containing a mineral solution without
calcium ions. Seeds of rice or fenugreek were placed separately in these test tubes.
These test tubes were placed by a window for two weeks to allow the seeds to
germinate and the seedlings to grow.
This was repeated using test tubes containing mineral solution without
magnesium ions.
(a) A control should have been used in this investigation.
(i) Which of the following would be a suitable control?
(1)
A complete mineral ion solution

B distilled water
C dry gel
D tap water

(ii) In this investigation a control would have improved


(1)
A accuracy
B precision
C repeatability
D validity

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 78


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(iii) The table gives some properties of rice seeds and fenugreek seeds.

Property of seeds Rice Fenugreek

Number per g 200 500

Calcium ion content / mg 100g1 21 176

Magnesium ion content / mg 100g1 177 191

The calcium content of one fenugreek seed was calculated to be 3.52g.


Calculate the calcium content of one rice seed.
(3)

Answer ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 79
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(iv) After two weeks, the seedlings of both rice and fenugreek grown in both
solutions had green leaves.
The rice seedlings grown in mineral ion solution without calcium ions were shorter than
the rice seedlings grown in mineral solution without magnesium ions.
The fenugreek seedlings grown in mineral ions solution without calcium ions
grew to normal height.
Explain what is shown by these observations.
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 80


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(b) The only source of light provided for the plants was from outside the window. All
of the seedlings grew towards the window.
Explain the reason for this response of these seedlings to light.
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 9 = 11 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 81
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
10 Opioids are used to treat moderate to severe pain. They are a group of drugs
synthesised from morphine.
(a) Opioids and morphine both affect the size of the pupil of the eye.
The graph shows the effects of these drugs on the diameter of the pupil following
exposure to a flash of light.

10
Diameter of the pupil / mm Opioid
8
Morphine
6

0
1 2 3 4 5

flash Time / hours


oflight

Calculate the rate of change in pupil diameter between one and five hours after
exposure to light for those individuals who had taken morphine.
(2)

Answer ........................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mmh1

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 82


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015

(ii) Explain the effect of opioids on the diameter of the pupil, between one and
five hours after exposure to a flash of light.
(3)
DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA

DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA

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DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA

(iii) Comment on reasons why the results of this investigation may not prove that
any changes in pupil size were the direct result of either the opioid or morphine.
(4)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 10 = 9 marks)

TOTAL FOR PAPER = 100 MARKS


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DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA


DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA
DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA

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DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA
DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Paper 2 (9BN0/02)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(a)
antagonistic (muscles)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(b)(i)
contraction (of F ) {flexes / bends } the arm
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(b)(ii) A description that makes reference to the following:
G (tendon) attaches E to the bone (1)
as G does not stretch, the contraction of E moves the (1)
bone (2)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(c)(i)
C (amino acids joined by peptide bonds)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(c)(ii) A description that makes reference to
carboxyl group / COOH (1)
amine group / NH2 (1)
R group (1) (3)
Total for Question 1 = 8 marks

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(a)
C (phospholipid)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(b)(i)
rhodopsin
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(b)(ii)
(cis) retinal
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(c) A description that makes reference to the following:

opsin released causing sodium ion channels to be (1)


blocked

which causes hyperpolarisation in the rod cell (1)

causing action potential in bipolar cell (results in (1)


action potential in the optic nerve)
(3)
Total for Question 2 = 6 marks

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 88


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(a)(i)
B (F and G)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(a)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to:

higher systolic pressures therefore higher blood (1)


pressure

high blood pressure associated with increased risk of (1)


CVD

G has the lowest ratio of HDL to total cholesterol (1)

G has higher ratio of LDL associated with increased (1)


risk of CVD
(4)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(b)(i) x axis: time
AND
y axis: voltage / potential difference (1)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(b)(ii)
A (P)
(1)

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(b)(iii)
B (Q to R)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(c) An explanation that makes reference to:

length of time between T and P is variable (1)

irregular heart rate (1)


(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(d) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

side effects of the drug include { weight gain / fatigue / (1)


sleepiness }

being { overweight / obese } is a risk factor in (1)


developing heart disease

{ fatigue / sleepiness } may stop people exercising (1)

lack of exercise can lead to further weight gain (1)

(4)
Total for Question 3 = 14 marks

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4 (a) An answer that makes reference to the following:

maintenance of internal body conditions within an


appropriate range
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(b)
Correct selection of values from graph (1) 7.5 and 2.5

Correct conversion to mg (1) 5 x { 18 / 72 4 } = 90

Correct answer calculated (1) 900 mg dm-3

Allow full marks for correct


answer with no working. (3)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(c)(i)
B (hydrolysis)
(1)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(c)(ii)
B (C - O - C)
(1)

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(d)(i) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

low blood glucose levels (1)

less glucose for respiration (1)

less { energy / ATP } in muscle tissue (1)

(3)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(d)(ii) An answer that makes reference to the following:

range of enzyme concentration (1)

control of other named variables (1) e.g. temperature, pH,


concentration of substrate
measurement of rate of glucose production (1)
(3)
Total for Question 4 = 12 marks

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5 (a)
B (matrix)
(1)

Question Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark


Number
5(b) An answer that makes reference to the following:

Similarities
both contain ribosomes (1)

both contain { circular DNA / plasmids } (1)

Difference
prokaryotes { do not have a double membrane / (1)
possess a cell wall }
(3)

Question Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark


Number
5(c)(i) An explanation that makes reference to the following:
a (random) change in the sequence of bases in the DNA (1)

involving { deletion / substitution / addition } of a base (1)

this affects the triplet code / changes sequence of (1)


amino acids in the enzyme molecule

change in shape of active site (1)


(3)

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5(c)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

the severity of symptoms is related to the proportion of (1)


mitochondria with damaged DNA in the mother only

because (the childs mitochondria) are derived from the (1)


{ oocyte / egg cell }

mitochondria in sperm do not enter the egg on (1)


fertilisation
(3)

Total for Question 5 = 10 marks

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
6(a) (i) A description that makes reference to the following:

to absorb carbon dioxide (1)

so that the volume of oxygen used can be measured (1)


(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
6(a)(ii) Example of Calculation
cross-sectional area of tube correctly calculated (1) 3.14 x 0.35 x 0.35 or 0.385

volume of oil displaced correctly calculated (1) 0.385 x 8.2 or 3.157

correct answer (1) = 0.26 mm3min-1

Allow full marks for correct


answer, no working
(3)

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Indicative content
Number
*6(b) Answers will be credited according to candidate's deployment of knowledge and understanding of the material in
relation to the qualities and skills outlined in the generic mark scheme.

The indicative content below is not prescriptive and candidates are not required to include all the material which
is indicated as relevant. Additional content included in the response must be scientific and relevant.

method for setting a constant temperature


measurement of a range of temperatures
use of the syringe to reset the apparatus
using the same mass of seeds
repeating measurements at each temperature
modifying the left hand tube to have the same volume of air
adding potassium hydroxide or killed seeds to the left hand side

Level Mark Descriptor


0 No awardable content
Level 1 1-2 A description of the method to investigate a range of temperatures but with limited attempt to
produce valid data. Generalised comments made.

The description will contain basic information with some attempt made to link knowledge and
understanding to the given context.
Level 2 3-4 A description of the method to investigate a range of temperatures but with some attempt to
produce valid data.

The description shows some linkages and lines of scientific reasoning with some structure
Level 3 5-6 A description of the method to investigate a range of temperatures supported throughout with
evidence to produce valid data.

The description shows a well-developed and sustained line of scientific reasoning which is clear,
coherent and logically structured.
Total for Question 6 = 11 marks

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(a)(i) A description that makes reference to the following:

gene is a length of DNA that codes for a { polypeptide / (1)


protein }

genome is a complete set of { DNA / introns and (1)


exons }
(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(a)(ii)
ligase / integrase
(1)

Question Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark


Number
7(a)(iii)
plasmid / virus
(1)

Question Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark


Number
7(a)(iv) A description that makes reference to the following:

transcription of DNA to mRNA (1)

{ translation of mRNA / protein synthesis } on (1)


ribosomes
(2)

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Question Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(b) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

no prothrombin activated so thrombin not produced (1)

thrombin needed to convert fibrinogen to fibrin (1)

fibrin needed to trap { platelets / blood cells } to form (1)


the (blood) clot
(3)
Total for Question 7 = 9 marks

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Indicative content
Number
*8(a) Answers will be credited according to candidate's deployment of knowledge and understanding of the material in
relation to the qualities and skills outlined in the generic mark scheme.

The indicative content below is not prescriptive and candidates are not required to include all the material which
is indicated as relevant. Additional content included in the response must be scientific and relevant.

if acetylcholine receptors on post synaptic membrane affected, no depolarisation of post synaptic neurone
if calcium ion channels affected, vesicles in presynaptic neurone do not fuse with presynaptic membrane
no neurotransmitter released
if sodium ion channels affected, no depolarisation of axon
if potassium ion channels affected, no repolarisation of axon
no propagation of action potential

Level Mark Descriptor


0 No awardable content
Level 1 1-2 An explanation may be attempted but with limited interpretation or analysis of the scientific
information with a focus on mainly just one variable.

The explanation will contain basic information with some attempt made to link knowledge and
understanding to the given context.
Level 2 3-4 An explanation will be given with occasional evidence of analysis, interpretation and/or evaluation
of both variables.

The explanation shows some linkages and lines of scientific reasoning with some structure.
Level 3 5-6 An explanation is made which is supported throughout by sustained application of relevant
evidence of analysis, interpretation and/or evaluation of both pieces of scientific information.

The explanation shows a well-developed and sustained line of scientific reasoning which is clear
and logically structured.

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
8(b)(i) A description that makes reference to the following:

utilitarian argument, better to test on animals than on (1)


humans

the benefits to humans must outweigh harm done to (1)


other animals
(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
8(b)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to two of the
following:
(1)
to determine safe dose
(1)
to determine side effects
(1)
to determine how the drug is metabolised (2)
Total for Question 8 = 10 marks

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(a)(i)
A (complete mineral ion solution)
(1)

Question
Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(a)(ii)
D (validity)
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(a)(iii) Example of Calculation:
Mass of one seed correctly calculated (1) 1 200 = 0.005(g)

Calcium ion content for one seed calculated (1) (21 0.005) 100 or 0.00105

Correct answer (1) = 1.05 (g)

Allow full marks for correct


answer with no working
(3)

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(a)(iv) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

seedlings not deficient in magnesium ions, chlorophyll (1)


production not affected

seedlings of rice deficient in calcium ions were shorter (1)


due to less calcium ions stored in the seed

seedlings of fenugreek did not suffer calcium ion (1)


deficiency due to the greater content of calcium ions
in the seed
(3)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
9(b) An explanation that makes reference to three of the (1)
following: (1)
(1)
positive phototropism (1)
(1)
IAA diffuses away from light source (1)

IAA accumulates in { cells / tissues } furthest from


light

IAA stimulates cell elongation causing growth towards


light
(3)
Total for Question 9 = 11 marks

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Question Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
10(a)(i) Example of calculation:
calculation of change in pupil size (1) 5.6 4.4 = 1.2 mm

rate of change calculated (1) 1.2 4 = 0.3

Allow full marks for correct


answer, no working (2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
10(a)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

the pupil constricts with opioids (1)

the contraction of the circular muscles of iris stimulated (1)


/ the contraction of the radial muscles inhibited

so parasympathetic nerve pathway inhibited (1)


/ sympathetic nerve pathway stimulated
(3)

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
10(a)(iii) An answer that makes reference to the following:

no control with neither morphine or opioids to allow (1)


comparison

light conditions need to be controlled (1)

no details of how subjects selected to reduce variability (1)


in response, e.g. same gender, same age, no other
medication

no indication of sample size or statistical analysis to (1)


determine significance of results
(4)
Total for Question 10 = 9 marks

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Write your name here
Surname Other names

Pearson Edexcel Centre Number Candidate Number

Level 3 GCE
Biology A
(Salters-Nuffield)
Advanced
Paper 3: General and Practical Applications in Biology
Specimen Paper for first teaching September 2015 Paper Reference
Time: 2 hours 30 minutes 9BN0/03
You may need a ruler, pencil and a calculator. Total Marks

Instructions
Use black ink or ball-point pen.
centre
Fill in the boxes at the top of this page with your name,
number and candidate number.
Show yourall questions.
Answer
answer whereworking in any calculation questions and include units in your
appropriate.
A nswer the questions in the spaces provided
there may be more space than you need.
You may use a scientific calculator.
toIn questions marked with an asterisk (*), marks will be awarded for your ability
structure your answer logically showing how the points that you make are
related or follow on from each other where appropriate.

Information
The total mark for this paper is 100.
Theusemarks for each question are shown in brackets
this as a guide as to how much time to spend on each question.

Advice
Read each question carefully before you start to answer it.
Try to answer every question.
Check your answers if you have time at the end.
Turn over

S49423A
2015 Pearson Education Ltd.

3/2/3/

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Answer ALL questions.

Write your answers in the spaces provided.

1 Lead is a toxic metal that can affect the structure of proteins. Lead affects protein in a
similar way to changing pH.
Beetroot vacuoles contain a pigment. The absorbance of a solution is proportional to
the concentration of the pigment in the solution.
The graph shows the results of a scientific investigation to study the effect of
increasing lead concentration on the permeability of the membranes of beetroot cells.

0.27

0.25

0.23
Absorbance/AU

0.21

0.19

0.17

0.15
0 5 10 15 20
concentration of lead/parts per billion

(a) State the name of the membrane that surrounds the vacuole in beetroot cells.
(1)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) Calculate the difference in percentage increase in absorbance between the lead
concentration of 010 parts per billion and 1020 parts per billion.
(3)

Answer ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) (i) Explain the effect of lead on membrane permeability in beetroot cells.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Devise an investigation to determine whether pH has a similar effect to lead


on the permeability of the membranes of beetroot cells.
(4)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 1 = 10 marks)

Turn over
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 107
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
2 A dead human body can supply a variety of evidence to support the time of death.
The table shows the relationship between the mean rectal temperature, calculated
from a number of human bodies, and time after death. All bodies were at the same
ambient temperature.

Time after death Mean rectal Range of rectal


/ hours temperature / C temperature / C

4 36 1.8

8 31 2.5

12 28 3.3

16 26 4.3

20 24 5.1

24 22 5.6

(a) Deduce the maximum ambient temperature.


(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) Analyse the data to explain why a more reliable estimate of time of death could
be given if the dead body has a higher rectal temperature.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 108


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) State two features of these bodies that could account for the variation in the data.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(d) Explain why recording rectal temperature is more reliable than measuring skin
temperature.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(e) In addition to body temperature, forensic scientists would look for other evidence
of time of death.
Give two other pieces of evidence from a body that allow for an estimation of the
time of death.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 2 = 10 marks)

Turn over
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 109
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
3 DCMU is a herbicide that can disrupt one of the carrier proteins in the electron
transport chain of chloroplasts.
A student carried out an investigation to study the effect of DCMU concentration on
the Hill reaction.
The student ground up some spinach leaves in an isolation mixture containing
sucrose solution at a concentration of 0.4 mol dm3. The mixture was filtered and
then spun in a centrifuge. The chloroplasts were extracted.
These chloroplasts were divided equally into eight different tubes containing a
solution of distilled water, DCPIP and a buffer.
A small volume of DCMU was added to each tube and the time taken for the blue
DCPIP to decolourise was recorded.
(a) (i) Explain why the isolation mixture contained sucrose at a concentration of
0.4moldm3 rather than at a concentration of 0.8moldm3.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) The isolation mixture had a temperature of 4 C and pH of 7.


Explain why this temperature and pH are appropriate.
(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 110


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(b) The time taken for the DCPIP to decolourise was converted to a rate of colour
change. The results are shown in the table.

Concentration of Rate of colour


DCMU / moldm3 change / 104 s1

0 23.5

1 12.5

2 6.3

3 4.2

4 3.2

5 2.6

6 2.2

7 2.3

(i) Analyse the data to deduce a null hypothesis for this investigation.
(1)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 111
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(ii) The student started to analyse the data using a statistical test, called the
Spearmans rank correlation coefficient (rs ), to see if there was a correlation.
Complete the table by filling in the empty boxes.
(1)

Concentration Concentration Rate of Rate Difference Difference


of DCMU / ranked colour change ranked in ranks d squared
moldm3 (R1) / 104 s1 (R2) (R1R2) d2

0 1 23.5 8

1 2 12.5 7 5 25

2 3 6.3 6 3 9

3 4 4.2 5 1 1

4 5 3.2 4 1 1

5 6 2.6 3 3 9

6 7 2.2 1 6 36

7 8 2.3 2 6 36

Calculate rs by using the equation.


(iii)
6 d 2
rs = 1
n(n2 1)
Where (d 2) is the sum of all the values for d 2 and n is the number of pairs of
data.
(3)

rs = ................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 112


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(iv) The table shows some of the critical values for the Spearmans rank correlation
coefficient.

Number of p value
pairs of data
(n) 0.10 0.05 0.02 0.01

6 0.829 0.866 0.943 1.000

8 0.643 0.786 0.833 0.881

10 0.564 0.648 0.746 0.794

12 0.506 0.591 0.712 0.777

14 0.456 0.544 0.645 0.715

16 0.425 0.506 0.601 0.665

18 0.399 0.475 0.564 0.625

Explain the outcome of the statistical test.


(3)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 3 = 13 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 113
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
4 Sand dunes are a habitat that can often be found by the edge of the sea.
(a) An investigation was carried out to study the variety of plant species found on
sand dunes.
Four adjacent sand dunes from the sea to further inland were selected, as shown
in the diagram.

beach

sea dune 1 dune 2 dune 3 dune 4

Each species of plant present on dune 1 was recorded along with the total
number of each species of plant present. This was repeated for dunes 2, 3 and 4
and the results are shown in the table.

Number of each plant species present


Plant
species
dune 1 dune 2 dune 3 dune 4

A 169 9 0 0

B 5 123 19 0

C 0 0 126 182

D 1 44 0 0

E 0 0 5 2

F 0 0 20 10

G 0 0 86 35

H 0 0 0 62

I 0 0 32 17

J 0 0 0 119

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 114


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(i) The diversity index was calculated for dunes 1, 2 and 3 using this equation.

N(N 1)
Diversity index (D) =
n(n 1)

Where N is the total number of all individuals of all species in each dune.
Use the table and diversity index equation to calculate the diversity index for
dune4.
Plot your answer on the bar chart.
(3)

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5
Diversity index

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0
dune 1 dune 2 dune 3 dune 4

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 115
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(ii) Explain how the data demonstrate the process of succession.
(5)
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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) Devise a procedure that you could use to find out if the percentage cover of
species B is different on the tops of dunes than in between the dunes.
(5)
................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 4 = 13 marks)

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 116


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
5 The phenotype of an organism can be influenced by a variety of factors.
Phenotypic plasticity is the mechanism that many organisms use to phenotypically
alter due to a change in environmental conditions.
An investigation to study phenotypic plasticity was carried out using a species of
freshwater snail.
Newly hatched freshwater snails were used. These snails were divided into three
groups and each group was placed in a tank with a different set of conditions.
Three different conditions were used. One was a control and the other two are
described in the table.

Condition Description

In water taken from a tank containing predator fish


A
that had eaten some of the snails

B In water in a tank exposed to ultraviolet light (UV)

(a) Describe a suitable control to be used with the third group of snails.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................................................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 117
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(b) The snails were allowed to grow for eight weeks and then the mean percentage
of pigment in the snail shells was assessed for each group. The results are shown
in the graph.

pigment in snail shell (%)


80
70
Mean percentage of
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
control A B

(i) Scientists predicted that the snails exposed to both UV light and water from a
tank of predator fish would have 80% shell pigmentation.
Explain how this prediction was made.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) It is thought that an increase in shell pigmentation levels provides protection


against UV light. UV is a form of radiation that can damage DNA.
Explain how the DNA of the snail could be damaged.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 118


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) The phenotype is influenced by the activation of genes.
(i) Describe how a gene can be activated.
(4)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) Epigenetic changes can modify the activation of certain genes.


State two types of epigenetic changes that can occur.
(2)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 5 = 12 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 119
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
6 There are a number of reactions that regularly occur in cells.
(a) Condensation reactions can be used to join a number of molecules together.
(i) The diagram shows two substrate molecules.
Draw the products when a condensation reaction occurs between the two
substrate molecules.
(2)

CH2OH CH2OH
H O H H O H
H H
OH H OH H
HO OH HO OH
H OH H OH

(ii) Name the larger product formed in this reaction.


(1)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 120


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
*(b) Another reaction that regularly occurs in cells is phosphorylation.
Phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes.
Over a quarter of a million scientific articles have been written on this subject.
Using your knowledge of biology, discuss the roles of phosphorylation in cells.
(9)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(Total for Question 6 = 12 marks)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 121
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
7 The scientific article you have studied is adapted from articles from Nature, Scientific
American and the ScienceDaily website.
Use the information from the scientific article and your own knowledge to answer the
following questions.
(a) Give the name of the simpler molecules produced by the breakdown of glucose
that can enter the mitochondria (paragraph3).
(1)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(b) (i) Describe the role of oxygen in the last reaction involved in aerobic respiration
in the mitochondria (paragraph3).
(1)

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(ii) Explain how carbon monoxide reduces the production of ATP in the electron
transport chain (paragraphs3and4).
(3)

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 122


Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(c) Explain how nitric oxide (NO) released by nerve endings could result in
vasoconstriction of blood vessels (paragraphs7 and 9).
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 123
Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
(d) Explain how free radicals may be involved in the production of P53 in the cell
(paragraph17).
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(e) Describe three structural differences between the inner mitochondrial membrane
and the outer mitochondrial membrane (paragraphs18 and 19).
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(f ) Long wavelengths of light, in the near infrared (NIR) spectrum, appear to be able
to modulate cell respiration by affecting cytochrome oxidase (paragraph30).
Deduce how this may explain why NIR phototherapy has shown promise in
reducing cell death caused by myocardial infarction (paragraph34).
(4)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Level GCE in Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) 125
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(g) (i) Describe how scientists could have produced genetically modified neurons
described in paragraphs 38 and 39.
(4)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(ii) A light sensitive protein is channelrhodopsin-2. This is a channel protein that


spans membranes. When exposed to blue light these channel proteins open
and allow sodium ions to flow through.
Explain how a brief flash of light could cause neurotransmitter to be released
by the genetically modified neurons (paragraphs38 and 39).
(5)

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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(h) Explain how fMRI allowed Vandewalle to make the observations described in
paragraph50.
(3)

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................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................................................................................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Total for Question 7 = 30 marks)

TOTAL FOR PAPER = 100 MARKS

Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material.
Pearson Education Ltd. will, if notified, be happy to rectify any errors or omissions and include any such rectifications in
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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Pearson Edexcel Level 3 GCE
Biology A
(Salters-Nuffield)
Advanced
Paper 3 - Pre-release material
Specimen Paper for first teaching September 2015 Paper Reference

9BN0/03
Do not return the insert with the question paper.

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Specimen Papers - Issue 1 - October 2015 Pearson Education Limited 2015
Power Games

1 Seventy-five years ago, Otto Warburgs star was at its zenith. The pioneering German biochemist
delivered his Nobel address in December 1931. He described the ingenious experiments by which
he had unmasked the enzyme responsible for the critical step of cell respiration, the process that
turns the energy in chemical compounds into energy the cell can use. His work on respiration in
the early 1930s nearly earned him a second Nobel, ultimately denied him by Hitler. Then his star
began sinking. His ideas on the importance of cell respiration in cancer led many to dismiss him as
a crank. And the rise of molecular genetics in the 1960s put such ideas into a far distant orbit.

2 But now, Warburgs star is rising again. A new generation of researchers is returning to his
ideas about respiration in cancer cells. Recent findings suggest that the enzyme he identified,
cytochrome oxidase, is a key player in a new understanding of how the cells energy metabolism
affects health and disease. And surprisingly they show that light has a profound effect on how the
enzyme works and could even be used to treat degenerative disease.

3 To extract energy from molecules, the cell first breaks down glucose into simpler molecules via a
process called glycolysis. It then feeds these molecules into energy-producing structures called
mitochondria, which strip electrons from them to produce energy with the help of oxygen. As
Warburg showed, cytochrome oxidase governs the last reaction in this process.

4 Perhaps the most surprising aspect of the renaissance of Warburgs ideas is that the methods he
used to make this discovery matter again. They exploit two chemical quirks: carbon monoxide (CO)
can block respiration by binding to cytochrome oxidase in place of oxygen; and a flash of light can
displace it, freeing up the site for oxygen to bind again.

Self control

5 By measuring oxygen consumption at different wavelengths of light, Warburg worked out that
the enzyme belonged to a group of proteins that include haemoglobin and chlorophyll. But for
Warburg, the binding of CO to the enzyme was just an oddity he could put to good use. He had no
inkling that biology might use the same trick.

6 Yet over the past decade, researchers have come to appreciate that cells often use CO, and to an
even greater extent NO (nitric oxide), to block respiration. Not only that, but light has striking
counter-effects on cytochrome oxidase. And all these suitors to the enzyme turn out to be critical
to our understanding not just of cancer, but practically all degenerative diseases.

7 Nitric oxide is emitted by nerve endings and can act on an enzyme called guanylate cyclase to relax
blood vessels the impotence drug Viagra manipulates this system. For a long time, scientists
thought that guanylate cyclase was NOs only target. But in the mid-1990s, they found that the
molecule can also bind to cytochrome oxidase and hinder respiration. Whats more, it could do so
at levels found in the bodys tissues.

8 The finding that the body could poison one of its own enzymes was initially shrugged off as an
imperfection an example of how evolution cobbles organisms together with no forethought. But
a few years later, several groups reported that mitochondria harboured an enzyme that synthesizes
NO. Why would cells go out of their way to cook up NO right next to the respiratory enzymes?

2
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9 According to cell biologist Salvador Moncada of University College London, evolution really has
crafted cytochrome oxidase to bind not only oxygen but also NO. One effect of slowing respiration
in some locations is to divert oxygen elsewhere in cells and tissues, he says. This prevents oxygen
levels sinking dangerously low. Moncada, for example, has shown that NO blocks respiration in the
cells lining blood vessels and that this helps to transfer oxygen into smooth muscle cells in these
vessels. Fireflies use a similar trick to flash light.

Flashing the gauntlet

10 Firefly flashes have lit up the human imagination since antiquity. Light is produced by the action
of the luciferase enzyme, which uses ATP to activate luciferin to a luciferyl adenylate intermediate.
This in turn reacts spontaneously with oxygen to emit a photon, giving rise to bioluminescence.

11 The sequence of flashes, which often beam complex messages to potential mates, clearly requires
exquisite nervous control. But no nerve cells connect directly to the lantern cells that produce
the light, suggesting that some kind of intermediary is needed to ferry messages from the nerve
endings.

12 Barry Trimmer and his colleagues at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, have shown that
this is likely to be NO and suggest it works by binding to cytochrome oxidase. To do so, it exploits
a neat feature of the fireflys breathing system.

13 Insects breathe through tubules, called trachea, that connect the outside world to cells in the body
via a network of increasingly fine branches. The ends of these, called tracheoles, abut cells and
allow oxygen to diffuse outwards. In fireflies, when oxygen passes from tracheoles into the lantern
cells, it must run the gauntlet a dense ring of energy-producing structures called mitochondria
in the periphery of the lantern cells.

14 Normally, the oxygen would bind to cytochrome oxidase in the mitochondria and be used in
respiration. But when NO is released from the nerve endings, it binds to cytochrome oxidase,
blocking respiration and diverting oxygen through the gauntlet into the lantern cell.

15 There, oxygen reacts with the luciferyl intermediate to produce a flash of light. The glory is that the
flash switches itself off. Light dissociates NO from cytochrome oxidase, allowing oxygen to bind
again. Now the mitochondria consume oxygen once more, allowing the luciferyl intermediate to
build up until another wave of NO arrives.

16 But the consequences of blocking respiration go beyond diverting oxygen. Respiration, Moncada
argues, is not just about generating energy, its about generating feedback that allows a cell to
monitor and respond to its environment. Blocking respiration generates chemical signals, in
the form of highly reactive molecules called free radicals. These are normally associated with
cell damage, but now it seems they can interact with the proteins that control gene activity and
adapt cells to changing circumstances. Free radicals had a bad reputation, says pathologist Victor
Darley-Usmar, of the University of Alabama, Birmingham. But we now see them as signals.

17 In the past few years, researchers have compiled a list of these proteins, or transcription factors, the
activity of which depends, at least in part, on interactions with free radicals. These include many
proteins known to be linked to cellular life and death, such as P53, a protein that kills cells if they
show signs of turning cancerous. The question is, says Darley-Usmar, how is the whole system
controlled?

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18 The answer lies in the tens of thousands of protein machines that line each mitochondrion.
Organized into chains, they pass electrons extracted from broken-down glucose on to each other.
The end-point of the chain is cytochrome oxidase, which catalyses the final step of respiration, in
which electrons and protons are transferred onto oxygen to form water. Energy released by this
process is used to pump protons over a membrane, creating an electrical charge. The cell can then
use this charge to power an enzyme that makes ATP, a molecule that fuels chemical reactions in the
cell.

19 The cell can suppress the number of free radicals coming from these respiratory chains by allowing
protons to leak back though the membrane without driving the synthesis of ATP, a process known
as uncoupling.

Undercover radicals

20 But if uncoupling doesnt bring free-radical leak under control, the signal may be amplified.
Theres a cross-talk, known as the retrograde response, between the mitochondria and genes
in the nucleus, which were only just beginning to explore, says cell biologist Keshav Singh of
the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York, who helped uncover this mechanism. If
we can modulate this signalling, we might be able to influence the life or death of cells in many
pathologies, even ageing.

21 In cancer cells, something goes awry with this pathway. Free radicals can trigger two steps in
carcinogenesis, chromosomal instability and metastasis, by hindering DNA repair and promoting
the activity of genes involved in cancer spread. Weve found that damaged mitochondria, which
overproduce free radicals, under-mine the integrity of the nuclear genome in otherwise normal
cells, says Singh.

22 Ultimately, however, the most intractable problem with cancer cells is their failure to undergo
apoptosis (cell suicide). There are echoes of Warburg here, for he argued that cancer cells revert
to a primitive type that has little or no need for oxygen or mitochondria, depending instead on
anaerobic forms of 23, energy generation such as glycolysis. Whether cells really revert is a moot
point, but Moncada has shown that cells ability to switch to glycolysis is critical to their survival.

23 Moncadas findings suggest that cells that can do without mitochondria many stem cells, for
example, which have been implicated in cancer can have their resistance to apoptosis stiffened
by NO binding to cytochrome oxidase, making cancer more likely. At the same time, cells that
depend on mitochondria for energy, such as neurones, may be pushed to apoptosis by NO binding,
making degenerative disease more likely.

24 Any solution to excessive NO binding might lower the risk of both cancer and degenerative
diseases, as it would make apoptosis more likely in cancer cells and less likely in normal cells. And
the second essential feature of Warburgs experiments light might do just that.

25 Light has long been known to promote wound healing, but the detailed molecular mechanisms
have only recently been studied. Lights effects are more than skin deep: at long wavelengths, in
the near infrared (NIR) spectrum, photons may penetrate several centimetres into the body.

26 And according to photobiologist Tiina Karu, at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, NIR
rays in exactly this range modulate cell respiration and the signals it generates.

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Light works

27 Karus group has explored a number of changes taking place in cultured cells in response to NIR
rays. The immediate effect is an energy buzz, in which ATP levels are stoked up and the electrical
charge across the mitochondrial membrane is strengthened. A few hours later, the activity of as
many as 110 genes shifts in concert. These genes orchestrate a prolonged rise in mitochondrial
energy production, as well as stress resistance. They also prompt cells to cling more strongly to
their surroundings, an important factor in wound healing.

28 Exactly how NIR light interacts with the enzyme to bring about these changes is unclear, and
difficult to measure. One idea is that phototherapy might work by dissociating NO from the
enzyme, so reversing the signalling consequences of excessive NO binding.

29 We have shown that light can indeed reverse the inhibition caused by NO binding to cytochrome
oxidase, both in isolated mitochondria and in whole cells, says biochemist Guy Brown, at the
University of Cambridge, UK. And whats more, we found that light can protect cells against
NO-induced cell death.

30 He has a reservation, however. These experiments used light in the visible spectrum, with
wavelengths from 600 to 630nm. Although Brown acknowledges that cytochrome oxidase
absorbs NIR photons from 700 to 900nm, he points out that the absorption takes place in part of
the enzyme not involved in NO binding. NIR also seems to have effects on cytochrome oxidase in
conditions where NO is unlikely to be present. Presumably then, says Brown, NIR must also have a
direct effect on the enzyme.

31 Regardless of the exact mechanism, the effect is to relieve a blockade of the enzyme, whether by
NO or any other molecules. According to toxicologist Janis Eells, at the University of Wisconsin,
Milwaukee, such relief lowers the likelihood of apoptosis in many conditions.

32 Eells and her colleagues found that NIR phototherapy counters methanol poisoning, which injures
the retina and optic nerve, often causing blindness. The toxic metabolite is formic acid, which
inhibits cytochrome oxidase. In a rat model, NIR phototherapy is able to restore virtually normal
retinal function, at least as judged by the electroretinogram, says Eells.

33 And neurobiologist Margaret Wong-Riley and her colleagues at the Medical College of Wisconsin
in Milwaukee have shown that NIR phototherapy can also oppose the effects of cyanide on cell
cultures. Cyanide poisons by binding to cytochrome oxidase. Wong-Rileys team showed that
phototherapy could halve the rate of apoptosis in cultured neurones, even when given before
cyanide treatment.

34 But can NIR phototherapy relieve not just acute toxicity, but more chronic inflammatory conditions?
The signs augur well. Eells and her colleagues have shown that NIR phototherapy could cut the
rate of apoptosis by 50% in a rat model of retinitis pigmentosa, in which photoreceptors die by
apoptosis during postnatal development causing retinal degeneration and blindness. The use of
NIR phototherapy on other conditions in which cells die by apoptosis, including acute ischaemic
stroke and myocardial infarction, has also shown promise in animal models, and should soon enter
clinical trials.

35 So will it work? The trouble is that if you enthuse about light as a therapy, clinicians and even
researchers tend to back away, says Eells. Perhaps if the physical interactions of photons with
cytochrome oxidase and NO are better known, people will begin to appreciate the huge potential
benefits of this technique.

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How to Use Light to Control the Brain

36 In the film Amlie, the main character is a young eccentric woman who attempts to change the
lives of those around her for the better. One day Amlie finds an old rusty tin box of childhood
mementos in her apartment, hidden by a boy decades earlier. After tracking down Bretodeau, the
owner, she lures him to a phone booth where he discovers the box. Upon opening the box and
seeing a few marbles, a sudden flash of vivid images come flooding into his mind. Next thing you
know, Bretodeau is transported to a time when he was in the schoolyard scrambling to stuff his
pockets with hundreds of marbles while a teacher is yelling at him to hurry up.

37 We have all experienced this: a seemingly insignificant trigger, a scent, a song, or an old photograph
transports us to another time and place. Now a group of neuroscientists have investigated the
fascinating question: Can a few neurons trigger a full memory?

38 In a new study, published in Nature, a group of researchers from MIT showed for the first time
that it is possible to activate a memory on demand, by stimulating only a few neurons with light,
using a technique known as optogenetics. Optogenetics is a powerful technology that enables
researchers to control genetically modified neurons with a brief pulse of light.

39 To artificially turn on a memory, researchers first set out to identify the neurons that are activated
when a mouse is making a new memory. To accomplish this, they focused on a part of the brain
called the hippocampus, known for its role in learning and memory, especially for discriminating
places. Then they inserted a gene that codes for a light-sensitive protein into hippocampal
neurons, enabling them to use light to control the neurons.

40 With the light-sensitive proteins in place, the researchers gave the mouse a new memory. They put
the animal in an environment where it received a mild foot shock, eliciting the normal fear behavior
in mice: freezing in place. The mouse learned to associate a particular environment with the shock.

41 Next, the researchers attempted to answer the big question: Could they artificially activate the fear
memory? They directed light on the hippocampus, activating a portion of the neurons involved in
the memory, and the animals showed a clear freezing response. Stimulating the neurons appears
to have triggered the entire memory.

42 The researchers performed several key tests to confirm that it was really the original memory
recalled. They tested mice with the same light-sensitive protein but without the shock; they tested
mice without the light-sensitive protein; and they tested mice in a different environment not
associated with fear. None of these tests yielded the freezing response, reinforcing the conclusion
that the pulse of light indeed activated the old fear memory.

43 In 2010, optogenetics was named the scientific Method of the Year by the journal Nature Methods.
The technology was introduced in 2004 by a research group at Stanford University led by Karl
Deisseroth, a collaborator on this research. The critical advantage that optogenetics provides
over traditional neuroscience techniques, like electrical stimulation or chemical agents, is speed
and precision. Electrical stimulation and chemicals can only be used to alter neural activity in
nonspecific ways and without precise timing. Light stimulation enables control over a small subset
of neurons on a millisecond time scale.

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44 Over the last several years, optogenetics has provided powerful insights into the neural
underpinnings of brain disorders like depression, Parkinsons disease, anxiety, and schizophrenia.
Now, in the context of memory research, this study shows that it is possible to artificially stimulate
a few neurons to activate an old memory, controlling an animals behavior without any sensory
input. This is significant because it provides a new approach to understand how complex memories
are formed in the first place.

45 Lest ye worry about implanted memories and mind control, this technology is still a long way from
reaching any human brains. Nevertheless, the first small steps towards the clinical application
of optogenetics have already begun. A group at Brown University, for example, is working on
a wireless optical electrode that can deliver light to neurons in the human brain. Who knows,
someday, instead of new technology enabling us to erase memories la Eternal Sunshine of the
Spotless Mind, we may actually undergo memory enhancement therapy with a brief session under
the lights.

Study of totally blind people shows how light helps activate the brain

46 Light enhances brain activity during a cognitive task even in some people who are totally blind,
according to a study conducted by researchers at the University of Montreal and Bostons Brigham
and Womens Hospital. The findings contribute to scientists understanding of everyones brains, as
they also revealed how quickly light impacts on cognition. We were stunned to discover that the
brain still respond significantly to light in these rare three completely blind patients despite having
absolutely no conscious vision at all, said senior co-author Steven Lockley.

47 Light doesnt just allow us to see, it tells the brain whether its night or day which in-turn ensures
that our physiology, metabolism and behavior are synchronized with environmental time. For
diurnal species like ours, light stimulates day-like brain activity, improving alertness and mood,
and enhancing performance on many cognitive tasks, explained senior co-author Julie Carrier.
The results indicate that their brains can still see, or detect, light via a novel photoreceptor in the
ganglion cell layer of the retina, different from the rods and cones we use to see.

48 Scientists believe, however, that these specialized photoreceptors in the retina also contribute to
visual function in the brain even when cells in the retina responsible for normal image formation
have lost their ability to receive or process light. A previous study in a single blind patient
suggested that this was possible but the research team wanted to confirm this result in different
patients. To test this hypothesis, the three participants were asked to say whether a blue light was
on or off, even though they could not see the light. We found that the participants did indeed
have a non-conscious awareness of the light they were able to determine correctly when the light
was on greater than chance without being able to see it, explained first author Gilles Vandewalle.

49 The next steps involved looking closely at what happened to brain activation when light was flashed
at their eyes at the same time as their attentiveness to a sound was monitored. The objective of
this second test was to determine whether the light affected the brain patterns associated with
attentiveness -- and it did, said first author Olivier Collignon.

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50 Finally, the participants underwent a functional MRI brain scan as they performed a simple sound
matching task while lights were flashed in their eyes. The fMRI further showed that during an
auditory working memory task, less than a minute of blue light activated brain regions important
to perform the task. These regions are involved in alertness and cognition regulation as well
being as key areas of the default mode network, Vandewalle explained. Researchers believe that
the default network is linked to keeping a minimal amount of resources available for monitoring
the environment when we are not actively doing something. If our understanding of the default
network is correct, our results raise the intriguing possibility that light is key to maintaining
sustained attention agreed Lockley and Carrier. This theory may explain why the brains
performance is improved when light is present during tasks.

Study of totally blind people shows how light helps activate the brain, October 28, 2013
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131028090408.htm

Power Games
NATURE, Vol 443, 26 October 2006 News Feature by Nick Lane

How to Use Light to Control the Brain


Shades of Proust: Using optogenetics, researchers are able to trigger a memory Scientific American
March27, 2012 by Stephen Dougherty

Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material.
Pearson Education Ltd. will, if notified, be happy to rectify any errors or omissions and include any such rectifications in
future editions.

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Biology A (Salters-Nuffield) Advanced Paper 3 (9BN0/03)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(a)
Tonoplast
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(b)
selection of correct points from the graph (1) 0.17 AU , 0.23 AU , 0.26 AU

calculation of percentage (1) Example of calculation:


35.3% 13.0%
difference in percentage (1) = 22.3%

Allow full marks for correct


answer with no working (3)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(c)(i) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

interferes with { tertiary / 3-D } shape of the channel (1)


proteins

therefore causes channel proteins to open (1)


(2)

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
1(c)(ii) An answer that makes reference to four of the following:

solutions with a range of pH values (1)

pieces of beetroot of same surface area (1)

control of other named relevant variables (1)


e.g. temperature / volume of
measurement of absorbance of solution using (1) solution / time left in solution /
colorimeter

repeats at each pH value to calculate mean (1)


(4)
Total for Question 1 = 10 marks

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(a)
correct reading of temperatures (1) 22 5.6

after 24 hours, lowest body temperature 22 minus (1) Accept calculation of maximum
5.60C ambient temperature

Example of calculation
22 5.6
= (lower than / equal to) 16.4OC
(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(b) An answer that makes reference to the following:

range smaller at higher temps (1)

only the highest temperature shows no overlap (1)


(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(c) An answer that makes reference to two of the following:

body size (1)

fat level (1)

position of body i.e. in fetal position or not (1)


(2)

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(d) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

rectal temperature is core temperature / it would be (1)


37OC at time of death

skin surface temperature would be more variable (1)


(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
2(e) An answer that makes reference to two of the following:

rigor mortis (1)

degree of decomposition (1)

forensic entomology (1)


(2)
Total for Question 2 = 10 marks

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(a)(i) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

there is no concentration gradient present between (1)


the chloroplast and the isolation solution

no net loss of water from the chloroplast from osmosis (1)


(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(a)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

low temperature to (temporarily) slow enzyme (1)


activity

pH 7.0 so enzymes not denatured (1)

so RUBISCO remains active (1)


(3)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(b)(i) There is no correlation between the concentration of
DCMU and the rate of DCPIP colour change (1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(b)(ii)
7 and 49
(1)

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(b)(iii) Example of calculation:
Correct calculation of numerator (1)
(d2 = 996) (n(n2-1) = 504)
Correct calculation of denominator (1)

Correct calculation of correlation coefficient (1) = (-) 0.976

Allow all marks for correct


answer with no working
(3)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
3(b)(iv) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

Selection of appropriate critical value from the table (1) 0.786 , 0.833 , 0.881

calculated value is greater (than critical value) (1)

Can reject the null hypothesis / correlation is significant (1)


(3)
Total for Question 3 = 13 marks

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(a)(i) Example of calculation:
correct calculation of numerator (1) (N(N-1) = 427 x 426 = 181 902)
(n(n-1) =) 52 320)
correct calculation of denominator (1)

correct calculation of diversity index / correctly (1) = 3.48 ;


plotted on the graph
Allow full marks for correct
answer with no working
(3)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(a)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to the following
points:

succession is the sequence of { species / (1)


communities } replacing each other with time

dune 4 is older than dune 1 (1)

no species of plant inhabits all 4 dunes /example from (1) e.g. species G only found on
table quoted to show one species inhabiting no more dunes 3 and 4
than 3 dunes

plant diversity increases with time (1)

description of increasing diversity index from dune 1 (1)


to dune 4
(5)

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
4(b) An answer that makes reference to the following
points:

systematic sampling (1)

quadrats used at the tops and in between dunes (1)

details of method used for measuring percentage (1)


cover

repeats to make a valid comparision (1)

a named relavent statistical test (1)


(5)
Total for Question 4 = 13 marks

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5(a) A description that makes reference to the following:

no UV (1)

water added but not from tank with fish in it that have (1)
eaten snails
(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5(b)(i) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

calculating increase above control for fish and for UV (1) fish exposure effect is 12%
(above control) and (UV is) 28%
adding effects of fish and UV
(1)
(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5(b)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

interferes with DNA replication (1)

(potentially) leading to mutations (1)


(2)

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5(c)(i) A description that makes reference to the following:

transcription factor (1)

Binds to promotor region (1)

RNA polymerase binds (1)

mRNA to be synthesised (1)


(4)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
5(c)(ii) An answer that makes reference to the following:

DNA methylation (1)

histone modification (1)


(2)
Total for Question 5 = 12 marks

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
6(a)(i) An answer that makes reference to the following:

water (1)

glycosidic bond drawn correctly (1)


(2)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
6(a)(ii)
maltose
(1)

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Question
Indicative content
Number
6(b) Answers will be credited according to candidates deployment of knowledge and understanding of material in relation to the qualities
and skills outlined in the generic mark scheme.
The indicative content below is not prescriptive and candidates are not required to include all the material which is indicated as
relevant. Additional content included in the response must be scientific and relevant.
Candidates are expected to offer a range of appropriate examples to support a comment on the roles of phosphorylation in Biology.
Description of phosphorylation as an addition of phosphate.
Examples of phosphorylation in respiration to include glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, substrate level phosphorylation.
Examples of phosphorylation in photosynthesis to include RuBP, GP, NADP, non-cyclic photophosphorylation.
Role of phosphorylation of ADP to store energy.
Phosphorylation of lipids to make phospholipids and their roles in membranes.
Addition of phosphates to help form the DNA backbone / involved in phosphodiester bonds.
Appreciation of the consequences of phosphorylation such as activation of molecule for further reactions.
Level Mark Descriptor
0 No rewardable material
Demonstrates isolated elements of biological knowledge and understanding.
Provides little or no references to a range of scientific idea, processes, techniques and procedures.
1 1-3
Scientific arguments may be attempted, but fails to link biological concepts and/or ideas in order to support
decision/conclusion. Limited attempt to address the question.
Demonstrates adequate biological knowledge and understanding with selection of some biological facts/concepts to support
an argument or decision/conclusion being made.
Scientific reasoning occasionally supported through the linkage of a range of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and
2 4-6
procedures.
Scientific argument is partially developed. Attempts to synthesise and integrate relevant knowledge with linkages to
biological concepts and/or ideas, leading to a notional scientific argument or decision/conclusion.
Demonstrates comprehensive knowledge and understanding by selecting and applying relevant knowledge of biological
facts/concepts to support an argument or decision/conclusion being made.
Scientific reasoning supported throughout by sustained linkage of a range of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and
3 7-9 procedures.
Scientific argument is well developed and logical. Demonstrating throughout the skills of synthesising and integrating
relevant knowledge with consistent linkages to biological concepts and/or ideas, leading to nuanced and balanced scientific
argument or decision/conclusion based on evidence.
Total for Question 6 = 12 marks

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(a)
pyruvate and { reduced coenzyme / reduced NAD }
(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(b)(i) A description that makes reference to the following:

Final electron acceptor


(1)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(b)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to the following:
carbon monoxide binds to cytochrome oxidase (1)

prevents oxygen binding to the enzyme (1)

blocks the electron transport chain / prevents (1)


oxidation of reduced electron carriers
(3)

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(c) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

NO binds to cytochrome oxidase in endothelium (1)


(of blood vessels)

diverts oxygen to smooth muscle cells (1)

contraction of muscle cells causes vasoconstriction (1)


in arterioles
(3)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(d) An answer that makes reference to three of the
following:
free radicals interact with transcription factors (1)
activation of gene for P53 (1)
production of mRNA from activated gene (1)
translation of mRNA resulting in synthesis of P53 (1)
on ribosomes
(3)

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(e) A description that makes reference to three of the
following:

inner membrane { is folded / has a larger surface (1)


area / has cristae }

outer membrane is impermeable to H+ ions (1)

only inner membrane contains { ETC (proteins) / (1)


ATP synthase / stalked particles }

only inner membrane contains H+ pump (1)


(3)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(f) An answer that makes reference to the following:

myocardial infarction causes cell death in the heart (1)

due to lack of oxygenated blood reaching cardiac (1)


muscle cells

NIR affects cytochrome oxidase involved in aerobic (1)


respiration

diversion of oxygen to cardiac muscle cells would (1)


reduce death of these cells
(4)

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(g)(i) A description that makes reference to the following:

restriction endonuclease enzyme (1)

extraction of gene that codes for light-sensitive (1)


protein

use of a suitable vector (1)

insertion of gene into the { genome / DNA } in the (1)


nucleus of the neurone
(4)

Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(g)(ii) An explanation that makes reference to the following:

{ depolarisation / action potential } occurs (1)

(nerve) impulse reaches { synapse / presynaptic (1)


membrane }

calcium ion channels open causing calcium ions to (1)


enter presynaptic neurone

vesicles containing neurotransmitter fuses with (1)


presynaptic membrane

neurotransmitter released (1)


(5)

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Question
Acceptable Answer Additional Guidance Mark
Number
7(h) An explanation that makes reference to three of the
following:

fMRI detects changes in blood flow in the brain (1)

MRI signal reflects state of haemoglobin / magnetic (1)


fields repelled by oxygen rich blood / deoxygenated
haemoglobin more magnetic than oxygenated
haemoglobin

allows areas of greater brain activity to be detected as (1)


an image created by magnetic resonance

areas of the brain that are involved in an auditory (1)


memory task { were using more oxygen / had an
increased flow of blood }
(3)
Total for Question 7 = 30 marks

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