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Impact of privatization on non-performing loans of banks in (country name)

2. Risk assessment and decision making in business and industry
3. Impact of awareness on the choice of short-term financing (A case study of yarn
4. Impact of privatization on profitability & capital employment of stated owned enterprises
in (country name)
5. Enterprise risk management (an essential process for sustainable profit and growth)
6. Audit fee expense and size of the company in (country name)
7. Determinants of capital structure in cement industry of (country name)
8. Impact of gross loan portfolio on microfinance value saving comparison between
microfinance institutions and microfinance banks
9. Impact of interest rate on stock market
10. A study based on the effects of interest rate on share price
11. Comparison of micro finance institutions, micro-finance banks and micro finance
institutions and development of entrepreneurial skills
12. Empowering women though microfinance
13. Banking and currency crisis causality from banks crises to currency crises
14. Patronage factors of Islamic banking system in (country name)
15. Analysis of profitability of banks: comparative study of domestic & foreign banks in
(country name)
16. Financial exclusion: market versus self-driven causes
17. A study on the inhibitions experienced by existing and non-existing users towards online
banking in (country name)
18. Correlation study between measures of financial performance of banks in (country
19. Comparative study of credit scoring methods between local and foreign banks of
(country name)
20. Market interest rate and commercial bank profitability in (country name)
21. Determinants of corporate dividend payout policy
22. Effects of free cash flow on profitability of firms
23. Fundamentals and stock return: Empirical study of cement industry in (country name)
24. Relationship between stock prices and rupee dollar parity in (country name)
25. The relation of credit risk rating with financial ratios in (country name)
26. Factor influencing individual investor behavior: the case of the stock exchange (e.g. New
York Stock Exchange)
27. Determinant of dividend payout ratio: A study of fertilizer sector
28. Fundamentals and stock returns in (country name)
29. The differential impact of Islamic banking on car loans and house financing through
banks in (country name)
30. A study on relationship between stock market development and economic growth in
(country name)
31. Effects of mergers and acquisition in banking sector of (country name)
32. Impact of privatization of banks on profitability
33. The impact of interest rate risk on the profitability of Islamic and conventional banks
34. Relationship between cash flow and capital spending in pharmaceutical industry of
(country name)
35. Effect of fund size on mutual fund performance
36. Comparison of financial performance in banking sector
37. Determinants of capital structure: A study of sugar and allied sector of (country name)
38. Can risk aversion indicator anticipate financial crises
39. Cash flow and capital spending relationship: evidence from automobile sector
40. Targeting consumer segment: A sustainable growth for mutual funds
41. Relating risk factors with contemporary distribution channels
42. Impact of privatization on profitability and efficiency of banks in (country name)
43. Money supply chain and stock prices
44. A comparative study between micro-finance banks, micro-finance institutions and rural
support programs in creating self-employment in (country name)
45. Validating of CAPM in predicting stock prices at stock exchange (e.g. New York Stock
46. Fundamental variables and stock return: evidence from sugar and allied sector of
(country name)
47. Which is better indicator of stock returns? Sales price, debt equity, book market or firm
48. Mutual fund characteristics and its performance in (country name)
49. Debt and equity choice for funds
50. Capital investment and stock return
51. To study the relationship between price earning ratio and return on investment
52. A test of price earning ratio to predict future growths
53. Factors affect on the dividend payout ratio
54. To study relationship between price earning ratio and growth
55. Relationship between market factors and stock returns of sugar and allied industries of
(country name)
56. To investigate the association between dividend change and companys earning in
chemical industry of (country name)
57. Determinants of capital structure in automobile sector of (country name)
58. Fund size and indicator of performance measurement for fixed income mutual fund
59. Factors that lead to investment in mutual funds
60. Predicting stock price via dividend discount model a study over cement sector
61. Impact of macro-economic variables on stock sector of (country name)
62. Performance evaluation of mutual funds in (country name)
63. Comparison between sales price, debt-equity and book market value of equity in
analyzing stock returns
64. Relationship between cash flow and investment spending in textile industry
65. A test of price earning ratio to predict growth
66. Effects of free cash flow on investment of firms
67. An empirical analysis of long-run performance of IPOs in (country name)
68. Financial leverage and investment policy
69. Composition of board of directors and its impact on firms performance
70. Impact of taxation on firms dividend payout/ratio
71. Customer satisfaction in Ijara financing
72. Impact of acquisitions and mergers on firm performance in FMCG sectors
73. Share price volatility explicated by fundamental
74. Stock price and economic variables (interest rate, inflation and GDP)
75. Determinants of P/E ratio
76. Impact of capital structure on profitability
77. Impact of interest rate changes on banks profitability
78. Relationships of stock market returns and rate of inflation
79. Dividend policy and stock price volatility
80. Determinants of capital structure in case of pharmaceutical sector
81. The impact of leverage on stock return
82. Fundamentals that predict the mutual fund performance: case of (country name)
83. Effect of different characteristics that leads to mergers and acquisitions
84. Factors effecting leverage in textile industry of (country name)
85. Effects of liquidity crisis on banks profitability
86. Relationship between free cash flows and investment in cement sector of (country
87. Impact of working capital on firms profitability: study of textile sector of (country name)
88. The relationship between corporate strategy and capital structure
89. Assessing the profitability determinants of Islamic banking in (country name)
90. Turnover as predictor of inflation
91. Impact of dividend on investment decision
92. Relationship between Assets and Liabilities in balance sheet
93. Impact of fiscal policy on economy of (country name)
94. Determinants of bond market capitalization in (country name)
95. Relationship between CPI and bond price
96. Determinants of capital structure in chemical industry in (country name)
97. Determinants of financial development
98. Impact of privatization on telecom
99. Impact of corporate social responsibility on firms financial performance
Masters Degree Thesis Proposal
Chapter 1
Introduction to the Study
1.1 Background
Nepal is naturally a beautiful country. It has have abundance potentiality in agriculture, in spite
of its tough topography, its potentiality in agro product is favored by its peculiar climatic zones
and geography. Nepal is primarily an agricultural country with about 26.6 million human
populations out of which 83 percent population resides in rural area and 78 percent people are
highly dependent on agriculture (CBS 2011). Timber has been and still is the major source of
energy daily used by massive rural population in Nepal. This total dependence on fire wood as
the source of energy for cooking has resulted in deterioration of the quality and quantity of
forests and has posed a serious threat in maintaining ecological balance, thereby manifesting
various problems like deforestation, flood, Global warming, soil erosion , landslides, climate
change and severe health problems. The pressure on forest resource for energy fulfillment is
considerably increasing due to high population growth in rural areas causing scarcity of energy
for cooking as well as other various purposes. As a consequence, many people in the rural areas
are burning livestock dung and other agricultural residues as an alternative of timber. This has
been one of the factors in deterioration of environment and soil fertility in the country.
Nevertheless, the energy pattern and its utilities in rural Nepal have created a serious health
problem to rural housewives. However, it is felt a bit earlier to capitalize on the alternative
energy sources like biomass energy has still not into practice to the extent at which its prospects
are realized in rural development.

1.2 History of Biogas

Although biogas was first discovered by Alessandro Volta in 1776 and the presence of combustible gas
methane in the farmyard manure was pronounced by the Humphery Davy in the early 1800s, yet it was
only the oil crisis of 1973 which led to the active promotion of biogas technology. While international
interests in these uses have been most noticeable in the technical and developing communities in the last
15-20 years, serious development efforts in this field began about 50 years ago in Asia.

1.3 History of Biogas Development in Nepal

Nepal has a history of over 50 years of biogas technology development. The first historical
biogas system was introduced by Father B. R Saubolle in 1955 at St. Xaviers School at
Godavari Lalitpur as his personal initiatives. It was in the Agriculture Year 1974/75 that the
government of Nepal launched special program to promote biogas technology and installed as
many as 250 units of biogas plants (KVIC) in different parts of the country under the supervision
of government and non government organizations. Since then, the technology has proved its
worth in Nepal to draw interest and involvement of various private and public sector institutions
including the donor agencies has groomed up.
1.4 Statement of the Problem
The problem that will be deserted in this stipulated research is what is the impact of biogas in
Rural Community Development/ Rural livelihood?
According to MOF (2007), 85.5 percent of the Nepalese populations still burn traditional fuels
(fuel wood, agricultural residues and dung cake) inside their homes. Fuel wood being the
principal energy source among these biomass fuels, its demand far exceeds the sustainable
supply (Rijal 1998). In addition, there are other socio-economic, environmental and health
related adverse impacts, many of which are disproportionately suffered by the women and the
On the other hand, Nepal is dependent on the imported fossil fuel; the rising price of fossil fuel
in the international market is a burden on its foreign exchange and trade deficit, it on the other
aspect has weakened the consumption capacity of basic goods.
Due to these manifold adverse impacts associated with traditional biomass fuels, there have been
efforts from all sides to substitute these traditional energy sources with alternative energy
sources, which are cleaner and greener. It is ironic that Nepal, endowed with one of the largest
hydropower potentials in the world, that so far a very low percent of its existing potential is only
In addition to this following questions will be answered.
a. What is the impact of biogas in rural energy conservation?
b. What is the impact of biogas in rural environment conservation?
c. Its impact on rural peoples health (direct and indirect/ short term and long term)
d. What is its impact to rural poverty alleviation?

1.5 Research Objective

The general objective of the study is to figure prospects of biogas installation in terms of the
socio-economic and environmental benefits to the rural community of Nepal.
The specific objectives of the study are:
To calculate average income saving due to non-burning of fuel wood and average saving from kerosene.

To find out the health, economic and environmental benefits of biogas plants.

To estimate the emission reduction and explore contribution and potentiality of biogas projects as Clean
Development Mechanism.

1.6 Hypothesis of the Study

In order to assess the above objectives of the study it can be hypothesized that there is no
significant difference between the non biogas users and biogas users in socio-economic, health,
energy and environment conservation aspect in rural area of Nepal.
i.e. The other hypothesis that can be tested from this stipulated dissertation is that there is no
significant difference between the biogas non users and bio gas users
No significance difference between the Health of biogas users and non biogas users in rural area
Bio gas uses and non users have similar contribution to the rural environment and energy

1.7 Significance of the Study

Since, the study is completely concerned with the prospects and impact of Biogas plant in rural
livelihood, so it gives the clear pictorial view of impact, with the pros and cons of Biogas in
various factors of rural development such as health of rural people, sanitation, energy
conservation and environmental conservation. The rationale of the study lies in the fact obtained
from the analysis of the respondent view towards the Biogas plant installation. Thats why the
study is of great valued from both socio-economic as well as academic point of view.
1.8 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1. The study is mainly confined to Dhorphirdi VDC of Tanahun District of Nepal.

2. Methane leakage calculation in the study includes the leakage only from the slurry tank but not from the
compost tank, the inlet or the pipes, valve or burner.

3. The study on CDM is limited within the potential Carbon Abatement Revenue from the reduction of fuel
wood due to biogas installation in the VDC.

4. INGO/NGO working in the field of health, environment, public awareness, poverty alleviation, women
empowerment and youth mobilization has not been considered and study has focused only on the
benefits of biogas installation and its implication to rural livelihood.
As the study focus to the various components of the rural development it has not addressed the
rural education, rural infrastructure development and rural level of awareness.
1.9 Research Methodology
The study will explore the problem in a positive view, using descriptive research strategy
because it aims to know more about the components that are more likely to be responsible for the
rural livelihood development due to the installation of biogas plant and its responsibility for
improvement of rural health, environment and energy conservation and its correlationship with
social living. This research will enable the study to look at the problem in both descriptive and
exploratory manner. It will also look into the problem by exploring the views of different set of
respondents, as well as by exploring different literatures related with the study.

Chapter - 2
Research Design & Methodology
2.1 Research Design
It is the blueprint for the collection of data, its measurement and analysis. It is a work plan owing
to the objective of the research. I will use descriptive research design; it is because the
characteristics I tend to study quires how and in what respect the biogas plants help rural
livelihood and what are its impacts to social life? On the other hand, i tend to analyze and
discover degree of interdependence between various characteristics that are influenced by biogas.
In descriptive research design i choose cross-sectional study because of time limitation.
2.2 Nature and Types of Data
Data is a piece of fact, the wholesome aggregate of which gives the information. This
information in fact contributes to the inquiry of truth and approaches towards the reality. The
natures of data that will be used as per research question are:-
2.2.1 Primary data:
Primary data are the first hand data collected for the first time for a particular purpose of
investigation. In the due course of my investigation/research, primary data are collected viz.
observation, focus group discussion, interview, and questionnaire as per the convenience to aid to
my study.
Since, my study is more about descriptive baked by casual relationship; the primary data are
helpful for generalization. The primary data can be assembled.
2.2.2 Secondary data:
Those data which are already been collected for any other purpose or investigation are the
secondary data. Since, this research is mounted on the base of description and analysis,
secondary data is the must. Therefore, secondary data plays the role of corner stone for this
research. The various internal and external sources are used for acquiring the secondary data. The
various sources consist of:-
Ministry of forest
Central bureau of statistics
Ministry of energy
Alternative energy promotion centre
District forest office
Various biogas companies
Bulletins/reports, etc.

2.3 Quantitative Research

Since, this research is more concentrated towards the prospects of biogas in rural area of Nepal
i.e. Dhorphirdi VDC Tanahun. The degree and depth of impact of biogas plant is different in
different aspects of rural livelihood. On this regard quantitative research is carried out. This type
of research is very useful to quantify the information or findings in the numerals. Quantifying of
logical information to numerals is the best way to come to inference. It is because it helps to
analyze the calculated information with the standard normative values and helps in comparisons.
The sample units are assembled by using non-probability simple random sampling method.
This technique of research diagnoses the casual relationship between the parameters of the
population with the sample statistics. The relationship may be expressed in terms of percentage,
ratio, etc.
2.4 Qualitative Research
Since, the objective of my research is to analyze the depth and degree of impact of biogas plant
in rural livelihood in Dhorphirdi VDC. The qualitative analysis of the socio economic
components that are aided or prospects due to biogas plant are of great valued. The attitude,
awareness and perception of various stakeholders- biogas users and non users etc. can be studied
through qualitative research method. However, every information cannot be quantified nor all the
data can be interpreted quantitatively so various elements can be interpreted in qualitative nature.

2.5 Data Collection Process

This dissertation is more descriptive in nature so the data collection can be done in these ways:
Field study
Field survey
Focus group discussion
2.6 Data Collection Procedure
Data is a piece of fact. The major motive to collect data is to generate and generalize the
information at various purposes. The major objective is to access easy and effective decision
making, reliable and valid conclusion. I will collect the primary data via observation,
questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion. This data are more authentic and bias less.
So, it greatly analyzes the research problem. The procedure of data collection begins from the
classification of the stakeholders. More precisely, I call it determination of sample size from the
population. In this investigation all the demographic population of Dhorphirdi VDC implicitly or
explicitly one who is user and non user of biogas comes under the universe or population frame.
Primarily i target my investigation to biogas users and non users and prospect users followed by
observations at various household in respect to their socio economic, sanitation and living
standard. Since, according to the motive of my research, non-probabilistic sampling method is
used. The sample size is selected on the basis of cluster sampling method. Under this method
sample is selected, the sample i will select will be 10% households out of 2000 household of
Dhorphirdi VDC including biogas users, non users and prospect users. All together a sample size
of 200 household is taken under my inquiry. I will distribute the questionnaire having both type
i.e. open ended and close ended in order to acquire reliable information by making the
respondent comfortable at ease to provide the information. The pictorial sampling plan that I am
going to carry out during my research is as under:

2.7 Sampling Plan

S. NO Stakeholders No. of household Type of Inquiry
01 Biogas users 100 95-Questionnaire

02 Biogas non users 100 95-Questionnaire

03 Prospect biogas users As per requirement Questionnaire/ Interview/ FGD

04 Local community As per requirement Questionnaire/ Interview/ FGD

05 Members of As per requirement Questionnaire/ Interview/ FGD
community forest

An unstructured interview and focus group discussion is conducted with prospect biogas users,
local community and opinion leaders and members of community forest to obtain more
information. The secondary data are collected via various sources like
Ministry of forest
Central bureau of statistics
Ministry of energy
Alternative energy promotion centre
District forest office
Various biogas companies
Bulletins/reports, etc.
After the collection of these data, the data analysis tools are used to acquire informative results.
My research work in progress will be guided by Professor of Central Department of Rural
Development, Tribhuwan University Campus, Kirtipur; my research instructor will be of great
valued to reach to better conclusion.
2.8 Data Processing and Analysis
The collected raw data can be molded as per the requirement and objectives of the research. The
various steps that are to be followed are
2.8.1 Data Processing: Editing: It is the process of examining the collected raw data to detect error and
omissions. So to overcome the possible error in research editing is of great value. Coding: In order to make the research more systematic and scientific, assigning of
numerals or symbols to answer is done, so coding helps to allocate the answer whenever
necessary. Classification: The result of research study is at large volume in the form of raw data.
So in order to simplify it should be classified into homogeneous groups, so a meaningful
relationship can be profoundly studied.
. Tabulation: After the necessary classification of data the next step is to arrange the data
in respective tables/ charts/ diagrams, etc. The tabulation is essential in order to systematize and
logical arrangement of data for further manipulation. The reason why the tabulation is necessary
is as under.
To conserve space, reduce descriptive statement into visual/pictorial form.
It facilitates the summation of items and detection of errors and omissions.
Provides a basis of benchmark for statistical computation.
Aids in simple comparison.

2.8.2 Analysis:
Analysis is the means to estimate the value/s of unknown parameters of the population from the
sample statistics and hypothesis testing in order to reach the conclusion. And therefore my
research analysis is divided into two categories viz. descriptive and inferential analysis. Descriptive Analysis: It incorporates the study of distribution of one variable. This study
provides us the information about the various impacts of biogas plant, their intensity and their
span in socio-economic prospective of rural households. Inferential Analysis: Basically i opt to use SPSS, to analyze the data and on the other
aspect this inferential analysis simultaneously analyzes more than two variables. The
interdependence between the variables, their correlation, and variance analysis are employed to
draw the inference. To the greatest of my knowledge, i also opt to use F-test, Chi - Square ( 2)
test and if possible other statistical tools for the study of relationship.

2.9 Research Schedule chart:

S. No. Activities Proposed Duration/Days
1. Proposal Writing 6
2. Proposal Approval/ Submission 4
3. Preliminary Research 4
4. Assessment of Preliminary Research 3
5. Data Collection 25
6. Data Processing and Analysis 8
7. Report Writing 10
Total Time 60

Chapter - 3
3.1 Theoretical Framework
The theory that supports the aim of this study is that the development of rural area can be
achieved only through the infrastructure development and social empowerment followed by
social mobilization. This in turn seems to be viable only if the fundamental requisites of rural
people are fulfilled. Thus energy consumption pattern and use of non renewable and eco friendly
energy source (bio energy) has positive impact to rural livelihood. Hence, if the parameters such
as health & sanitation, environment conservation, use of renewable sources of energy are some
of the positive indicators of rural development. In frat rural development depends up on these
above mention parameters.
On this regards the relation between dependent and independent variable can be identified and
related as:
Independent Variables Dependent Variable
Bio-Gas Plant(BGP) Rural Livelihood Development
Health and Sanitation of Rural People
Living Standard and consumption pattern
Socio-economic condition
Environmental condition & degree of
Infracture development
REPORT LIST OF BBS 4th YEAR (Finance Group)
1. Capital Structure of Any Financial Institution
2. Cash Management of Any Financial Institution
3. Credit Analysis of Any Financial Institution
4. Credit Appraisal System of Any Financial Institution
5. Deposit Analysis of Any Financial Institution
6. Deposit Collection of Any Financial Institution
7. Deposit Mobilization of Any Financial Institution
8. Deposit Utilization of Any Financial Institution
9. Dividend Policy of Any Financial Institution
10. Effect of Dividend Policy on Market Price
11. Effect of Remittance on Education in Butwal
12. Financial Analysis of Any Financial Institution
13. Financial Performance Analysis of Any Financial Institution
14. Financial Statement Analysis of Any Financial Institution
15. Fixed Deposit Analysis Financial Institution
16. Home Loan of Any Financial Institution
17. Housing Loan of Any Financial Institution
18. Insurance Premium Collection and Claim Settlement of Any Insurance Company
19. Investment Analysis of Any Financial Institution
20. Investment Policy of Any Financial Institution
21. Lending Policy of Any Financial Institution
22. Lending Procedure of Any Financial Institution
23. Lending Structure of Any Financial Institution
24. Liquidity Analysis of Any Financial Institution
25. Liquidity and Profitability Analysis of Any Financial Institution
26. Loan Analysis of Any Financial Institution
27. Loan and Deposit Analysis of Any Financial Institution
28. Loan Approval Process of Any Financial Institution
29. Loan Investment and Recovery Policy of Any Financial Institution
30. Loan Investment of Any Financial Institution
31. Loan Lending Policy of Any Financial Institution
32. Loan Management of Any Financial Institution
33. Loan Portfolio Analysis of Any Financial Institution
34. Profitability Analysis of Any Financial Institution
35. Profitability and Liquidity Analysis of Any Financial Institution
36. Ratio Analysis of Any Financial Institution
37. Saving Account of Any Financial Institution
38. Saving Mobilization of Any Financial Institution
39. Total Deposit and Its Utilization of Any Financial Institution
40. Trend of Saving Deposit of Any Financial Institution
41. Trend of Deposit of Any Financial Institution
42. Structure of Loan and Loan Approval System of Any Financial Institution
43. Profitability Position of Any Financial Institution
44. Debt Management Ratio of Any Financial Institution
45. Deposit Scheme of Any Financial Institution
46. Effect of Dividend Policy on Market Price
47. Effect of Remittance on Education in Butwal
48. Profit Analysis of Any Financial Institution