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PowerElectronics(PE)areimplementedinawidevarietyofappliances,eithertoincreaseitscontrollability
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orenergyefficiency,orsimplybecauseaDCsupplyisneeded.Themassiveintegrationofrectifiershas
Contactus resultedinadecreaseofthesupplyvoltagequality.AlthoughPEhaveenabledtheendusertocontrol
electricalmachines,theresultingdistortioninverselyaffectsDirectOnLine(DOL)machines.Inthispapera
reviewispresentedoftheinfluenceofthesesupplyanomaliesonInductionMotors(IM).Thesuggested
problemshavealreadybeensubjectofmuchstudy.However,asnewDOLtechnologiesareemerging,for
exampleLineStartPermanentMagnetMachines(LSPMM)orInductionGenerator(IG)systems,the
influenceofsupplydistortiononthesesystemsshouldalsobeconsidered.Thispaperwillpresenta
comprehensiveoverviewofthelossmechanisms,themagnitudeofthelossesandtheimpactofthese
ACDriveManufacturer lossesonoperationofinductionmotor,linestartpermanentmagnetmachineandinductiongenerator.
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Introduction
Bothduetoeconomicandecologicalincentives,energyhasbecomeascarceproduct.Theelectric
consumptionisasignificantpartofthetotalenergyconsumptionandconsequentlythecompletechainof
generation,transportationandusageofelectricityshouldbeoptimized.Theusageofelectricalenergyis
oftenoptimizedbycontrollingtheoutputofelectricalequipmenttowardsthedesiredvalue.Advancesin
PowerElectronic(PE)energyconversionhaveledtoanoptimizationofelectricalequipment.Practical
examplesofPEcontrolledenergyconversionaredimmablehalogenlighting,lowandhighpressurized
dischargelights,ACdrivesforInductionMachines(IM)etc.AdditionaltotheadvantagesofPEintermsof
energyoptimization,alotofPEisalsousedforDCsupplyinforexampleITequipment,DCarcingor
electrolysis.

AC/DCinverters,citedasrectifiers,aregenerallybuildwithpassivecomponents.Inherenttotheoperation
ofdiodes,doesthediscretizationofcurrentimplyanonsinusoidalcurrentdemand.Incombinationwiththe
presentgridimpedancethiscurrentdistortionresultsintoadistortionofthesupplyvoltage.InSection2the
natureandlimitsofthesupplyvoltageatenduserarepresented.

Iftheelectricalpowerconsumptionatindustrialplantsisregarded,morethan65%ofallgeneratedpoweris
consumedforelectromechanicalconversion.Inductionmotorhaveseveraladvantagesinrespecttoother
electricmotorsandasaresultalotofefforthasbeendonetoincreasetheefficiencyofthesemachines
(Section3).Inductionmotorhaveonedisadvantage,thefactthatthemechanicalspeedofthemachineis
directlycoupledtothefrequencyofthesupplyvoltage,whichlimitsitsflexibilitywhensupplieddirectlyfrom
thegrid.AlthoughtheusageofACdrivecanadjustthesupplyfrequency,only25%ofthenewlyinstalled
machinesaresuppliedfromanACdrive.

Alotofeffortsaredonetoincreasetheefficiencyofinductionmotor,however,distortionofthesupply
voltagedoesinverselyaffecttheefficiencyofinductionmotor.Althoughthiseffectiswellknown,itisoften
neglectedormarginalized.Iftheactuallimitsofthesupplydistortionaretakenintoaccount,areductionof
efficiencyofmorethan1%isnotuncommon.Thisonenumberalsoindicatesthattheinfluenceofsupply
voltagedistortioncanundoalotofeffortsofmotorefficiencyenhancement.InSection4theinfluenceof
supplyvoltagedistortiononinductionmotorissummarizedandconfirmedbymeasurements.

TheefficiencyofthestandardinductionmotorispracticallylimitedtoIE3.Thisisduetothefactthatthe
magnetizingpowerfortherotorhastobedeliveredthroughthestator.TheintegrationofPermanent
Magnets(PM)isonewaytotackletheproblemandstillmaintainingtheDOLoperation.Ifthemotorwould
consistofonlyPM,themotorwouldbeunabletostartupatlinefrequency.ThecombinationofPMwitha
standardinductionmotorrotorcageresultsinamachinewhichisabletostartupasastandardinduction
motorandoncenearsynchronism,thePMcansynchronizewiththemagneticfieldinthestator.This
machineiscommonlyreferredtoasalinestartpermanentmagnetmachine.

However,ifthelinestartpermanentmagnetmachineistobecomethenextevolutionarystepofinduction
motortheinfluenceofsupplyvoltagedistortiononlinestartpermanentmagnetmachineshouldbe
addressed.Althoughattractive,inSection5itwillbeelucidatedthatstraightforwardcomparisonoftheloss
mechanismsforalinestartpermanentmagnetmachineandastandardinductionmotorcanresultin

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seriousmiscalculationsand/orestimations.

Electricalmachinesareresponsiblefor50%ofthetotalelectricconsumptionworldwide.Fortheindustry
theelectricalmachinesconsumeupto65%ofthetotalelectricalenergy.Almost90%oftheinstalledpower
ofmachinesthatconvertelectricalenergytomechanicalenergyareinductionmotor.Thisessentiallyledto
themachinesbeingoptimizedformotoroperation.Secondly,nearlyallofthestudieswhichexaminethe
influenceofdistortedvoltagesarefocusedtowardsmotoroperation.

Bothconsumptionaselectricalgenerationshouldalsobeperformedwiththehighestpossibleefficiency
andoverallyield.Theriseofdecentralizedproductionsuchassmallwind,hydro,CombinedHeatPower
(CHP)orOrganicRankineCycle(ORC)power,resultedinanincreasedinteresttowardsInduction
Generators(IG).However,anomaliesinthesupplyvoltagealsoaffecttheoperationandefficiencyof
inductiongeneratorsystems.Althoughinductionmotorandinductiongeneratorarethesamemachine,in
Section6itwillbeillustratedthattheuseofinductionmotorlossmodels,deratingmethodsetc,are
insufficienttoestimatetheeffectofharmonicdistortionontheenergyefficiencyofinductiongenerator.

Enduservoltagedistortion
Estimationofenduservoltagequalityhasproventobedifficult,asitisfunctionofmanyparameterssuch
astheloadsconnectedtothegrid,thegridimpedanceandthebackgrounddistortion.Inordertogive
somereferencetothevoltagequality,studiesgenerallyrefertothenormativereferenceEN50160,which
definesthevoltagequalityatPointofCommonCoupling(PCC).Thisapproachhoweverdoesnotinclude
thedistortiongeneratedattheinternallowvoltagegrid.Consequently,thevoltagequalityisoverestimated,
asistheoverallenergyefficiencyofelectricalappliances.Thischapterresultsinconcretevaluesand
estimationguidelinesoftheamountofdistortionofthevoltagesuppliedatloads,takingintoaccountboth
backgrounddistortionandinternallygenerateddistortion.Theseresultswillbeimplementedtogivemore
accurateestimationsconcerningenergyefficiencyofelectricalloadssuchasDOLinductionmotor.

Mostofthecurrentdistortion,andthereforetheresultingvoltagedistortion,isgeneratedbyPEinverters.
Thecombinationofthegridimpedanceandthenatureofthecurrentdistortion,namelysingleorthree
phaseloads,willdeterminetheresultingvoltagedistortion.Thebackgrounddistortionislimitedby
standardssuchastheEN50160to8%.Inordertohaveanideaoftheactualbackgrounddistortion,42
measurementsaccordingtotheEN50160arepresentedforbothlargepowerindustrialsites(35)andsites
situatedinurbanareas(7)Fig.1.Ifthegenerateddistortionissuperimposedonthealreadypresent
backgrounddistortion,theresultingvoltagedistortionatendusercanbesimulatedandtheresultsare
presentedinFig.2.

Fig.1:95%occurrenceTHD(U)valuesobtainedbyEN50160analysisfor42sites

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Fig.2:VariationofTHD(U)withshiftinggridimpedanceforsingleandthreephaserectifiersincluding
backgrounddistortion

FromFig.2itisclearlyillustratedthatthelimitsofvoltagedistortioncanwellexceedthelimitsstatedbythe
EN50160.Alimitof12%distortioncanbecalculated,whilestillcomplyingtoallthestandardsanddesign
procedures.Harmonicmitigationequipment,suchasactivefilters,cansignificantlyreducethecurrent
distortionratio,consequently,thisalsosuggeststhatactivefilterscanhaveapositiveeffectontheresulting
voltagedistortion.Theeffectofharmonicfilteringtoboththeresultingcurrentandvoltagedistortionhas
beenmonitoredfor2separateindustrialinstallationsandtheresultsarelistedinTable1.

THD(U) THD(I)
L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3
Filterinactive(Company1) 5.67 5.93 6.22 18.99 18.84 19.14
Filteractive(Company1) 1.99 2.00 2.06 2.42 2.91 2.34
L1,L2,L3(AVGValue) L1,L2,L3(AVGValue)

Filterinactive(Company2) 6.39 16.20


Filteractive(Company2) 3.72 3.67
Table1:Measurementsof2industrialsitesofthereductionofTHD(I)andTHD(U)byactivefiltering

ThevaluesofTable1aremeasuredvalues,however,itisdelicatetogeneralizeorevenpredicttheeffect
offilteringharmoniccurrentsinrelationtothepresentdistortion.Theinfluenceofthefilteringtothepresent
voltagedistortionisfunctionofthefiltersettings,thephysicallocationonsiteandthepowerrelation
betweentheinstalledfilterandinjectedcurrentdistortion.Table1doesindicatethepositiveeffectof
reducingcurrentharmonicsandtherelationtothepresentvoltagedistortion.

Increasingtheenergyefficiencyofinductionmotor
Currently,almost70%oftheworld'selectricalenergyisconsumedforelectromechanicalenergy
conversionand90%ofthispowerisconvertedbystandardSquirrelCageInductionMachines(SCIM).If
theefficiencyofinductionmotor'sistobeincreasedthiscanbeachievedateverydesignparameterofthe
machine.Fig.3.

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Fig.3:Impactofthepossibleareasforimprovingthemotorperformance.

Inordertouniformtheefficiencyofinductionmotor,theIEChasintroducedaclassificationsystem(IEC
6003430)whichstatestheefficiency,fromIE1uptoIE4aslistedinTable2.

Table2:Ratedefficiencylevelsforcommercial50Hz,4poleLSPMSMsupto7,5kWandIE2,IE3and
IE4classlimitsdefinedinIEC6003430/31.

Alotofresearchisperformedinintroducingbetteractivematerials,suchasinDiecastCopperRotors
(DCR)orincreasingtheperformanceofthelaminationsteel.Becauseanenergyefficientmachine
dissipateslesspower,thisnotonlyresultsinareducedpowerconsumptionoroperatingcost,additionally
thisimpliesadirectdecreaseoftheoperatingtemperatureinthedifferentmotorcomponents.

FromTable2itisobservedthatnearlyeverystepofefficiencyincreaseisvaryingapproximately3%points.
However,theseefficiencylevelsarevalidforsinewavevoltages.Inthelatteritwillbepointedoutthatthe
efficiencyreductioncausedbyvoltageanomaliescansignificantlyreducetheoverallefficiencyofan
inductionmotor.Ifthisreductioniswithinthesameorderofmagnitudeastheefficiencyenhancementfrom
forexampleIE3toIE4,thiseffectshouldbetakenintoaccount.

Theeffectofharmonicvoltagedistortiononinductionmotor
Theeffectsdistortedsupplyvoltagearenumerousasitaffectsalmosteverysingleoperationalparameter
ofthemachine,suchasoutputtorque,torqueripple,motortemperature,vibrations,bearingstressetc.
However,asthispaperfocusesontheadditionallossesduetoharmonicvoltages,somekeyeffectsare
listed.

1.Thehigherfrequenciesforcethecurrenttoflowontheouterrimsoftheconductor.Thiseffectis
knownasthe"skineffect".However,forinductionmotorthiseffectispredominantlypresentinthe
rotorbarsandisaccordinglyaddressedtoasthe"deepbareffect".Thiseffectisfarlesspronounced
inthestator,duetoboththereducedsectionofthestatorcoilwindingsandtherelativelylow
frequenciesconsidered(<40orderofharmonic).
2.Thedeepbareffectresultsinareducedactivesurfacearea,whichresultsinanincreasedcurrent
densitytowardstheouterradius.Thisresultsinanincreaseoftherotorbarresistance.
Subsequently,thetopoftherotorlaminationbeginstosaturate,andresultsinadecreaseofrotor
reactance.Intermsoftotalharmoniccurrent,theRMSvalueofthecurrentisdominatedbytheRMS
harmonicvoltageandthetotalreactanceatharmonicfrequency,thelossescanbecalculatedby
Joule'slawtakenintoaccounttheskineffect.

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3.Thetotalaveragedvoltageisinfluencedbythephaseoftheharmonics,accordinglythisinfluences
themagnetizingcurrent.However,thiseffectisonlymeasureableforlowpowerratingsofmachines
andatpartialloading.Astheloadingincreased,theincreasedstatorvoltagedropresultsinaslight
demagnetizationofthemachine.Accordinglyalinearinductionisassumedandtheeffectonthe
magnetizingcurrentisoftenneglected.
4.Harmonicsalsoresultinelectromagneticpowerandconsequentlymechanicaltorque.Inmotor
operation,voltageharmonicsofhk>1=16kresultinbreakingtorques.Becausethemagnitudeof
voltagedistortiondecreaseswithincreasingorder,andthedampingofharmonicsisincreasedwith
increasingharmonicorder,allharmonicpowerisassumedtobeadditionalloss.

Fig.4:Harmonictorquescausedbysupplyvoltagedistortion

Inorderforaninductionmotortocopewithadditionalharmoniclosses,theinductionmotornominalpower
isreducedincaseofseveredistortion.Differentderatingmethodsforinductionmotorswhensuppliedwith
adistortedvoltagehavebeensuggested.Ifthederatingisnecessaryfromatechnicalperspective,
generallyexcessivestatorheating,ThermalBasedDeratinghasbeensuggested.Iftheactuallossesareof
interest,LossBasedDerating(LBD)ismoreconvenient.Duetoboththeincreaseindistortionofthesupply
voltage,andtheincreaseofinductionmotorsuppliedfromACdrives,therewasademandforarelatively
easymethodofderating.Consequently,normativederating,suchastheNEMAMG1havebeensuggested
whichdirectlycalculatethereductionofefficiency.

Thegoalwithinthispaperisnottofullypresentthescientificdetailsconcerningtheefficiencyreduction
causedbysupplyvoltagedistortion,butrathertopresentacomprehensiveoverview.Astheinfluenceof
harmonicvoltagedistortiontotheoverallenergyefficiencyisinverselyproportionaltotheharmonicorder,it
makesmoresensetointroduceaweightedvoltagedistortionratio,ratherthanusingthelinearparameter
TotalHarmonicDistortionTHD(U).

BoththeNEMAStandardMG1astheIEC6003417specifythe"HarmonicVoltageFactor"HVFas:

1)HVF=(Vn2/n)

Withn,theoddharmonics,excludingtriplenharmonicsandVnthep.u.valueofthenthharmonic.Fromthe
HVF,andusingFig.5theDeratingFactor(DF)canbeobtained,accordinglytheresultingefficiencycanbe
calculatedaccordingtoEq.(2).

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Fig.5:DFasfunctionoftheHVF

WithDF:thederatingfactorobtainedfromFig.5,:demotorefficiencyatsinewaveconditionandCthe
correctedmotorefficiencyincaseofadistortedvoltage.

2)C=DF 2/(1/+DF 21)

Studieshaveindicatedthatthenormativederatingmethodspresentfairlygoodestimationsconcerningthe
reductionofmotorefficiency.Subsequently,theabsolutelossescanbecalculated,andcombinedwiththe
correctknowledgeofthethermalparametersofthemotor,thiscanresultinestimationsconcerningthe
temperatureincreaseofthedifferentmotorparts.InFig.6thetemperatureincreaseofdifferentmotor
partsispresentedfora4kWinductionmotorIE2atfullloadandsuppliedwithadistortedvoltage.

Fig.6Estimatedtemperaturerisefora4pole4kWIE2inductionmotorcausedbyharmonicdistortion@
fullload.Temperaturesobtainedbylumpedthermalmodeling

BasedonEq.(2)andFig.6someimportantconclusionscanbemade.Firstofall,fromEq.(2)itcanbe
deducedthatforincreasedefficiencyoftheinductionmotor,thesusceptibilityoftheinductionmotor
towardssupplyvoltageharmonicsreduces.Consequently,thesameamountofvoltagedistortionwillresult
inareducedlossinbothactualpower[W]asinpu,ifanIE3iscomparedtoaIE2ofthesameratedpower.
Thisalsoindicatesthatwithincreasingmotorsize,theharmoniclossesinpuwillreduceFig.7.However,in
termsofactualactivepower[W],thereisanincreasedlossforhigherpowerratings.

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Fig.7:harmonicloss[pu]fora4pole4kWinductionmotoranda55kWinductionmotorfordifferentloading
ratio'sand12%5thdistortion

Secondly,harmonicmodelingofinductionmotorassumesthattheharmoniclossesarenearlyindependent
oftheloadingratio.Measurementshaveindicatedthatthelossescausedbyharmonicvoltagedistortion
slightlyshiftasfunctionoftheappliedload.Butharmoniclossesareindeedpresentevenatnoload.This
canhaveasignificantcostifthemotorisconstantlyunloaded.Fig.7.Theadditionallossresultsin
additionaloperatingcosts,butadditionallossescanalsobeevaluatedfromatechnicalperspective.

Additionallossesimplyadditionalheatingandthusharmonicvoltagedistortioncouldresultinpremature
failure,generallyacceleratedstatorwindinginsulationbreakdown.However,inductionmotorareusually
overdimensionedasthegeneralloadratioisonly60%.AlthoughaccordingtoFig.6theadditionallosses
increase,theoperatingtemperaturethiseffectisonlytobetakenintoaccountatfullload.Atpartialload
statorwindingtemperatureissignificantlyunderthenominaltemperature,evenwhensuppliedwitha
considerabledistortion.

Toconcludeitcanbestatedthatharmonicvoltageresultsinadditionallossesandadditionalheating.
Althoughtheadditionalheatingcancauseproblems,thiseffectisonlyimportantforsmallmachines(which
haveaninherentlargethermalresistancefromstatorcoilstoambient)andatfullload.Ifthecostof
harmonicsisevaluatedthisisnotnegligible.Ithastobestipulatedthat,accordingtoFig.5thelossesare
notlineartotheapplieddistortion.Thisinverselyimpliesthatevenaslightreductionofthedistortioncan
resultinsignificantenergysavings.

Theeffectofharmonicvoltagedistortiononlinestartpermanentmagnetmachine
TheintegrationofPermanentMagnets(PM)intherotorreducesbothrotorandstatorlossesasthe
magnetizingpowerfortherotorisnolongersuppliedbythegrid.IftherotorconsistsofbothPMandrotor
bars,themotorcanstartasaninductionmotorandoncenearsynchronismtheMagnetoMotiveForce
(MMF)ofthePMcansynchronizewiththeMMFinducedinthestator.Consequently,thesehighefficient
LineStartPermanentMagnetMachineshavebeendevelopedfromthemideightiesandrecentlybecame
anofftheshelfproduct.Linestartpermanentmagnetmachineareoftensuggestedasoneofthe
possibilitiestoachieveIE4orevenIE5.

Astateoftheartreviewofbothpracticaladvantagesand
limitationsoftheselinestartpermanentmagnetmachine'shas
beenpresented.Iflinestartpermanentmagnetmachineareto
becomeanactualsubstituteforstandardinductionmotor,the
influenceofvoltagedistortiononitsoverallenergyefficiencyshould
beevaluated.Literatureconcerningtheinfluenceofharmonic
distortionontheefficiencyandoperationoflinestartpermanent
magnetmachineisscarce.However,duetothesimilar
configurationandoperationtostandardinductionmotor,itis
temptingtostraightforwardadaptthelossmechanismsandmodels

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ofinductionmotor.

Amoreprofoundanalysisindicatesthat,incaseofinductionmotor,theeffectofslipcombinedwiththe
additionalvoltagedropoverthestatorimpedanceallowssuperpositionoflossesobtainedbyharmonic
modeling.Contradictory,foralinestartpermanentmagnetmachinetheuseofsuperpositionisprohibited,
duetoboththepresenceofPMandthesynchronousoperation.Thesupplyvoltagerarelyholdsonesingle
harmonicimposedonthefundamental.Ifmultipleharmonicdistortionsaresuperimposedonthesupply
voltage,certainharmonicswillinteractduetosynchronousoperation.Harmonicrotorcurrents,inducedby
statorharmonicsofordersh<k<+=1+6k,andwithequalvalueof|k|interactwithoneotherresultingin
eitheranamplificationorreductionoftheresultingrotorharmoniccurrent.

Ifthephaseangleofthedifferentharmonicsisshiftedinreferencetoeachother,thecorrespondinglosses
shiftwithafactor4.A4kWlinestartpermanentmagnetmachinemachinehasbeensubjectedtoboth10%
fifthandseventhharmoniccontent.Thelossesweremonitoredasthephaseanglefromtheseventhand
thefifthshiftedinreferencetoeachother.Thetotalpowerlosswasaveraged,andthevariationofthe
lossesisplottedinFig.9.

Fig.9:ShiftingtherelativephaseshiftbetweenHarmonicFiveandSeven(Y)anditsinfluenceonthe
overalllosses

Fig.9doesillustratetheinteractionofindividualharmonicsandconsequentlydiscardsuperposition.

Theabsenceofrotorjoulelossadditionallyreducesthestatorjouleloss.Asthemagnetizinglosses
becomemoredominant,thephaseangleofthevoltagedistortionhassignificantinfluenceontheoverall
efficiencyofthesemachinesTable3.

Table3:absolutevaluesoftheefficiencyatnominalloadingforlinestartpermanentmagnetmachine

A15%fifthdistortionratioleadstoareductionofefficiencyof1.2%forinductionmotorandamaximum
reductionof1.5%forlinestartpermanentmagnetmachine.Thepreviousevaluationindicatesthatlinestart
permanentmagnetmachinearemoresensitivetoharmonicvoltagesinreferencetoinductionmotor.
However,iftheabsoluteefficiencyisevaluated,thelinestartpermanentmagnetmachineisstillmore
efficientreferredtoinductionmotor.

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Fig.10:Efficiencyoflinestartpermanentmagnetmachinewhensuppliedwithadistortedvoltage

Theeffectofharmonicvoltagedistortiononinductiongenerator
Duetothehighpowertoweightratio,itsrobustconstructionandlinestartcapabilitiesistheInduction
Generator(IG)stillthepreferredchoiceofenergyinverterforcertaintypesofCHP's,backuppowerorlow
costWindturbines.Astheintegrationofinductiongeneratorcontinuestorise,theeffectofsupplyvoltage
distortiononinductiongeneratorshouldbeconsidered.Thesameeffectsoccuringeneratormodeasin
motormode,however,similartolinestartpermanentmagnetmachine,theuseofharmonicmotormodels
isprohibited.Additionally,thereareseveralpracticalconsiderationswhichhavetobetakenintoaccountin
ordertopracticallytestaninductiongeneratorunderdistortedsupplyconditions.

Firstofall,whenharmonicmodelsofinductionmotorsarebuild,alinearfluxlinkageisassumed.Thisis
generallyvalidformotoroperation,astheadditionalstatorimpedancevoltagedropresultsinadecreaseof
thefluxlinkage.Incaseofinductiongeneratortheassumptionoflinearinductionisnolongergenerally
valid.Ifhighefficientmotorsorspecificallydesignedinductiongeneratorareused,thesearespecifically
buildwithlowstatorresistanceandahighamountoflaminationsteelinthestatortomaintainan
unsaturatedoperation.Inthesecaseslinearinductioningeneratormodecanbejustified,however,if
standardmotorsareusedasinductiongenerator,thehigherstatorresistancecombinedwiththereduced
amountoflaminationsteelcanresultinsaturatedoperation,andthusprohibitinglinearization.(Fig.11)

Fig.11:magnetizationcurvesforaninductionmotorusedasaninductiongeneratorandamachine
specificallydesignedforinductiongeneratoroperation

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Furthermore,asthemechanicalspeedisabovethesynchronousspeedforinductiongenerator,the
frequencyoftheinjectedharmonicrotorcurrentsalsovaries.Thefrequencyofthecurrentharmonicsof
orderhk>1=1+6kwillreduceinfrequencyinreferencetomotoroperation.Contrary,ininductiongenerator
operationthefrequencyinducedbyharmonicordersofhk>1=16kwillincrease.Skineffectsareoften
derivedbymeasurementinmotoroperation,however,thepreviousdirectlyimpliesthatneitherskin
coefficientforneitherresistanceandimpedancearestillvalidingeneratoroperation.Inadditionharmonics
ofhk>1=16kdoresultinbreakingtorquesincaseofmotoroperation,howeveringeneratoroperationthis
isapositivetorque.

Fromthepreviousitcanbeconcludedthatstraightforwardadaptionofharmoniclossmechanismsfor
inductionmotortoinductiongeneratorcanresultinsevereerrors.Similartothepitfallsofharmonic
modeling,straightforwardcomparisonbetweenefficiencyinmotorandgeneratoroperationisequally
delicate.

3)motor=Pmech/Pelk=(PelkPloss)/Pelk
4)generator=Pelk/Pmech=Pelk/(Pelk+Ploss)

InEq.(3)andEq.(4)thedefinitionsoftheefficiencyaregivenformotorandgeneratormode.When
evaluatingtheefficiencyofinductionmotorincaseofvoltagedistortion,identicaloutputpowercanbe
easilyachievedbyloadingthetestmachinewithamachinecontrolledtowardsconstantoutputtorqueor
constantoutputpower.Theincreaseinelectricalinputpowerisameasurefortheadditionallossesincase
ofvoltagedistortion.

Whenmotorandgeneratoroperationarecompared,thefollowingquestionarises.Ifamachineisdesigned
particularlyformotoroperation,butusedasagenerator,whatisthenominalinductiongeneratoroperating
conditionandtowhichreferenceshouldefficienciesbecompared?Bothfromatheoreticalpointofview,as
fromandesignpointofview,thegeneralconclusionshouldbethatmachinesaredesignedtowardscertain
thermallimits.Asthestatorandrotorjoulelossesaccountforthemajorityofthetotallosses,itislogicto
relatetomaximumallowedcurrentandthereforethenominalelectricinputpowerisoftenusedas
reference.Ifharmonicsareimposedonthevoltage,themechanicalpowershouldbeincreasedtoobtain
identicalelectricalpowerinreferencetopuresineregime.

5)generator=Pmech/Pelk=Pelk/(Pmech+Ploss+Ph_mech)=(PelkPh_elk)/(Pelk+Ploss)
6)Ph_mechPh_elk

TheincreaseinmechanicalinputpowerPh_mechisameasurefortheadditionallossesandnotthe
reductionofelectricaloutputpowerPh_elk.Notethatthiseffectismoredominantastheefficiencyreduces,
especiallyforlowefficientorlowpowerratingsofmachines.Thepreviousalsoimposespracticaldifficulties,
becausethemeasurementaccuracyisnowfunctionofbothelectricalandmechanicalsensors,asarethe
practicaltestsmoretimeconsuming.

Fig.12:a4KWinductionmotorusedasaninductiongenerator,suppliedwithadistortedvoltageand

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controlledtoconstantPmech[WRONG]

Fig.13:a4KWinductionmotorusedasaninductiongenerator,suppliedwithadistortedvoltageand
controlledtoconstantPelk[Correct]

Fig.14:influenceof12%fifthharmonicfora55kWinductiongenerator

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Fig.15:influenceof12%fifthharmonicfora55kWinductionmotorusedasinductiongenerator

Conclusions
Inthispaperitissuggestedthatvoltagedistortioncanhaveasignificantinfluenceontheoverallenergy
efficiencyofInductionMachines.Incaseofmotoroperation,thiseffectiswellknown,howeverintermsof
energyefficiencytheeffectisoftenmarginalizedorevenneglected.

Thispaperstartsbyproposinglimitstoenduservoltagequality,anditindicatesthatthesupplyvoltage
distortioncanreachupto12%whilestillcomplyingtoallthedesignguidelinesandnormativereferences.

Asupplyvoltagedistortionof12%fifthharmonicresultsinapproximatelyareductionof1%efficiency.
However,becausetheinductionmachineisanonlinearsystem,evenasmallreductionofthesupply
voltagedistortioncanresultinasignificantenergyreduction.Harmonicmitigationtools,suchasfiltersor
tunedcapacitorbankscouldbemutuallybeneficialinbothareductionofthesupplydistortionand
simultaneouslytheincreaseofenergyefficiencyofmachines.

Asenergyefficientelectromechanicalenergyconversionisofkeyimportance,newtypesofhighefficient
machinesaresuggested,suchaslinestartpermanentmagnetmachine.Iflinestartpermanentmagnet
machinearetobecomeanactualsubstituteforstandardinductionmotor,theinfluenceofvoltagedistortion
onitsoverallenergyefficiencyshouldbeevaluated.Withinthepresentedresearchinitialstepsaremade,
additionally,ithasbeenstressedthatharmonicmodelingofinductionmotorisnotapplicableforlinestart
permanentmagnetmachine.Newmodelsshouldbesuggestedandvalidated.

Inductionmachinescanalsobeusedasgeneratorsystems.Astheintegrationofinductiongenerator
continuestorise,theeffectofsupplyvoltagedistortiononinductiongeneratorshouldbeconsidered.
Literatureconcerningthissubjectisthinandobtainingmeasurementresultshasproventobedifficult.
Similartolinestartpermanentmagnetmachineistheuseofharmonicmodelsofinductionmotorprohibited
forinductiongeneratorandmoredetailedlossmodelingisneeded.

Toconclude,thelinestartpermanentmagnetmachinecouldalsobeusedasangeneratorsystem.Dueto
itsselfexcitation,thehighenergyefficiencyanditslinestartcapability,linestartpermanentmagnet
machinecouldbepromisingfor"lowcost"and"lowmaintenance"generatorsystems.Withinthisresearch
nomeasurementsarepresentedconcerningtheinfluenceofsupplyvoltagedistortiononlinestart
permanentmagnetgenerator,althoughthisissubjectforfurtherresearch.

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