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PRESIDENTIALDECREENo.

1602
PRESCRIBINGSTIFFERPENALTIESONILLEGALGAMBLING
WHEREAS, Philippine Gambling Laws such as Articles 195199 of the Revised Penal
Code(FormsofGamblingandBetting),R.A.3063(HorseracingBookies),P.D.449
(Cockfighting), P.D. 483 (Game Fixing), P.D. 510 (Slot Machines) in relation to
OpinionNos.33and97oftheMinistryofJustice,P.D.1306(JaiAlaiBookies)
andotherCityandMunicipalOrdinancesorgamblingalloverthecountryprescribe
penalties which are inadequate to discourage or stamp out this pernicious
activities;
WHEREAS, there is now a need to increase their penalties to make them more
effectiveincombatingthissocialmenacewhichdissipatetheenergyandresources
ofourpeople;
NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Republic of the
Philippines,byvirtueofthepowersvestedinmebytheConstitution,dohereby
orderanddecree:
Section1.Penalties.Thefollowingpenaltiesareherebyimposed:
(a) The penalty of prison correccional in its medium period of a fine
rangingfromonethousandtosixthousandpesos,andincaseofrecidivism,
the penalty of prision mayor in its medium period or a fine ranging from
fivethousandtotenthousandpesosshallbeimposedupon:
1. Any person other than those referred to in the succeeding sub
sectionswhoinanymanner,shalldirectlyorindirectlytakepartin
any illegal or unauthorized activities or games of cockfighting,
jueteng,jaialaiorhorseracingtoincludebookieoperationsandgame
fixing, numbers, bingo and other forms of lotteries; cara y cruz,
pompiangandthelike;711andanygameusingdice;blackjack,lucky
nine,pokeranditsderivatives,monte,baccarat,cuajao,pangguingue
andothercardgames;paikque,highandlow,mahjong,dominoandother
games using plastic tiles and the likes; slot machines, roulette,
pinballandothermechanicalcontraptionsanddevices;dogracing,boat
racing, car racing and other forms of races, basketball, boxing,
volleyball, bowling, pingpong and other forms of individual or team
conteststoincludegamefixing,pointshavingandothermachinations;
banking or percentage game, or any other game scheme, whether upon
chanceorskill,whereinwagersconsistingofmoney,articlesofvalue
orrepresentativeofvalueareatstakeormade;
2.Anypersonwhoshallknowinglypermitanyformofgamblingreferred
to in the preceding subparagraph to be carried on in inhabited or
uninhabited place or in any building, vessel or other means of
transportationownedorcontrolledbyhim.Iftheplacewheregambling
iscarriedonhasareputationofagamblingplaceorthatprohibited
gamblingisfrequentlycarriedontherein,ortheplaceisapublicor
governmentbuildingorbarangayhall,themalfactorshallbepunished
by prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine of six
thousandpesos.
(b)Thepenaltyofprisioncorreccionalinitsmaximumperiodorafineof
sixthousandpesosshallbeimposeduponthemaintainerorconductorofthe
abovegamblingschemes.
(c) The penalty of prision mayor in its medium period with temporary
absolutedisqualificationorafineofsixthousandpesosshallbeimposed
if the maintainer, conductor or banker of said gambling schemes is a
government official, or where such government official is the player,
promoter, referee, umpire, judge or coach in case of game fixing, point
shavingandmachination.
(d) The penalty of prision correccional in its medium period or a fine
ranging from four hundred to twothousand pesos shall beimposed uponany
person who shall, knowinglyand withoutlawful purpose inany hour ofany
day, possess any lottery list, paper or other matter containing letters,
figures,signsorsymbolspertainingtoorinanymannerusedinthegames
ofjueteng,jaialaiorhorseracingbookies,andsimilargamesoflotteries
andnumberswhichhavetakenplaceorabouttotakeplace.
(e) The penalty of temporary absolute disqualifications shall be imposed
upon any barangay official who, with knowledge of the existence of a
gamblinghouseorplaceinhisjurisdictionfailstoabatethesameortake
actioninconnectiontherewith.
(f) The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period or a fine
rangingfromfivehundredpesostotwothousandpesosshallbeimposedupon
anysecurity officer,security guard, watchman, private or house detective
of hotels, villages, buildings, enclosures and the like which have the
reputationofagamblingplaceorwheregamblingactivitiesarebeingheld.
Section2.Informer'sreward.Anypersonwhoshalldiscloseinformationthatwill
leadtothearrestandfinalconvictionofthemalfactorshallberewardedtwenty
percentofthecashmoneyorarticlesofvalueconfiscatedorforfeitedinfavor
ofthegovernment.
Section3.RepealingClause.ProvisionsofArt.195199oftheRevisedPenalCode,
asamended,RepublicActNo.3063,PresidentialDecreesNumbered483,449,510and
1306,lettersofinstructions,laws,executiveorders,rulesandregulations,city
and municipal ordinances which are inconsistent with this Decree are hereby
repealed.
Section4.Effectivity.ThisDecreeshalltakeeffectimmediatelyuponpublication
atleastonceinanewspaperofgeneralcirculation.
Done in the City of Manila, this 11th day of June, in the year of Our Lord,
nineteenhundredandseventyeight.

RepublicActNo.9287April2,2004
ANACTINCREASINGTHEPENALTIESFORILLEGALNUMBERSGAMES,AMENDINGCERTAIN
PROVISIONSOFPRESIDENTIALDECREENO.1602,ANDFOROTHERPURPOSES
BeitenactedbytheSenateandHouseofRepresentativesofthePhilippinesin
Congressassembled:
Section 1.Declaration of Policy. It is the policy of the State to promote a
justanddynamicsocialorderthatwillensuretheprosperityandindependenceof
thenationandfreethepeoplefrompovertythroughpoliciesthatprovideadequate
social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an
improvedqualityoflifeforall.ItislikewisethepolicyoftheStatethatthe
promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic
opportunitiesbasedonfreedomofinitiativeandselfreliance.
Hence,theStateherebycondemnstheexistenceofillegalgamblingactivitiessuch
as illegal numbers games as this has become an influential factor in an
individual's disregard for the value of dignified work, perseverance and thrift
since instant monetary gains from it are being equated to success, thereby
becomingawidespreadsocialmenaceandasourceofcorruption.
Towardsthisend,theStateshallthereforeadoptmorestringentmeasurestostop
anderadicatetheexistenceofillegalnumbersgamesinanypartofthecountry.
Sec. 2.Definition of Terms. As used in this Act, the following terms shall
mean:
a)Illegal Numbers Game. Any form illegal gambling activity which uses
numbersorcombinationsthereofasfactorsingivingoutjackpots.
b)Jueteng. An illegal numbers game that involves the combination of
thirtyseven(37)numbersagainstthirtyseven(37)numbersfromnumberone
(1)tothirtyseven(37)orthecombinationofthirtyeight(38)numbersin
some areas, serving as a form of local lottery where bets are placed and
acceptedpercombination,anditsvariants.
c)Masiao. An illegal numbers game where the winning combination is
derivedfromtheresultsofthelastgameofJaiAlaiortheSpecialLlave
portion or any result thereof based on any fictitious Jai Alai game
consistingoften(10)playerspittedagainstoneanother,anditsvariants.
d)Last Two. An illegal numbers game where the winning combination is
derived from the last two (2) numbers of the first prize of the winning
SweepstakesticketwhichcomesoutduringtheweeklydrawofthePhilippine
CharitySweepstakesOffice(PCSO),anditsvariants.
e)Bettor ("Mananaya", "Tayador" or variants thereof). Any person who
places bets for himself/herself or in behalf of another person, or any
person, other than the personnel or staff of any illegal numbers game
operation.
f)PersonnelorStaffofIllegalNumbersGameOperation.Anyperson,who
acts inthe interestof themaintainer,manager oroperator, such as,but
not limited to, an accountant, cashier, checker, guard, runner, table
manager, usher, watcher, or any other personnel performing such similar
functionsinabuildingstructure,vessel,vehicle,oranyotherplacewhere
anillegalnumbersgameisoperatedorconducted.
g)CollectororAgent("Cabo","Cobrador","Coriador"orvariantsthereof).
Any person who collects,solicits orproduces bets inbehalfof his/her
principal for any illegal numbers game who is usually in possession of
gamblingparaphernalia.
h)Coordinator,ControllerorSupervisor("Encargado"orvariantsthereof).
Any person who exercises control and supervision over the collector or
agent.
i)Maintainer,ManagerorOperator.Anypersonwhomaintains,managesor
operates any illegal number game in a specific area from whom the
coordinator,controllerorsupervisor,andcollectororagenttakeorders.
j)FinanciersorCapitalist.Anypersonwhofinancestheoperationsofany
illegalnumbersgame.
k)ProtectororCoddler.Anypersonwholendsorprovidesprotection,or
receives benefits in any manner in the operation of any illegal numbers
game.
Sec.3.PunishableActs.Anypersonwhoparticipatesinanyillegalnumbersgame
shallsufferthefollowingpenalties:
a)Thepenaltyofimprisonmentfromthirty(30)daystoninety(90)days,if
suchpersonactsasabettor;
b)Thepenaltyofimprisonmentfromsix(6)yearsandone(1)daytoeight
(8)years,ifsuchpersonactsasapersonnelorstaffofanillegalnumbers
gameoperation;
The same penalty shall likewise be imposed to any person who allows his
vehicle,house,buildingorlandtobeusedintheoperationoftheillegal
numbersgames.
c)Thepenaltyofimprisonmentfromeight(8)yearsandone(1)daytoten
(10)years,ifsuchpersonactsasacollectororagent;
d)Thepenaltyofimprisonmentfromten(10)yearsandone(1)daytotwelve
(12)years,ifsuchpersonactsasacoordinator,controllerorsupervisor;
e)Thepenaltyofimprisonmentfromtwelve(12)yearsandone(1)daytoten
(10) fourteen (14) years, if suchperson actsas amaintainer,manager or
operator;and
f)Thepenaltyofimprisonmentfromfourteen(14)yearsandone(1)dayto
sixteen(16)years,ifsuchpersonactsasafinancierorcapitalist;
g)Thepenaltyofimprisonmentfromsixteen(16)yearsandone(1)dayto
twenty(20)years,ifsuchpersonactsasprotectororcoddler.
Sec.4.PossessionofGamblingParaphernaliaorMaterials.Thepossessionofany
gambling paraphernalia and other materials used in the illegal numbers game
operationshallbedeemedprimafacieevidenceofanyoffensecoveredbythisAct.
Sec. 5.Liability of Government Employees and/or Public Officials. a) If the
collector, agent, coordinator, controller, supervisor, maintainer, manager,
operator, financier or capitalist of any illegal numbers game is a government
employee and/or public official, whether elected or appointed shall suffer the
penalty of twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years and a fine
ranging from Three million pesos (P3,000,000.00) to Five million pesos
(P5,000,000.00)andperpetualabsolutedisqualificationfrompublicoffice.
In addition to the penalty provided in the immediately preceding section, the
accessory penalty of perpetual disqualification from public office shall be
imposeduponanylocalgovernmentofficialwho,havingknowledgeoftheexistence
of the operation of any illegal numbers game in his/her jurisdiction, fails to
abateortotakeaction,ortoleratesthesameinconnectiontherewith.
b)Inthecaseoffailuretoapprehendperpetratorsofanyillegalnumbersgame,
any law enforcer shall suffer an administrative penalty of suspension or
dismissal,asthecasemaybe,tobeimposedbytheappropriateauthority.
Sec.6.LiabilityofParents/Guardians.Thepenaltyofimprisonmentfromsix(6)
monthsandone(1)daytoone(1)yearorfinerangingfromOnehundredthousand
pesos(P100,000.00)toFourhundredthousandpesos(P400,000.00)shallbeimposed
uponanyparent,guardianorpersonexercisingmoralauthorityorascendancyover
aminor,wardorincapacitatedperson,andnototherwisefallingunderanyofthe
foregoing subsections, who induces or causes such minor, ward or incapacitated
persontocommitanyoftheoffensespunishableinthisAct.Uponconviction,the
parent, guardian or person exercising moral authority or ascendancy over the
minor, ward or incapacitated person shall be deprived of his/her authority over
suchpersoninadditiontothepenaltyimposed.
Sec. 7.Recidivism. The penalty next higher in degree as provided for under
Section 3 hereof shall be imposed upon a recidivist who commits any of the
offensespunishableinthisAct.
Sec.8.ImmunityfromProsecution.Anypersonwhoservesasawitnessforthe
governmentorprovidesevidenceinacriminalcaseinvolvinganyviolationofthis
Act,orwhovoluntarilyorbyvirtueofasubpoenatestificandumorducestecum,
produces, identifies, or gives testimony shall be immune from any criminal
prosecution,subjecttothecompliancewiththeprovisionsofPresidentialDecree
No.1732,otherwiseknownasDecreeProvidingImmunityfromCriminalProsecution
toGovernmentWitnessesandthepertinentprovisionsoftheRulesofCourt.
Sec. 9.Prosecution, Judgment and Forfeiture of Property. Any person may be
chargedwithorconvictedoftheoffensescoveredbythisActwithoutprejudiceto
the prosecution of any act or acts penalized under the Revised Penal Code or
existinglaws.
Duringthependencyofthecase,nopropertyorincomeusedorderivedtherefrom
whichmaybeconfiscatedandforfeitedshallbedisposed,alienatedortransferred
and the same shall be incustodia legisand no bond shall be admitted for the
releaseofthesame.
Thetrialprosecutorsshallavailofprovisionalremediesprovidedforunderthe
RevisedRulesonCriminalProcedure.
Uponconviction,allproceeds,gamblingparaphernaliaandotherinstrumentsofthe
crime including any real or personal property used in any illegal numbers game
operationshallbeconfiscatedandforfeitedinfavoroftheState.Allassetsand
propertiesoftheaccusedeitherownedorheldbyhim/herinhis/hernameorin
the name of another person found to be manifestly out of proportion to his/her
lawful income shall beprima faciepresumed to be proceeds of the offense and
shalllikewisebeconfiscatedandforfeitedinfavoroftheState.
Sec. 10.Witness Protection. Any person who provides material information,
whethertestimonialordocumentary,necessaryfortheinvestigationorprosecution
ofindividualscommittinganyoftheoffensesunderSections3,4,5and6herein
shallbeplacedundertheWitnessProtectionProgrampursuanttoRepublicAct.No.
6981.
Sec.11.Informer'sReward.Anypersonwho,havingknowledgeorinformationof
any offense committed under this Act and who shall disclose the same which may
leadtothearrestandfinalconvictionoftheoffender,mayberewardedacertain
percentage of the cash money or articles of value confiscated or forfeited in
favor of the government, which shall be determined through a policy guideline
promulgatedbytheDepartmentofJustice(DOJ)incoordinationwiththeDepartment
of Interior and Local Government (DILG) and the National Police Commission
(NAPOLCOM).
The DILG, the NAPOLCOM and the DOJ shall provide for a system of rewards and
incentivesforlawenforcementofficersandforlocalgovernmentofficialforthe
effectiveimplementationofthisAct.
Sec. 12.Implementing Rules and Regulations. Within sixty (60) days from the
effectivityofthisAct,theDILG,DOJ,NAPOLCOM,andotherconcernedgovernment
agenciesshalljointlypromulgatetheimplementingrulesandregulations,asmay
be necessary to ensure the efficient and effective implementation of the
provisionsofthisAct.
Sec.13.SeparabilityClause.Ifforanyreasonanysectionorprovisionofthis
Act, or any portion thereof, or the application of such section, provision or
portion thereof to any person, group or circumstance is declared invalid or
unconstitutional, the remaining provisions of this Act shall not be affected by
suchdeclarationandshallremaininforceandeffect.
Sec.14.AmendatoryClause.ThepertinentprovisionsofPresidentialDecreeNo.
1602,insofarastheyareinconsistentherewith,areherebyexpresslyamendedor
modifiedaccordingly.
Sec. 15.Repealing Clause. The provisions of other laws, decrees, executive
orders, rules and regulations inconsistent with this Act are hereby repealed,
amendedormodifiedaccordingly.
Sec. 16.Effectivity. This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its
publicationinatleasttwo(2)nationalnewspapersofgeneralcirculation.

LETTEROFINSTRUCTIONSNO.
816

TO:TheMinisterofNationalDefense
TheministerofLocalGovernmentand
CommunityDevelopment
TheChiefofStaff
ArmedForcesofthePhilippines
TheChiefConstabulary
DirectorGeneral,INP
TheChairman
TaskForceAntiGambling

SUBJECT:ToexcludecertainprohibitedgamesunderPresidentialDecreeNo.
1602

WHEREAS,itistheintentofthePresidentialDecreeNo.1602todiscourageand
prohibitgamblingnotregulatedorsanctionedunderexistinglaws;

WHEREAS,thereisneedtoexcludetherefromcertaingameslikedomino,bingo,
pokerwhennotplayedwithfivecardsstud,cuajo,pangguingueandmahjongwhen
exclusivelyintendedforparlorgamesorforhomeentertainment;

NOW,THEREFORE,I,FERDINANDE.MARCOS,PresidentofthePhilippines,dohereby
orderthatthegamesofdomino,bingo,pokerwhennotplayedwithfivecardsstud,
cuajo,pangguingueandmahjong,providedthattheyareplayedasparlorgamesor
forhomeentertainment;andProvidedFurther,Thattheyarenotplayedinplaces
habituallyusedforgamblingandthebettingisnotdisguisedtodefeattheintent
ofPresidentialDecreeNo.1602,areherebyexempted.

DoneintheCityofManila,this20thdayofFebruary,intheyearofOurLord,
nineteenhundredandseventynine.

PRESIDENTIALDECREENo.960July14,1976
AMENDINGARTICLE201OFTHEREVISEDPENALCODEANDFOROTHERPURPOSES
WHEREAS,itistheobligationoftheStatetosafeguardthemoralityofsociety,
particularly the youth, against the eroding influence of immoral doctrines,
obscenepublicationsandexhibitionsandindecentshows;
WHEREAS, in order to arrest the proliferation of such doctrines, publications,
exhibitions and shows, it is necessary to amend the pertinent provision of the
RevisedPenalCode;
NOW,THEREFORE,I,FERDINANDE.MARCOS,PresidentofthePhilippines,byvirtueof
thepowersvestedinmebytheConstitution,doherebyorderanddecreeaspartof
thelawoftheland,thefollowing:
Section 1.Amendment of Article 201, Revised Penal Code. Article 201 of Act
Numbered Thirtyeight hundred and fifteen, otherwise known as the Revised Penal
Code,isherebyamendedtoreadasfollows;
"Art.201.Immoraldoctrines,obscenepublicationsandexhibitions,andindecent
shows.Thepenaltyofprisionmayororafinerangingfromsixthousandtotwelve
thousandpesos,orbothsuchimprisonmentandfine,shallbeimposedupon:
"1.Thosewhoshallpubliclyexpoundorproclaimdoctrinesopenlycontrary
topublicmorals;
"2.Theauthorsofobsceneliterature,publishedwiththeirknowledgeinany
form, the editors publishing such literature, and the owners/operators of
thebookstoreorotherestablishmentssellingthesame;
"3. Those who in theaters, fairs cinematographs or any other place, shall
exhibit indecent or immoral plays, scenes, acts or shows, including the
following:
"(a)Filmswhichtendtoincitesubversion,insurrectionorrebellion
againsttheState;
"(b) Films which tend to undermine the faith and confidence of the
peopleintheirGovernmentand/ordulyconstitutedauthorities;
"(c)Filmswhichglorifycriminalsorcondonecrimes;
"(d)Filmswhichservenootherpurposebuttosatisfythemarketfor
violence,lustorpornography;
"(e)Filmswhichoffendanyraceorreligion;
"(f)Filmswhichtendtoabettrafficintheuseofprohibiteddrugs;
"(g) Films contrary to law, public order, morals, good customs,
established policies, lawful orders, decrees, edicts, and any or all
filmswhichinthejudgmentoftheBoardofCensorsforMotionPictures
orotheragencyestablishedbytheGovernmenttooverseesuchmotion
picturesareobjectionableonsomeotherlegalormoralgrounds.
"4. Those who shall sell, give away of exhibit prints, engravings,
sculpturesorliteraturewhichareoffensivetomorals."
Section 2.Confiscation of articles. The literature, films, prints, engravings,
sculpture, paintings, or other materials and articles involved in the violation
referredtoinSection1hereofshallbeconfiscatedandforfeitedinfavorofthe
Governmenttobedestroyed.
Section3.Jurisdiction.ViolationsofSection1hereofshallbesubjecttotrial
by the military tribunals and the offenders shall be subject to arrest and
detentionpursuanttoexistinglaws,decrees,ordersandinstructionspromulgated
pursuanttoProclamationsNo.1081,datedSeptember21,1972andNo.1104,dated
January17,1973.
Section4.AdditionalPenalties.Additionalpenaltiesshallbeimposedasfollows:
1.Incasetheoffenderisagovernmentofficialoremployeewhoallowsthe
violationsofSection1hereof,thepenaltyshallbeimposedinthemaximum
periodandinaddition,theaccessorypenaltiesprovidedforintheRevised
PenalCode,asamendedshalllikewisebeimposed.
2. The license or permit of the theater, cinematograph or other place or
establishment where the violation has been committed shall be canceled
temporarilyorpermanently,dependinguponthegravityoftheviolationas
determinedbythepropermilitarytribunal.
Section5.Effectivity.ThisDecreeshalltakeeffectfifteen(15)daysafterits
publication by the Department of Information in two (2) newspapers of general
circulation.
DoneintheCityofManilathis14thdayofJulyintheyearofOurLord,nineteen
hundredandseventysix.

PRESIDENTIALDECREENo.969July24,1976
AMENDINGCERTAINPROVISIONSOFPRESIDENTIALDECREENO.960WHICHAMENDEDARTICLE
201OFTHEREVISEDPENALCODEANDFOROTHERPURPOSES
I,FERDINANDE.MARCOS,PresidentofthePhilippines,byvirtueofthepowersin
mevestedbytheConstitution,doherebydecreeandorder:
Section1.Sections1and2paragraph1ofSection4ofPresidentialDecreeNo.
960areherebyfurtheramendedtoreadasfollows:
"Sec.1.AmendmentofArticle201,RevisedPenalCode.Article201ofActNumbered
ThirtyEight hundred and fifteen, otherwise known as the Revised Penal Code, is
amendedtoreadasfollows:
"Art. 201. Immoral doctrines, obscene publications and exhibition, and indecent
shows.Thepenaltyofprisionmayororafinerangingfromsixthousandtotwelve
thousandpesos,orbothsuchimprisonmentandfine,shallbeimposedupon:
"1. Those who shall publicly expound or proclaim doctrines openly contrary to
publicmorals;
"2.a.Theauthorsofobsceneliterature,publishedwiththeirknowledgeinany
form; the editors publishing such literature; and the owners/operators of the
establishmentsellingthesame;
"b. Those who, in theaters, fairs, cinematographs or any other place,
exhibit indecent or immoral plays, scenes, acts or shows, it being
understoodthattheobsceneliteratureorindecentorimmoralplaysscenes,
acts or shows, whether live or in film, which are prescribed by virtue
hereof,shallincludethosewhich:(1)glorifycriminalsorcondonecrimes;
(2)servenootherpurposebuttosatisfythemarketforviolence,lustor
pornography;(3)offendanyracereligion;(4)tendtoabettrafficinand
useofprohibiteddrugs;and(5)arecontrarytolaw,publicorder,morals,
goodcustoms,establishedpolicies,lawfulorders,decreesandedicts.
"3. Those who shall sell, give away or exhibit films, prints, engravings,
sculptureorliteraturewhichareoffensivetomorals.
"Sec. 2. Disposition of the Prohibited Articles. The disposition of the
literature, films, prints, engravings, sculptures, painting, or other materials
involvedintheviolationreferredtoinSection1hereofshallbegovernedbythe
followingrules:
"a. Upon conviction of the offender, to be forfeited in favor of the
governmenttobedestroyed.
"b.Wherethecriminalcaseagainstanyviolatorofthisdecreeresultsin
acquittal, the obscene/immoral literature, films, prints, engravings,
sculpture, paintings or other materials and articles involved in the
violationreferredtoinSection1hereofshallneverthelessbeforfeitedin
favor of the government to be destroyed, after forfeiture proceedings
conductedastheChiefofConstabulary.
"c. The person aggrieved by the forfeiture action of the Chief of
Constabulary may, within fifteen(15) days after his receipt ofa copy of
the decision, appeal the matter to the Secretary of National Defense for
review.ThedecisionoftheSecretaryofNationalDefenseshallbefinaland
unappealable.
"Sec.4.AdditionalPenalties.Additionalpenaltiesshallbeimposedasfollows:
"1. In case the offender is a government official or employee who allows the
violationsofSection1hereof,thepenaltyasprovidedhereinshallbeimposedin
themaximumperiodand,inaddition,theaccessorypenaltiesprovidedforinthe
RevisedPenalCode,asamended,shalllikewisebeimposed."
Section2.TobeinsertedbetweenSections4and5ofPresidentialDecreeNo.960
isSection4Atoreadasfollows:
"Sec.4A.TheChiefofConstabularyshall,withtheapprovaloftheSecretaryof
National Defense, promulgate the necessary rules and regulations for the
implementationofthisdecree."
Section3.Thisdecreeshalltakeeffectfifteen(15)daysafteritspublication
by the Department of Public Information in two (2) newspapers of general
circulation.
Done in the City of Manila, this 24th day of July in the year of Our Lord,
nineteenhundredandseventysix.

FernandovCAG.R.No.159751December6,2006

J.Quisimbing

Facts:
Actingonreportsofsaleanddistributionofpornographicmaterials,officersof
the Philippine NationalPoliceCIDG conductedpolicesurveillance on the store
bearingthenameofGaudencioE.FernandoMusicFair(MusicFair).
On May 5, 1999, Judge Perfecto Laguio of the Regional Trial Court of Manila,
Branch 19, issuedSearch WarrantNo. 991216 for violation of Article 201 of the
RevisedPenalCodeagainstpetitionerGaudencioE.FernandoandacertainWarren
Tingchuy.
ThewarrantorderedthesearchofthestoreforcopiesofNewRave,Hustler,IOU
magazine,andVHStapes.
Onthesameday,policeofficersofthePNPCIDGNCRservedthewarrantonRudy
Estorninos, who, according to the prosecution, introduced himself as the store
attendantofMusicFair.Thepolicesearchedthepremisesandconfiscatedtwenty
five (25)VHS tapesand ten (10) different magazines, which they deemed
pornographic.
Allappellantsplednotguiltytotheoffensescharged.Theywaivedtheirrightto
presentevidence. TheRTCacquittedTingchuyforlackofevidencetoprovehis
guilt,butconvictedhereinpetitionersFernandoandEstorninos.
The CA affirmed the decision. The petitioners sought for review in the SC on
certiorariandassailedtheCAdecision.
Theyassignedthefollowingerrors:
I. Respondent court erred in convicting petitioner Fernando even if he was not
presentatthetimeoftheraid
II. Respondent erred in convicting petitioner Estorninos who was not doing
anythingillegalatthetimeoftheraid.
Petitionerscontendthattheprosecutionfailedtoprovethatatthetimeofthe
search,theyweresellingpornographicmaterials.Fernandocontendsthatsincehe
wasnotchargedastheownerofanestablishmentsellingobscenematerials,the
prosecutionmustprovethathewaspresentduringtheraidandthathewasselling
the said materials. Estorninos, on the other hand, insists that he was not an
attendantinMusicFair,nordidheintroducehimselfso.
TheSolicitorGeneral counters that owners of establishments selling obscene
publications are expressly held liable under Article 201, and petitioner
Fernandos ownership was sufficiently proven. As the owner, according to
theSolicitorGeneral,Fernandowasnaturallyaselleroftheprohibitedmaterials
andliableundertheInformation.

Issue:Whethertheappellatecourterredinaffirmingthepetitionersconviction.

Held:No.Petitiondismissed.

Ratio:
AsobscenityisanunprotectedspeechwhichtheStatehastherighttoregulate,
theStateinpursuingitsmandatetoprotect,asparenspatriae,thepublicfrom
obscene, immoral and indecent materials must justify the regulation or
limitation.
OnesuchregulationisArticle201oftheRevisedPenalCode.Tobeheldliable,
the prosecution must prove that (a) the materials, publication, picture or
literature are obscene; and (b) the offender sold, exhibited, published or gave
awaysuchmaterials.Necessarily,thattheconfiscatedmaterialsareobscenemust
beproved.
People v. Kottinger.obscenity as something which is offensive to chastity,
decencyordelicacy.Thetesttodeterminetheexistenceofobscenityis,whether
the tendency of the matter charged as obscene, is to deprave or corrupt those
whosemindsareopentosuchimmoralinfluencesandintowhosehandsapublication
orotherarticlechargedasbeingobscenemayfall.
Also,thatwhichshockstheordinaryandcommonsenseofmenasanindecency.
Thedisclaimerwaswhetherapictureisobsceneorindecentmustdependuponthe
circumstancesofthecase,andthatultimately,thequestionistobedecidedby
thejudgmentoftheaggregatesenseofthecommunityreachedbyit.
Go Pin If such pictures, sculptures and paintings are shown inart
exhibitsandartgalleriesforthecauseofart,tobeviewedandappreciatedby
people interested in art, there would be no offense committed. However, the
pictures here in question were used not exactly for arts sake but rather for
commercial purposes. In other words, the supposed artistic qualities of said
pictureswerebeingcommercializedsothatthecauseofartwasofsecondaryor
minorimportance.Gainandprofitwouldappeartohavebeenthemain,ifnotthe
exclusiveconsiderationintheirexhibition;anditwouldnotbesurprisingifthe
personswhowenttoseethosepicturesandpaidentrancefeesfortheprivilegeof
doingso,werenotexactlyartistsandpersonsinterestedinartandwhogenerally
gotoartexhibitionsandgalleriestosatisfyandimprovetheirartistictastes,
but rather people desirous of satisfying their morbid curiosity and taste, and
lust, and for love [of] excitement, including the youth who because of their
immaturityarenotinapositiontoresistandshieldthemselvesfromtheilland
pervertingeffectsofthesepictures
PadanAnactualexhibitionofthesexualact,precededbyactsoflasciviousness,
can have no redeeming feature. In it, there is no room for art. One can see
nothinginitbutclearandunmitigatedobscenity,indecency,andanoffenseto
publicmorals,inspiringandcausingasitdoes,nothingbutlustandlewdness,
andexertingacorruptinginfluencespeciallyontheyouthoftheland.
Katigbak the Court measures obscenity in terms of the dominant theme of the
materialtakenasawholeratherthaninisolatedpassages.
Pitav.CourtofAppeals,concerningallegedpornographicpublications,theCourt
recognizedthatKottingerfailedtoaffordaconclusivedefinitionofobscenity,
andthatbothGoPinandPadanyAlovaraisedmorequestionsthananswerssuchas,
whethertheabsenceorpresenceofartistsandpersonsinterestedinartandwho
generally go to art exhibitions and galleries to satisfy and improve their
artistictastes,determinewhatartis;orthatiftheyfindinspirationinthe
exhibitions, whether such exhibitions cease to be obscene. Go Pin and Padan y
Alovagavetoomuchlatitudeforjudicialarbitrament,whichhaspermittedadlib
ofideasandtwocentsworthsamongjudgesastowhatisobsceneorwhatisart.
TheCourtinPitaalsoemphasizedthedifficultyofthequestionandpointedout
how hazyjurisprudenceis on obscenity and howjurisprudenceactually failed to
settlequestionsonthematter.Significantly,thedynamismofhumancivilization
does not help at all. It is evident that individual tastes develop, adapt to
wideranginginfluences,andkeepinstepwiththerapidadvanceofcivilization.
Itseemsfutileatthispointtoformulateaperfectdefinitionofobscenitythat
shallapplyinallcases.
There is no perfect definition of obscenity but the latest word is that of
Miller v. California which established basic guidelines, to wit: (a) whether to
theaverageperson,applyingcontemporarystandardswouldfindthework,takenas
a whole, appeals to the prurient interest; (b) whether the work depicts or
describes,inapatentlyoffensiveway,sexualconductspecificallydefinedbythe
applicablestatelaw;and(c)whetherthework,takenasawhole,lacksserious
literary,artistic,political,orscientificvalue.
But, it would be a serious misreading of Miller to conclude that the trier of
factshastheunbridleddiscretionindeterminingwhatispatentlyoffensive.No
onewillbesubjecttoprosecutionforthesaleorexposureofobscenematerials
unless these materials depict or describe patently offensive hard core sexual
conduct.Ieoffensivedescriptionsofsexacts.
What remainsclearis that obscenity is an issue proper for judicial
determination and should be treated on a case to case basis and on the judges
sounddiscretion.
In this case, the trial court found the confiscated materials obscene and the
CourtofAppealsaffirmedsuchfindings.FindingsoffactoftheCourtofAppeals
affirmingthatofthetrialcourtareaccordedgreatrespect,evenbythisCourt,
unless such findings are patently unsupported by the evidence on record or the
judgmentitselfisbasedonmisapprehensionoffacts.
Did petitioners participate in the distribution and exhibition of obscene
materials? We emphasize that mere possession of obscene materials, without
intention to sell, exhibit, or give them away, is not punishable under Article
201, considering the purpose of the law is to prohibit the dissemination of
obscenematerialstothepublic.TheoffenseinanyoftheformsunderArticle201
iscommittedonlywhenthereispublicity.ThemayorspermitshowsthatFernando
wastheownerofthestore.
PetitionerEstorninosislikewiseliableasthestoreattendantactivelyengaged
in selling and exhibiting the obscene materials. Prosecution
witnessPoliceInspector Tababan, who led the PNPCIDG NCR that conducted the
search, identified him as the store attendant upon whom the search warrant was
served.

NOGALESETALVSPEOPLEOFTHEPHILIPPINES

THEFACTS:

OnJuly30,2007,SpecialInvestigatorGarryMeez(SIMeez)oftheNational

BureauofInvestigation(NBI)appliedforasearchwarrantbeforetheRTCto

authorizehimandhisfellowNBIagentsoranypeaceofficertosearchthe

premisesofpetitionerPhilPacificOutsourcingServicesCorporation(Phil

Pacific)andtoseize/confiscateandtakeintocustodytheitems/articles/objects

enumeratedinhisapplication.Theswornapplication,docketedasSearchWarrant

ProceedingsNo.0711685,[4]partiallyreads:

SWORNAPPLICATIONFORASEARCHWARRANT
xxxxx
xxxx
Thathehasbeeninformed,verilybelievesandpersonally
verifiedthatJUNNICOLAS,LORENNUESTRA,FREDRICKFELIXP.NOGALES,
MELINDAP.NOGALES,PRISCILAB.CABRERAand/oroccupantsPHIL
PACIFICOUTSOURCINGSERVICESCORP.locatedatMezzanineFlr.,Glorietta
DeManilaBuilding,776SanSebastianSt.,UniversityBelt,
Manilahaveintheirpossession/controlandareconcealedinthe
abovementionedpremisesvariousmaterial[s]usedinthecreationand
sellingofpornographicinternetwebsite,towit:
1.ComputerSets
2.TelevisionSets
3.InternetServers
4.FaxMachines
5.PornographicFilmsandotherPornographicMaterials
6.WebCameras
7.TelephoneSets
8.PhotocopyingMachines
9.Listofclientsand
10.Othertoolsandmaterialsusedorintendedtobeusedin
thecommissionofthecrime.

TheapplicationforSearchWarrantNo.0711685ofSIMeezwasacteduponby

JudgeAlisuag.On,ahearingwasconductedwhereinJudgeAlisuagpersonally

examinedSIMeezandtwootherwitnessesintheformofsearchingquestionsand

theiranswerstheretoweredulyrecordedbythecourt.Thewitnessesaffidavits

werealsosubmittedandmarkedassupportingevidencetotheapplicationforthe

issuanceofasearchwarrant.Onthesamedateofthehearing,theapplication

wasgrantedandthecorrespondingSearchWarrant,[5]issued.Thesaidsearch

warrantisquotedasfollows:
SEARCHWARRANT
TO:ANYPEACEOFFICER
Itappearingtothesatisfactionoftheundersigned,after
examiningunderoathapplicantSIIIIGARYI.MEEZoftheSpecial
TaskForceDivision,NationalBureauofInvestigation,andhis
witnesses,ISABELCORTEZyANDRADEof1675thAvenue,CaloocanCity
andMARKANTHONYC.SEBASTIANofNo.32ArleguiStreet,SanMiguel
Quiapo,ManilathattherearegoodreasonstobelievethatVIOLATION
OFARTICLE201OFTHEREVISEDPENALCODE,ASAMENDEDINRELATIONTO
R.A.8792(ELECTRONICCOMMERCEACT)hasbeencommittedandthatJUN
NICOLAS,LORENNUESTRA,FREDERICK(sic)FELIXP.NOGALES,GIANCARLO
P.NOGALES,ROGELIOP.NOGALES,MELINDAP.NOGALES,PRISCILAB.
CABRERAand/orOCCUPANTSOFPHIL.PACIFICOUTSOURCINGSERVICES
CORPORATIONlocatedatMezzanineFloor,GloriettaDeManilaBuilding,
776SanSebastianSt.,UniversityBelt,Manila,haveintheir
possessionandcontrolofthefollowing:
1.ComputerSets
2.TelevisionSets
3.InternetServers
4.FaxMachines
5.PornographicFilmsandotherPornographicMaterials
6.WebCameras
7.TelephoneSets
8.PhotocopyingMachines
9.Listofclientsand
10.Othertoolsandmaterialsusedorintendedtobeusedin
thecommissionofthecrime.
YouareherebycommandedtomakeanimmediatesearchanytimeoftheDAYof
thepremisesmentionedabovewhichisMezzanineFloor,GloriettaDeManila
Building,776SanSebastianSt.,UniversityBelt,Manilaandtakepossession
ofthefollowing:
1.ComputerSets
2.TelevisionSets
3.InternetServers
4.FaxMachines
5.PornographicFilmsandotherPornographicMaterials
6.WebCameras
7.TelephoneSets
8.PhotocopyingMachines
9.Listofclientsand
10.Othertoolsandmaterialsusedorintendedtobeusedin
thecommissionofthecrime.
andbringtothisCourtthesaidpropertiesandpersonstobedealtwithas
thelawmaydirect.Youarefurtherdirectedtosubmitareturnwithinten
(10)daysfromtoday.

OnAugust8,2007,SIMeezsubmittedaReturnofSearchWarrant[6]totheRTC

manifestingthatinthemorningofAugust7,2007,theoperativesoftheSpecial

TaskForceoftheNBIimplementedthesaidsearchwarrantinanorderlyand

peacefulmannerinthepresenceoftheoccupantsofthedescribedpremisesand

thattheseizeditemswereproperlyinventoriedintheReceipt/Inventoryof

PropertySeized.Theitemsseizedwerethefollowing:
1.Ten(10)unitsofCentralProcessingUnits(CPUs);
2.Ten(10)unitsofmonitors;
3.Ten(10)unitsofkeyboard;
4.Ten(10)unitsofmouse;and
5.Ten(10)unitsofAVRs.

TheRTCthenissuedanordergrantingtheprayerofSIMeeztokeeptheseized

itemsintheNBIevidenceroomandunderhiscustodywiththeundertakingtomake

saidconfiscateditemsavailablewheneverthecourtwouldrequirethem.

Aggrievedbytheissuanceofthesaidorder,thenamedpersonsinthesearch

warrantfiledaMotiontoQuashSearchWarrantandReturnSeizedProperties.[7]In

thesaidmotion,petitionerscitedthefollowinggrounds:
A.Respondentsdonothaveprogrammersmaking,designing,
maintaining,editing,storing,circulating,distributing,orselling
saidwebsitesorthecontentsthereof;
B.Respondentsdonothaveanywebsiteservers;
C.Respondentsdonotownthewebsitesimputedtothem,which
areactuallylocatedoutsidethe,inforeigncountries,andareowned
byforeigncompaniesinthosecountries;
D.ThetestimonyofthewitnessespresentedbytheNBIare
contradictedbythefactsofthecaseasestablishedbydocumentary
evidence;
E.TheNBIwithheldverifiableinformationfromtheHonorable
Courtandtookadvantageofthelimitedknowledgeofcourtsingeneral
inordertoobtainthesearchwarrantfortheirpersonalintentions;
F.TheNBIraidedthewrongestablishment;and
G.Theelementofpublicityisabsent.

On,theRTCdeniedthemotion[8]stating,amongothers,that:
1.)Itcannotbesaidthatpublicityisnotpresent.ThePhil
PacificOutsourcingServicesCorp.,isactuallypersuadingits
clients,thruitsagents(callcenteragents),tologontothe
pornographicsiteslistedinitswebpage.Inthatmanner,Phil
PacificOutsourcingServicesCorporationisadvertisingthese
pornographicwebsites,andsuchadvertisementisaformofpublicity.
2.)Evenifsomeofthelisteditemsintendedtobeseizedwere
notrecoveredfromtheplacewherethesearchwasmade,itdoesnot
meanthattherewasnoreallycrimebeingcommitted.Asinfact,
pornographicmaterialswerefoundinsomeofthecomputerswhichwere
seized.
3.)InthesamewaythatthenameslistedintheSearchWarrant
werenotarrestedornotinthepremisessubjectofthesearch,it
doesnotmeanthattherearenosuchpersonsexistingnorthereisno
crimebeingcommitted.
4.)Asarule,SearchWarrantmaybeissueduponexistenceof
probablecause.Probablecauseforasearchisdefinedassuchfact
andcircumstanceswhichwouldleadareasonablediscreetandprudent
mantobelievethatanoffensehasbeencommittedandthattheobjects
soughtinconnectionwiththeoffenseareintheplacesoughttobe
reached.Hence,inimplementingaSearchWarrant,whatmattersmost
isthepresenceoftheitemsoughttobeseizedintheplacetobe
searched,evenintheabsenceoftheauthorsofthecrimecommitted.
5.)TheSearchWarrantwasissuedinaccordancewithSecs.3to
6,Rule126oftheRevisedRulesofCourt.SearchWarrantmaybe
quashedorinvalidatedifthereisanimproprietyinitsissuanceor
irregularityinitsenforcement.Absentsuchimproprietyor
irregularity,quashalisnotwarranted.

Undaunted,petitionersmovedforthereconsiderationofthesaidorderonthe

followinggrounds:(a)thetrialcourterredinholdingthattherewasno

improprietyorirregularityintheissuanceofthesearchwarrant;(b)thetrial

courterredinholdingthattherewasnoirregularityinitsenforcement;and(c)

thetrialcourterredinholdingthatpublicitywaspresent.

On,petitionersrequestedtheRTCtoissueasubpoenaducestecumad

testificandumtoSIMeezandthewitnessesIsabelCortezandMarkAnthony

Sebastiandirectingthemtoappear,bringtherecordsevidencingpublicityof

pornographicmaterialsandtestifyinthehearingseton.

Meanwhile,inaresolutiondated,[9]the3rdAssistantCityProsecutor

recommendedthatthecomplaintforviolationofArticle201[10]oftheRevised

PenalCode(RPC)againstpetitionersbedismissedduetoinsufficiencyofevidence

andthesamewasapprovedbytheCityProsecutor.Hence,on,petitionersfileda

SupplementalMotiontoReleaseSeizedProperties[11]manifestingthatthe
complaintagainstthemwasdismissed,andthat,forsaidreason,theStatehadno

moreuseoftheseizedproperties.

On,theRTCissuedtheassailedsecondorder,[12]whichdeniedthemotionfor

reconsiderationfiledbypetitioners.TheRTC,however,partiallygrantedthe

prayerofpetitioners.JudgeAlisuagwrote:

BeitnotedthattheproceedingsheldbythisCourtwhenitheardthe
ApplicationforSearchWarrantbyNBISpecialInvestigatorMeezis
verymuchdifferent[from]thecaseresolvedbytheOfficeoftheCity
Prosecutor.ThecasebeforetheOfficeoftheCityProsecutor,while
thesame[was]dismissedcannotbethegroundtoreleasetheseized
propertiessubjectoftheSearchWarrantissuedbytheCourt.When
theCourtissuedtheSearchWarrant,indeed,itfoundprobablecause
intheissuanceofthesame,whichistheonlyreasonwhereinSearch
Warrantmaybeissued.
OnthecaseheardbytheOfficeoftheCityProsecutor,theResolution
hasitsowngroundandreasontodismissit.
xxxxxxxxx
ThatthesubjectoftheSearchWarrantwhichisnowunderthecustody
oftheNBI[was]madesubjectofthecaseandaswellasthewitnesses
forthatcasewhichwasresolvedbytheOfficeoftheCityProsecutor
isofnomoment.
WHEREFORE,theMotionforReconsiderationisDenied.
TheMotiontoReleaseSeizedPropertiesispartiallygranted.
Accordinglytherefore,letthecomputersetsbeherebyreturnedtothe
respondents.TheCPUandalltherestofthesoftwarescontaining
obscenematerialswhichwereseizedduringtheimplementationofthe
validSearchWarrantareherebyretainedinthepossessionofthe
NationalBureauofInvestigationthruapplicantSpecialInvestigator
GarryJ.Meez.
SOORDERED.[13]

Notinconformity,petitionerssoughtreliefwiththeCAviaaspecial

civilactionforcertiorariallegingthatJudgeAlisuagcommittedgraveabuseof

discretionamountingtolackorexcessofjurisdictionwhenshepartiallygranted

themotionofpetitionersforthereleaseoftheseizedpropertiessuchthatonly

themonitorsetswerereleasedbuttheCPUsandthesoftwareswereretainedunder

thecustodyoftheNBI.

TheCAaffirmedwithmodificationtheassailedOrderoftheRTC.Thus:
WHEREFORE,inviewofalltheforegoingpremises,theassailedorder
issuedbytherespondentJudgeonAugust6,2008isAFFIRMEDwith
theMODIFICATIONthattheCPUsandsoftwareswhichwereorderedtobe
retainedbytheNBIthroughSIMeezshallbereleasedinfavorofthe
petitionershereinwiththeconditionthattheharddiskberemoved
fromtheCPUsandbedestroyed.Ifthesoftwaresaredeterminedtobe
unlicensedorpiratedcopies,theyshallbedestroyedinthemanner
allowedbylaw.
SOORDERED.[14][Underscoringsupplied]
TheCAexplained:
1.)Itisundisputedthattheseizedcomputerunitscontained
obscenematerialsorpornographicfiles.Theharddisktechnically
containsthembutthesefilesaresusceptibletomodificationor
limitationofstatus;thus,theycanbeerasedorpermanentlydeleted
fromthestoragedisk.Inthispeculiarcase,theobscenematerials
orpornographicfilesarestoredinsuchawaythattheycanbeerased
ordeletedbyformattingtheharddiskwithoutthenecessityof
destroyingorburningthediskthatcontainsthem.Bystructure,the
harddrivecontainstheharddiskandtheharddrivecanbefoundin
theCPU.Theseobscenematerialsorpornographicfilesareonly
storedfilesoftheCPUanddonotpermanentlyformpartoftheCPU
whichwouldcallforthedestructionormuchlessretentionofthe
same.
2.)Notwithstanding,withtheadvancementoftechnology,there
aremeansdevelopedtoretrievefilesfromaformattedharddisk,
thus,theremovaloftheharddiskfromtheCPUisthereliablemanner
topermanentlyremovetheobsceneorpornographicfiles.Withregard
tothesoftwaresconfiscatedandalsoorderedtoberetainedbythe
NBI,nothingintheevidencepresentedbytherespondentsshowsthat
thesesoftwaresarepornographictoolsorprogramcustomizedjustfor
creatingobscenematerials.Therearesoftwareswhichmaybeusedfor
licitactivitieslikephotographenhancingorvideoeditingandthere
arethousandsofsoftwaresthathavelegitimateuses.Itwouldbe
differentiftheconfiscatedsoftwaresarepiratedsoftwarescontained
incompactdiscsorthepreinstalledsoftwareshavenolicenseornot
registered;then,theNBImayretainthem.Intheparticular
circumstancesofthiscase,thereturnoftheCPUsandsoftwareswould
betterservethepurposesofjusticeandexpediency.
3.)Theresponsibilitiesofthemagistratedonotendwiththe
grantingofthewarrantbutextendtothecustodyofthearticles
seized.Inexercisingcustodyoverthesearticles,theproperty
rightsoftheownershouldbebalancedwiththesocialneedto
preserveevidencewhichwillbeusedintheprosecutionofacase.In
theinstantcase,thecomplainthadbeendismissedbytheprosecutor
forinsufficiencyofevidence.Thus,thecourthadbeenleftwiththe
custodyofhighlydepreciablemerchandise.Moreimportantly,these
highlydepreciablearticleswouldhavebeensuperfluoustoberetained
forthefollowingreasons:(1)itwasfoundbytheprosecutorthat
therewasnosufficientevidencetoprovethatthepetitioners
violatedArticle201oftheRevisedPenalCodeinrelationtoR.A.
8792(ElectronicCommerceAct);(2)theobscenematerialsor
pornographicfilescanbedeletedbyformattingorremovingthehard
diskfromtheCPUswithoutdestroyingtheentireCPU;and(3)the
petitionersdidnotdisputethatthefilesfoundintheseizeditems
wereobsceneorpornographicbutthesaiddevicesarenotobsceneor
illegalperse.Hence,wherethepurposeofpresentingasevidence
thearticlesseizedisnolongerserved,thereisnojustificationfor
severelycurtailingtherightsofapersontohisproperty.

Petitioners filed a motion for reconsideration but it was denied in a


resolutiondated.[15]

Undeterred,petitionersfiledapetitionforcertiorari[16]withthis

Courtanchoredonthefollowing:

GROUNDS:
6.1.ThedecisionbytheCourtofAppealsaffirmingthedecisionof
therespondenttrialjudgeconstitutesgraveabuseofdiscretion
amountingtolackorexcessofjurisdiction,asitviolatesthe
constitutionalproscriptionagainstconfiscationofpropertywithout
dueprocessoflaw,andthereisnoappealnoranyplain,speedyor
adequateremedyintheordinarycourseoflaw.
6.2.Sincethecaseinvolvespornographyaccessibleintheinternet,
thisisacaseoffirstimpressionandcurrentimportance.
[17][Emphasesours]
ISSUE

WhetherornottherewasgraveabuseofdiscretiononthepartoftheCAin

orderingtheremovalanddestructionoftheharddiskscontainingthepornographic

andobscenematerials.

THECOURTSRULING

Petitionersarguethatthereisnoevidenceshowingthattheywerethe

sourceofpornographicprintoutspresentedbytheNBItotheRTCortotheCity

Prosecutor of Manila in I.S. No. 07H13530. Since the hard disks in their

computers are not illegalper seunlike shabu, opium, counterfeit money, or

pornographicmagazines,saidmerchandisearelawfulastheyarebeingusedinthe

ordinary course of business, the destruction of which would violate not only

procedural,butsubstantivedueprocess.[18]

Theargumentofpetitionersistotallymisplacedconsideringtheundisputed

fact that theseized computer units contained obscene materials or pornographic

files. Had it been otherwise, then, petitioners argument would have been

meritorious as there could be no basis for destroying the hard disks of

petitionerscomputerunits.

WhileitmaybetruethatthecriminalcaseforviolationofArticle201of

theRevisedPenalCodewasdismissedastherewasnoconcreteandstrongevidence

pointingtothemasthedirectsourceofthesubjectpornographicmaterials,it
cannot be used as basis to recover the confiscated hard disks. At the risk of

beingrepetitious,itappearsundisputedthattheseizedcomputerunitsbelonging

to them contained obscene materials or pornographic files. Clearly, petitioners

hadnolegitimateexpectationofprotectionoftheirsupposedpropertyrights.

TheCAiscorrectinstatingthattheremovaloftheharddiskfromtheCPU

is a reliable way of permanently removing the obscene or pornographic files.

Significantly,PresidentialDecree(PD)No.969isexplicit.Thus:

Sec.2.DispositionoftheProhibitedArticles.Thedispositionofthe
literature,films,prints,engravings,sculptures,paintings,orother
materials involved in the violation referred to in Section 1 hereof
shallbegovernedbythefollowingrules:
a.Upon conviction of the offender, to be forfeited in
favorofthegovernmenttobedestroyed.
b.Wherethecriminalcaseagainstanyviolatorofthis
decreeresultsinanacquittal,theobscene/immoralliterature,
films, prints, engravings, sculpture, paintings orother

materialsandotherarticlesinvolvedintheviolation referred
toinSection1hereofshallneverthelessbeforfeitedinfavor
ofthegovernmenttobedestroyed
,afterforfeitureproceedings
conducted by the Chief of Constabulary. [Emphasis and
underscoringsupplied]

Clearly, the provision directs the forfeiture ofallmaterials involved in

violationofthesubjectlaw.TheCAwaslenientwithpetitionersinmodifyingthe

rulingoftheRTCinthattheCPUsandsoftwares,whichwereinitiallyorderedto

beretainedbytheNBI,shouldbereleasedintheirfavorwithonlytheharddisk

removed from the CPUs and destroyed. If the softwares are determined to be

violativeofArticle201oftheRPC,unlicensedorpirated,theyshouldalsobe

forfeited and destroyed in the manner allowed by law.The law is clear. Only

licensedsoftwaresthatcanbeusedforlegitimatepurposesshouldbereturnedto

petitioners.

To stress, P.D. No. 969 mandates the forfeiture and destruction of

pornographic materials involved in the violation of Article 201 of the Revised

PenalCode,eveniftheaccusedwasacquitted.

Takingintoaccountallthecircumstancesofthiscase,theCourtholdsthatthe

destructionoftheharddisksandthesoftwaresusedinanywayintheviolation

ofthesubjectlawaddressesthepurposeofminimizingifnottotallyeradicating
pornography.Thiswillserveasalessonforthoseengagedinanywayinthe

proliferationofpornographyorobscenityinthiscountry.TheCourtisnot

unmindfuloftheconcernsofpetitionersbuttheirsupposedpropertyrightsmust

bebalancedwiththewelfareofthepublicingeneral.

WHEREFORE,thepetitionisDENIED.TheAugust19,2009CourtofAppealsDecision

isAFFIRMEDWITHMODIFICATIONinthatonlytheCPUsandthosesoftwaresdetermined

tobelicensedandusedforlegitimatepurposesshallbereturnedinfavorofthe

petitioners.Theharddiskdrivescontainingthepornographicmaterialsandthe

softwaresusedinanywayinviolationofArticle201oftheRevisedPenalCode,

unlicensedorpiratedshallbeforfeitedinfavoroftheGovernmentanddestroyed.

ANACTTOINSTITUTEPOLICIESTOELIMINATETRAFFICKINGINPERSONSESPECIALLY
WOMENANDCHILDREN,ESTABLISHINGTHENECESSARYINSTITUTIONALMECHANISMSFOR
THEPROTECTIONANDSUPPORTOFTRAFFICKEDPERSONS,PROVIDINGPENALTIESFOR
ITSVIOLATIONS,ANDFOROTHER
BeitenactedbytheSenateandtheHouseofRepresentativesofthe
PhilippinesinCongressassembled:
Section 1.Title.This Act shall be known as the"AntiTrafficking in
PersonsActof2003".

Whatisthemeaningoftraffickinginpersons?Itreferstothe
recruitment,transportation,transferorharboring,orreceiptofpersons
withorwithoutthevictimsconsentorknowledge,withinoracross
nationalbordersbymeansofthreatoruseofforce,orotherformsof
coercion,abduction,fraud,deception,abuseofpowerorofposition,
takingadvantageofthevulnerabilityoftheperson,or,thegivingor
receivingofpaymentsorbenefitstoachievetheconsentofapersonhaving
controloveranotherpersonforthepurposeofexploitationwhichincludes
ataminimum,theexploitationortheprostitutionofothersorotherforms
ofsexualexploitation,forcedlabororservices,slavery,servitudeor
theremovalorsaleoforgans.

Therecruitment,transportation,transfer,harboringorreceiptofachild
forthepurposeofexploitationshallalsobeconsideredastraffickingin
persons even if it does not involve any of the means set forth in the
precedingparagraph.

What is forced labor and slavery?It is the extraction of work or


servicesfromanypersonbymeansofenticement,violence,intimidationor
threat,useofforceorcoercion,includingdeprivationoffreedom,abuse
ofauthorityormoralascendancy,debtbondageordeception.
Whatisdebtbondage?Itreferstothepledgingbythedebtorofhis/her
personalservicesorlabororthoseofapersonunderhis/hercontrolas
securityorpaymentforadebt,whenthelengthandnatureofservicesis
not clearly defined or when the value of the services as reasonably
assessedisnotappliedtowardtheliquidationofthedebt.
How does the law define sex exploitation, prostitution, pornography, and
sextourism?
Sexualexploitationreferstoparticipationbyapersoninprostitution
ortheproductionofpornographicmaterialsasaresultofbeingsubjected
to a threat, deception, coercion, abduction, force, abuse of authority,
debtbondage,fraudorthroughabuseofavictimsvulnerability.
Prostitutionreferstoanyact,transaction,schemeordesigninvolving
the use of a person by another, for sexual intercourse or lascivious
conductinexchangeformoney,profitoranyotherconsideration.
Pornography refers to any representation, through publication,
exhibition,cinematography,indecentshows,informationtechnology,orby
whatevermeans,ofapersonengagedinrealorsimulatedexplicitsexual
activities or any representation of the sexual parts of a person for
primarilysexualpurposes.
Sextourismreferstoaprogramorganizedbytravelandtourismrelated
establishments and individuals which consists of tourism packages or
activities,utilizingandofferingescortandsexualservicesasenticement
for tourists. This includes sexual services and practices offered during
restandrecreationperiodsformembersofthemilitary.
What are the prohibited acts of trafficking in persons and what is the
penalty?It shall be unlawful for any person, natural or juridical, to
commitanyofthefollowingacts:
1.Torecruit,transport,transfer;harbor,provide,orreceiveapersonby
anymeans,includingthosedoneunderthepretextofdomesticoroverseas
employmentortrainingorapprenticeship,forthepurposeofprostitution,
pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary
servitudeordebtbondage.
2.Tointroduceormatchformoney,profit,ormaterial,economicorother
consideration,anypersonor,asprovidedforunderRepublicActNo.6955,
anyFilipinowomantoaforeignnational,formarriageforthepurposeof
acquiring, buying, offering, selling or trading him/her to engage in
prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery,
involuntaryservitudeordebtbondage.
3.To offer or contract marriage, real or simulated, for the purpose of
acquiring, buying, offering, selling, or trading them to engage in
prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor or slavery,
involuntaryservitudeordebtbondage.
4.To undertake or organize tours and travel plans consisting of tourism
packagesoractivities forthe purposeofutilizingandoffering persons
forprostitution,pornographyorsexualexploitation.
5.Tomaintainorhireapersontoengageinprostitutionorpornography.
6.To adopt or facilitate the adoption of persons for the purpose of
prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery,
involuntaryservitudeordebtbondage.(Convictionbyfinaljudgmentofthe
adopter for any offense under this law shall result in the immediate
rescissionofthedecreeofadoption).
7.Torecruit,hire,adopt,transportorabductaperson,bymeansofthreat
or use of force, fraud, deceit, violence, coercion, or intimidation for
thepurposeofremovalorsaleoforgansofsaidperson.
8.Torecruit,transportoradoptachildtoengageinarmedactivitiesin
thePhilippinesorabroad.

Thepenaltyisimprisonmentforaperiodof20yearsandafineofnotless
thanP1MillionbutnotmorethanP2Million.

Whatarethepunishableactsthatpromotetraffickinginpersonsandwhat
isthepenalty?Thefollowingactswhichpromoteorfacilitatetrafficking
inpersons,shallbeunlawful:
1.To knowingly lease or sublease, use or allow to be used any house,
building or establishment for the purpose of promoting trafficking in
persons.
2.To produce, print and issue or distribute unissued, tampered or fake
counseling certificates, registration stickers and certificates of any
governmentagencywhichissuesthesecertificatesandstickersasproofof
compliance with government regulatory and predeparture requirements for
thepurposeofpromotingtraffickinginpersons.
3.To advertise, publish, print, broadcast or distribute, or cause the
advertisement,publication,printing,broadcastingordistributionbyany
means,includingtheuseofinformationtechnologyandtheinternet,ofany
brochure, flyer, or any propaganda material that promotes trafficking in
persons.
4.Toassistintheconductofmisrepresentationorfraudforpurposesof
facilitating the acquisition of clearances and necessary exit documents
from government agencies that are mandated to provide predeparture
registration and services for departing persons for the purpose of
promotingtraffickinginpersons.
5.Tofacilitate,assistorhelpintheexitandentryofpersonsfrom/to
thecountryatinternationalandlocalairports,territorialboundariesand
seaportswhoareinpossessionofunissued,tamperedorfraudulenttravel
documentsforthepurposeofpromotingtraffickinginpersons.
6.To confiscate, conceal, or destroy the passport, travel documents, or
personal documents or belongings of trafficked persons in furtherance of
traffickingortopreventthemfromleavingthecountryorseekingredress
fromthegovernmentorappropriateagencies.
7.Toknowinglybenefitfrom,financialorotherwise,ormakeuseof,the
labororservicesofapersonheldtoaconditionofinvoluntaryservitude,
forcedlabor,orslavery.

The penalty is imprisonment for 15 years and a fine of not less than
P500,000,butnotmorethanP1Million.

Whatactsareconsideredasqualifiedtraffickinginpersonsandwhatis
thepenalty?Thefollowingareconsideredasqualifiedtrafficking:
1.Whenthetraffickedpersonisachild.
2.When theadoptioniseffectedthroughRepublicAct No.8043,otherwise
knownastheInterCountryAdoptionActof1995andsaidadoptionisfor
the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced
labor,slavery,involuntaryservitudeordebtbondage.
3.When the crime is committed by a syndicate, or in large scale.
Traffickingisdeemedcommittedbyasyndicateifcarriedoutbyagroupof
three(3)ormorepersonsconspiringorconfederatingwithoneanother.It
isdeemedcommittedinlargescaleifcommittedagainstthree(3)ormore
persons,individuallyorasagroup.
4.Whentheoffenderisanascendant,parent,sibling,guardianoraperson
whoexercisesauthorityoverthetraffickedpersonorwhentheoffenseis
committedbyapublicofficeroremployee.
5.When thetraffickedperson isrecruitedtoengagein prostitutionwith
anymemberofthemilitaryorlawenforcementagencies.
6.When the offender is a member of the military or law enforcement
agencies.
7.Whenbyreasonoronoccasionoftheactoftraffickinginpersons,the
offended party dies, becomes insane, suffers mutilation or is afflicted
withHumanImmunodeficiencyVirus(HIV)ortheAcquiredImmuneDeficiency
Syndrome(AIDS).

In these cases,thepenaltyislifeimprisonment andafineofnot less


thanP2Million,butnotmorethanP5Million.

Whatarethepenaltiesforuseoftraffickedpersons?Anypersonwhobuys
or engages the services of trafficked persons for prostitution shall be
penalizedasfollows:
Firstoffense:6monthsofcommunityserviceasmaybedeterminedbythe
courtandafineofP50,000.
Second and subsequent offenses: Imprisonment of 1 year and a fine of
P100,000.
Whatisthepenaltyforviolationsincaseofconfidentialproceedings?In
caseswhenprosecutionortrialisconductedbehindcloseddoors,itshall
beunlawfulforanyeditor,publisher,andreporterorcolumnistincaseof
printedmaterials,announcerorproducerincaseoftelevisionandradio,
producer and director of a film in case of the movie industry, or any
person utilizing trimedia facilities or information technology to cause
publicity of any case of trafficking in persons. The penalty is
imprisonmentof6yearsandafineofnotlessthanP500,000,butnotmore
thanP1Million.
Whocanprosecutethecase?Anypersonwhohaspersonalknowledgeofthe
commission of any offense under this law, the trafficked person, the
parents,spouse,siblings,childrenorlegalguardianmayfileacomplaint
fortrafficking.
Where should the case be filed (venue)?A criminal action arising from
violationofthislawshallbefiledwheretheoffensewascommitted,or
whereanyofitselementsoccurred,orwherethetraffickedpersonactually
residesatthetimeofthecommissionoftheoffense:Provided,Thatthe
courtwherethecriminalactionisfirstfiledshallacquirejurisdiction
totheexclusionofothercourts.
How about foreigners?If the offender is a foreigner, he shall be
immediatelydeportedafterservinghissentenceandbebarredpermanently
fromenteringthecountry.
On the other hand, theDOJ, in consultation with DFA, shall endeavor to
includeoffensesoftraffickinginpersonsamongextraditableoffenses.

Trafficked persons in the Philippines who are foreign nationals shall,


subjecttotheguidelinesissuedbytheCouncil,shallalsobeentitledto
appropriate protection, assistance and services available to trafficked
personsunderthislaw.Thattheyshallbepermittedcontinuedpresencein
thePhilippinesforalengthoftimeprescribedbytheCouncilasnecessary
toeffecttheprosecutionofoffenders.

Whatistheprescriptiveperiodfortheoffenses?Traffickingcasesunder
this law shall prescribe in 10 years. Trafficking cases committed by a
syndicateorinalargescaleshallprescribein20years.Theprescriptive
periodshallcommencetorunfromthedayonwhichthetraffickedpersonis
delivered or released from the conditions of bondage and shall be
interrupted by the filing of the complaint or information and shall
commencetorunagainwhensuchproceedingsterminatewithouttheaccused
beingconvictedor acquitted orareunjustifiablystoppedforanyreason
notimputabletotheaccused.
What are the mandatory services to trafficked persons?The concerned
government agencies shall make available the following services to
traffickedpersons:
1.Emergencyshelterorappropriatehousing.
2.Counseling.
3.Free legal services which shall include information about the victims
rightsandtheprocedureforfilingcomplaints,claimingcompensationand
suchotherlegalremediesavailabletothem,inalanguageunderstoodby
thetraffickedperson.
4.Medicalorpsychologicalservices.
5.Livelihoodandskillstraining.
6.Educationalassistancetoatraffickedchild.
RepatriationofTraffickedPersons.TheDFA,incoordinationwithDOLEand
otherappropriateagencies,shallhavetheprimaryresponsibilityforthe
repatriation of trafficked persons, regardless of whether they are
documentedorundocumented.If,however,therepatriationofthetrafficked
persons shall expose the victims to greater risks, the DFA shall make
representation with the host government for the extension of appropriate
residencypermitsandprotection,asmaybelegallypermissibleinthehost
country.
Legal Protection to Trafficked Persons. Trafficked persons shall be
recognizedasvictimsoftheactoractsoftraffickingandassuchshall
not be penalized for crimes directly related to the acts of trafficking
enumeratedinthislaworinobediencetotheordermadebythetrafficker
inrelationthereto.Inthisregard,theconsentofatraffickedpersonto
theintendedexploitationsetforthinthislawshallbeirrelevant.

[REPUBLICACTNO.10364]
ANACTEXPANDINGREPUBLICACTNO.9208,ENTITLEDANACTTOINSTITUTE
POLICIESTOELIMINATETRAFFICKINGINPERSONSESPECIALLYWOMENANDCHILDREN,
ESTABLISHINGTHENECESSARYINSTITUTIONALMECHANISMSFORTHEPROTECTIONAND
SUPPORTOFTRAFFICKEDPERSONS,PROVIDINGPENALTIESFORITSVIOLATIONSAND
FOROTHERPURPOSES
BeitenactedbytheSenateandHouseofRepresentativesofthePhilippines
inCongressassembled:
SECTION1.ShortTitle.ThisActshallbeknownastheExpandedAnti
TraffickinginPersonsActof2012.
SEC.2.Section2ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.2.DeclarationofPolicy.ItisherebydeclaredthattheState
valuesthedignityofeveryhumanpersonandguaranteestherespectof
individualrights.Inpursuitofthispolicy,theStateshallgivehighest
prioritytotheenactmentofmeasuresanddevelopmentofprogramsthatwill
promotehumandignity,protectthepeoplefromanythreatofviolenceand
exploitation,eliminatetraffickinginpersons,andmitigatepressuresfor
involuntarymigrationandservitudeofpersons,notonlytosupport
traffickedpersonsbutmoreimportantly,toensuretheirrecovery,
rehabilitationandreintegrationintothemainstreamofsociety.
ItshallbeaStatepolicytorecognizetheequalrightsandinherent
humandignityofwomenandmenasenshrinedintheUnitedNationsUniversal
DeclarationonHumanRights,UnitedNationsConventionontheElimination
ofAllFormsofDiscriminationAgainstWomen,UnitedNationsConventionon
theRightsoftheChild,UnitedNationsConventionontheProtectionof
MigrantWorkersandtheirFamilies,UnitedNationsConventionAgainst
TransnationalOrganizedCrimeIncludingitsProtocoltoPrevent,Suppress
andPunishTraffickinginPersons,EspeciallyWomenandChildrenandall
otherrelevantanduniversallyacceptedhumanrightsinstrumentsandother
internationalconventionstowhichthePhilippinesisasignatory.
SEC.3.Section3ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.3.DefinitionofTerms.AsusedinthisAct:
(a)TraffickinginPersonsreferstotherecruitment,obtaining,hiring,
providing,offering,transportation,transfer,maintaining,harboring,or
receiptofpersonswithorwithoutthevictimsconsentorknowledge,
withinoracrossnationalbordersbymeansofthreat,oruseofforce,or
otherformsofcoercion,abduction,fraud,deception,abuseofpowerorof
position,takingadvantageofthevulnerabilityoftheperson,or,the
givingorreceivingofpaymentsorbenefitstoachievetheconsentofa
personhavingcontroloveranotherpersonforthepurposeofexploitation
whichincludesataminimum,theexploitationortheprostitutionofothers
orotherformsofsexualexploitation,forcedlabororservices,slavery,
servitudeortheremovalorsaleoforgans.
Therecruitment,transportation,transfer,harboring,adoptionorreceipt
ofachildforthepurposeofexploitationorwhentheadoptionisinduced
byanyformofconsiderationforexploitativepurposesshallalsobe
consideredastraffickinginpersonsevenifitdoesnotinvolveanyof
themeanssetforthintheprecedingparagraph.
(b)Childreferstoapersonbeloweighteen(18)yearsofageoronewho
isovereighteen(18)butisunabletofullytakecareoforprotect
himself/herselffromabuse,neglect,cruelty,exploitation,or
discriminationbecauseofaphysicalormentaldisabilityorcondition.
(c)Prostitutionreferstoanyact,transaction,schemeordesign
involvingtheuseofapersonbyanother,forsexualintercourseor
lasciviousconductinexchangeformoney,profitoranyother
consideration.
(d)ForcedLaborreferstotheextractionofworkorservicesfromany
personbymeansofenticement,violence,intimidationorthreat,useof,
forceorcoercion,includingdeprivationoffreedom,abuseofauthorityor
moralascendancy,debtbondageordeceptionincludinganyworkorservice
extractedfromanypersonunderthemenaceofpenalty.
(e)Slaveryreferstothestatusorconditionofapersonoverwhomany
orallofthepowersattachingtotherightofownershipareexercised.
(f)InvoluntaryServitudereferstoaconditionofenforcedand
compulsoryserviceinducedbymeansofanyscheme,planorpattern,
intendedtocauseapersontobelievethatifheorshedidnotenterinto
orcontinueinsuchcondition,heorsheoranotherpersonwouldsuffer
seriousharmorotherformsofabuseorphysicalrestraint,orthreatof
abuseorharm,orcoercionincludingdeprivingaccesstotraveldocuments
andwithholdingsalaries,ortheabuseorthreatenedabuseofthelegal
process.
(g)SexTourismreferstoaprogramorganizedbytravelandtourism
relatedestablishmentsandindividualswhichconsistsoftourismpackages
oractivities,utilizingandofferingescortandsexualservicesas
enticementfortourists.Thisincludessexualservicesandpractices
offeredduringrestandrecreationperiodsformembersofthemilitary.
(h)SexualExploitationreferstoparticipationbyapersonin
prostitution,pornographyortheproductionofpornography,inexchangefor
money,profitoranyotherconsiderationorwheretheparticipationis
causedorfacilitatedbyanymeansofintimidationorthreat,useofforce,
orotherformsofcoercion,abduction,fraud,deception,debtbondage,
abuseofpowerorofpositionoroflegalprocess,takingadvantageofthe
vulnerabilityoftheperson,orgivingorreceivingofpaymentsorbenefits
toachievetheconsentofapersonhavingcontroloveranotherperson;or
insexualintercourseorlasciviousconductcausedorfacilitatedbyany
meansasprovidedinthisAct.
(i)DebtBondagereferstothepledgingbythedebtorofhis/her
personalservicesorlabororthoseofapersonunderhis/hercontrolas
securityorpaymentforadebt,whenthelengthandnatureofservicesis
notclearlydefinedorwhenthevalueoftheservicesasreasonably
assessedisnotappliedtowardtheliquidationofthedebt.
(j)Pornographyreferstoanyrepresentation,throughpublication,
exhibition,cinematography,indecentshows,informationtechnology,orby
whatevermeans,ofapersonengagedinrealorsimulatedexplicitsexual
activitiesoranyrepresentationofthesexualpartsofapersonfor
primarilysexualpurposes.
(k)CouncilshallmeantheInterAgencyCouncilAgainstTrafficking
createdunderSection20ofthisAct.
SEC.4.Section4ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.4.ActsofTraffickinginPersons.Itshallbeunlawfulforany
person,naturalorjuridical,tocommitanyofthefollowingacts:
(a)Torecruit,obtain,hire,provide,offer,transport,transfer,
maintain,harbor,orreceiveapersonbyanymeans,includingthosedone
underthepretextofdomesticoroverseasemploymentortrainingor
apprenticeship,forthepurposeofprostitution,pornography,orsexual
exploitation;
(b)Tointroduceormatchformoney,profit,ormaterial,economicor
otherconsideration,anypersonor,asprovidedforunderRepublicActNo.
6955,anyFilipinowomantoaforeignnational,formarriageforthe
purposeofacquiring,buying,offering,sellingortradinghim/herto
engageinprostitution,pornography,sexualexploitation,forcedlabor,
slavery,involuntaryservitudeordebtbondage;
(c)Toofferorcontractmarriage,realorsimulated,forthepurposeof
acquiring,buying,offering,selling,ortradingthemtoengagein
prostitution,pornography,sexualexploitation,forcedlabororslavery,
involuntaryservitudeordebtbondage;
(d)Toundertakeororganizetoursandtravelplansconsistingoftourism
packagesoractivitiesforthepurposeofutilizingandofferingpersons
forprostitution,pornographyorsexualexploitation;
(e)Tomaintainorhireapersontoengageinprostitutionorpornography;
(f)Toadoptpersonsbyanyformofconsiderationforexploitative
purposesortofacilitatethesameforpurposesofprostitution,
pornography,sexualexploitation,forcedlabor,slavery,involuntary
servitudeordebtbondage;
(g)Toadoptorfacilitatetheadoptionofpersonsforthepurposeof
prostitution,pornography,sexualexploitation,forcedlabor,slavery,
involuntaryservitudeordebtbondage;
(h)Torecruit,hire,adopt,transport,transfer,obtain,harbor,
maintain,provide,offer,receiveorabductaperson,bymeansofthreator
useofforce,fraud,deceit,violence,coercion,orintimidationforthe
purposeofremovalorsaleoforgansofsaidperson;
(i)Torecruit,transport,obtain,transfer,harbor,maintain,offer,
hire,provide,receiveoradoptachildtoengageinarmedactivitiesin
thePhilippinesorabroad;
(j)Torecruit,transport,transfer,harbor,obtain,maintain,offer,
hire,provideorreceiveapersonbymeansdefinedinSection3ofthisAct
forpurposesofforcedlabor,slavery,debtbondageandinvoluntary
servitude,includingascheme,plan,orpatternintendedtocausethe
personeither:
(1)Tobelievethatifthepersondidnotperformsuchlabororservices,
heorsheoranotherpersonwouldsufferseriousharmorphysical
restraint;or
(2)Toabuseorthreatentheuseoflaworthelegalprocesses;and
(k)Torecruit,transport,harbor,obtain,transfer,maintain,hire,
offer,provide,adoptorreceiveachildforpurposesofexploitationor
tradingthem,includingbutnotlimitedto,theactofbaringand/or
sellingachildforanyconsiderationorforbarterforpurposesof
exploitation.Traffickingforpurposesofexploitationofchildrenshall
include:
(1)Allformsofslaveryorpracticessimilartoslavery,involuntary
servitude,debtbondageandforcedlabor,includingrecruitmentofchildren
foruseinarmedconflict;
(2)Theuse,procuringorofferingofachildforprostitution,forthe
productionofpornography,orforpornographicperformances;
(3)Theuse,procuringorofferingofachildfortheproductionand
traffickingofdrugs;and
(4)Theuse,procuringorofferingofachildforillegalactivitiesor
workwhich,byitsnatureorthecircumstancesinwhichitiscarriedout,
islikelytoharmtheirhealth,safetyormorals;and
(l)Toorganizeordirectotherpersonstocommittheoffensesdefinedas
actsoftraffickingunderthisAct.
SEC.5.AnewSection4AisherebyinsertedinRepublicActNo.9208,to
readasfollows:
SEC.4A.AttemptedTraffickinginPersons.Wherethereareactsto
initiatethecommissionofatraffickingoffensebuttheoffenderfailedto
ordidnotexecutealltheelementsofthecrime,byaccidentorbyreason
ofsomecauseotherthanvoluntarydesistance,suchovertactsshallbe
deemedasanattempttocommitanactoftraffickinginpersons.Assuch,
anattempttocommitanyoftheoffensesenumeratedinSection4ofthis
Actshallconstituteattemptedtraffickinginpersons.
Incaseswherethevictimisachild,anyofthefollowingactsshallalso
bedeemedasattemptedtraffickinginpersons:
(a)Facilitatingthetravelofachildwhotravelsalonetoaforeign
countryorterritorywithoutvalidreasonthereforandwithouttherequired
clearanceorpermitfromtheDepartmentofSocialWelfareandDevelopment,
orawrittenpermitorjustificationfromthechildsparentorlegal
guardian;
(b)Executing,foraconsideration,anaffidavitofconsentorawritten
consentforadoption;
(c)Recruitingawomantobearachildforthepurposeofsellingthe
child;
(d)Simulatingabirthforthepurposeofsellingthechild;and
(e)Solicitingachildandacquiringthecustodythereofthroughanymeans
fromamonghospitals,clinics,nurseries,daycarecenters,refugeeor
evacuationcenters,andlowincomefamilies,forthepurposeofsellingthe
child.
SEC.6.AnewSection4BisherebyinsertedinRepublicActNo.9208,to
readasfollows:
SEC.4B.AccompliceLiability.Whoeverknowinglyaids,abets,
cooperatesintheexecutionoftheoffensebypreviousorsimultaneousacts
definedinthisActshallbepunishedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsof
Section10(c)ofthisAct.
SEC.7.AnewSection4CisherebyinsertedinRepublicActNo.9208,to
readasfollows:
SEC.4C.Accessories.Whoeverhastheknowledgeofthecommissionof
thecrime,andwithouthavingparticipatedtherein,eitherasprincipalor
asaccomplices,takepartinitscommissioninanyofthefollowing
manners:
(a)Byprofitingthemselvesorassistingtheoffendertoprofitbythe
effectsofthecrime;
(b)Byconcealingordestroyingthebodyofthecrimeoreffectsor
instrumentsthereof,inordertopreventitsdiscovery;
(c)Byharboring,concealingorassistingintheescapeoftheprincipal
ofthecrime,providedtheaccessoryactswithabuseofhisorherpublic
functionsorisknowntobehabituallyguiltyofsomeothercrime.
Actsdefinedinthisprovisionshallbepunishedinaccordancewiththe
provisionofSection10(d)asstatedthereto.
SEC.8.Section5ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.5.ActsthatPromoteTraffickinginPersons.Thefollowingacts
whichpromoteorfacilitatetraffickinginpersons,shallbeunlawful:
(a)xxx
(b)Toproduce,printandissueordistributeunissued,tamperedorfake
counselingcertificates,registrationstickers,overseasemployment
certificatesorothercertificatesofanygovernmentagencywhichissues
thesecertificates,decalsandsuchothermarkersasproofofcompliance
withgovernmentregulatoryandpredeparturerequirementsforthepurpose
ofpromotingtraffickinginpersons;
(c)xxx
(d)xxx
(e)xxx
(f)xxx
(g)xxx
(h)Totamperwith,destroy,orcausethedestructionofevidence,orto
influenceorattempttoinfluencewitnesses,inaninvestigationor
prosecutionofacaseunderthisAct;
(i)Todestroy,conceal,remove,confiscateorpossess,orattemptto
destroy,conceal,remove,confiscateorpossess,anyactualorpurported
passportorothertravel,immigrationorworkingpermitordocument,orany
otheractualorpurportedgovernmentidentification,ofanypersoninorder
topreventorrestrict,orattempttopreventorrestrict,withoutlawful
authority,thepersonslibertytomoveortravelinordertomaintainthe
labororservicesofthatperson;or
(j)Toutilizehisorherofficetoimpedetheinvestigation,prosecution
orexecutionoflawfulordersinacaseunderthisAct.
SEC.9.Section6ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.6.QualifiedTraffickinginPersons.ViolationsofSection4of
thisActshallbeconsideredasqualifiedtrafficking:
xxx
(d)Whentheoffenderisaspouse,anascendant,parent,sibling,guardian
orapersonwhoexercisesauthorityoverthetraffickedpersonorwhenthe
offenseiscommittedbyapublicofficeroremployee;
xxx
(f)Whentheoffenderisamemberofthemilitaryorlawenforcement
agencies;
(g)Whenbyreasonoronoccasionoftheactoftraffickinginpersons,
theoffendedpartydies,becomesinsane,suffersmutilationorisafflicted
withHumanImmunodeficiencyVirus(HIV)ortheAcquiredImmuneDeficiency
Syndrome(AIDS);
(h)WhentheoffendercommitsoneormoreviolationsofSection4overa
periodofsixty(60)ormoredays,whetherthosedaysarecontinuousor
not;and
(i)Whentheoffenderdirectsorthroughanothermanagesthetrafficking
victimincarryingouttheexploitativepurposeoftrafficking.
SEC.10.Section7ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.7.Confidentiality.Atanystageoftheinvestigation,rescue,
prosecutionandtrialofanoffenseunderthisAct,lawenforcement
officers,prosecutors,judges,courtpersonnel,socialworkersandmedical
practitioners,aswellaspartiestothecase,shallprotecttherightto
privacyofthetraffickedperson.Towardsthisend,lawenforcement
officers,prosecutorsandjudgestowhomthecomplainthasbeenreferred
may,whenevernecessarytoensureafairandimpartialproceeding,and
afterconsideringallcircumstancesforthebestinterestoftheparties,
orderacloseddoorinvestigation,prosecutionortrial.Thenameand
personalcircumstancesofthetraffickedpersonoranyotherinformation
tendingtoestablishtheidentityofthetraffickedpersonandhisorher
familyshallnotbedisclosedtothepublic.
Itshallbeunlawfulforanyeditor,publisher,andreporterorcolumnist
incaseofprintedmaterials,announcerorproducerincaseoftelevision
andradio,produceranddirectorofafilmincaseofthemovieindustry,
oranypersonutilizingtrimediafacilitiesorelectronicinformation
technologytocausepublicityofthename,personalcircumstances,orany
informationtendingtoestablishtheidentityofthetraffickedperson
exceptwhenthetraffickedpersoninawrittenstatementdulynotarized
knowingly,voluntarilyandwillinglywaivessaidconfidentiality.
Lawenforcementofficers,prosecutors,judges,courtpersonnel,social
workersandmedicalpractitionersshallbetrainedontheimportanceof
maintainingconfidentialityasameanstoprotecttherighttoprivacyof
victimsandtoencouragevictimstofilecomplaints.
SEC.11.Section8ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.8.InitiationandProsecutionofCases.
(a)InitiationofInvestigation.Lawenforcementagenciesaremandated
toimmediatelyinitiateinvestigationandcountertraffickingintelligence
gatheringuponreceiptofstatementsoraffidavitfromvictimsof
trafficking,migrantworkers,ortheirfamilieswhoareinpossessionof
knowledgeorinformationabouttraffickinginpersonscases.
(b)ProsecutionofCases.Anypersonwhohaspersonalknowledgeofthe
commissionofanyoffenseunderthisAct,suchasthetraffickedperson,
theparents,spouse,siblings,childrenorlegalguardianmayfilea
complaintfortrafficking.
(c)AffidavitofDesistance.Casesinvolvingtraffickinginpersons
shouldnotbedismissedbasedontheaffidavitofdesistanceexecutedby
thevictimsortheirparentsorlegalguardians.Publicandprivate
prosecutorsaredirectedtoopposeandmanifestobjectionstomotionsfor
dismissal.
AnyactinvolvingthemeansprovidedinthisActoranyattemptthereof
forthepurposeofsecuringanAffidavitofDesistancefromthecomplainant
shallbepunishableunderthisAct.
SEC.12.Section10ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.10.PenaltiesandSanctions.Thefollowingpenaltiesandsanctions
areherebyestablishedfortheoffensesenumeratedinthisAct:
(a)Anypersonfoundguiltyofcommittinganyoftheactsenumeratedin
Section4shallsufferthepenaltyofimprisonmentoftwenty(20)yearsand
afineofnotlessthanOnemillionpesos(P1,000,000.00)butnotmorethan
Twomillionpesos(P2,000,000.00);
(b)Anypersonfoundguiltyofcommittinganyoftheactsenumeratedin
Section4AofthisActshallsufferthepenaltyofimprisonmentoffifteen
(15)yearsandafineofnotlessthanFivehundredthousandpesos
(P500,000.00)butnotmorethanOnemillionpesos(P1,000,000.00);
(c)AnypersonfoundguiltyofSection4BofthisActshallsufferthe
penaltyofimprisonmentoffifteen(15)yearsandafineofnotlessthan
Fivehundredthousandpesos(P500,000.00)butnotmorethanOnemillion
pesos(P1,000,000.00);
Ineverycase,convictionshallcauseandcarrytheautomaticrevocation
ofthelicenseorregistrationoftherecruitmentagencyinvolvedin
trafficking.Thelicenseofarecruitmentagencywhichtraffickedachild
shallbeautomaticallyrevoked.
(d)Anypersonfound,guiltyofcommittinganyoftheactsenumeratedin
Section5shallsufferthepenaltyofimprisonmentoffifteen(15)years
andafineofnotlessthanFivehundredthousandpesos(P500,000.00)but
notmorethanOnemillionpesos(P1,000,000.00);
(e)AnypersonfoundguiltyofqualifiedtraffickingunderSection6shall
sufferthepenaltyoflifeimprisonmentandafineofnotlessthanTwo
millionpesos(P2,000,000.00)butnotmorethanFivemillionpesos
(P5,000,000.00);
(f)AnypersonwhoviolatesSection7hereofshallsufferthepenaltyof
imprisonmentofsix(6)yearsandafineofnotlessthanFivehundred
thousandpesos(P500,000.00)butnotmorethanOnemillionpesos
(P1,000,000.00);
(g)Iftheoffenderisacorporation,partnership,association,club,
establishmentoranyjuridicalperson,thepenaltyshallbeimposedupon
theowner,president,partner,manager,and/oranyresponsibleofficerwho
participatedinthecommissionofthecrimeorwhoshallhaveknowingly
permittedorfailedtopreventitscommission;
(h)TheregistrationwiththeSecuritiesandExchangeCommission(SEC)and
licensetooperateoftheerringagency,corporation,association,
religiousgroup,tourortravelagent,cluborestablishment,oranyplace
ofentertainmentshallbecancelledandrevokedpermanently.Theowner,
president,partnerormanagerthereofshallnotbeallowedtooperate
similarestablishmentsinadifferentname;
(i)Iftheoffenderisaforeigner,heorsheshallbeimmediately
deportedafterservinghisorhersentenceandbebarredpermanentlyfrom
enteringthecountry;
(j)Anyemployeeorofficialofgovernmentagencieswhoshallissueor
approvetheissuanceoftravelexitclearances,passports,registration
certificates,counselingcertificates,marriagelicense,andothersimilar
documentstopersons,whetherjuridicalornatural,recruitmentagencies,
establishmentsorotherindividualsorgroups,whofailtoobservethe
prescribedproceduresandtherequirementasprovidedforbylaws,rules
andregulations,shallbeheldadministrativelyliable,withoutprejudice
tocriminalliabilityunderthisAct.Theconcernedgovernmentofficialor
employeeshall,uponconviction,bedismissedfromtheserviceandbe
barredpermanentlytoholdpublicoffice.Hisorherretirementandother
benefitsshalllikewisebeforfeited;and
(k)Conviction,byfinaljudgmentoftheadopterforanyoffenseunder
thisActshallresultintheimmediaterescissionofthedecreeof
adoption.
SEC.13.Section11ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.11.UseofTraffickedPersons.Anypersonwhobuysorengagesthe
servicesofatraffickedpersonforprostitutionshallbepenalizedwith
thefollowing:Provided,ThattheProbationLaw(PresidentialDecreeNo.
968)shallnotapply:
(a)PrisionCorreccionalinitsmaximumperiodtoprisionmayororsix(6)
yearstotwelve(12)yearsimprisonmentandafineofnotlessthanFifty
thousandpesos(P50,000.00)butnotmorethanOnehundredthousandpesos
(P100,000.00):Provided,however,Thatthefollowingactsshallbeexempted
thereto:
(1)Ifanoffenseunderparagraph(a)involvessexualintercourseor
lasciviousconductwithachild,thepenaltyshallbereclusiontemporalin
itsmediumperiodtoreclusionperpetuaorseventeen(17)yearstoforty
(40)yearsimprisonmentandafineofnotlessthanFivehundredthousand
pesos(P500,000.00)butnotmorethanOnemillionpesos(P1,000,000.00);
(2)Ifanoffenseunderparagraph(a)involvescarnalknowledgeof,or
sexualintercoursewith,amaleorfemaletraffickingvictimandalso
involvestheuseofforceorintimidation,toavictimdeprivedofreason
ortoanunconsciousvictim,oravictimundertwelve(12)yearsofage,
insteadofthepenaltyprescribedinthesubparagraphabovethepenalty
shallbeafineofnotlessthanOnemillionpesos(P1,000,000.00)butnot
morethanFivemillionpesos(P5,000,000.00)andimprisonment
ofreclusionperpetuaorforty(40)yearsimprisonmentwithnopossibility
ofparole;exceptthatifapersonviolatingparagraph(a)ofthissection
knowsthepersonthatprovidedprostitutionservicesisinfactavictimof
trafficking,theoffendershallnotbelikewisepenalizedunderthis
sectionbutunderSection10asapersonviolatingSection4;andifin
committingsuchanoffense,theoffenderalsoknowsaqualifying
circumstancefortrafficking,theoffendershallbepenalizedunderSection
10forqualifiedtrafficking.Ifinviolatingthissectiontheoffender
alsoviolatesSection4,theoffendershallbepenalizedunderSection10
and,ifapplicable,forqualifiedtraffickinginsteadofunderthis
section;
(b)Deportation.Ifaforeignercommitsanyoffensedescribedby
paragraph(1)or(2)ofthissectionorviolatesanypertinentprovisionof
thisActasanaccompliceoraccessoryto,orbyattemptinganysuch
offense,heorsheshallbeimmediatelydeportedafterservinghisorher
sentenceandbebarredpermanentlyfromenteringthecountry;and
(c)PublicOfficial.Iftheoffenderisapublicofficial,heorshe
shallbedismissedfromserviceandshallsufferperpetualabsolute
disqualificationtoholdpublic,office,inadditiontoanyimprisonmentor
finereceivedpursuanttoanyotherprovisionofthisAct.
SEC.14.Section12ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.12.PrescriptivePeriod.TraffickingcasesunderthisActshall
prescribeinten(10)years:Provided,however,Thattraffickingcases
committedbyasyndicateorinalargescaleasdefinedunderSection6,or
againstachild,shallprescribeintwenty(20)years.
Theprescriptiveperiodshallcommencetorunfromthedayonwhichthe
traffickedpersonisdeliveredorreleasedfromtheconditionsofbondage,
orinthecaseofachildvictim,fromthedaythechildreachestheageof
majority,andshallbeinterruptedbythefilingofthecomplaintor
informationandshallcommencetorunagainwhentheproceedingsterminate
withouttheaccusedbeingconvictedoracquittedorareunjustifiably
stoppedforanyreasonnotimputabletotheaccused.
SEC.15.Section16ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.16.ProgramsthatAddressTraffickinginPersons.Thegovernment
shallestablishandimplementpreventive,protectiveandrehabilitative
programsfortraffickedpersons.Forthispurpose,thefollowingagencies
areherebymandatedtoimplementthefollowingprograms:
(a)DepartmentofForeignAffairs(DFA)shallmakeavailableits
resourcesandfacilitiesoverseasfortraffickedpersonsregardlessof
theirmannerofentrytothereceivingcountry,andexploremeansto
furtherenhanceitsassistanceineliminatingtraffickingactivities
throughclosernetworkingwithgovernmentagenciesinthecountryand
overseas,particularlyintheformulationofpoliciesandimplementationof
relevantprograms.ItshallprovideFilipinovictimsoftrafficking
overseaswithfreelegalassistanceandcounseltopursuelegalaction
againsthisorhertraffickers,representhisorherinterestsinany
criminalinvestigationorprosecution,andassistintheapplicationfor
socialbenefitsand/orregularimmigrationstatusasmaybeallowedor
providedforbythehostcountry.TheDFAshallrepatriatetrafficked
Filipinoswiththeconsentofthevictims.
TheDFAshalltakenecessarymeasuresfortheefficientimplementationof
theElectronicPassportingSystemtoprotecttheintegrityofPhilippine
passports,visasandothertraveldocumentstoreducetheincidenceof
traffickingthroughtheuseoffraudulentidentificationdocuments.
IncoordinationwiththeDepartmentofLaborandEmployment,itshall
providefreetemporarysheltersandotherservicestoFilipinovictimsof
traffickingoverseasthroughthemigrantworkersandotheroverseas
FilipinosresourcecentersestablishedoverseasunderRepublicActNo.
8042,asamended.
(b)DepartmentofSocialWelfareandDevelopment(DSWD)shallimplement
rehabilitativeandprotectiveprogramsfortraffickedpersons.Itshall
providecounselingandtemporarysheltertotraffickedpersonsanddevelop
asystemforaccreditationamongNGOsforpurposesofestablishingcenters
andprogramsforinterventioninvariouslevelsofthecommunity.Itshall
establishfreetemporaryshelters,fortheprotectionandhousingof
traffickedpersonstoprovidethefollowingbasicservicestotrafficked
persons:
(1)Temporaryhousingandfoodfacilities;
(2)Psychologicalsupportandcounseling;
(3)24hourcallcenterforcrisiscallsandtechnologybasedcounseling
andreferralsystem;
(4)Coordinationwithlocallawenforcemententities;and
(5)CoordinationwiththeDepartmentofJustice,amongothers.
TheDSWDmustconductinformationcampaignsincommunitiesandschools
teachingparentsandfamiliesthatreceivingconsiderationinexchangefor
adoptionispunishableunderthelaw.Furthermore,informationcampaigns
mustbeconductedwiththepolicethattheymustnotinducepoorwomento
givetheirchildrenupforadoptioninexchangeforconsideration.
(c)DepartmentofLaborandEmployment(DOLE)shallensurethestrict
implementationandcompliancewiththerulesandguidelinesrelativetothe
employmentofpersonslocallyandoverseas.Itshalllikewisemonitor,
documentandreportcasesoftraffickinginpersonsinvolvingemployersand
laborrecruiters.
(d)DepartmentofJustice(DOJ)shallensuretheprosecutionofpersons
accusedoftraffickinganddesignateandtrainspecialprosecutorswho
shallhandleandprosecutecasesoftrafficking.Itshallalsoestablisha
mechanismforfreelegalassistancefortraffickedpersons,incoordination
withtheDSWD,IntegratedBarofthePhilippines(IBP)andotherNGOsand
volunteergroups.
(e)PhilippineCommissiononWomen(PCW)shallactivelyparticipateand
coordinateintheformulationandmonitoringofpoliciesaddressingthe
issueoftraffickinginpersonsincoordinationwithrelevantgovernment
agencies.Itshalllikewiseadvocatefortheinclusionoftheissueof
traffickinginpersonsinbothitslocalandinternationaladvocacyfor
womensissues.
(f)BureauofImmigration(BI)shallstrictlyadministerandenforce
immigrationandalienadministrationlaws.Itshalladoptmeasuresforthe
apprehensionofsuspectedtraffickersbothattheplaceofarrivaland
departureandshallensurecompliancebytheFilipinofiancs/fiancesand
spousesofforeignnationalswiththeguidanceandcounselingrequirement
asprovidedforinthisAct.
(g)PhilippineNationalPolice(PNP)andNationalBureauofInvestigation
(NBI)shallbetheprimarylawenforcementagenciestoundertake
surveillance,investigationandarrestofindividualsorpersonssuspected
tobeengagedintrafficking.Theyshallcloselycoordinatewitheachother
andwithotherlawenforcementagenciestosecureconcertedeffortsfor
effectiveinvestigationandapprehensionofsuspectedtraffickers.They
shallalsoestablishasystemtoreceivecomplaintsandcallstoassist
traffickedpersonsandconductrescueoperations.
(h)PhilippineOverseasEmploymentAdministration(POEA)andOverseas
WorkersandWelfareAdministration(OWWA)POEAshallimplementPre
EmploymentOrientationSeminars(PEOS)whilePreDepartureOrientation
Seminars(PDOS)shallbeconductedbytheOWWA.Itshalllikewiseformulate
asystemofprovidingfreelegalassistancetotraffickedpersons,in
coordinationwiththeDFA.
ThePOEAshallcreateablacklistofrecruitmentagencies,illegal
recruitersandpersonsfacingadministrative,civilandcriminalcomplaints
fortraffickingfiledinthereceivingcountryand/orinthePhilippines
andthoseagencies,illegalrecruitersandpersonsinvolvedincasesof
traffickingwhohavebeenrescuedbytheDFAandDOLEinthereceiving
countryorinthePhilippinesevenifnoformaladministrative,civilor
criminalcomplaintshavebeenfiled:Provided,Thattherescuedvictims
shallexecuteanaffidavitattestingtotheactsviolativeoftheanti
traffickinglaw.Thisblacklistshallbepostedinconspicuousplacesin
concernedgovernmentagenciesandshallbeupdatedbimonthly.
TheblacklistshalllikewisebepostedbythePOEAintheshared
governmentinformationsystem,whichismandatedtobeestablishedunder
RepublicActNo.8042,asamended.
ThePOEAandOWWAshallaccreditNGOsandotherserviceprovidersto
conductPEOSandPDOS,respectively.ThePEOSandPDOSshouldincludethe
discussionanddistributionoftheblacklist.
Thelicenseorregistrationofarecruitmentagencythathasbeen
blacklistedmaybesuspendedbythePOEAuponareviewofthecomplaints
filedagainstsaidagency.
(i)DepartmentoftheInteriorandLocalGovernment(DILG)shall
instituteasystematicinformationandpreventioncampaignincoordination
withpertinentagenciesofgovernmentasprovidedforinthisAct.Itshall
providetrainingprogramstolocalgovernmentunits,incoordinationwith
theCouncil,inensuringwideunderstandingandapplicationofthisActat
thelocallevel.
(j)CommissiononFilipinosOverseasshallconductpredeparture
counselingservicesforFilipinosinintermarriages.Itshalldevelopa
systemforaccreditationofNGOsthatmaybemobilizedforpurposesof
conductingpredeparturecounselingservicesforFilipinosin
intermarriages.Assuch,itshallensurethatthecounselorscontemplated
underthisActshallhavetheminimumqualificationsandtrainingof
guidancecounselorsasprovidedforbylaw.
Itshalllikewiseassistintheconductofinformationcampaignsagainst
traffickingincoordinationwithlocalgovernmentunits,thePhilippine
InformationAgency,andNGOs.
(k)Localgovernmentunits(LGUs)shallmonitoranddocumentcasesof
traffickinginpersonsintheirareasofjurisdiction,effectthe
cancellationoflicensesofestablishmentswhichviolatetheprovisionsof
thisActandensureeffectiveprosecutionofsuchcases.Theyshallalso
undertakeaninformationcampaignagainsttraffickinginpersonsthrough
theestablishmentoftheMigrantsAdvisoryandInformationNetwork(MAIN)
desksinmunicipalitiesorprovincesincoordinationwiththeDILG,
PhilippineInformationAgency(PIA),CommissiononFilipinosOverseas
(CFO),NGOsandotherconcernedagencies.Theyshallencourageandsupport
communitybasedinitiativeswhichaddressthetraffickinginpersons.
InimplementingthisAct,theagenciesconcernedmayseekandenlistthe
assistanceofNGOs,peoplesorganizations(POs),civicorganizationsand
othervolunteergroups.
SEC.16.AnewSection16AisherebyinsertedintoRepublicActNo.9208,
toreadasfollows:
SEC.16A.AntiTraffickinginPersonsDatabase.Anantitraffickingin
personscentraldatabaseshallbeestablishedbytheInterAgencyCouncil
AgainstTraffickingcreatedunderSection20ofthisAct.TheCouncilshall
submitareporttothePresidentofthePhilippinesandtoCongress,onor
beforeJanuary15ofeveryyear,withrespecttotheprecedingyears
programsanddataontraffickingrelatedcases.
Allgovernmentagenciestaskedunderthelawtoundertakeprogramsand
renderassistancetoaddresstraffickinginpersonsshalldeveloptheir
respectivemonitoringanddatacollectionsystems,anddatabases,for
purposesofensuringefficientcollectionandstorageofdataoncasesof
traffickinginpersonshandledbytheirrespectiveoffices.Suchdatashall
besubmittedtotheCouncilforintegrationinacentraldatabasesystem.
Forthispurpose,theCouncilisherebytaskedtoensuretheharmonization
andstandardizationofdatabases,includingminimumdatarequirements,
definitions,reportingformats,datacollectionsystems,anddata
verificationsystems.Suchdatabasesshallhave,attheminimum,the
followinginformation:
(a)Thenumberofcasesoftraffickinginpersons,sortedaccordingto
statusofcases,includingthenumberofcasesbeinginvestigated,
submittedforprosecution,dropped,andfiledand/orpendingbeforethe
courtsandthenumberofconvictionsandacquittals;
(b)Theprofile/informationoneachcase;
(c)Thenumberofvictimsoftraffickinginpersonsreferredtotheagency
bydestinationcountries/areasandbyareaoforigin;and
(d)Disaggregateddataontraffickingvictimsandtheaccused/defendants.
SEC.17.Section17ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.17.LegalProtectiontoTraffickedPersons.Traffickedpersons
shallberecognizedasvictimsoftheactoractsoftraffickingandas
such,shallnotbepenalizedforunlawfulactscommittedasadirectresult
of,orasanincidentorinrelationto,beingtraffickedbasedontheacts
oftraffickingenumeratedinthisActorinobediencetotheordermadeby
thetraffickerinrelationthereto.Inthisregard,theconsentofa
traffickedpersontotheintendedexploitationsetforthinthisActshall
beirrelevant.
Victimsoftraffickingforpurposesofprostitutionasdefinedunder
Section4ofthisActarenotcoveredbyArticle202oftheRevisedPenal
Codeandassuch,shallnotbeprosecuted,fined,orotherwisepenalized
underthesaidlaw.
SEC.18.AnewSection17AisherebyinsertedintoRepublicActNo.9208,
toreadasfollows:
SEC.17A.TemporaryCustodyofTraffickedVictims.Therescueof
victimsshouldbedoneasmuchaspossiblewiththeassistanceoftheDSWD
oranaccreditedNGOthatservicestraffickedvictims.Alawenforcement
officer,onareasonablesuspicionthatapersonisavictimofanyoffense
definedunderthisActincludingattemptedtrafficking,shallimmediately
placethatpersoninthetemporarycustodyofthelocalsocialwelfareand
developmentoffice,oranyaccreditedorlicensedshelterinstitution
devotedtoprotectingtraffickedpersonsaftertherescue.
SEC.19.AnewSection17BisherebyinsertedintoRepublicActNo.9208,
toreadasfollows:
SEC.17B.IrrelevanceofPastSexualBehavior,OpinionThereofor
ReputationofVictimsandofConsentofVictimsinCasesofDeception,
CoercionandOtherProhibitedMeans.Thepastsexualbehaviororthe
sexualpredispositionofatraffickedpersonshallbeconsidered
inadmissibleinevidenceforthepurposeofprovingconsentofthevictim
toengageinsexualbehavior,ortoprovethepredisposition,sexualor
otherwise,ofatraffickedperson.Furthermore,theconsentofavictimof
traffickingtotheintendedexploitationshallbeirrelevantwhereanyof
themeanssetforthinSection3(a)ofthisActhasbeenused.
SEC.20.AnewSection17CisherebyinsertedintoRepublicActNo.9208,
toreadasfollows:
SEC.17C.ImmunityfromSuit,ProhibitedActsandInjunctiveRemedies.
Noactionorsuitshallbebrought,institutedormaintainedinanycourt
ortribunalorbeforeanyotherauthorityagainstany:(a)lawenforcement
officer;(b)socialworker;or(c)personactingincompliancewitha
lawfulorderfromanyoftheabove,forlawfulactsdoneorstatementsmade
duringanauthorizedrescueoperation,recoveryor
rehabilitation/intervention,oraninvestigationorprosecutionofananti
traffickingcase:Provided,Thatsuchactsshallhavebeenmadeingood
faith.
Theprosecutionofretaliatorysuitsagainstvictimsoftraffickingshall
beheldinabeyancependingfinalresolutionanddecisionofcriminal
complaintfortrafficking.
ItshallbeprohibitedfortheDFA,theDOLE,andthePOEAofficials,law
enforcementofficers,prosecutorsandjudgestourgecomplainantsto
abandontheircriminal,civilandadministrativecomplaintsfor
trafficking.
Theremediesofinjunctionandattachmentofpropertiesofthe
traffickers,illegalrecruitersandpersonsinvolvedintraffickingmaybe
issuedmotupropriobyjudges.
SEC.21.Section20ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.20.InterAgencyCouncilAgainstTrafficking.Thereishereby
establishedanInterAgencyCouncilAgainstTrafficking,tobecomposedof
theSecretaryoftheDepartmentofJusticeasChairpersonandtheSecretary
oftheDepartmentofSocialWelfareandDevelopmentasCoChairpersonand
shallhavethefollowingasmembers:
(a)Secretary,DepartmentofForeignAffairs;
(b)Secretary,DepartmentofLaborandEmployment;
(c)Secretary,DepartmentoftheInteriorandLocalGovernment;
(d)Administrator,PhilippineOverseasEmploymentAdministration;
(e)Commissioner,BureauofImmigration;
(f)Chief,PhilippineNationalPolice;
(g)Chairperson,PhilippineCommissiononWomen;
(h)Chairperson,CommissiononFilipinosOverseas;
(i)ExecutiveDirector,PhilippineCenterforTransnationalCrimes;and
(j)Three(3)representativesfromNGOs,whoshallincludeone(1)
representativeeachfromamongthesectorsrepresentingwomen,overseas
Filipinos,andchildren,withaprovenrecordofinvolvementinthe
preventionandsuppressionoftraffickinginpersons.Theserepresentatives
shallbenominatedbythegovernmentagencyrepresentativesoftheCouncil,
forappointmentbythePresidentforatermofthree(3)years.
ThemembersoftheCouncilmaydesignatetheirpermanentrepresentatives
whoshallhavearanknotlowerthananassistantsecretaryorits
equivalenttomeetings,andshallreceiveemolumentsasmaybedetermined
bytheCouncilinaccordancewithexistingbudgetandaccountingrulesand
regulations.
SEC.22.Section22ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.22.SecretariattotheCouncil.TheDepartmentofJusticeshall
establishthenecessarySecretariatfortheCouncil.
Thesecretariatshallprovidesupportforthefunctionsandprojectsof
theCouncil.Thesecretariatshallbeheadedbyanexecutivedirector,who
shallbeappointedbytheSecretaryoftheDOJupontherecommendationof
theCouncil.Theexecutivedirectormusthaveadequateknowledgeon,
trainingandexperienceinthephenomenonofandissuesinvolvedin
traffickinginpersonsandinthefieldoflaw,lawenforcement,social
work,criminology,orpsychology.
TheexecutivedirectorshallbeunderthesupervisionoftheInterAgency
CouncilAgainstTraffickingthroughitsChairpersonandCoChairperson,and
shallperformthefollowingfunctions:
(a)ActassecretaryoftheCouncilandadministrativeofficerofits
secretariat;
(b)AdviseandassisttheChairpersoninformulatingandimplementingthe
objectives,policies,plansandprogramsoftheCouncil,includingthose
involvingmobilizationofgovernmentofficesrepresentedintheCouncilas
wellasotherrelevantgovernmentoffices,taskforces,andmechanisms;
(c)ServeasprincipalassistanttotheChairpersonintheoverall
supervisionofcounciladministrativebusiness;
(d)Overseeallcounciloperationalactivities;
(e)Ensureaneffectiveandefficientperformanceofcouncilfunctionsand
promptimplementationofcouncilobjectives,policies,plansandprograms;
(f)Proposeeffectiveallocationsofresourcesforimplementingcouncil
objectives,policies,plansandprograms;
(g)SubmitperiodicreportstotheCouncilontheprogressofcouncil
objectives,policies,plansandprograms;
(h)Prepareannualreportsofallcouncilactivities;and
(i)PerformotherdutiesastheCouncilmayassign.
SEC.23.AnewSection26AisherebyinsertedintoRepublicActNo.9208,
toreadasfollows:
SEC.26A.ExtraTerritorialJurisdiction.TheStateshallexercise
jurisdictionoveranyactdefinedandpenalizedunderthisAct,evenif
committedoutsidethePhilippinesandwhetherornotsuchactoracts
constituteanoffenseattheplaceofcommission,thecrimebeinga
continuingoffense,havingbeencommencedinthePhilippinesandother
elementshavingbeencommittedinanothercountry,ifthesuspector
accused:
(a)IsaFilipinocitizen;or
(b)IsapermanentresidentofthePhilippines;or
(c)HascommittedtheactagainstacitizenofthePhilippines.
Noprosecutionmaybecommencedagainstapersonunderthissectionifa
foreigngovernment,inaccordancewithjurisdictionrecognizedbythe
Philippines,hasprosecutedorisprosecutingsuchpersonfortheconduct
constitutingsuchoffense,exceptupontheapprovaloftheSecretaryof
Justice.
Thegovernmentmaysurrenderorextraditepersonsaccusedoftrafficking
inthePhilippinestotheappropriateinternationalcourtifany,orto
anotherStatepursuanttotheapplicableextraditionlawsandtreaties.
SEC.24.Section28ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamended,toreadas
follows:
SEC.28.Funding.Theamountnecessarytoimplementtheprovisionsof
thisActshallbechargedagainstthecurrentyearsappropriationsofthe
InterAgencyCouncilAgainstTraffickingunderthebudgetoftheDOJand
theappropriationsoftheotherconcerneddepartments.Thereafter,such
sumsasmaybenecessaryforthecontinuedimplementationofthisActshall
beincludedintheannualGeneralAppropriationsAct.
SEC.25.AnewSection28AisherebyinsertedintoRepublicActNo.9208,
toreadasfollows:
SEC.28A.AdditionalFundsfortheCouncil.Theamountcollectedfrom
everypenalty,fineorassetderivedfromanyviolationofthisActshall
beearmarkedasadditionalfundsfortheuseoftheCouncil.Thefundmay
beaugmentedbygrants,donationsandendowmentfromvarioussources,
domesticorforeign,forpurposesrelatedtotheirfunctions,subjectto
theexistingacceptedrulesandregulationsoftheCommissiononAudit.
SEC.26.Section32ofRepublicActNo.9208oftheRepealingClauseis
herebyamendedtoreadasfollows:
SEC.32.RepealingClause.Article202oftheRevisedPenalCode,as
amended,andalllaws,acts,presidentialdecrees,executiveorders,
administrativeorders,rulesandregulationsinconsistentwithorcontrary
totheprovisionsofthisActaredeemedamended,modifiedorrepealed
accordingly:Provided,ThatthisActshallnotinanywayamendorrepeal
theprovisionsofRepublicActNo.7610,otherwiseknownastheSpecial
ProtectionofChildAgainstChildAbuse,ExploitationandDiscrimination
Act.
SEC.27.Section33ofRepublicActNo.9208isherebyamendedtoreadas
follows:
SEC.33.Effectivity.ThisActshalltakeeffectfifteen(15)days
followingitscompletepublicationinatleasttwo(2)newspapersof
generalcirculation.