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INTRODUCTION

In this chapter the purpose of fluid machines, their application in process

industries and the role of the chemical engineer with respect to fluid machines

is discussed. In addition some basic relevant concepts and terminologies are

explained.

In chemical and process industries it is usually required to increase the mechanical energy

of fluids. In moving fluids from one place to another it may be required to increase the

mechanical energy to account for increase in geodetic energy (potential energy), velocity

energy, pressure energy and losses due to fluid friction. In gasses the energy may be

related to moving the gas or compress it. The machines used for this purpose are called

fluid machines.

Fluid machines used to transport liquid are known as pumps. Fans, blowers and

compressors are used to increase the mechanical energy of gasses.

Pumps are used to transport process and service liquids. Fans are used in ventilating

buildings, aerating workstations, exhausting or introducing air or other gasses into

process reactors, dryers, cooling towers, kilns, etc., at relatively low pressure. Fans are

also used in some air-cooled heat exchangers. Blowers and compressors are used to

compress process gas, supplying plant with compressed air, convey solid material in

suspension, exhausting or introducing air into process reactor at higher pressures and

similar processes.

1

Chapter 1 Introduction 2

maintaining fluid machines depending on his assignment. To do this effectively the

engineer has to know the system where the fluid machine is to be used and the operating

principles, capability and limitations of the different types of fluid machines. In moving

fluids the most important system parameters are the properties of the fluid (viscosity,

density, composition, vapor pressure, etc.) the flow rate, the specific energy requirement

and the suction condition. In case of compression the important parameters are the

required flow rate, the property of the gas (Molecular weight, specific heat capacity, and

inlet and discharge temperature, viscosity) and the compression ratio. The determination

of these parameters is dealt with in Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics and Substance

Parameters.

This teaching material is intended to introduce the chemical engineer with the most

common fluid machines that he will encounter in the chemical and process industries.

This teaching material covers the characteristic features, operation principles, and the

theory behind the operation principles of various fluid machines. These principles are

used for selection, installation, operation and maintenance of fluid machines.

Mechanical Energy of a flowing fluid is part of the total energy of the fluid that can be

directly and completely converted to work. It is the sum of the potential, kinetic and

pressure energy of the flow medium. Heat and internal energy cannot be completely

converted to work. Energy that is converted to heat or internal energy is lost work or loss

in mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is also known as useful energy.

The specific work of a fluid machine is the useful energy (work) that the machine

transfers or can transfer to the flow medium per unit mass of the fluid. The SI unit of

specific energy is J/kg or m2/s2.

The total head transferred to a flow medium is the specific energy transferred to the fluid

divided by the gravitational acceleration and is the measure of the amount of useful

Chapter 1 Introduction 3

energy (mechanical energy or work) of the flow medium. The term head is more

commonly used in centrifugal pumps. The SI unit of head is meter.

Y

H (1.1)

g

H=Head,

Y= Specific Work

g=gravitational acceleration.

The head of a pump is the specific energy that the pump can transfer to the flow

medium (liquid) under specified condition divided by the gravitational acceleration.

Example 1.1

The rate of energy transfer from a fluid machine to a flow medium is 40kW and the mass

flow rate of the flow medium is 2kg/s. Calculate the specific energy transferred to the

fluid.

Solution

N= 40kW= 40 kJ/s, mass flow rate= 2kg/s

Total energy transfered per second 40 kJ/s

Specific Energy 20 kJ/kg

Massflow per second 2 kg/s

Example 1.2

Determine the head of the fluid machine in Example 1.1.

Solution

Y=20,000 J/kg=20,000 m2/s2

Y 20,000 m 2 /s 2

H 2038.7m

g 9.81 m/s 2

Total Pressure of a Fluid Machine (commonly used for fans and positive displacement

pumps and compressors) is the specific energy that a fluid machine transfers to a flow

medium multiplied by the density of the flow medium.

Pt Y (1.2)

Chapter 1 Introduction 4

Example 1.3

The static pressure, geodetic (potential) and kinetic specific energy transferred by a fan to

a gas are 500 J/kg, 22.5 J/kg and 25 J/kg respectively. Determine the increase in total

pressure of the flow medium. The average density of the flow medium is 1.2 kg/m3.

Solution

Y=Ypr +Ygeo + Yvel

Y=500 + 22.5+ 25 =547.5 J/kg

Pt= Y = 1.2 547.5 = 657 Pa

Remark

Note that the specific energy, head and total pressure are equivalent terms. All of them

are the measure of the energy transferred from a fluid machine to a flow medium.

The useful power is the rate at which useful energy is transferred to the flow medium.

The SI unit of useful power is kW which is (kJ/s). The useful power is calculated using

Equations 1.3 to 1.5.

N m

Y (1.3)

Since mass flow rate is the product of density and volume flow rate.

N QY (1.4)

Using (1.2) in (1.4)

N QPt (1.5)

Pulsation

The capacity of some fluid machines is not uniform, it varies with time. Pulsation is this

non uniformity of the capacity fluid machines.

Priming

Some pumps require that the air in the suction line should be replaced by liquid before

they start pumping. The process of replacing the air in the suction pipe with liquid is

known as priming.

Chapter 1 Introduction 5

Absolute pressure (static) of a fluid on a surface is the normal force exerted by the fluid

per unit area of the surface.

Absolute Pressure = Gauge Pressure + Atmospheric Pressure

Absolute Pressure = Atmospheric Pressure - Vacuum Pressure

Continuity Equation

A1 A2

Rate of mass input = Rate of mass output

1Q1 2 Q2

m (1.6a)

1 A1 c1 2 A2 c2

m (1.6b)

For incompressible fluid

A1c1 A2 c2 (1.7)

Where

m =mass flow rate [kg/s] Q=Volume flow rate [m3/s]

c= velocity of the flow medium A= Flow Area

Loss of Head is loss of the useful head of the flow medium due to fluid friction or the

turbulence that occurs when the fluid passes an obstruction, sudden contraction or sudden

expansion, etc.

Temperature scales

There are two temperature scales in common use. These are the degree Fahrenheit and

degree Celsius.

Chapter 1 Introduction 6

5

0

C ( 0 F 32) (1.8)

9

9

0

F ( 0 C ) 32 (1.9)

5

Absolute Temperatures

Degree Kelvin (K)

K 0C 273.15 (1.10)

Degree Rankine (0R)

0

R 0F 460 (1.11)

Ideal Gas Law

PV nRT (1.12)

Where

P= Absolute Pressure [Pa]

V=Volume of Gas[m3]

n=number of moles of the gas [kmol]

R= universal gas constant =8314.3 J/kmol K

Pumps

Production processes in a process plant usually involve a number of unit operations that

are carried out at different places in the plant. Due to this, it is a common practice to

move process liquids and utilities from one place to another in which different unit

operations are involved in between.

In a wine factory for example, fresh grape is crushed and collected below the crushing

machine and sent to fermentation tanks. Wine is moved from tank to tank to separate the

clear wine from the unwanted settled mass. Fermented wine from the cellar is filtered and

sent to tanks in the filling room. From this temporary storage tank it should be pumped to

the filling machine. This movement of liquid requires energy at each stage. Figure 1.2

shows a schematic diagram that illustrates a typical pumping system for moving liquid

from Tank 1 to Tank 2 with a heat exchanger in between.

Chapter 1 Introduction 7

P2

Hgeo

P1

Detailed discussion of the energy requirement of pumping systems can be found from

fluid mechanics books. Procedures for calculating the energy losses in various unit

operations are available in relevant literatures. In this section a summary of the basic

concept is discussed.

The amount of energy required by a flow medium is the sum of the potential energy,

kinetic energy and pressure energy differences of the liquid between the suction and

discharge points and the energy loss due to friction loss in the pipe line and unit

operations like the heat exchanger in the mentioned example.

P2 P1 c2 c1

2 2

Y eg F (1.13)

2

Y= The specific energy that should be transferred from the fluid machine

to the flow medium.

P2 - P1= The static pressure difference between the suction and discharge

end of the pumping system

c1, c2 = The average flow velocities at point 1 and 2 respectively.

e = the elevation difference between 1 and 2.

F = Energy loss due to fluid friction

= Density of the flow medium at the flow condition

Chapter 1 Introduction 8

The energy loss due to fluid friction in simple pipes is the sum of the friction losses in the

straight pipe and minor losses in pipe fittings like elbows, valves and losses due to

sudden contraction and sudden expansion. Equations 1.14 and 1.15 give the formulas for

the straight pipe friction loss and the minor losses respectively.

L c2

Fst , pipe f (1.14)

D 2

c2

Fst , pipe k i (1.15)

2

It is not only the energy that is a requirement of the pump. In most processes it is required

to transport a defined amount of liquid per unit time. Hence, the capacity, i.e., the volume

the pump delivers per unit time is the other important performance characteristic of the

pump. The rate of energy transfer is known as power and the power that should be

transferred from the fluid machine to a flow medium is the product of the mass flow rate

and the specific energy.

There are various types of pumps. Their difference is mainly due to the fact that different

liquid properties and different performance requirements result in different types of

design. For example, screw pumps are more effective in pumping viscous liquids than

centrifugal pumps. Similarly, temperature, vapor and gas content and solid content are

important fluid properties in this respect. On the other hand, the capacity and head,

uniformity of delivery, price, operating cost, maintenance cost, space requirement, and

weight are some of the important process requirements that may lead to different choices

of pumps.

Example 1.4

Water at 200C should be pumped from Tank 1 to Tank 2 (Figure 1.3) at the rate of

120m3/hr. All pipes in the system are 6-in. schedule 40 commercial steel pipes. The total

length of the straight pipe is 45m. Determine the specific mechanical energy, head and

power that should be transferred to the flow medium to move the water.

Chapter 1 Introduction 9

Patm

15m

Patm

Figure 1.3 A pumping system for Example 1.1

Solution

Flow medium: water at 200C

Q=120m3/hr =0.0333 m3/s

=998.2 kg/m3

=1.005 10-3 Pa s (viscosity)

D=0.1541m ( Internal Diameter of 6-in Schedule 40 pipe)

Q 0.0333

c 1.79 m/s

D / 4 (0.15412 ) / 4

2

cD 998.2(1.79)(0.1541)

Re 2.74 10 5

1.005 10 3

a) The specific energy requirement of the pumping system

1) Friction loss in the pumping system

i) Contraction loss at the tank exit of Tank 1

Ap

k c 0.421 0.42(1 0) 0.42

At

The specific energy loss due to contraction loss at the exit of Tank 1

c2 1.79 2

F1 kc 0.42 0.67 J / kg

2 2

ii) Friction loss in the straight pipe

The relative friction of commercial steel pipe

4.6 10 5

0.00029

D 0.1541

Chapter 1 Introduction 10

The friction coefficient from Moody chart with /D=0.00029 and

Re=2.74105 , f=0.0171

L c2 45 1.79 2

F2 f 0.0171 8.0 J/kg

D 2 0.1541 2

iii) Friction loss in the two elbows

c2 1.79 2

F3 2 K 2(0.64) 2.05 J/kg

2 2

iv) Expansion loss at the entrance of Tank 2

2

Ap

k Ex 1 (1 0) 1

2

At

c2 1.79 2

F4 k Ex 1 1.60 J/kg

2 2

The total energy loss due to friction

F F1 F2 F3 F4 0.67 8.0 2.05 1.60 12.32 J/kg

2) The static pressure difference P2-P1=0 since both are at the same pressure

3) The geodetic energy difference

Ygeo eg 15(9.81) 147.15 J/kg

c2 c1 0 0

2 2

Yvel 0

2 2

Therefore the total specific energy requirement of the pump is

Y 12.35 147.15 159.5 J/kg

Y 159.5

H 16.26 m

g 9.81

c) N QY 998.2(0.0333)(159.5) 5301.8W 5.3 kW

Chapter 1 Introduction 11

Fans

There are various industrial processes that involve movement of air and other gasses

without significant increase in the static pressure. Ventilation and air conditioning,

feeding of reactors, removal of exhaust gases, feeding of drying air are some of these.

The movement of gasses may be through pipes, tunnels and equipment or may be just in a

room for moving air without piping as in a simple ventilation. To achieve such movement

of gasses energy should be added to the gas in the form of mechanical energy to cover for

the net increases in energy due to difference in potential energy, kinetic energy, pressure

energy and energy loss in the form of fluid friction. The machines used to transfer

mechanical energy to gases at low discharge pressure are known as fans. The calculation

of total pressure (specific energy requirement) and power requirement of systems for

moving gasses with fans is similar to pumps.

Example 1.5

A fan is used to deliver 200m3/hr (measured at the inlet) of methane. The specific energy

requirement of the system is calculated to be 5.4 kJ/kg. The inlet temperature and

pressure are 120C and 100 kPa respectively. Determine the total pressure and the useful

power that should be transferred to the flow medium.

Solution

Flow Medium: Methane

M=16kg/kmol

Q=1300m3/min

Y=5.4 kJ/kg

T1=120C=285.15K

P1=100 kPa

P1 M (100 10 3 )16

0.675 kg/m 3

RT1 (8314.3)(285.15)

The total pressure, from (1.2)

Chapter 1 Introduction 12

Pt Y 0.675(5.4) 3.645Pa

The useful power transferred to the flow medium is

1300

N QPt (3645) 78975W 79.0 kW

60

The types of fans in common industrial use are not as many as pumps. However, there are

still numerous various types of fans. The property of the gas (temperature, pressure, dust

content, etc) and performance requirements (capacity, total pressure, noise level, total

pressure-capacity relation, space requirement, simplicity for cleaning,) are some of the

factors that determine the type of fan to be used.

Compressed air is one of the most common utility in process industries. Among other

purposes it is used for most automatic control systems and for cleaning, pneumatic

conveying. In liquefaction of gasses and process that depend on them (like separation)

compression is a very important step. Various gas phase reactions that take place at high

pressures are also core in some chemical production, like ammonia production.

Compression process requires large amount of energy. The machines used to transfer

mechanical energy in compression process to gasses are known as compressors.

There are two types of ideal compressions: adiabatic compression and isothermal

compression. Adiabatic compression is carried out with no heat transfer between the gas

and the surrounding. The adiabatic compression specific energy for compressing a gas

from a suction temperature T1 and pressure P1 is given by Equation 1.16.

RT1 k P2

( k 1) / k

Yad 1 (1.16)

M k 1 P1

Yad= The adiabatic compression specific energy requirement

R= Universal gas constant = 8314.3 J/kg K

T1= The suction temperature

M= Molecular weight of the gas to be compressed

P2= Final pressure

Chapter 1 Introduction 13

P1=Initial pressure

P1/P2= compression ratio

k=ratio of specific heats k=Cp/Cv

The power requirement in adiabatic compression is given by :

N ad m

Yad (1.17)

Isothermal compression is carried out under constant temperature. The specific energy

requirement for compressing gas under isothermal compression is given by

Equation 1.18. For the same compression ratio and flow medium isothermal compression

requires less compression energy than adiabatic compression.

RT 1 P2

Yiso ln (1.18)

M P1

The power requirement for isothermal compression of a gas is given by Equation 1.19

Niso m

Yiso (1.19)

Example 1.6

It is required to compress 0.02 k mol/s of air from 1 atm and 250C to 6 atm. Calculate the

specific energy requirement and the compression power (i) for adiabatic compression

(ii) for isothermal compression.

Solution

Flow medium: Air

T1=250C =298.15K

P1=1 atm

P2=6 atm

M=28.9 kg/kmol

Molar flow rate =0.02 kmol/s

i) Adiabatic compression

( k 1) / k

Yad 1 1

M k 1 P1 28.9 1.44 1 1

= 204615 J / kg

Chapter 1 Introduction 14

M molar flow rate 28.9(0.02) 0.578 kg/s

m

The power requirement for adiabatic compression

Nad m

Yad 0.578(204615) 118267.5 W 118.3 kW

RT1 P2 8314.3(298.15) 6

Yiso ln ln 153689 J/kg

M P1 28.9 1

Niso m

Yiso 0.578(153689) 88832W 88.83 kW

Remark

Note that adiabatic compression for the condition in Example 1.6 consumes around 33%

more power than the isothermal compression. In general adiabatic compression consumes

more energy than isothermal compression and the difference in the energy increases as

the compression ratio increases. On the other hand to bring a compression process close

to isothermal condition we need an effective cooling system.

Based on the property of the gas to be compressed, performance and safety requirements

there are various types of compressors that are effective. The most important gas

properties are composition, temperature, molecular weight, specific heat ratio. Flow rate,

compression ration (Discharge Pressure/ Suction Pressure), discharge temperature are

some of the most important performance requirements. Compression processes involve

increase in temperature and if the compression ratio is very high the increase in

temperature becomes unsafe hence the design of compressors in such cases must ensure

that the safety limit is not exceeded.

Chapter 1 Introduction 15

REVIEW EXCRESICES

1. What is the main purpose of fluid machines?

2. What is the role of the chemical engineer in tasks related to fluid machines?

3. What is the difference between the mechanical energy and the total energy

transferred to a flow medium?

temperature in K,0F and 0R.

of the designed flow system is calculated to be 100mm of water (density

1000kg/m3). The volume flow rate required is 28,000m3/min measured at

inlet. The inlet temperature and pressure are 200C and 1.01bar respectively.

Determine the useful power that the fan has to deliver to the air.

from an open storage tank of large cross-sectional area trough a 8-in schedule

40 pipe. The end of the discharge line is 6-in schedule 40 pipe to an open

overhead tank. The end of the discharge line is 16m above the level of the

liquid. The friction losses in the piping system are 6.4 m. calculate the useful

head and power that should be transferred to the liquid by the pump.

air to 4 atm. The inlet temperature and pressure are 150C and 1atm

respectively. Calculate the useful specific energy and power that should be

transferred to the gas assuming (i) adiabatic compression (ii) isothermal

compression.

Chapter 1 Introduction 16

REFERENCES

[1.1] Geankoplis, C.J., TRANSPORT PROCESESSES AND UNIT

OPERATIONS, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall International,Inc,1993.

[1.2] White, F.M., Fluid Mechanics, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill International

Edition, 1986.

[1.3] Rao, N. S. G., Fluid Flow Machines, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing, 1983.

[1.4] Perry, H.R., Green,D., Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook , 6th

editions,1984, McGraw-Hill.

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