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J. Min. Metall. Sect. B-Metall. 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209 Mining and

Metallurgy

of 0.028% nb steel

**Mechanical Engineering Department, Universitas HKBP Nommensen, Medan, Indonesia

Abstract

Modeling of microstructural evolution has become a powerful tool for materials and process

design by providing quantitative relationships for microstructure, composition and processing.

Insufficient attention has been paid to predicting the austenite grain growth of microalloyed steel and

the effect of undissolved microalloys. In this research, we attempted to calculate a mathematical

model for austenite grain growth of 0.028% Nb steel, which can account for abnormal grain growth.

The quantitative calculation of austenite grain growth generated from this model fit well with the

experimental grain growth data obtained during reheating of niobium steels. The results of this study

showed that increasing the temperature increases the austenite grain size, with a sharp gradient

observed at higher temperatures.

material will evolve towards a single crystal.

It is well established that grain growth is In reality, this goal is rarely attained due to

the evolution of a microstructure due to the the unavoidable defects and impurities in

motion of grain boundaries driven by the materials, even for high purity zone refined

reduction in grain boundary interfacial metals.

energy [1]. Given a sufficiently high The grain growth is characteristic of the

temperature and no factors impeding grain growth of larger grain at the expense of

# Corresponding author: dedi@metal.ui.ac.id

DOI:10.2298/JMMB100901001P

200 D. Priadi / JMM 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209

average grain size [1]. Grain growth control

in microalloyed steels during hot working Commercial Nb-microalloyed steel was

processing, critically depends on second used for this study; detailed composition of

phase particles [2, 3]. The appropriate the steel is provided in Table 1. Rectangular

employment of microalloying elements in samples in 30 mm width and 60 mm length

high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, (parallel to the rolling direction) were

coupled with hot working, can provide machined from hot-rolled coil (HRC)

improvements in both strength and material. A hole of 2 mm in diameter was

toughness [4, 5, 6]. This is achieved by drilled in the center of a longitudinal-

suitable manipulation of the recrystallization transverse (L-T) section of the sample for a

and precipitation phenomena that take both thermocouple insertion.

place during deformation. Heat treatment of the sample fitted with

Austenite grain growth in microalloyed the thermocouple was performed by heating

steels is influenced by numerous factors, at a constant rate of 0.3Cs-1 to temperatures

including austenizing time and temperature, of 900, 1000 and 1100 C, followed by

alloy composition, hot working history, initial holding for 10 minutes to permit full

grain size distribution, and rate of heating to austenitization of the material. Then the

the austenitizing temperature [6-8]. By specimens were quenched in water to view

suppressing austenite recrystallization, these the austenite boundary. Light microscopy of

elements act as ferrite grain refiners, thus steel plates was conducted in an Olympus

increasing the yield strength and decreasing metallurgical, microscope on 4%

the impact transition temperature [6]. picraletched specimens.

Manohar et al. [9], predicted the austenite

grain growth for microalloyed steels, 3. empirical Model

especially for Ti steel. They assumed that

fine TiN precipitates control the austenite Empirical equations are widely used to

grain growth behavior at all temperatures. describe grain growth behavior during

The influence of possible mixed precipitates isothermal heating. The power law

such as Nb(C, N) was not accounted for in relationship was first specified by Beck et al.

their mathematical model. Referring to their (1948) for normal grain growth during

empirical predictions, the aim of this study is isothermal conditions [10]:

to observe and recalculate the austenite grain dn don = k t ...(1)

size and the influencing behavior of Nb(C,

N) precipitates during reheating of Nb where n is the grain growth exponent, k is

microalloyed steels. the reaction rate constant, and dn and don are

grain sizes at time t and t=0, respectively. It

Table 1. Steel Composition (Weight Percent)

C Si Mn P S Al Nb Cu N Fe

0.085 0.222 1.45 <0.003 <0.003 0.049 0.028 0.045 <0.003 98.14

D. Priadi / JMM 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209 201

has been found by Sellars and Whiteman in diffusion constant at grain boundary for iron

1978 that the k value can be expressed by an (cm2s-1), Dgbo is the diffusion coefficient (=

Arrhenius type equation [11]. They 2.0 cm2s-1) [9], Q is activation energy for

previously published grain growth data on diffusion (= 171544 Jmol-1) [9], R is the

low carbon-manganese steel. They arrived at universal gas constant (= 8.31 Jmol-1K-1), T

the following general expression for is the absolute temperature (K) and is

evaluating the constant k in Eq. (1) as : thickness on grain boundary (= lattice

dn don =[A exp(-Qgg/RT)] t ...(2) parameter of austenite = 3.59 10-10 mm) [9].

Empirical models were compared to

where n and A are constants which depend observe relationships with each other.

on material composition and processing Assuming a hypothetical typical value for

conditions, Qgg is the activation energy for dRX of 80 m and solving all above models

grain growth, R is the universal gas constant by substituting T = 860, 960 and 1060 oC, for

and T is the temperature in Kelvin [10]. holding time t = 10 s and 1000 s, the results

Empirical equations for grain growth of C- obtained are shown in Figs. 1 and 2.

Mn steels are included in Table 2. It can be observed from Figs.1 and 2,

Yoshie and Nishizawa [9] presented and using empirical models for predicted grain

proposed another empirical model to predict growth of austenite in C-Mn steels giving

grain growth of austenite in cast C-Mn steel. different results. In general, if increase the

Their model represented the k constant as : holding time will take effect to don<<dn in C-

k = V Dgb/ R T ...(3) Mn steels, then the Eq. (1) can be simplified

to:

and, Dgb = Dgboexp(-QD/RT) dn = k t ...(4)

where is grain boundary energy so the values of n and k can be obtained

(= 80010-7 Jcm-2) [9], V is the molar volume by regression of experimentally measured

of austenite (= 6.97 cm3mol-1) [9], Dgb is the grain sizes and holding time [1].

Austenite Qgg

source steel N K

Conditions

3.87 1032 for 400000 for

Statically

Sellars et al., (1979) C Mn 10 T>1000oC T>1000oC 914000

recrystallized

10 for T<1000oC

53 for T<1000oC

Statically

Namba et al., (1979) Low C-Mn 2 4.27 1012 66600

recrystallized

Statically or

Hodgson and Gibbs C-Mn and

Metadynamically 7 1.45 1027 400000

(1992) C-Mn-V

recrystallized

Hodgson and Gibbs Statically or

(1992) Beynon and C-Mn-Nb Metadynamically 4.5 4.1 1023 435000

Sellars (1992) recrystallized

202 D. Priadi / JMM 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209

The empirical model of C-Mn-Nb steel neglecting of initial grain size don would give

either underestimates or overestimates grain rise to a large deviation on predicted values

sizes due to its inability to account for from the model. It is obvious that the grain

undissolved microalloyed effects on growth exponent n is dependent on the

austenite grain growth (Fig. 1 and 2). temperature and materials. As a

Actually, in microalloyed steels, e.g., Nb consequence, when Becks formula is

microalloyed steel, the austenite grain employed under continuous heating

growth kinetics are expected to be slower conditions, the n value should correlate with

than in plain C-Mn composition due to solute temperature [1]. So, developing an empirical

drag [12]. The final grain size after a certain model, to predict the undissolved

heat treatment does not satisfy the microalloyed effect on austenite grain

requirement in Eq. (1), and therefore, growth in Nb microalloyed steels is needed.

D. Priadi / JMM 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209 203

matrix grains (rmax/rmean), thus representing

4.1. Background the heterogeneity of grain size distribution in

the sample. Gladman found that Z values

In the presence of second phase particles between 1.41 and 2 correlated closely with

(such as in Nb microalloyed steels), a the experimental results. Thus, the value of

fundamental approach in identifying a the constant kz could be between 0.05 and

theoretical solution for the grain growth 0.26. So the value of kz = 0.17 (Fig.3) close

behavior, centers on finding a hypothetical to the Gladman value of kz, then

grain radius Rcr, such that any grain with Rcr = 0.17 r/fv = d/2 ...(7)

radius equal to Rcr will neither grow nor

shrink [9]. Any grain with a radius equal to where d is the critical grain diameter.

Rcr is considered to be thermodynamically Solving Eq. (7) thus facilitates the

stable because the driving force for grain calculations of stable austenite grain size

growth of such a grain exactly balances the under any combination of volume fraction

pinning force exerted by particles on the and particle radius of precipitates. The

moving grain boundary. dissolution and coarsening of Nb microalloy

Zener proposed that the driving pressure precipitates therefore play a pivotal role in

for grain growth due to the curvature of the deciding the stable austenite grain size. The

grain boundary would be counteracted by a methodology used to estimate these two

pinning (drag) pressure exerted by the parameters is described in the following

particles on the boundary. Zener [10] first sections.

assigned a quantitative value for a critical

maximum grain radius Rcr as:

Rcr = kz r/fv ...(5)

where kz is a constant, r is the mean

particle radius, fv is the volume fraction of

particles. In the original Zener model, kz was

set to 4/3.

Experimental data for the ratio of limiting

grain radius to particle radius (Rcr/r) as a

function of volume fraction of particles (fv)

shows that the value of solubility of

(Ti,Nb)CN in austenite phase is lies directly

on the line for kz = 0.17 [9] (Fig. 3).

Gladman [13] analysed the effect of grain

sized distribution on the driving pressure

Fig.3. Experimental data of ratio of limiting

(and therefore Rcr) and found that :

grain radius to particle radius (Rcr/r), as a

Rcr = [(0.25 0.33/Z)] r/fv ...(6) function of volume fraction of particles (fv) [13].

204 D. Priadi / JMM 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209

4.2. Calculating nb(C,n) solubility form (Xp), can now be calculated as =Total

Nb-Xs, where Xs is the percent of niobium in

Choice of the equation describing the solution of austenite for differing values

solubility of Nb(C,N) in austenite is very of T. Total niobium in this case is 0.028%.

important because partitioning of niobium in Results of these calculations are presented in

precipitates and in austenite matrix plays a Table 3.

crucial role in deciding grain growth of

microalloyed austenite. In the current work, 4.3. Calculating Volume fraction of

we have used the Nb(C,N) solubility product Precipitates

equation [10] :

log[Nb][C]0.83[N]0.14 = 4.46 9800/T Volume V of a given mass m of a

material can be given as [9]:

[Nb][C]0.83[N]0.14 =

log1(4.46 9800/T) ...(8) V = m Na Vu / (Nu Ar) ...(11)

[N]0.14 results in: volume of one unit cell of the material, Nu is

the number of atoms per unit cell of the

[Nb]2=[log1(4.46 material, and Ar is the atomic weight of the

9800/T)]{[Nb]/[C]0.83[N]0.14} ...(9) material. Nb(C,N) phase is regarded as a

It is assumed that the formation and complete ideal solid solution of NbC and

dissolution of Nb(C,N) precipitates proceed NbN because the interaction between C and

such that stoichiometric relationships of N in Nb(C,N) can be ignored [14].

Nb:C[=7.74] and Nb:N[=6.63] [10] are Therefore, the volume and the mass of

maintained whenever the overall Nb(C,N) Nb(C,N) can be written as:

ratio in the given composition of steel is VNb(C,N) = VNbC + VNbN

close to the stoichiometric ratio of

0.14[Nb]/[Nb]0.97. Therefore, substituting = 0.128mNbC + 0.119mNbN [15] ...(12)

[Nb]/[C]0.83[N]0.14=0.14[Nb]/[Nb]0.97 in

where

Eq. (9) gives:

mNbC= mNb + mC = mNb + (mNb/7.74) =

[Nb]1.97=[log1(4.46 9800/T)]0.14 ...(10) 1.129mNb

Using this equation, the amount of mNbN = mNb + mN = mNb + (mN/6.63) =

niobium out of solution, i.e., in precipitate 1.151mNb

interest

Temperature [Nb]=Xs=Predicted % Nb Xp = Predicted % Nb

(oC) in solution in austenite in ppt form = 0.028-Xs

860 0.00102 0.02698

960 0.00435 0.02365

1060 0.01489 0.01311

D. Priadi / JMM 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209 205

VFe = 0.125mFe [9] ...(13) According to the Wagners diffusion-

controlled model [16], particle size under

where mFe = 1 mNb(C,N) and Ostwald ripening conditions can be

mNb(C,N) = Xp/100. described by:

Volume fraction of precipitates can now r3 ro3 = k t ...(15)

be calculated from: Wagner, Lifshitz and Slyozov analyzed

fv=VNb(C,N)/(VNb(C,N) + VFe) ...(14) the particle coarsening more rigorously,

maintaining that the growth process begins

For different values of T we can thus

when the grains (of second phase) have

calculate the corresponding volume fraction

reached appreciable size and the degree of

of precipitates (Fig. 4).

supersaturation of the matrix has become

very slight [9]. In this situation, coalescence

4.4. Calculating Particle Coarsening

starts (i.e., growth of larger grains by

incorporation of smaller ones begins). This

The Nb(C,N) particle in Nb-HSLA steels

theory predicts particle grain growth through

plays an important role in retarding the

the equation given below:

recrystallization process. After the formation

of the new phase, the high density of small r3 ro3 = [8 V D t Xs]

precipitation tends to coarsen into a lower / [9 R T] ...(16)

density of larger particles with a smaller total where r is the average final particle radius

interfacial area. The diffusional growth and (cm) at time t, r is the average initial particle

o

diminution of precipitated particles in a solid radius (cm) at time t , is interfacial energy

o

matrix is generally known as Ostwald (= grain boundary energy = 310-7 Jcm-3)

ripening [16]. [14], V is the molar volume of Nb(C,N)

For evaluation purposes, we assessed (=6.72 cm3mol-1) [14], D is the diffusivity of

particle coarsening in terms of the mean cube solute (Nb) in matrix (austenite) (D= cm2s-

206 D. Priadi / JMM 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209

1), t is the time for particle coarsening (s), Xs Eq. (16), we can estimate particle coarsening

is the concentration of the saturated solution at different temperatures (Fig. 6).

(Table. 3), R is the universal gas constant (=

8.31 Jmol-1K-1) and T is the absolute 4.5. Calculation of Austenite Grain size

temperature (K).

Diffusivity of Nb in austenite [14] is The micrographs of the samples after

given by: continuous heating at different temperatures

held for t = 600 s are shown in Fig. 7. The

DNb = 5.6 exp(-286000/RT) cm2s-1 (17)

measured mean linear intercept and the

Niobium diffusivities are given in Fig. 5, calculated real grain size, combined with the

for selected temperatures. substitution of predicted fv values (Fig. 4)

By considering initial mean particle and predicted r values (Fig. 6) in Eq. (7), are

radius, ro = 1.3 10-7 cm [14], t = 600 s, and predictive of stable austenite grain size (Figs.

substituting appropriate numerical values in 8 and 9).

D. Priadi / JMM 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209 207

at various temperatures held for 600 s, a). 860oC, b). 960oC, c). 1060oC.

in 0.028% Nb microalloyed steel.

Fig. 9. Smallest and largest mean grain sizes and predicted grain growth

for 0.028% Nb microalloyed steel at t = 600 s.

208 D. Priadi / JMM 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209

second phase particles.

The evolution of the microstructure At temperatures above 1030 oC, the

during the thermal history was observed by largest grain size increased sharply to

quenching the specimens at specified exceed the predicted grain size. At this

temperatures (Fig. 7). After quenching a stage, we observed mixed grain sizes, with

specimen at 860 oC, the microstructure most grain remaining small, and a small

showed only martensite, with fully number of grains developing into unusually

undissolved precipitates at the austenite large sizes compared with their neighbors.

grain boundary. Fine and uniform A significant ratio difference between the

distributed austenite grain size was largest and smallest observed grain size is

observed due to the presence of precipitates indicated; the ratio of the mean size of the

as the second phase particles. Increasing largest grain is 1.74 times the mean size of

the reheating temperature reduced the the smallest grain (Fig. 8). This behavior is

undissolved precipitates. When the typical of abnormal grain growth as

specimen was quenched at 1060oC, the described by Zener and Gladman [9] and is

microstructure was entirely martensite, due to progressive particle dissolution and

denoting a fully austenitic structure prior to particle coarsening.

quenching, because the reheating

temperature exceeded the solubility 6. Conclusions

temperature equation of Nb(C,N) [Eq. (8)].

Two distinct stages in grain growth 1. Grain growth of 0.028% Nb steels is

behavior of 0.028% Nb steels were influenced by heating temperature, where

observed (Figs. 8 and 9). At lower grain sizes increase with increasing

temperatures (<1030 oC), small and reheated temperature.

uniform grain size was observed which 2. A plot of the size of the largest and

very closely approached the predicted grain smallest grain versus temperature provides

sizes. Low temperatures indicated a an effective and sensitive method for

marginal increase in mean grain size and an detecting the onset and termination of

insignificant differentiation between the abnormal grain growth in 0.028% Nb

smallest and the largest grain sizes. steels.

According to Hillerts size distribution 3. Abnormal grain growth increases

theory [9], a grain radius greater than 1.8 rapidly at the temperature above 1030oC.

times the mean grain radius is unstable and 4. Grain growth behavior and the effect

predictive of abnormally growth. This of Nb microalloy precipitates can be

means that abnormal grain growth due to successfully explained by developing the

the size different effect is either calculated model in this work.

insignificant in niobium steels at lower 5. Grain growth predictions for Nb

temperature. Grain growth in this steels fit well with the experimental grain

temperature region, therefore, can be growth data for these steels.

D. Priadi / JMM 47 (2) B (2011) 199 - 209 209

[14] S. Akamatsu, T. Senuma, M. Hasebe, ISIJ

The authors are grateful for the Grant Int., 32 (1992) 275.

from the Directorate on Research and [15] M. Gomez, S.F. Medina, P. Valles, ISIJ Int.,

Community Service, Universitas Indonesia. 45 (2005) 1711.

[16] E.S. Siradj, Journal of Technology, 4 (1998)

references 348.

[17] J.G. Lenard, M. Pietrzyk, L. Cser,

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Mathematical and Physical Simulation of the

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Properties of Hot Rolled Products, 1st ed., UK:

[2] F. Fang, Y. Qi-long, Y. Cai-fu, S. Hang, Elsevier Science Ltd. , Oxford, Kidlington, 1999,

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17(2) (2010) 36.

[3] K.A. Alogab, D.K. Matlock, J.G. Speer, H.J.

Kleebe, ISIJ Int., 47 (2007) 1034.

[4] N. Tao, et. all., Journal of Iron and Steel

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[10] T. Liu, Modeling Microstructural Evolution

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