You are on page 1of 41

CAPWAP

Softwareforthe
DynamicPileLoadTestingEngineer
Static Load

Static Displacement
2014,PileDynamics,Inc.
FrankRausche 1 CAPWAP General Webinar

First Application:
1969 at Case Institute of
Technology, Cleveland,
OH

Further Developed,
Perfected and Maintained
by Pile Dynamics, Inc.

Latest Version:
CAPWAP 2014

2 CAPWAP General Webinar


CAPWAP
Outline
What are deep foundations
Why is CAPWAP needed
How do we solve it
CAPWAP theory
Correlation
Summary
CAPWAP 2014 demo

3 CAPWAP General Webinar

PurposeofDeepFoundations
Piles are long, slender
elements which have to
transfer loads from a structure
to competent soils at depth.
Piles are either driven, bored
or augered (CFA).
The piles or shafts have to be
able to support both axial and
lateral loads
Piles have to support loads
even during and after extreme
events; scour is such an
event.
Wehr, J., and Aschenbrenner, G., 2009.
Erfahrungen beim Bau von Windenergieanlagen,

5 CAPWAP General Webinar


PileMaterials:Concrete,Steel,

6 CAPWAP General Webinar

Timber and Even Plastic

7 CAPWAP General Webinar


PileTypes:SteelHpilesandpipepiles
Pipe steel strength, thickness and
even modulus are variable

Challenge? Plug effects

H-pile strength typically 350


Mpa (50 ksi)

Challenges? Splices, Plug


effects

8 CAPWAP General Webinar

Square, Round, Cylindrical Concrete Piles


Concrete properties highly variable

Challenges? Plug effects in cylinder


piles; cracking and thus lower wave
speed when in tension.

9 CAPWAP General Webinar


Bored and Augered Piles
Concrete properties are variable from
site to site and pile to pile.

Challenges? Wave speed variability,


and variable cross sectional
properties.

10 CAPWAP General Webinar

Projects
Bridges, Buildings, Waste Water Treatment Plants,
Wind Turbines

11 CAPWAP General Webinar


Projects
Harbor structures, Locks and Sluices,

12 CAPWAP General Webinar

Testing:Before1970
Blow Count+Energy Formula and/or Static Testing

Expensive
Time Consuming
Dangerous

15 CAPWAP General Webinar


StaticLoadTestResult:
LoadDisplacementCurve CommonFailureCriteria

Pile Top Displacement


Yield Load

Offset
Max Load Load

10% dia. (Extrapolated?)

Load on Top of Pile

16 CAPWAP General Webinar

Since 1970
Because Energy Formulas are Unreliable, Routine Dynamic
Measurements and Analyses have Become the Basis for
Dynamic Load Testing

Transducers
o Strain/Force
o Acceleration
Signal conditioning
Recording

17 CAPWAP General Webinar


Since 1972
Routine Dynamic Measurements and Analyses
Became Possible with the Pile Driving Analyzer

Transducers
o Strain
o Acceleration
Signal
conditioning
Processing
Recording

18 CAPWAP General Webinar

TestRequirements
Static load tests require Dynamic testing requires an
a dead load of 100% of impact mass that has the
the test load weight of 1 to 2% of the test
load.

19 CAPWAP General Webinar


WhyAnalysis?
BUT:
Wemeasureadynamic forceand weneedastatic load
dynamic velocity/displacement, displacementcurve
Force, Velocity

StaticLoadLoad
(kN)
0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0 4000.0
0.00

Static Displacement
5.00

10.00

Time 15.00

20.00

20 CAPWAP General Webinar

DevelopmentoftheCAPWAP
SignalMatchingAnalysis

1980s: down to 2
s/trial

1970s:
3 to 170 s/trial
analysis

Typically we do
hundreds of 2014: 0.01s/trial?
trial analyses!

21 CAPWAP General Webinar


The CAPWAP Pile Model
based on E-modulus, mass density, and wave speed c = E/

The pile is divided in Np uniform pile segments


of approximately L= 1 m length. The stress
wave travels through the segment in a time
t = L/c (e.g,. with c 5000 m/s, t 0.2 ms)
Each Segment has an
L Impedance Z = E A /c , a
mass m = Z t and a
stiffness k = Z / t

R The program tracks the effects of segment


non-uniformities and soil resistance forces and
computes the forces in the stress waves
traveling up and down the pile.
22 CAPWAP General Webinar

TheCAPWAPSoilModel
The soil is The soil resistance
modelled acting in the pile-soil
according to interface over a length
Smith: Lp Ls is represented by a
LS resistance force
Elasto-plastic
static
(displacement For each soil segment of
dependent) Length Ls:
Spring (static resistance),
resistance plus Parameters Ru , q
viscous Ru Ult. Resistance
dynamic q quake
(velocity Ru/q soil stiffness
dependent) Dashpot (dynamic resistance)
Parameter J
resistance

23 CAPWAP General Webinar


CAPWAP
Soil Model
Parameters
Rui, qi Ji
Shaft soil mass
ms

JSK
Toe gap
Toe Rigid Shaft Soil Support
Plug
Rt, qt Jt mass
Unloading parameters
mt Radiation damping
Mass/Inertia resistance
JBT Residual stress analysis
24 CAPWAP General Webinar
Rigid Toe Support

CAPWAP
automaticallyorinteractivelyfindsthatsetofsoil
parameterswhichbestmatchesthedynamic
measurementsofpiletopforceandvelocity

Measured Pile Top


Force
Measured Pile Shaft Resistance: Rshaft,
Top Velocity End Bearing: Rtoe
Mobilized Capacity: Ru = Rshaft+Rtoe
Soil Damping: Jshaft, Jtoe
Soil Stiffness: Rshaft/qshaft
Rtoe/qtoe
25 CAPWAP General Webinar
HowtoCAPWAPefficiently?
Becausetheimpactcausestravelingstresswaves:
UseWaveMechanics!

Shaft
Resistance
Force
Time of Impact
Time of Wave Travel Time of Wave
Velocity*Z
Return

26 CAPWAP General Webinar

For ease of calculation we use the force


in the upward traveling wave
Wave-up Represents the Essence of the Soil Resistance Effects

Shaft
Resistance, Force
Rs

Velocity*Z

Force in Upward Wave

Shaft
Resistance
Force in Downward wave

27 CAPWAP General Webinar


Signal Matching Example
A record from the Pile Driving Analyzer

Indication of total
resistance, Rtoe+Rsh

Rsh

Max displacement
19 mm
Suggests large quake!

Final set 1.25 mm

Rsh

30 CAPWAP General Webinar

First Trial Analysis (Lousy Match)


Input vm
Matching Fm
or

Input Fm
Matching vm
or
Input Fdown
=(Fm+vmZ)
Matching Fup
=(Fm-vmZ)
31 CAPWAP General Webinar
Wave-Up Matching
RU = 782 k
Rtoe = 68 k
Match Quality:
MQ = 21.03

RU = 782 k Note: MQ is a summation of differences between


Rtoe = 400 k computed and measured curves; it is an objective
MQ = 10.54 measure of match quality

RU = 782 k
Rtoe = 600 k
MQ = 5.74

RU = 782 k
Rtoe = 705 k
MQ = 3.94

32 CAPWAP General Webinar

Wave-Up Matching
RU/Rtoe = 782/705 k
JS/Jt = .45/.02 s/ft
MQ=3.94

RU/Rtoe = 782/705 k
JS/Jt = .30/.05 s/ft
MQ=3.74

R8 Prev.
RU/Rtoe = 782/702 k
increased
JS/Jt = .29/.05 s/ft
MQ=3.21

33 CAPWAP General Webinar


Wave-Up Matching
RU/Rtoe = 782/702 k
JS/JT = .29/.05 s/ft
MQ=3.21

RU/Rtoe = 765/686 k Reduced end bearing,


JS/JT = .28/.06 s/ft increased toe damping
qS/qT = .10/.12
MQ=3.02

RU/Rtoe = 765/686 k
JS/JT = .26/.07 s/ft
qS/qT = .06/.12
Unloading Parameters
MQ=2.81
Pretty good match; after thorough checking we quit
34 CAPWAP General Webinar

Matchingprocedure
(automaticfeatures)
1. Resistance distribution and total Ru (AF)
2. Damping parameter adjustments (AQ); go to 1.
3. Quake and unloading parameters (AQ); go to 1.
4. Total Ru vs. Damping (ARD); go to 1.
5. Vary Toe/Shaft resistance (AT); go to 1.
6. For piles with uncertain x-section properties adjust
Pile Impedance (use Automatic Impedance
Calculation, a 2014 feature); go to 1.

35 CAPWAP General Webinar


Matchinggoals
1. Make difference between computed and
measured curve as small as possible (makes MQ
smaller)
2. Achieve a reasonable agreement between
observed and calculated blow count
3. Achieve the best match with reasonable
parameters

36 CAPWAP General Webinar

Bytheway:
IfMQ>8orMQ8andNo.ofAnalyses100

If5<MQ8

37 CAPWAP General Webinar


Q
StaticAnalysis
(tz/qzanalysis) u1
CAPWAPsStaticPileand
SoilModel

top load, Q kp, i


top/toe displacement

toe resistance, Rtoe


Ru,i/qi
Ru,i
u1, utoe

utoe
Rtoe/qtoe
Rtoe
38 CAPWAP General Webinar

CAPWAPStatic
AnalysisOptions

Smoothing
User Capacity
Uplift Test
Extrapolation
Failure Criteria
2014 updated
o offset
o AASHTO offset
o fixed

39 CAPWAP General Webinar


StandardOutput(2014Version)

40 CAPWAP General Webinar

ComprehensiveCAPWAPReport
(2014Version) EX1; BENT 17-2; Pile: EX-1
D36-23; silt; 16"PSC; Blow: 1171
Beta Version - Pile Dynamics
5000 1200
Test: 04-Sep-1991 16:15:
CAPWAP(R) 2013
OP: xxx yyyy

kN F Msd kN Wup Msd


V*Z Msd Wup Cpt

2500 600

5 105 ms

BlowCountisfrom
0 0
15 L/c

-2500 -600

DirectInputinCAPWAP 0.0
0 750
Load (kN)
1500 2250 3000
Pile Type: Steel
Pile Size: 12 H Pile
Pile Installed: 03-Mar-2013 13:04
CAPWAP Capacity: 2677.1 (kN)

orfromPDAW
at Toe: 376.1 (kN)
Set at Yield: 16.897 (mm)
Displacement (mm)

7.0 Blow Count: 200 b/m


Length: 22.0 (m)
Length Bl. gage: 21.9 (m)
14.0 Penetration: 21.0 (m)

JobInformation
Inclination: 10 (degree)
Hammer: Delmag:D36-23
Rated E: 119.3 (kJ)
21.0 Transfered E: 30.9 (kJ)
Max C Stress Top: 26.2 (MPa)

providesforother
Max C Stress Pile: 26.7 (MPa)
28.0 Max Ten. Stress: -0.89 (MPa)

SPT N qu Soil CAPWAP Blow Count


bl/30cm kPa Description kPa b/m

informationinput
0.00
66 1000.0 160.0 221
Sand

5.00
Depth below Grade (m)

Sand

10.00

Clay

15.00

Sand

20.00

25.00
Analysis: 28-May-2013

41 CAPWAP General Webinar


AdditionalComprehensiveSummaryInput
ClickonJobandthenprovideHammer,PileandSoilInformation

42 CAPWAP General Webinar

EX2; CLARK; SOFT-ROCK; Pile: EX-2 Test: 02-Jun-1993


MKT DE 70B, HP 14 X 89; Blow: 627 CAPWAP 2003-1
GRL Engineers, Inc.

CAPWAP FINAL RESULTS

Summary Total CAPWAP Capacity: 764.6; along Shaft 79.5; at Toe 685.1 kips

Table Output ft ft kips kips kips kips/ft ksf s/ft in

764.6
1 6.7 4.2 2.0 762.6 2.0 0.30 0.06 0.255 0.060
2 13.5 11.0 1.0 761.6 3.0 0.15 0.03 0.255 0.060

Resistance 3
4
5
20.2
26.9
33.7
17.7
24.4
31.2
1.0
1.0
2.0
760.6
759.6
757.6
4.0
5.0
7.0
0.15
0.15
0.30
0.03
0.03
0.06
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.060
0.060
0.060

Distribution, Ri
6 40.4 37.9 3.0 754.6 10.0 0.45 0.10 0.255 0.060
7 47.1 44.6 4.0 750.6 14.0 0.59 0.13 0.255 0.060
8 53.8 51.3 18.6 732.0 32.6 2.76 0.59 0.255 0.060
9 60.6 58.1 1.0 731.0 33.6 0.15 0.03 0.255 0.060

(including unit 10
11
12
67.3
74.0
80.8
64.8
71.5
78.3
1.0
1.0
4.9
730.0
729.0
724.1
34.6
35.6
40.5
0.15
0.15
0.73
0.03
0.03
0.16
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.060
0.060
0.060

resistance)
13 87.5 85.0 39.1 685.1 79.5 5.80 1.24 0.255 0.060

Avg. Skin 6.1 0.94 0.19 0.255 0.060

Toe 685.1 503.31 0.066 0.120

Quake, qi, and Soil Model Parameters/Extensions Skin Toe

Soil Stiffness,
Case Damping Factor 0.437 0.971
Unloading Quake (% of loading quake) 99 100
Reloading Level (% of Ru) 100 100
Unloading Level (% of Ru) 78

Ri/qi, (indirectly)
CAPWAP match quality: 2.88 (Wave Up Match)

Soil Damping, Ji Observed: final set =


Observed: final set =
0.050 in; blow count =
0.009 in; blow count =
240 b/ft
1323 b/ft

43 CAPWAP General Webinar


Extrema Table Output
EX2; CLARK; SOFT-ROCK; Pile: EX-2 Test: 02-Jun-1993
MKT DE 70B, HP 14 X 89; Blow: 627 CAPWAP 2003-1
GRL Engineers, Inc.

EXTREMA TABLE

. lists the maxima of Pile


Sgmnt
Dist.
Below
max.
Force
min.
Force
max.
Comp.
max.
Tens.
max.
Trnsfd.
max.
Veloc.
max.
Displ.
Compression Forces, No. Gages Stress Stress Energy

Tension Forces
ft kips kips ksi ksi kip-ft ft/s in

1 3.4 586.4 -24.4 22.549 -0.937 23.53 11.7 0.738

Compression Stresses
2 6.7 588.7 -24.1 22.635 -0.927 23.40 11.6 0.725
4 13.5 585.7 -22.1 22.520 -0.849 22.79 11.5 0.699
6 20.2 587.3 -21.1 22.583 -0.810 22.30 11.4 0.670

Tension Stresses
8 26.9 590.1 -19.6 22.691 -0.753 21.73 11.2 0.637
10 33.7 594.8 -18.4 22.870 -0.706 21.02 11.0 0.600
11 37.0 592.6 -17.0 22.787 -0.653 20.42 10.9 0.579
Velocities 12
13
40.4
43.8
598.9
596.6
-17.2
-15.3
23.029
22.940
-0.661
-0.590
20.09
19.39
10.8
10.6
0.559
0.539

Displacements
14 47.1 607.0 -16.4 23.339 -0.629 19.05 10.4 0.518
15 50.5 602.3 -15.2 23.161 -0.585 18.21 10.2 0.496
16 53.8 608.4 -15.4 23.393 -0.592 17.79 10.0 0.473

for every pile segment


17 57.2 568.4 -7.2 21.857 -0.276 15.45 9.9 0.449
18 60.6 576.1 -17.7 22.152 -0.682 14.91 9.8 0.423
19 63.9 589.0 -27.0 22.650 -1.039 14.16 9.7 0.394
20 67.3 624.9 -35.8 24.028 -1.376 13.38 9.6 0.363
21 70.7 668.4 -42.0 25.701 -1.613 12.39 9.4 0.329
22 74.0 718.3 -48.2 27.622 -1.852 11.36 9.2 0.293
23 77.4 756.7 -54.5 29.095 -2.095 10.14 8.8 0.255
24 80.8 785.1 -61.7 30.188 -2.371 8.94 8.1 0.216
25 84.1 793.0 -61.2 30.492 -2.355 7.59 6.8 0.178
26 87.5 806.4 -63.8 31.007 -2.451 6.21 5.3 0.140

Absolute 87.5 31.007 (T = 27.2 ms)


87.5 -2.451 (T = 44.2 ms)

44 CAPWAP General Webinar

WhatswrongwithCAPWAP?

Academia: Nonuniquesolutions

Contractors: Slow

TestingFirms: Needanexperiencedengineer

45 CAPWAP General Webinar


iCAP
iCAP incorporates many of the
CAPWAP automatic analysis
features and, therefore, a quick,
automatic signal matching

iCAP allows for signal matching by


the PDA during pile driving

The results are independent of


user experience

For complex situations or where


MQ is high, CAPWAP reanalysis
is strongly recommended
46 CAPWAP General Webinar

iCAP Features

Non-unique?
Just one result!
Slow?
Instant simulated load-displacement curve!

Need Experience?
Done by PDA Operator!

47 CAPWAP General Webinar


iCAP Application
When?
DuringMonitoring
DuringRestrike
DuringReanalysis
WhenNot?
Whenpilepropertiesarenotwellknown
Problemdatawhichleadtopoormatches
How?
Justturniton
Note:
iCAP canberundirectlyfromCAPWAP2014fornon
uniformpiles

48 CAPWAP General Webinar


48

iCAP DisplayonPAX

50 CAPWAP General Webinar


CAPWAPComparisons
withStaticLoadTests HPile
2500
Rausche, Likins, Hussein,
2000
2008.

1500
H-pile 14x73 (356 x 109);
L o a d (k N )

Top
Toe
Penetration 45 m
1000 SLT Soil: Silts and clays with N<15 for
depths < 30 m, then clays and
500 silts with 40<N<100 to 45 m.
Hammer: D30-32
0 EOD: 8 mm set/blow
0 20 40 60 80 100
BOR: 5 mm set/blow
Displacement (mm)
EOR: 15 mm set/blow

CAPWAP 21-day Restrike (Blow 2): Ru=2060 kN; (Blow 25): Ru=1600 kN
Static Load Test (48 days): 2000 kN
51 CAPWAP General Webinar

Florida Drilled Shaft


Hussein et al., 1992

Diameter:
to 20 ft (6.1m) 28 (710mm)
6.1 m to 44 ft (13.4m) 24 (610mm)
Shaft
Soil: Shaft: Sand
Toe: Soft Limestone.
Hammer: 10 tons
Toe 2
Note:
13.4 m Toe 2 treatment much simplified in
Shaft CAPWAP 2014

Toe
52 CAPWAP General Webinar
Florida Drilled Shaft: Class A Prediction
3560 kN Required Rult:
1000 kips (4450 kN)
Static and dynamic
tests indicate a
capacity less than
760 kips (3380 kN),
depending on criterion
Offset Criterion yields
650 kips (2890 kN)
from static and
dynamic test.

53 CAPWAP General Webinar

TheCAPWAP2014ExtraToeTreatment

Easierto
input
Independent
OP,TG
variables.

CAPWAP 2014 54
54 CAPWAP General Webinar
Automatic CAPWAP GRL 1996 Date Base
Basic Model
Time of Testing

SLT Well After BOR


Mean: 0.94 (30)
COV: 0.29

SLT and BOR at


Comparable times:
Mean: 0.98 (41)
COV: 0.18

SLT Much Before than BOR


Mean: 0.97 (11)
COV: 0.20

Likins and Rausche, 1996


55 CAPWAP General Webinar

Interactive CAPWAP GRL 1996 Data Base


Radiation Damping Model
Time of Testing
SLT Well after BOR
Mean: 1.00 (30)
COV: (0.21)

SLT and BOR at


Comparable times:
Mean: 1.03 (41)
COV: 0.09

SLT Much Before BOR


Mean: 1.04 (11)
COV: 0.13

Likins and Rausche, 1996


56 CAPWAP General Webinar
CombinedDataBasesofGRL1996
andfromStressWaveConferences

Mean: 0.98; COV: 0.17; N = 303


Likins and Rausche, 2004
57 CAPWAP General Webinar

CAPWAPLimitations
1. Underprediction of Pile Capacity
1. Lack of Energy
2. Lack of Setup (early test)
3. Different Failure Mode (Large Open Ended Pipe Piles)
4. Not Considered Radiation Damping (Special Cases)
2. Overprediction of Pile Capacity
1. Relaxation (early test)
2. Highly plastic soils rate effects

58 CAPWAP General Webinar


CAPWAPLimitations

Dynamic Test

Static Test

Most Common Problem: Dynamic test may lack energy

59 CAPWAP General Webinar

IncompleteResistanceActivation

What to do?
Bigger hammer
Higher energy hammer

60 CAPWAP General Webinar


4.5tondieselhammervs.20tondrophammer
Mobilizing2780kN vs.5400kN

61 CAPWAP General Webinar

SummaryofLimitations
The most common reason for disagreement is
incomplete resistance activation.
Equally important is performing the static and
dynamic load test at comparable waiting time.
When testing in piles in soils with uncertain
properties it may be wise to perform a static
load test for confirmation.
Long term settlements cannot be predicted by
any dynamic testing method.

62 CAPWAP General Webinar


CAPWAPSummary
CAPWAP is a Signal Matching Procedure, which primarily
uses ultimate resistance values, damping factors and
quakes to match computed with measured pile top
quantities.
Results include
the total capacity, shaft resistance and end bearing,
the stiffness of the soil at the pile-soil interface,
the damping properties of the soil
Pile impedance variations (damage evaluation?).
Calculated soil stiffness plus the known pile stiffness yield
the static load-set curve, corresponding to a very quick load
test.

63 CAPWAP General Webinar

CAPWAPConclusions
The analysis and result interpretation requires both
training and experience. CAPWAP 2014 helps greatly in
this process.
For the responsible, professional engineer this tool
provides an insight into pile and soil behavior which
cannot be obtained by other means not even by static
testing.

64 CAPWAP General Webinar


Publications(seewww.pile.com)
Hussein, Townsend, Rausche and Likins, 1992. Dynamic
Testing of Drilled Shafts; TRB paper No. 1336; 65-69.
Likins, Rausche, Thendean, Svinkin, 1996. CAPWAP
Correlation Studies; Proc. Of the 5th Int. Conf. on the
Appl. of Stress Wave Theory to Piles, Orlando, FL; 447-
464.
Likins, G., and Rausche, F., 2004. Correlation of
CAPWAP with Static Load Tests; Proc. of the 7th Int.
Conf. on the Appl. Of Stress Wave Theory to Piles,
Goble and Rausche, Petaling Jaya; 153-165.
1970: Rausche, Likins and Hussein, 2008: Analysis of Post-
Pile Load Test by Installation Dynamic Load Test Data for Capacity
Impact Driving; Evaluation of Deep Foundations; ASCE; GSP 180; 312-
Highway Research 330.
Record No. 333;
123-129.

65 CAPWAP General Webinar

TheENDofPART1
NextCAPWAP2014Features

We already discussed:
1. Comprehensive CAPWAP Report Page
2. Improved Toe 2 and Toe 3 Input and
Capabilities
3. Additional output features

66 CAPWAP General Webinar


AdditionalCAPWAP2014Features
1 ForCastinSituandOtherConcretePiles:
Variationoftimeincrementand/orwavespeed
Calculationanddisplayofmodifiedpilemodels,
theirvolume,mechanicalpropertiesandwave
speed
Automaticpileimpedanceadjustment.
2 SavingandRecallingTrialAnalyses
3 DisplayofFV,FiVi,and3rd curve
4 Indicatorsofchangedsegmentproperties
5 Modifiedinterpolationoptionforsegmentinputs
6 .

67 CAPWAP General Webinar

HelpfortheAnalyst:
Displayofadditionalinformation

IndividualF,V
F,V

CAPWAP 2014 68 CAPWAP General Webinar


AdditionalFunctionKeys
F7 ResistanceDampingExchange(RD)
Ctrl+F9 AutoQuantitySearch(AQStd)
F9 AutoQuantitySearch(AQ)
F10 AutoRDSearch(RDA)
Ctrl+F11 AutoFrictionSearch(FR)
F12 Backtomaininput(MI)

CAPWAP 2014 69 CAPWAP General Webinar

Keepingatrialand
Displayofthirdcurve

Goto
Update/Trial
Summary
Selectthe
trialanalysis
forwhichyou
wantto
displaythe
matchasa
thirdcurve

CAPWAP 2014 70 CAPWAP General Webinar


ThirdCurve

CAPWAP 2014 71 CAPWAP General Webinar

IndicatorsofChangedSegmentProperties

72 CAPWAP General Webinar


AutomaticPileImpedanceAdjustment
Automaticwithfixedlimitsonallsegments
Singleiterationonselectedsegments
Automaticadjustmentonselectedsegmentswith
userspecifiedconditions
Considervolumemeasurements
Flexiblelimitsonnumberofiterationsandimpedance
magnitudes

73 CAPWAP General Webinar

AutomaticImpedanceAdjustmentOptions

74 CAPWAP General Webinar


AutomaticImpedanceAdjustment
When in Impedance Window, Right Click for Automatic
adjustment options. Highlight segments to be adjusted.

75 CAPWAP General Webinar

Exampleof
AvailableVolume
Information

76 CAPWAP General Webinar


AutoImpedanceAdjustment
AutoImpedanceAdjustment(Singleiterationonanysegment)
AutoZadjustonselectedsegs withoneiteration
AutoZadjustonselectedsegs withmoreoptions

CAPWAP 2014 77 CAPWAP General Webinar

SegmentPropertiesfromImpedance
Z=EA/c=A(E) (1)
Amod =Zmod (E) (2)
Note:AssumingthatEand remainunchanged
VolumeofSegmenti:Voli =Amod,i Li (3)
Alsonote:
Zi =[(AiEi/Li )(Aii Li)] =(ki mi) From(1)
ki =EiAi/Li =(EiAi/ci)(ci/Li)=Zi/ti
mi =Ai i Li =Ai(Ei/ci)(ci/Ei)(i Li)=Zi Li/ci =Zi/ti

CAPWAP 2014 78 CAPWAP General Webinar


ModifyingSegmentPropertiesBasedonZmod

GotoPM(Pile
Model)
SectionProperties
ClickCalculateArea

NoteVolume
information

CAPWAP 2014 79 CAPWAP General Webinar

AddedImpedance:
VolumeandMechanicalPropertiesInformation

80 CAPWAP General Webinar


VariableTime
IncrementOption CAPWAPusesaperfectly
linearpilemodel.
Tensioncrackscause
differentwavespeedsfor
tensionandcompression
anonlinearproblem.
Similarly,soilmasseffects
maycausedifferentwave
speedsatdifferenttimes

81 CAPWAP General Webinar

Ifeverythingelsefails:
Ifawavespeedchangeapparentlyduringthe
impacteventand
Iftensionandcompressionslackscannotbeused
and
Ifoverallwavespeedisnottherightthing(shifts
tooearly)and
IfPSand/orPLdonthelp,
Thentryavariabletimeincrement.
Note:c=L/t=(E/)0.5;thusE= (L2)/t2

82 CAPWAP General Webinar


UsingVariableTimeIncrements
DecideonNo.ofchanges,e.g.,2
Forupwardtensionproblemsset
TimetoT1+L/c +
Setatratiobytrialanderror,e.g.,
1.5.
Notethataratioof1.5makesthe
wavespeed2/3rd andwouldmakeE
44%lowerthantheoriginalE.
Note,changing thetimeincrement
fromT1+L/ctoT1+2L/cby
20%wouldhavethesameeffectat
2L/caschangingtheWC/WSratio
by10%(becauseWC overallwave
speedactsover2L/c).

83 CAPWAP General Webinar

UsingVariableTimeIncrements
Setthesecondchangetimeby
trialanderror
Setasecondtimeincrement
ratio(maybe1.0toreturnto
theinitialwavespeed);late
recordportionmayexhibit
frequenciesthatsuggestwhat
istobeused.
Ifadownwardtensionwave
causesaslowerwavespeed
youmaybeginthefirsttime
incrementchangeattime2L/c.

84 CAPWAP General Webinar


Summary CAPWAP2014
Newanalysisfeatures
Automaticimpedanceadjustment
Variabletimeincrement
IndependentExtraToevariables
Newdisplayfeatures
FV,
Fivi,
3rd curve,
Segmentpropertychangeindicators,
.
85 CAPWAP General Webinar

Summary
Thereareseveralhelpfuloutputfeatures
Reportsummarypagewithadditionalinputsand
outputs
Additionalnumericalresultsonmainoutputpage
Differentfailurecriteriainstaticplot
ModifiedandadditionalCaseMethodresults
.

CAPWAP 2014 86 CAPWAP General Webinar


TheEnd
HAPPYCAPWAPping!

QUESTIONS?
Pleaseemailquestions;theywillbe
answeredviaemail

87 CAPWAP General Webinar