There are several types of cardinality defining relationships between occurrences of entities on two sides of the line of relationships

.

The Link Cardinality is a 0:0 relationship and defined as one side does not need the other to exists. For example, in a person and parking space relationship, it denotes that I do not need to have a person to have a parking space and I don¶t need a parking space to have a person either. It also denotes that a person can only occupy one parking space. This relation need to have one entity nominated to become the dominant table and use programs or triggers to limit the number of related records stored inside the other table in the relation.

The Sub-type Cardinality is a 1:0 relationship and defined as having one optional side only. An example would be a person and programmer relation. This is a 1:0 relation meaning that a person can be a programmer but a programmer must always be a person. The mandatory side of the relation, in the case the programmer side, is dominant in the relationship. Triggers and programs are again used in the controlling the database.

The Physical Segment Cardinality is 1:1 relationship and it is demonstrated that both sides of the relationship are mandatory. Example may be a person and DNA patters. This relationship show that a person must only have one set of DNA patterns while the DNA patters as dictated by nature can only be applied on one person.

The Possession Cardinality is a 0:M relation (zero to many) relationship on both sides. For example, a person may own no phone or maybe plenty of phones but a phone may have no owner but has a potential to be owned by a person. In database implementation, a nullable foreign key column in the phone table is used to reference the person in its table.

The Child Cardinality is a 1:M mandatory relationship and is one of the most common relationships used most databases. An example would be a person table and membership table relationship. This relationship denotes that a person can be a member or not but a person can also be a member of many organizations. The foreign key in the membership table has to be mandatory and not null.

The Characteristic Cardinality is a 0:M relationship which is mandatory on both sides. An example would be a person and name table relationship. This denotes that a person should have at least one name but may also many names. The database implantation for this cardinality involves a nullable foreign key in the name table to the person table.

The Paradox Cardinality is 1:M relationship which is mandatory to one side. An example would be a person table and citizenship table relationship. The Paradox is similar to the Physical Cardinality. A person must have a citizenship and citizenship must have a person. But in this case, a person may have multiple citizenships.

The Association Cardinaltiy is a M:M (many to many) relationship which may be optional on both sides. An example would be a person table and employer table relationship where a person may work for several employers or no employer at all. On the other hand, an employer may have no employee too but can have a several employees as well. A database implementation for this is to create a third associate entity.
Definition: In set theory, cardinality refers to the number of members in the set. When specifically applied to database theory, the cardinality of a table refers to the number of rows (or tuples) contained in a table.

Cardinality Notations
Cardinality specifies how many instances of an entity relate to one instance of another entity. Ordinality is also closely linked to cardinality. While cardinality specifies the occurances of a relationship, ordinality describes the relationship as either mandatory or optional. In other words, cardinality specifies the maximum number of relationships and ordinality specifies the absolute minimum number of relationships. When the minimum number is zero, the relationship is usually called optional and when the minimum number is one or more, the relationship is usually called mandatory. There are many notation styles that express cardinality and they are all supported by SmartDraw.

Information Engineering

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n the implementation of a structure query language (SQL), the term data cardinality is used to mean the uniqueness of the data values which are contained in a particular column, known as attribute, of a database table.

There are actually three types of data cardinality each dealing with columnar value sets. These types are high-cardinality, normal-cardinality, and low-cardinality.

High data cardinality refers to the instance where the values of a data column are very
uncommon. For example, a data column referring to values for social security numbers should always be unique for each person. This is an example of very high cardinality. Same goes with email address and user names. Automatically generated numbers are of very high data cardinality. For instance, in a data table column, a column named USER-ID would contain values starting with an automatically increments every time a new user is added.

Normal data cardinality refers to the instance where values of a data column
are somewhat uncommon but never unique. For example, a CLIENT table having a data column containing LAST_NAME values can be said to be of normal data cardinality as there may be several entries of the same last name like Jones and may other varied names in one column. At close inspection of the LAST_NAME column, one can see that there could be clumps of last names side by side with unique last names.

Low data cardinality refers to the instance where values of a data column are
not very unusual. Some table columns take very limited values. For instance, Boolean values can only take 0 or 1, yes or no, true or false. Another table columns with low cardinality are status flags. Yet another example of low data cardinality is the gender attribute which can take only two values ± male or female.

Determining data cardinality is a substantial aspect used in data modeling. This is used to determine the relationships

Several types of cardinality defining relationships between occurrences of entities on two sides of the line of relationships exist.

The Link Cardinality is a 0:0 relationship and defined as one side does not need the other to exists

The Sub-type Cardinality is a 1:0 relationship and defined as having one optional side only.

The Physical Segment Cardinality is 1:1 relationship and it is demonstrated that both sides of the relationship are mandatory.

The Possession Cardinality is a 0:M relation (zero to many) relationship on both sides.

The Child Cardinality is a 1:M mandatory relationship and is one of the most common relationships used most databases

The Characteristic Cardinality is a 0:M relationship which is mandatory on both sides.

The Paradox Cardinality is 1:M relationship which is mandatory to one side. An example would be a person table and citizenship table relationship.
ciation Cardinaltiy is a M:M (many to many) relationship which may be optional on both sides.

A data table's cardinality with respect to another data table is one of the most critical aspects in database design. For instance, a database hospital may have separate data tables used to keep track patients and doctors so a many to one relationship should be considered by the database designer. If the data cardinality and relationships are not designed well, the performance of a database will greatly suffer.

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