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Basic Nutrition Concepts

CARMELA V. DELLOVA, RND, MP


Assoc. Prof. IV CS ND Department
Fat belongs to a
group of substances
called lipids which
do not dissolve in
water.

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Cooking oil

mayonnaise

butter
margarine

OILS
FATS
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Animals Plants
Meats and meat Plant seeds: corn,
products sunflower,
Eggs rapeseed, etc.
Dairy products: Nuts
butter, cheese, Fruits: avocado
milk and cream and olives

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NATURALLY ADDED DURING
PRESENT FOOD
Egg yolk PREPARATION
Fatty meats Fried foods
Oily fish Cakes
Milk Biscuits
Cheese Pastries

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Food Total fat
Salted peanuts 49%
Hard cheese 34%
Milk chocolate 30%
Egg 11%
Beef 21%
Lean meat 6%

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Margarine
Mayonnaise
Butter
Cooking Oil
Fat spreads
Cream
Visible
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Lec fat on meats
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UNSATURATED FATs SATURATED
AND TRANS FAT

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tuna fat

chicken fat

beef fat saturated

monounsaturated
butter fat
polyunsaturated
coconut oil

corn oil

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

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modified oils that have undergone a
hardening process known as partial
hydrogenation.

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Omega-9 Fatty Acids

OLIVE
OIL

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Omega-9 Fatty Acids

Pecan nuts
Macadamias
OLIVE Almonds
OIL

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Alumahan (striped)
Tangigi (Spanish mackerel)

Lapad/Tuabak
Tawilis
Tunsoy
Silinyasi
Tamban (Indian sardine)
Tulingan
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Tambakol (yellow-fin
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Omega-6 fatty acids

CORN OIL

SAFFLOWER OIL

RAPE SEED OIL SUNFLOWER OIL


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Omega-6 fatty acids

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Long-chain TGs

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Medium-chain TGs

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The kind of fatty
acid in fat and oils
may influence your
health:

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Saturated fats
(long-chain type):
raise blood
cholesterol levels

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MONOUNSATURATED FATS:
aids in lowering blood
cholesterol

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Polyunsaturated fats:
helps lower blood cholesterol

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Cholesterol is a fat-like substance which
occurs naturally in all animal tissues
including the human body.

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LIPOPROTEINS

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WITH MODERATE AMOUNT OF
CHOLESTEROL:
crabs, lobster, shrimp

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WITH MODERATE AMOUNT OF
CHOLESTEROL:
biscuits, most cakes and pastries
FATS ON MEATS
cold cuts

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WITH MODERATE AMOUNT OF
CHOLESTEROL:
canned or powdered milk
butter, cheese, cream
ice cream

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all types of vegetables
all fruits including avocado, olives
pasta (without eggs)
cereals
Popcorn (unbuttered)

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FUNCTIONS of

FATS
Fat is a concentrated source of calorie.

9 kilocalories/gram vs. 4 kilocalories


(carbohydrate
or protein)
1 tsp oil = 45 kilocalories
1 tsp sugar = 20 kilocalories

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Fat is stored in the adipose tissues.

One pound of stored fat


= 3500 kcal
A considerable amount of fat
is normal and desirable:
18-24% for women
15-18% for men
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Fat spares protein from being used
as energy.

In this way, protein can do its many


important tasks in the body.

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Fat provides essential fatty
acids (fats which cannot be
made by the body).

For brain development of


infants

For normal functioning of the


body

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Essential
Fatty Acids
Linoleic acid (omega-6 family)
Alpha-Linolenic acid
(omega-3 family)

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Human breast milk is best.
Humans make special EFA from
linoleic acid and linolenic acids in
breast milk.

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Cholesterol (and fat) form part of the
structure of cell membrane throughout
the body, especially the brain.
This helps in carrying nutrients across cell
membranes.

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Dietary fat serves as conveyor for
vitamins A, D, E, and K.

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Fat indirectly helps control the flow of
materials in and out of the cells

Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are


used to make hormone-like
compounds called EICOSANOIDS.

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EICOSANOIDS
help regulate bodily functions such as
blood pressure, immune function, and
blood clotting.
Ecosapentaenoic acid and
docosahexaenoic cid are precursors
of natural anti-inflammatory agents
PROSTAGLANDINS that help
decrease body inflammation and pain.
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Fat contributes to feeling of fullness,
taste and smell.
The satiety value of fat is due partly by
the slower rate of fat digestion
compared to carbohydrate and protein.
Dietary fats bring important mouth
feel and flavor in many foods.

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MYELIN SHEATH
Fat forms part of the
myelin structure that
protects nerve fibers;
this helps relay the
nerve impulses.

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SUBCUTANEOUS FAT
Fat pads inside the body cavity help
protect organs from shock.

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Cholesterol is needed to make
vitamin D, bile and hormones:

VITAMIN D - a calcium regulator.


BILE emulsifier of fat
HORMONES such as cortisol,
estrogen and testosterone

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The body makes its own cholesterol.
A diet containing a lot of saturated fat
can raise the amount of cholesterol in
the blood to dangerous levels.

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Recommended intakes
Fat requirements may be computed based
on total energy allowance per day:
Filipinos require about 20 to 30% per day
except for infants who needs about 30 to
40% per day (RENI, 2002).
Whereas the 2005 Guidelines for
Americans recommend keeping total fat
between 20 to 35% of the daily energy
intake.
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HEALTH EFFECTS of

Fat Intake
Heart disease

An excess of cholesterol or
triglycerides in the blood can cause
heart and blood vessel abnormalities

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Heart disease
HIGH blood cholesterol is a major risk
factor for heart and artery diseases.

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Although food cholesterol raises blood
cholesterol, it does not raise blood
cholesterol as dramatically as saturated fat
does.
Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated
fat has been found to help maintain heart
health.
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Heart disease
Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to
play a part in:
keeping cholesterol and triglycerides
levels low;
stabilizing heart beat, and
reducing blood
pressure.

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Heart disease

Polyunsaturated fatty acids lower blood


cholesterol but should be taken in
moderation, as too many can also be
harmful.

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Consuming higher amounts of unsaturated
fats was linked with lower mortality.
Researchers found that higher consumption
of SFA and trans fats was associated with
higher mortality.
Replacing SFA with USFAs conferred
substantial health benefits.

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/higher-consumption-
of-unsaturated-fats-linked-with-lower-mortality/

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In a large study population followed for
more than 30 years, suggests that
replacing saturated fats (e.g. butter, lard,
and fat in red meat) with unsaturated fats
from plant-based food (e.g. olive oil,
canola oil, and soybean oil can confer
substantial health .

The study was published online July 5,


2016 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

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Different types of dietary fat had
different associations with mortality
Trans fats had the most significant
adverse impact on health.
Every 2% higher intake of trans fat was
associated with a 16% higher chance of
premature death during the study period.

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/higher-
consumption-of-unsaturated-fats-linked-with-lower-mortality/

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Different types of dietary fat had
different associations with mortality
When compared with the same number of
calories from carbohydrate, every 5%
increase in saturated fat intake was
associated with an 8% higher risk of
overall mortality.

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/higher-
consumption-of-unsaturated-fats-linked-with-lower-mortality/

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Cancer
Studies linking dietary fats with
cancer are less conclusive than
for heart disease
But it does suggest an
association of high saturated
fats from red meat with colon.
and prostate cancer.
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At the present time there is no direct proof
of a link between fat intake and cancer.
Some evidence suggests excess weight
gain and obesity may be a factor in the
progression of human breast,
endometrial, prostate and colon cancer.

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Obesity
People who eat high-fat diets regularly
may exceed their energy needs and gain
weight.

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Undernutrition
Insufficient fat in the diet results in
weight loss and thinness.

Nutrition survey conducted by the


FNRI suggests that many Filipinos
do not meet their energy
needs from fat.
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Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency
Too little consumption of fat for an
extended period of time leads to fat-
soluble vitamin deficiencies

Fat is necessary for the transport and


proper utilization of these vitamins.

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REFERENCES
Rolfes, et al. (2009). Understanding Normal & Clinical
Nutrition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

Dellova, CV., et al. (2009). ABCs of Nutr & Diet Therapy.


Malabon City: Mutya Publishing Company.

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/higher-
consumption-of-unsaturated-fats-linked-with-lower-mortality/

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