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XIONG Chao1, LI Chunlai 2, YANG Libin2, LI Xin 1, HUI Qian1 and TENG Yun 1

1. Shenyang University of Technology;No.111, Shenliao West Road, Economic & Technological Development Zone, Shenyang, 110870,

P.R.CHINA

xiongchaosut@163.com

2. Qinghai Electric Power Research Institute, Xining 810008, China

Abstract: As a promising renewable alternative, a significant contribution to a photovoltaic power generation system in the future,

but also brought new problems related to the integration of power quality, including voltage control and reactive power compensation.

This study proposes a new adaptive neural network DC / AC converter-based control. In this study, the use of neural network control

to increase the DC / AC converter transient response. Aiming at these problems, explore the effect of reliability and power quality

and reactive power compensation system optimization, and propose coherent active and reactive power distribution in order to

alleviate this problem. In an area of photovoltaic power plant simulation. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the method.

The results show that the proposed method helps to achieve this adaptive control.

Key words: Renewable energy, reactive power compensation, Harmonic Detection, Neural Networks.

I. INTRODUCTION parameters of the current voltage characteristics. However,

As the interface between the renewable energy based an electrical equivalent circuit of a diode is the most

distributed power generation system (RE-DPGS) and the commonly used battery based analytical circuit, as shown

power grid, the grid-connected inverters play an important in figure 1. [4] an equivalent circuit of a solar cell is mainly

role of the power conversion [1].Large solar photovoltaic composed of a current source parallel to one diode and two

(PV) systems are usually connected to a medium voltage resistors parallel RSH and RS series are represented by

distribution network, in such a grid interactive photovoltaic losses [5].

power generation system, the need to convert the solar

energy into electricity [24]. Direct access without the use

RS I

of heavy medium voltage power network voltage Id Ish

G

transformer, cascade multilevel converters attract more and

more attention, such as enhanced energy collecting ability Iph VD RP VPV

to achieve distributed maximum power point tracking

T

(MPPT) has a unique advantage, improve energy

efficiency, lower cost, higher power density, scalability

and modularity, plug-n-power operation, and so on[58].

Fig. 1 photovoltaic module

Many studies have found that PV power harmonic, By using Kirchhoff's current law, the current voltage

[method 17] in 9. Including the basis of the neural network. characteristic function is obtained, and the equation (1) is

For example, [18] proposed a neural network based on the obtained.

IEC61000-4-7 standard power system harmonic estimation

method. The neural network is given a time evolution of q (U IR s ) U IRs

harmonic and inter harmonic amplitude and phase, which I I Ph e AKT 1 1

conforms to the standard. In [19], a method is proposed to R p

determine the parameters of the random harmonic

diode, the diode current is ID diffused and Iph is the light

II. SYSTEM CONCEPTS current or the light current, which is proportional to the

radiation surface temperature. The output current and the

Grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems offer

voltage of the solar cell are represented by IPV and V,

various advantages over conventional generation by

respectively. The internal diffusion current of the diode is

providing more effective utilization of generated power.

modeled by equation (2).

A. Solar cell model P VPV I PV 2

Modeling of photovoltaic generators in a different The company can be changed to, dP / dVPV 0.

way. These models differ in some aspects, such as the

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Simulation is based on the data sheet (single crystal, is obtained by inverse coordinate transformation by using a

pp1237, 37wp) parameters of PV modules and solar phase locked loop (PLL). Knowledge of the values of

modules are listed in table (1). ^

vdc , vd* , and vq* is necessary for the implementation of

PV panel data Mono Crystaline,PP3258,37Wp module space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). The fault

Quantity Value diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of the DC-link voltage

Rated Power(Pmax) 24W

sensor are performed by using the estimated DC-link

Maximum Power Voltage(Vpm) 9.5V

Maximum Power Current(Ipm) 1.24A voltage.

Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) 16.3V

Short Circuit Current(Isc) 1.54A

Grid

B. PV Harmonic AC AC AC

ec

eb

Harmonic currents generated in the supply system and ea

installation. Voltage distortion caused by harmonic R

voltage, and over zero noise network [25-27]. Harmonics is PLL

ic

the lowest level to ensure that the network's power quality ia

ib

is good. This harmonic current flows through the vdc

impedance induced voltage distortion of the DN. The basic 3-Phase VSI

Conversion

(3s2r)

T Conversion(

3s2r)

requirement of the inverter is to limit harmonic distortion

and to ensure a constant output voltage. Nonlinear loads ^vdc

SSVPWM

T

Deadbeat

ed

Harmonic analysis, especially Fourier transform, in controller & eq

Vde estimator

science and engineering disciplines, including signal

processing method plays a key role. Fourier Transform id* id

series expansion can be represented as a series of iq* iq

Fig. 2 The configuration of grid-connected inverter

sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal periodic harmonic source

current, so that the response of each harmonic can be III. NEURALNET

determined:

f Adaptive neural network to simulate the animals'

f (t ) a0 (a

n 1

n sin nwt bn cos nwt ) 3 brains of the operation. Decision analysis model or use the

opposite rule-based, large-scale network parallel to create a

very simple neuronal connections. Artificial neural

Where n 1,2,3"is the order harmonics, t is the network learning or training after. Once the training is

time variable, and a0 , a1 ,", an b1 , b2 ,", bn the completed, the neural network to quickly map or

harmonic constants. classification cases.

In the most common signs of the presence of A. Structure

harmonics of a signal is the total harmonic distortion

(THD) factor, voltage and current can be obtained as Artificial neural network structure, through the output

follows: of the comparator output and real-time network to detect

THDV

f

n 2 Vn

2

4

network faults use of the area. For this reason, the artificial

neural network is generally in sensor verification, testing

V1 and intelligent monitoring applications. Figure 1 shows the

basic topology used artificial neural networks.

THDI

f 2

n 2 In

5

Auto-associative neural network topology has 19 inputs,

I1 five hidden layer, 19 outputs. In FIG. 3, 19 represents a

valid line power system harmonics.

where V1 and I1 Rms value of the fundamental

component of voltage and current, while Vn and I n the Inputs Hidden Layer

RMS harmonic component of voltage and current.

C. PV inverter Outputs

The configuration of the grid-connected inverter is

shown in Fig. 2. The superscript ^ refers to the estimated

variables and quantities, and the superscript * denotes Harmonic

the reference variables and quantities. The current

( ia , ib , ic ) and voltage ( ea , eb , ec ) variables transform

Fig. 3 Representative topology of the ANN

from the three phase stationary coordinate system to the Provided neural network input signal:

two-phase rotating coordinate system. The grid angle ( T )

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1, cos( wn), sin(wn), Use a neuron by neuron training algorithm

cos( 2wn), sin(2wn), convergence has significantly improved compared to the

conventional error backpropagation training fcc. Also,

X ( n) (6)

# before Lauenburg Marquardt training and NBN

cos( Mwn), sin(Mwn) comparison can be drawn fed neural network better

Network right value: training program fully connected.

1 l 1 l m (7) IV. HARMONIC DETECTION

E [dk f (netk )]2

2k1

2k1

[d k f ( w jk y j )]2

j 0

Cage herein derived average switching model and

Calculation output: synchronous rotating coordinate system control three-phase

y ( n) X ( n ) W ( n ) inverter with LCL type. With these models, the grid

M

(8) voltage grid current impact of analyzed and it was

i0 [ I pm cos( nwn ) I qm sin(nwn )] discovered that not only directly affected by the grid

m 1 current grid voltage, but also by injection grid voltage grid

I p1 (n N 1) I p1 (n N 2) " I p1 (n) current reference error. This work provides the basis for

I q1 (n N 1) I q1 (n N 2) " I q1 (n) suppression of harmonics and unbalance the inverter grid

connection in the subsequent chapters of the injection gate

I p 2 (n N 1) I p 2 (n N 2) " I p 2 (n)

current. Instantaneous active power can be determined as:

(9)

C I q 2 (n N 1) I q 2 (n N 2) " I q 2 (n)

p V i Va ia Vbib Vc ic 12

# # #

I

pM ( n N 1 ) I pM ( n N 2 ) " I pM ( n ) Then, the instantaneous active current vector i p is

I

qM ( n N 1) I qM ( n N 2) " I qM ( n ) defined as

Provided data window of length N, enter a set length iap

of historical data during adaptive prediction. In a neural p

network, the latest set of network power N value is ip ibp V 13

obtained: t n N 1, t N 2 , , Right Calculated i V V

values of n timeas shown in the following matrix cp

Since the three-phase current vector is always equal to

Where I p and i q subscript m represents the first the sum of i p and iq ,the instantaneous compensating

harmonic; in parentheses represents the n-th time. *

Therefore, a harmonic order of each row represents a current reference ic can be written as

calculated value of each time period; each column p

represents the calculated value at a time for each order ic* iq i p i V i 14

harmonics. In order to predict the harmonics of the V V

Thus, for any given three-phase current, instantaneous

n 1 time, just find the matrix continuation to the harmonic current compensation command shown in Figure

first n 1 . 2. In addition, non-linear loads and unbalanced loads can

Historical error before the N 1 time and n time cause the power section, around the average active power,

error is calculated as follows: P oscillation power section without any contribution, active

and should be removed. This is part of a low-pass filter can

'w jk KG ko y j K (d k ok )ok (1 ok ) y j be used to extract the active power flow (LPF).

l

'vij KG j xi K (G k w jk ) y j (1 y j ) xi

y o A. Detection Structure

k 1 Figure 4 shows the harmonic detection using adaptive

(10) neural network implementation. Constituted by the PLL

Where k 0,1, " , N 1 .Total error: frequency voltage, which is the basic frequency, adaptive

l neural network prediction algorithm, which can give more

G jy (G ko w jk ) y j (1 y j ) (11) harmonic component and the fundamental active or

k 1 reactive currents.

Neural Networks

B. Adaptive neural network training Weight adjustment Harmonic

ANN components

Phase

Each output artificial neural network is possible the Voltage Phase-Locked

Shift

Adaptive Negative sequence

Loop Prediction

range [-1,1]. Output trained artificial neural network, if the Array

Algorithm

Fundamental

Reactive

difference exceeds a threshold between PV output and

Current

reduce output over - take 1, take training and value + 1 if

the difference is less than the threshold. Threshold can be + -

Fig. 4 Harmonic Detection Chart

set to any value between the minimum and maximum 1 to

19. If, on the other hand, is set to a higher value, and then, V. SIMULATION RESULTS

the result is an ideal value calculated at the intensity level

In order to verify the performance of the detection

is correct.

algorithm, through the use of simulation software for the

3692

photovoltaic power station psacd. Single-phase 220V This work was supported by the Qinghai Province key

power supply voltage rms, and use the PV power plant and Laboratory of Photovoltaic Power Generation and

grid-connected inverter as a harmonic source. Grid-connected Technology (Grant No. 2014-Z-Y34A).

In a phase current, Figure 6 is a reactive current References

waveform, Figure 7is a current waveform, containing a

[1] NOROOZIAN R, GHAREHPETIAN G B. An investigation on

reactive power. This can be seen from the two figures, this combined operation of active power filter with photovoltaic arrays

detection method can quickly detect the harmonic currents [J]. Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 2013, 46: 392399.

within 5 ms from the figure this detection method can be [2] REISI A R, MORADI M H, SHOWKATI H. Combined

used for active power filter harmonic current detection, has photovoltaic and unified power quality controller to improve power

quality [J]. Solar Energy, 2013, 88: 154162.

a good detection accuracy and tracking speed. [3] PENG Fang-zheng, OTT G W, ADAMS D J. Harmonic and

reactive power compensation based on the generalized

instantaneous reactive power theory for three-phase four-wire

systems [J]. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 1998, 13(6):

11741181.

[4] PENG Fang-zheng, LAI J S. Generalized instantaneous reactive

power theory for three-phase power systems [J]. IEEE Transactions

on Instrumentation and Measurement, 1996, 45(1): 293297.

[5] Aten M, Werner H (2003) Robust multivariable control design for

(a)A phase Grid-connected voltage HVDC back to back schemes. IEEE Xplore-Gener Transm Distrib

150(6):761767

[6] Skogestad S, Postlethwaite I (2005) Multivariable feedback control:

analysis and design. Wiley, Chichester

[7] Teodorescu R, Blaabjerg F, Liserre M et al (2006)

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[8] Y. Xu, L. M. Tolbert, J. N. Chiasson, F. Z. Peng, and J. B.

bA phase Harmonic currents Campbell, Generalized instantaneous non-active power theory for

Fig.6 Waveforms of harmonic current without reactive power STATCOM, IET Electr. Power Appl., vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 853861,

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[9] M. Rezaei, H. Iman-Eini, and S. Farhangi, Grid-connected

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[11] L. Liu, H. Li, Y. Xue, and W. Liu, Decoupled active and reactive

power control for large scale grid-connected photovoltaic systems

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Energy Conversion 2011 IEEE.

[14] Chong Han, Alex Q. Huang, Mesut E. Baran, STATCOM Impact

VI. CONCLUSIONS Study on the Integration of a Large Wind Farm into a Weak Loop

This paper discusses the influence of reactive power Power System, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 23,

Issue 1, Mar. 2008,pp.226233.

compensation grid interactive photovoltaic system cascade

[15] Zhen Xiang, Da Xie, Jinxia Gong, YanChi Zhang, Dynamic

operational performance. Analysis of system stability and Charactcristics Analysis of STATC0M for Reactive ComPensation

reliability problems caused by asymmetric active. Reactive in Wind Farm, Automation of Electric Power systems, vol. 32,

power compensation and allocation, to alleviate this Issue 9, May10,2008,pp.9295.

[16] S.Kahrobaee, S. Afshania, V. Salehipoor (University of Tehran),

problem. The output voltage of each module is verified to

Reasonable Reactive Power Control and Voltage Compensation

determine the direct power distribution. Distribution of the forWind Farms Using FACTS Devices, Nordic Wind Power

relationship between the voltage and power distribution, Conference 22 23 May 2006, ESPOO, Finland.

shows a wide range of power. [17] Ahmed Maria, Mauro Facca & John Diaz De Leon IESO

Philosophy On Reactive Power Compensation North American

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS WINDPOWER June 2007 issue.

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