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Proceedings of the 35th Chinese Control Conference

July 27-29, 2016, Chengdu, China

Study of reactive power compensation based on neural network

XIONG Chao1, LI Chunlai 2, YANG Libin2, LI Xin 1, HUI Qian1 and TENG Yun 1
1. Shenyang University of Technology;No.111, Shenliao West Road, Economic & Technological Development Zone, Shenyang, 110870,
2. Qinghai Electric Power Research Institute, Xining 810008, China

Abstract: As a promising renewable alternative, a significant contribution to a photovoltaic power generation system in the future,
but also brought new problems related to the integration of power quality, including voltage control and reactive power compensation.
This study proposes a new adaptive neural network DC / AC converter-based control. In this study, the use of neural network control
to increase the DC / AC converter transient response. Aiming at these problems, explore the effect of reliability and power quality
and reactive power compensation system optimization, and propose coherent active and reactive power distribution in order to
alleviate this problem. In an area of photovoltaic power plant simulation. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the method.
The results show that the proposed method helps to achieve this adaptive control.
Key words: Renewable energy, reactive power compensation, Harmonic Detection, Neural Networks.

accuracy, calculation procedure and the number of

I. INTRODUCTION parameters of the current voltage characteristics. However,
As the interface between the renewable energy based an electrical equivalent circuit of a diode is the most
distributed power generation system (RE-DPGS) and the commonly used battery based analytical circuit, as shown
power grid, the grid-connected inverters play an important in figure 1. [4] an equivalent circuit of a solar cell is mainly
role of the power conversion [1].Large solar photovoltaic composed of a current source parallel to one diode and two
(PV) systems are usually connected to a medium voltage resistors parallel RSH and RS series are represented by
distribution network, in such a grid interactive photovoltaic losses [5].
power generation system, the need to convert the solar
energy into electricity [24]. Direct access without the use
of heavy medium voltage power network voltage Id Ish
transformer, cascade multilevel converters attract more and
more attention, such as enhanced energy collecting ability Iph VD RP VPV
to achieve distributed maximum power point tracking
(MPPT) has a unique advantage, improve energy
efficiency, lower cost, higher power density, scalability
and modularity, plug-n-power operation, and so on[58]. 
Fig. 1 photovoltaic module
Many studies have found that PV power harmonic, By using Kirchhoff's current law, the current voltage
[method 17] in 9. Including the basis of the neural network. characteristic function is obtained, and the equation (1) is
For example, [18] proposed a neural network based on the obtained.
IEC61000-4-7 standard power system harmonic estimation
method. The neural network is given a time evolution of q (U  IR s ) U  IRs
harmonic and inter harmonic amplitude and phase, which I I Ph  e AKT  1  1
conforms to the standard. In [19], a method is proposed to R p
determine the parameters of the random harmonic

distortion level. In the above circuit, the Dj is an ideal p-n junction

diode, the diode current is ID diffused and Iph is the light
II. SYSTEM CONCEPTS current or the light current, which is proportional to the
radiation surface temperature. The output current and the
Grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems offer
voltage of the solar cell are represented by IPV and V,
various advantages over conventional generation by
respectively. The internal diffusion current of the diode is
providing more effective utilization of generated power.
modeled by equation (2).
A. Solar cell model P VPV I PV 2

Modeling of photovoltaic generators in a different The company can be changed to, dP / dVPV 0.
way. These models differ in some aspects, such as the

Simulation is based on the data sheet (single crystal, is obtained by inverse coordinate transformation by using a
pp1237, 37wp) parameters of PV modules and solar phase locked loop (PLL). Knowledge of the values of
modules are listed in table (1). ^

Table 1: Main parameters of the solar panel

vdc , vd* , and vq* is necessary for the implementation of
PV panel data Mono Crystaline,PP3258,37Wp module space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM). The fault
Quantity Value diagnosis and fault-tolerant control of the DC-link voltage
Rated Power(Pmax) 24W
sensor are performed by using the estimated DC-link
Maximum Power Voltage(Vpm) 9.5V
Maximum Power Current(Ipm) 1.24A voltage.
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) 16.3V
Short Circuit Current(Isc) 1.54A
B. PV Harmonic AC AC AC

Harmonic currents generated in the supply system and ea
installation. Voltage distortion caused by harmonic R
voltage, and over zero noise network [25-27]. Harmonics is PLL

one of the most important attributes that need to be kept at L

the lowest level to ensure that the network's power quality ia
is good. This harmonic current flows through the vdc
impedance induced voltage distortion of the DN. The basic 3-Phase VSI
T Conversion(
requirement of the inverter is to limit harmonic distortion
and to ensure a constant output voltage. Nonlinear loads ^vdc

connected to the DN are also presented for harmonic [28]. vd * vq*

Harmonic analysis, especially Fourier transform, in controller & eq
Vde estimator
science and engineering disciplines, including signal
processing method plays a key role. Fourier Transform id* id
series expansion can be represented as a series of iq* iq 
Fig. 2 The configuration of grid-connected inverter
sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal periodic harmonic source
current, so that the response of each harmonic can be III. NEURALNET
f Adaptive neural network to simulate the animals'
f (t ) a0  (a
n 1
n sin nwt  bn cos nwt ) 3 brains of the operation. Decision analysis model or use the
opposite rule-based, large-scale network parallel to create a
very simple neuronal connections. Artificial neural
Where n 1,2,3"is the order harmonics, t is the network learning or training after. Once the training is
time variable, and a0 , a1 ,", an b1 , b2 ,", bn the completed, the neural network to quickly map or
harmonic constants. classification cases.
In the most common signs of the presence of A. Structure
harmonics of a signal is the total harmonic distortion
(THD) factor, voltage and current can be obtained as Artificial neural network structure, through the output
follows: of the comparator output and real-time network to detect

n 2 Vn

network faults use of the area. For this reason, the artificial
neural network is generally in sensor verification, testing
V1 and intelligent monitoring applications. Figure 1 shows the
basic topology used artificial neural networks.
f 2
n 2 In
Auto-associative neural network topology has 19 inputs,
I1 five hidden layer, 19 outputs. In FIG. 3, 19 represents a
valid line power system harmonics.
where V1 and I1 Rms value of the fundamental
component of voltage and current, while Vn and I n the Inputs Hidden Layer
RMS harmonic component of voltage and current.

C. PV inverter Outputs
The configuration of the grid-connected inverter is
shown in Fig. 2. The superscript ^ refers to the estimated
variables and quantities, and the superscript * denotes Harmonic
the reference variables and quantities. The current
( ia , ib , ic ) and voltage ( ea , eb , ec ) variables transform 
Fig. 3 Representative topology of the ANN
from the three phase stationary coordinate system to the Provided neural network input signal:
two-phase rotating coordinate system. The grid angle ( T )

1, cos( wn), sin(wn), Use a neuron by neuron training algorithm
cos( 2wn), sin(2wn), convergence has significantly improved compared to the
conventional error backpropagation training fcc. Also,
X ( n) (6)
# before Lauenburg Marquardt training and NBN
cos( Mwn), sin(Mwn) comparison can be drawn fed neural network better
Network right value: training program fully connected.
E [dk  f (netk )]2

[d k  f ( w jk y j )]2
j 0
Cage herein derived average switching model and
Calculation output: synchronous rotating coordinate system control three-phase
y ( n) X ( n ) W ( n ) inverter with LCL type. With these models, the grid
(8) voltage grid current impact of analyzed and it was
i0  [ I pm cos( nwn )  I qm sin(nwn )] discovered that not only directly affected by the grid
m 1 current grid voltage, but also by injection grid voltage grid
I p1 (n  N  1) I p1 (n  N  2) " I p1 (n) current reference error. This work provides the basis for

I q1 (n  N  1) I q1 (n  N  2) " I q1 (n) suppression of harmonics and unbalance the inverter grid
connection in the subsequent chapters of the injection gate
I p 2 (n  N  1) I p 2 (n  N  2) " I p 2 (n)
current. Instantaneous active power can be determined as:
C I q 2 (n  N  1) I q 2 (n  N  2) " I q 2 (n)
p V i Va ia  Vbib  Vc ic 12
# # #

pM ( n  N  1 ) I pM ( n  N  2 ) " I pM ( n ) Then, the instantaneous active current vector i p is

qM ( n  N  1) I qM ( n  N  2) " I qM ( n ) defined as
Provided data window of length N, enter a set length iap
of historical data during adaptive prediction. In a neural p
network, the latest set of network power N value is ip ibp V 13
obtained: t n  N  1, t  N  2 , , Right Calculated i V V
values of n timeas shown in the following matrix cp
Since the three-phase current vector is always equal to
Where I p and i q subscript m represents the first the sum of i p and iq ,the instantaneous compensating
harmonic; in parentheses represents the n-th time. *
Therefore, a harmonic order of each row represents a current reference ic can be written as
calculated value of each time period; each column p
represents the calculated value at a time for each order ic* iq i p  i V  i 14
harmonics. In order to predict the harmonics of the V V
Thus, for any given three-phase current, instantaneous
n  1 time, just find the matrix continuation to the harmonic current compensation command shown in Figure
first n  1 . 2. In addition, non-linear loads and unbalanced loads can
Historical error before the N  1 time and n time cause the power section, around the average active power,
error is calculated as follows: P oscillation power section without any contribution, active
and should be removed. This is part of a low-pass filter can
'w jk KG ko y j K (d k  ok )ok (1  ok ) y j be used to extract the active power flow (LPF).


'vij KG j xi K (G k w jk ) y j (1  y j ) xi
y o A. Detection Structure
k 1 Figure 4 shows the harmonic detection using adaptive
(10) neural network implementation. Constituted by the PLL
Where k 0,1, " , N  1 .Total error: frequency voltage, which is the basic frequency, adaptive
l neural network prediction algorithm, which can give more
G jy (G ko w jk ) y j (1  y j ) (11) harmonic component and the fundamental active or
k 1 reactive currents.
Neural Networks
B. Adaptive neural network training Weight adjustment Harmonic
ANN components
Each output artificial neural network is possible the Voltage Phase-Locked
Adaptive Negative sequence
Loop Prediction
range [-1,1]. Output trained artificial neural network, if the Array
difference exceeds a threshold between PV output and
reduce output over - take 1, take training and value + 1 if
the difference is less than the threshold. Threshold can be + - 
Fig. 4 Harmonic Detection Chart
set to any value between the minimum and maximum 1 to
19. If, on the other hand, is set to a higher value, and then, V. SIMULATION RESULTS
the result is an ideal value calculated at the intensity level
In order to verify the performance of the detection
is correct.
algorithm, through the use of simulation software for the

photovoltaic power station psacd. Single-phase 220V This work was supported by the Qinghai Province key
power supply voltage rms, and use the PV power plant and Laboratory of Photovoltaic Power Generation and
grid-connected inverter as a harmonic source. Grid-connected Technology (Grant No. 2014-Z-Y34A).
In a phase current, Figure 6 is a reactive current References
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