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B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

CHNG I: PHN TCH, TNH TON KT CU

1. Tng quan v phn tch, tnh ton kt cu.


Phn tch, tnh ton kt cu l mt cng vic c bn ca qu trnh thit k. Trong qu trnh ny,
cc ng x ca cc b phn cng trnh di tc dng ca cc loi ti trng s c xc nh.
Cc kt qu ca ca phn tch - tnh ton kt cu l c s cho nhng quyt nh v phng n
thit k: chp nhn, hy b phng n hay chnh sa li thit k.

Bt u

Xc nh cc kch thc, b tr
cu to cc b phn cng trnh

Phn tch, tnh ton kt cu di Thit k


tc dng ca ti trng li hoc
chnh sa

Kim ton
kt cu
Khng t yu cu

t yu cu

Kt thc

Hnh II-1: V tr ca phn t ch kt cu trong qu tr nh thit k


R rng rng, vic phn tch tnh ton kt cu khng th thc hin trn khng gian thc (vi
cc cng trnh thc v iu kin thc) vi cc l do sau:
Trong qu trnh thit k, cng trnh thc cha th hnh thnh. Bn thit k ch th hin
nhng d nh p dng cho cng trnh trong tng lai v c th s thay i sau chnh
qu trnh phn tch v kim ton kt cu.
Nu cng trnh thc tn ti th vic phn tch, tnh ton chi tit gp rt nhiu kh
khn v tn km.
Do vy, qu trnh ny thng c thc hin da trn m hnh m phng cng trnh thc. M
hnh ny phi tha mn vic m t cc i tng thc vi chnh xc yu cu theo kha cnh
xem xt ( y l di gc c hc). Qu trnh to ra mt m hnh tnh ton tng ng vi
cng trnh thc gi l qu trnh m hnh ha kt cu. C 2 loi m hnh c s dng:
M hnh thc nghim: l m hnh thu nh c ch to nhm m phng cng trnh
thc. Vic ch to m hnh thc nghim v tin hnh th nghim thng mt nhiu
thi gian v rt tn km. Hn na, khi m hnh thc nghim c ch to xong th
vic chnh sa m hnh cho ph hp hn vi thc t s gp nhiu kh khn. V vy
loi m hnh ny thng p dng i vi nhng phn tch c bit m cc m hnh l
thuyt gp kh khn hoc cn c kim nghim thm. V d: phn tch ng x ca
cu treo nhp ln di tc dng ca ti trng gi ng, m hnh thu nh ca cu
thng c ch to v a vo hm gi th nghim. Cc kt qu ca m hnh thc
nghim phi c hiu chnh ri mi c p dng cho cng trnh thc t.

Hnh II-2: M hnh thc nghim trong hm gi ca cu Tacoma mi ( Nht Bn)


M hnh l thuyt: l m hnh tnh ton c to ra da trn cc gi thuyt v l
thuyt c hc, trong cc i tng thc c n gin ha thnh nhng s tnh.
Qu trnh tnh ton, phn tch s c thc hin trn cc s ny theo cc phng
php ca c hc kt cu v sc bn vt liu. Vi nhng kt cu phc tp, cc s
tnh thng c to ra da trn cc chng trnh my tnh v c gi l m hnh s
ca kt cu. Vic tnh ton m hnh s cng c thc hin trn cc phn mm. Tt
nhin, s ph hp ca kt qu tnh ton s ph thuc vo s ng n ca m hnh s.
ng vi mt cng trnh thc, cc k s c th a ra nhng m hnh s khc nhau.
Tuy vy, cc m hnh ny lun phi tun theo mt yu cu c bn: m t c ng x
ca cng trnh vi chnh xc ph hp. Do , sau khi mt m hnh s c to ra
th m hnh c th c chnh sa nhiu ln vi mc tiu m t kt cu thc tt
hn.

Chnh
sa Khng tha mn

Chn m hnh
Kim tra tnh cui cng
M hnh tnh ng n thc hin
ban u ca m hnh phn tch,
Tha mn tnh ton

Hnh II-3: M hnh ha kt cu l mt qu trnh lp


Nh vy, c th ni rng m hnh l thuyt c tnh kh thi v linh ng hn so vi m hnh
thc nghim. Vic s dng m hnh loi ny cng cho php thc hin nhiu phng n thit k
khc nhau cho cc b phn ca cng trnh. Hin nay, s tin b trong nghin cu cc phng
php tnh kt hp vi qu trnh pht trin nh v bo ca cng ngh thng tin khin cho vic
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

to dng cc m hnh m phng l thuyt tr nn ngy cng d dng v nhanh chng. iu


gii thch ti sao cc s tnh l thuyt c dng ph bin trong phn tch kt cu.

Hnh II-4: M hnh s ca cu Sungsan Grand II (Seoul, Hn Quc) trong MIDAS/Civ il


Khi s dng m hnh tnh l thuyt, qu trnh phn tch kt cu s c thc hin theo trnh t
sau:
1. Thu thp cc s liu thit k.
2. M hnh ha kt cu.
3. Tnh ton kt cu da trn m hnh tnh ra.
4. Phn tch nh gi kt qu.
5. Xut kt qu.
Trnh t ny c th biu din thnh s sau:

Bt u thu thp Qu trnh m hnh ha cn c


s liu thit k th c gi l qu trnh tin
x l (Preprocessor)
Qu trnh phn tch, tnh ton
cn c th c gi l qu trnh
x l (Solve)
M hnh ha kt cu Cc thao tc vi kt qu cn c
th c gi l qu trnh hu x
l (Postprocessor)

Phn tch kt cu vi Phn tch


m hnh ra nguyn nhn

Khng ph hp

nh gi Kt thc - xut
Hin th kt qu kt qu
kt qu
Ph hp

Hnh II-5: Cc bc ca qu trnh m hnh ha v phn tch kt cu


Hin nay, c rt nhiu phn mm h tr ngi dng trong vic m hnh ha v phn tch kt
cu nh: SAP2000, MIDAS/Civil, RM2004, ANSYS, LUSAS, Abaqus,Mi phn mm u
c u im v nhc im ring. Vic la chn phn mm no c th s dng ph hp ph i
da trn s phn tch yu cu cng vic, kh nng ca phn mm, nng lc v nhn s v ti
chnh ca n v s dng.

2. Qu trnh m hnh ha kt cu
Nh trnh by trn, qu trnh m hnh ha kt cu thc cht l vic a khng gian thc
(vi cc cng trnh thc ti thi im hin ti hoc tng lai) v mt m hnh c hc tng
ng. Qu trnh ny cn da trn nhng gi thit v cc nguyn l c hc. M hnh tnh to ra
phi phn nh c kt cu thc v cc kha cnh c bn sau:
Hnh hc: th hin v tr cng nh kch thc ca cc b phn cng trnh thc.
Vt liu: nhng c tnh c hc ca cc loi vt liu trong m hnh phi tng ng
nhng c im c hc ca cc loi vt liu s dng trong cng trnh thc.
Lin kt: cc thnh phn trong m hnh tnh phi phn nh c s rng buc ln nhau
ca cc b phn kt cu cng nh ca kt cu vi mi trng trong khng gian thc.
Ti trng: cc ti trng m t trong m hnh tnh phi tng ng vi nhng tc ng
ln cng trnh thc (theo thit k ra).

CH Ngoi ra, nu cng trnh lm vic theo nhiu giai on khc nhau hoc c thi
cng phn on th m hnh tnh cng phi phn nh c iu (ngha l: m hnh tnh
s phi gm nhiu m hnh ng vi nhng giai on lm vic khc nhau ca kt cu).

2.1. M hnh ha hnh hc - phng php phn t hu hn


2.1.1. Phng php m hnh ho
Phng php ph bin m hnh ho hnh hc kt cu hin nay l phng php phn t hu
hn (PTHH). Trong phng php ny, ton b kt cu c ri rc ha v mt vt l thnh mt
s hu hn cc thnh phn nh hn v nhng thnh phn ny s c m hnh ha thnh nhng
m hnh tnh nh gi l phn t. Bin hnh hc ca cc phn t c xc nh t cc nt. S
kt ni gia cc thnh phn trong cng trnh thc th hin qua cc nt chung gia cc phn t.
M hnh s ca cng trnh thc chnh l mt h thng cc phn t lin kt vi nhau thng qua
cc nt (h thng ny cn c gi l li phn t hu hn - FEM Mesh). Vi nhng c im
trn, phng php PTHH cho php m hnh ho cc cu kin cng trnh t n gin n phc
tp.

Hnh II-6: Li phn t hu hn m t cng trnh hm


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-7: Li phn t hu hn (phi) m t t hp nh cao tng Galler ia (Seoul, Hn


Quc)
2.1.2. Mt s m hnh phn t c s dng ph bin trong m hnh ho kt cu
Tu theo c im v hnh hc cng nh s lm vic, c th phn loi cc phn t nh sau:
Phn t dng thanh (1 chiu): phn t dng thanh m t i tng c kch thc mt
chiu ln hn nhiu ln so vi hai kch thc cn li. Cc phn t thanh tuyn tnh
gm hai nt. Cc phn t thanh bc cao s c cc nt trung gian. Theo s lm vic c
th chia cc phn t thanh ra cc loi sau:
Thanh dn: gm hai nt v ch chu lc dc khi lm vic.
Thanh dm: gm hai nt v trn mt ct ngang c tt c cc thnh phn ni lc khi lm
vic.
Cc phn t thanh c bit : phn t lm vic mt chiu (ch chu ko hoc ch chu
nn), cc phn t thanh bc cao (c nt trung gian gia hai nt), cc phn t thanh lm
vic phi tuyn hnh hc,
Mt ct ca
phn t

Nt j

Nt i Trc lm vic
ca phn t

Hnh II-8: Phn t thanh m t dm mt ct ch T

CH Trong phn t dng thanh, trc lm vic chnh l trc i qua cc nt ca n. Ngoi
ra, phi nh ngha mt ct cho thanh m t cc kch thc hnh hc ca i tng
thc theo phng vung gc vi trc thanh. Mt ct phn nh cng v mt hnh hc
ca thanh.

Phn t dng mt (2 chiu): phn t dng mt m t i tng c kch thc mt


chiu nh hn nhiu ln so vi hai kch thc cn li. Theo dng hnh hc, c hai loi
phn t ph bin l phn t dng tam gic v phn t dng t gic. Cc phn t tam
gic bc cao v t gic bc cao c th c cc nt trung gian gia cc nt chnh. Theo
s lm vic c th phn cc phn t dng mt thnh:
Phn t ng sut phng: khi lm vic, ch c ng sut trong mt phng ca n. Phn
t ny thng dng m t cu kin dng mt c hai pha ca mt t do v chu ti
trng nm trong mt phng ca n. V d: cc kt cu tng nh c th c m t
bng cc phn t ng sut phng.
Phn t bin dng phng: khi lm vic, ch bin dng trong mt phng ca n. Phn t
kiu ny thng dng m t cu kin dng mt c hai pha ca mt b kim ch (do
vy khng th bin dng theo phng vung gc vi mt).
Phn t tm: khi lm vic, chu lc chnh theo phng vung gc vi mt phng ca
n. V d: cc kt cu cu bn, cc sn nh u c th c m t bi cc phn t tm.
CH Trong phn t dng mt, mt lm vic l mt i qua cc nt ca n. Ngoi ra, phi
nh ngha chiu dy cho phn t m t kch thc hnh hc ca i tng thc theo
phng vung gc vi mt lm vic ca n. Chiu dy phn nh cng v mt hnh hc
ca tm.

Phn t dng khi (3 chiu): phn t dng khi m t i tng c kch thc cc
chiu tng ng nhau. Nu phn loi theo dng hnh hc th c ba loi phn t ph
bin l phn t khi t din (bn mt), phn t khi lc din (su mt) v phn t hnh
nm (nm mt). Cc phn t bc cao c th c nt trung gian trn cc cnh v mt ca
khi.

(a) (c)
(b)
Hnh II-9: Cc khi t din (a), lc din (b), hnh nm (c)

2.2. M hnh ha vt liu


Mt loi vt liu trong thc t c rt nhiu cc thuc tnh khc nhau: cng, kch thc ht,
trng lng ring, mu sc, cu to ha hc,R rng rng rt kh c th m t tt c cc
c im ny. ng thi, v mt c hc cng ch c mt s thuc tnh lin quan n ng x
ca kt cu khi chu ti. V vy qu trnh m hnh ha vt liu (cho bi ton phn tch kt cu)
thc cht l xc nh cc thuc tnh c hc ca vt liu hay tr li hai cu hi:
Vt liu trong m hnh cn nhng thuc tnh no c th phn nh c ng x ca
kt cu thc khi chu ti?
Gi tr cc thuc tnh ca vt liu trong m hnh phi nh th no?
2.2.1. Cc thuc tnh c bn ca vt liu
M-un n hi: phn nh quan h ng sut - bin dng trong vt liu khi chu ti. Vi
cc vt liu lm vic n hi tuyn tnh, gi tr m-un n hi l khng i (quan h
ng sut bin dng l ng thng). Vi nhng vt liu lm vic phi tuyn, gi tr m-
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

un n hi thay i theo ng sut trong vt liu (quan h ng sut - bin dng l


ng cong).
H s n ngang (Poisson): phn nh s nh hng ln nhau gia ng sut, bin dng
ca cc phng khc nhau. V d: mt mu b tng c th b bin dng ngang khi chu
nn theo phng thng ng.
H s dn n nhit: phn nh ng x ca kt cu khi nhit thay i. V d: cc dm
thp b dn n do tng nhit khi b nng chiu.
Trng lng ring: phn nh trng lc ca kt cu trn mt n v th tch. Trng
lng ring cho php xc nh ra ti trng bn thn ca kt cu. Cn ch rng: trng
lng ring khng ch ph thuc vo bn thn vt liu m cn ph thuc vo gia tc
trng trng ti ni cng trnh c xy dng.
Khi lng ring: khi lng ring phn nh mt vt cht ca kt cu trong mt
n v th tch. Khi lng ring cho php xc nh ra khi lng ca kt cu v t
xc nh c qun tnh ca cc b phn cng trnh. Cc thng s ny cn thit khi
xem xt ng x ca cng trnh di tc dng ca cc ti trng ng (phn tch ng
t, dao ng,).
Cng : phn nh gii hn chu lc ca vt liu.
2.2.2. S bin i ca cc thuc tnh vt liu
Trong thc t, khng phi lc no gi tr cc thuc tnh ca vt liu cng n nh. Cc thuc
tnh ch n nh trong nhng iu kin v thi im nht nh. C rt nhiu thuc tnh s thay
i theo thi gian v c im chu lc. V d: gi tr m-un n hi cng nh cng ca
b tng ph thuc vo tui v ti trng ca n. V vy, khi xc nh cc thng s ca vt liu
cn ch : cc gi tr ph hp vi bi ton phn tch no (phn tch tnh, tuyn tnh hay phn
tch phi tuyn vt liu,) v thi im no.
2.3. M hnh lin kt
2.3.1. Khi ni m v phn loi
Lin kt phn nh s rng buc ca cc b phn kt cu vi nhau hoc vi mi trng m kt
cu ta ln. S rng buc ny c th hin hai dng: chuyn v v lc.
Vi cc lin kt ngoi (tc l cc lin kt ca cc b phn cng trnh vi mi trng):
chuyn v ti cc nt theo phng lin kt s b khng ch bi theo chuyn v ti mi
trng. Ti cc nt s c tng tc gia kt cu vi mi trng v xut hin phn
lc lin kt tc dng ln cng trnh.

Chuyn v
Chuyn v
ng bng 0
ng bng 0

Phn lc Phn lc

Hnh II-10: Lin kt ngoi ti gi ca dm gin n c m t trong m hnh


Vi cc lin kt trong (tc l cc lin kt gia cc b phn kt cu vi nhau): chuyn
v gia cc nt tham gia lin kt s b rng buc vi nhau. Xt v mt lc, cc ni lc
ng vi phng lin kt s c truyn qua lin kt; ngc li, cc ni lc ng vi
phng khng tham gia lin kt s khng c truyn qua lin kt. V vy ng vi v
tr ln cn lin kt ca cc b phn, c th xy ra s trit tiu v ni lc hay bc nhy
v chuyn v.

Hnh II-11: Lin kt trong dm-tr c m t trong m hnh PTHH


2.3.2. Cc yu t cn m t trong mt lin kt
Cc b phn tham gia lin kt (cc nt, cc phn t tham gia lin kt).
Cc thnh phn ca lin kt (cc chuyn v rng buc hay khng ch, cc thnh phn
ni lc b trit tiu,). Cc thnh phn lin kt cn c m t vi nhng c trng
sau:
H ta ca lin kt: cho bit cc thnh phn lin kt c xc nh theo cc trc
chun nh th no.
cng ca cc thnh phn lin kt: cng c th ly tuyt i (trong trng hp
l tng ha lin kt) hoc cng l hu hn. Vic la chn cng cho mt lin
kt ty thuc vo trng hp c th v chnh xc yu cu. Trong trng hp
cng thc ca lin kt c nhn nh ln hn rt nhiu ln cng ca bn thn kt
cu th c th coi lin kt c cng bng v cng. Vic l tng ha trn s gip
m hnh tnh tr nn n gin hn. Trong trng hp ngc li, th phi m t lin kt
vi cng hu hn v c xc nh r rng t i tng thc. Tt nhin, qu trnh
s mt thi gian hn (v khng phi lc no cng c th xc nh ngay cng ca
lin kt); ng thi, m hnh tnh ton cng phc tp hn.

Dm b tng Dm b tng
Nn l cng Nn l t mm

Gi cng Gi n hi

Hnh II-12: cng lin kt s c coi l v hn hay hu hn ty vo t nn m kt cu


ta ln

2.4. M hnh ha ti trng


Cc ti trng trong m hnh tnh biu din cc tc ng ln kt cu trong qu trnh lm vic.
Vic phn loi cc ti trng trong qu trnh m hnh ha da trn cc yu t sau:
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Nguyn nhn gy ra tc ng (do trng lc, do t p, do ng t, do xe c,...).


Dng tc ng (tc ng lc, nhit , chuyn v cng bc,).
Thi gian tc dng ca ti trng (thi im bt u tc dng, tnh cht ngn hn hay
di hn).
2.4.1. Mt s dng tc ng ph bin
Tc ng lc: tc dng dng ny c xc nh vi cc c trng bao gm v tr hay
khng gian chu tc ng, cng ca tc ng v phng-chiu ca tc ng.
Theo c im phn b tc dng, tc ng lc thng c chia thnh:
Ti trng tp trung: ti trng t ti mt im, c ln, phng v chiu xc nh.
Ti trng phn b: ti trng tc dng trn mt on, mt min hay mt th tch nht
nh.
Theo c im thay i v tr tc dng, cc ti trng lc c th c chia thnh:
Ti trng c nh: l ti trng m v tr t lc khng thay i theo thi gian.
Ti trng di ng: l ti trng m v tr t lc bin i theo thi gian.
Theo c im ng lc th c th chia tc ng dng lc thnh:
Ti trng tnh: ti trng tc dng c tnh cht tnh, khng gy ra lc qun tnh hay gia
tc trong cc b phn kt cu.
Ti trng ng: ti trng tc dng c tnh ng, gy ra lc qun tnh v gia tc trong
cc b phn kt cu.
Tc ng do nhit thay i: s thay i nhit trong kt cu dn n bin dng
trong ton b kt cu hoc bin dng khng u trong cc thnh phn kt cu, t c
th pht sinh ni lc v ng sut trong kt cu. Ti trng nhit thay i c th c
chia ra thnh cc loi sau:
Nhit thay i trn ton b kt cu.
Nhit thay i khc nhau trn tng b phn ca kt cu.
Nhit ti tng phn, tng pha ca mt b phn thay i khc nhau.
Tc ng do chuyn v cng bc: tc ng ny l s chuyn v tng i gia cc b
phn kt cu hoc gia kt cu vi nn mng.
2.4.2. Cc trng hp ti (cc loi hay nhm ti trng)
Ty theo nguyn nhn tc ng, c im tc ng m cc ti trng c t chc thnh cc
nhm khc nhau xem xt gi l cc trng hp ti. Cc ti trng khi c a vo cng mt
trng hp ti s c xem xt vi quan im cng nh h s nh gi tng t nhau (v d:
theo qui trnh thit k cu 22TCN 272-05, cc ti trng bn thn ca dm dc v dm ngang
cng ly h s ging nhau trong tng t hp ti trng v chng cng thuc mt nhm ti trng
bn thn DC).
Mt s trng hp ti theo qui trnh cu 22TCN 272-05:
Ti trng thng xuyn:
DD: ti trng ko xung (xt hin tng ma st m).
DC: ti trng bn thn ca cc b phn kt cu v thit b ph phi kt cu.
DW: ti trng bn thn ca lp ph mt v cc tin ch cng cng.
EH: ti trng p lc t nm ngang.
EL: cc hiu ng b hm tch lu do phng php thi cng.
ES: ti trng t cht thm..
EV: p lc thng ng do t trng t p.
Ti trng nht thi:
BR: lc hm xe.
CE: lc ly tm.
CR: t bin.
CT: lc va xe.
CV: lc va tu.
EQ: ng t.
FR: ma st.
IM: lc xung kch (lc ng ) ca xe.
LL: hot ti xe.
LS: hot ti cht thm.
PL: ti trng ngi i.
SE: ln.
SH: co ngt.
TG: gradien nhit.
TU: nhit u.
WA: ti trng nc v p lc dng chy.
WL: gi trn hot ti.
WS: ti trng gi trn kt cu.
2.4.3. Cc t hp ti trng
T hp ti trng bao gm mt tp hp cc trng hp ti c xem xt tc ng ln kt cu
mt trng thi nht nh.
Vic to ra cc t hp ti trng nhm to ra trng thi bt li nht v ti trng cho kt cu (tt
nhin cc t hp c to ra phi mang tnh thc t). Cc yu t cn xem xt trong mt t hp
ti trng l:
Nhng ti trng tham gia t hp.
Cc h s ca tng trng hp ti trong t hp.
Kt qu tnh ton vi t hp ti trng c xem xt theo kiu no? (cng tc dng ca
cc trng hp ti hay xt ng bao kt qu ca cc trng hp ti, ).
Cc t hp ti trng theo qui trnh thit k cu 22TCN 272-05 c xc nh theo bng 3.4.1-1
ca quy trnh:
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-13: Bng qui nh cc ti trng v h s ti trng trong quy trnh 22TCN 272- 05

2.5. M hnh ha kt cu cng trnh theo giai on thi cng


Hu ht cc cng trnh u c xy dng trong mt thi gian di v qua nhiu giai on khc
nhau. S lm vic ca cng trnh hay b phn cng trnh trong qu trnh thi cng c th khc xa
vi s lm vic ca cng trnh giai on khai thc. S khc nhau ny c th c th hin
nhiu kha cnh khc nhau nh s chu lc ca kt cu, tc ng, tnh nng c hc ca vt
liu,
nh gi c s lm vic ca kt cu trong giai on thi cng cng nh nh hng ca cc
tc ng qu trnh ny n s lm vic ca kt cu giai on khai thc, cn thit phi thc
hin vic phn tch kt cu theo tng giai on thi cng. Trong hu ht cc trng hp, phn
tch kt cu trong giai on thi cng l mt cng vic rt phc tp, do trong qu trnh thi cng,
trng thi v thnh phn kt cu, c tnh vt liu cng nh cc tc ng thng xuyn thay
i. Mc tiu ca vic phn tch kt cu trong gia i on thi cng l xem xt v m hnh ha
mt cch y v chnh xc s thay i trng thi kt cu cng nh cc tc ng trong tng
giai on lm c s cho vic thit k cu to vnh cu cho cng trnh khi khai thc cng nh
cu to tm thi phc v thi cng.
2.5.1. Cc vn trong m hnh ha kt cu thi cng phn on
Cc cu kin hay hng mc ca cng trnh c hnh th nh dn trong qu trnh thi cng v c
th m t s hnh thnh cng trnh theo s thay i trng thi ca n. Mt cch tng i, c
th chia qu trnh xy dng cng trnh c thnh cc giai on, mi giai on chim mt
khong thi gian nht nh v trong thi gian c s thay i v trng thi ca cng trnh. V
d, mt s hng mc cng trnh c chuyn sang v tr mi, mt s khc c xy dng thm
hay ph b, mt s b phn bt u tham gia lm vic do vt liu t cng , Cng
ngh thi cng gp phn quyt nh ti s thay i trng thi ca cng trnh trong qu trnh thi
cng.
S thay i trng thi lm vic ca cng trnh c th hin qua cc yu t chnh sau:
S thay i v thnh phn cu to ca cng trnh: Trong cc giai on thi cng, mt
s hng mc mi c xy dng thm hoc tham gia lm vic vi cc hng mc
c, mt s hng mc hoc thit b ph tm c d b,... Nhng yu t ny gp phn
lm thay i thnh phn cu to ca cng trnh. Hnh II-14 di y m t s thay i
trng thi lm vic ca mt cu kin dm thp lin hp bn b tng ct thp: trc khi
vt liu b tng t cng , b phn chu lc chnh ca cu kin l dm thp nhng
sau khi vt liu b tng t cng , bn b tng ct thp tham gia chu lc cng vi
dm thp v cu kin tr thnh cu kin lin hp vi cc c trng c hc hon ton
khc trc.
Giai on 1: bn b tng, b tng cha Giai on 2: Khi bn b tng t cng ,
t cng . Tit din lm vic ch c dm tit din lm vic l tit din lin hp (c bn v
thp. dm thp).

Hnh II-14: Cc giai on lm v ic ca dm t hp lin hp


S thay i v lin kt hay rng buc gia cc b phn trong cng trnh: y cng c
th l h qu ca s thay i v thnh phn cu to. Trong mt giai on thi cng, mt
s lin kt mi c to ra v mt s khc s c thay th hoc b i. Trong v d
c ch ra trong Hnh II-15 di y: trc khi hp long, dm v tr c lin kt
vi nhau thng qua cc tr tm v thanh neo; sau khi hp long, cc lin kt ny c
b i. Nh vy lin kt dm-tr trong m hnh s c chuyn t ngm cng sang lin
kt gi.
Giai on 1 Giai on 2
Dm c gn cng vo tr thng qua h Sau khi ph gi tm v tho g h thng thanh
thng thanh neo cng cao v cc gi tm. neo, dm ch ta ln tr thng qua gi cu.

Hnh II-15: S thay i lin kt dm-tr trong qu tr nh thi cng cu c hng


S thay i cc tc ng ln cng trnh: Trong mi giai on thi cng, ty thuc vo
cc cng vic c thc hin, mt s tc ng mi c th xut hin hoc cc tc ng
ang c b mt i. S thay i cc tc ng ny s lm thay i trng thi chu lc ca
cng trnh. V d v s thay i tc ng trong cc giai on thi cng c minh ha
trn Hnh II-16 giai on ko d ng lc trong cp dy vng, cng trnh chu thm
lc ko ny trong khi lc ny khng c giai on trc . Mt v d khc l nhit
do s thy ha b tng cc khi b tng c sau c th gy tc ng ln cc khi
c thi cng trc ,...
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Giai on 1: Lp dy Giai on 2: Cng dy

Hnh II-16: S thay i v lc cng dy trong cc giai on thi cng cu treo dy


vng
S thay i v v tr ca mt s hng mc no hay ton b cng trnh : Trong qu
trnh thi cng, v tr ca mt s hng mc cng trnh cng c th thay i. Cc cu
thp thi cng theo phng php lao dc, cc cu b tng thi cng theo phng php
c y (Hnh II-17) l cc v d v s thay i v tr cng trnh trong qu trnh thi
cng.

Hnh II-17: S thay i v tr cc hng mc cng tr nh trong qu trnh thi cng cu


c y
S thay i theo thi gian ca cc tnh nng vt liu: Mt s vt liu, nht l b tng,
c nhiu tnh nng thay i theo thi gian. in hnh trong s ny l s thay i cng
v cng. Nhng s thay i ny dn n s thay i cu to ca kt cu nh
c nu trn hoc lm thay i c tnh lm vic ca kt cu do c s thay i
cng tng i gia cc b phn.
S thay i theo thi gian ca cc ng x kt cu: Theo thi gian, mt s gi tr ng
x ca kt cu cng c nhng thay i. V d, do hin tng co ngt v t bin trong
b tng, gi tr bin dng ca cc cu kin b tng thay i v dn n s thay i cc
gi tr khc, nh gim ni lc do d ng lc hay lm xut hin cc ni lc mi do s
cng bc v chuyn v,...
2.5.2. Cc yu t cn xc nh trong m hnh ha giai on thi cng
Bn cht ca vic m hnh ha l vic a cc kt cu thc cng cc tc ng thc v m hnh
tnh ph hp vi mc tiu xem xt. Vi gc phn tch kt cu, m hnh tnh bao gm m
hnh kt cu cng cc iu kin bin v cc m hnh ti trng. Nh vy, m hnh ha kt cu
theo cc giai on thi cng l vic lp cc m hnh tnh tng ng vi cc giai on thi cng.
Cc m hnh ny phi phn nh chnh xc s thay i trng thi lm vic ca kt cu thng qua
vic cp nht s thay i v thnh phn kt cu, v iu kin bin v ti trng theo tng giai
on thi cng. Mi giai on c mt m hnh tnh tng ng nhng cc m hnh ny c quan
h hu c vi nhau. Thng thng, m hnh tnh giai on sau c xy dng t m hnh
giai on trc thng qua mt s thay i v:
Thnh phn kt cu: Thnh phn kt cu c th c b sung thm hoc bt i ty
thuc vo ni dung cng vic c thc hin trong giai on thi cng c xem xt.
iu kin bin: iu kin bin v lin kt trong m hnh tnh cn c cp nht tng
ng vi thnh phn kt cu v ni dung cng vic c thc hin trong giai on thi
cng.
Ti trng: Tng ng vi qu trnh thi cng, trong m hnh tnh ca mt giai on c
th c thm nhng ti trng mi hoc b i nhng ti trng ang c cc m hnh ng
vi cc giai on trc .
c trng vt liu: c trng vt liu trong m hnh tnh cng cn c cp nht
thng qua cc thng s c lin quan n tui ca cc thnh phn tham gia.
CH Ngoi ra cng cn ch rng vic m hnh ha kt cu theo cc giai on thi cng
cng phi ty theo quan im v phng php phn tch. V d, trong phng php phn
tch thun (forward analysis) th cc giai on c m hnh ha l t trng thi ban u
n trng thi cui cng, cn trong phn tch ngc (backward analysis), cc giai on li
c m hnh ha theo trnh t t trng thi cui cng n trng thi xut pht.

2.5.3. Mt s ni dung ca vic phn tch kt cu thi cng phn on


Cn c theo mc tiu c xc nh, vic phn tch kt cu theo cc giai on thi cng c
th c cc ni dung sau:
Tnh ton ni lc, ng sut v bin dng trong qu trnh thi cng do cc tc ng gy
ra mi giai on thi cng nh ti trng thi cng, thy nhit, co ngt, t bin cng
nh cc trng hp ti trng tai bin khc.
Xc nh v tr cc b phn cng trnh tng giai on thi cng.
Tnh ton iu chnh ni lc, vng trong thi cng t c v tr, hnh dng hoc
ni lc mong mun ca kt cu.

3. Phn tch kt cu - Qu trnh x l


3.1. Thit lp cho qu trnh phn tch
Vic thit lp cho qu trnh phn tch c th rt cn thit trc khi tin hnh phn tch kt cu
cho php gii hn cc loi phn tch cn thit cng nh xc nh cc thng s cho cc qu trnh
phn tch . iu lm cho qu trnh phn tch, tnh ton s nhanh hn, tit kim ti nguyn
cho h thng my tnh hn m vn t ti nhng kt qu theo yu cu ra. Ngoi ra trong
nhiu trng hp, cn c nhng thit lp ring cho nhng qu trnh phn tch c bit.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

3.2. Tin hnh phn tch, tnh ton


Sau qu trnh m hnh ha, vic phn tch, tnh ton kt cu s c thc hin da trn cc m
hnh s hay s tnh lp. Khi ng dng phn mm tnh ton kt cu, thao tc ny n
gin ch l chy chng trnh phn tch. Tt nhin khng phi lc no qu trnh phn tch
cng din ra sun s v c th qu trnh m hnh ha hoc thit lp cho phn tch cha ph hp.
Vi nhng phn mm phn tch kt cu hin i, lun c s hin th cc kt qu trung gian
cng nh thng bo ti ngi dng trong qu trnh phn tch. Cc thng bo c th phn loi
nh sau:
Thng bo li khng th thc hin phn tch: thng bo ny xut hin trong trng
hp m hnh tnh cha s liu hoc m hnh b li khin chng trnh khng th
tin hnh phn tch c.

Hnh II-18: Thng bo li khng th chy chng trnh khi m hnh khng c ti
trng
Thng bo xut hin trong qu trnh phn tch: thng bo li xy ra trong qu trnh
phn tch khin cho qu trnh ny khng th tip tc c. Ngoi ra, cc cnh bo
(warning) cng c th xut hin. Vi nhng cnh bo ny, chng trnh s tip tc
nhng kt qu tnh ton c th khng ph hp v khng th s dng c.

Hnh II-19: Cnh bo xut hin khi mt nt trong m hnh khng lin kt

CH Qu trnh phn tch ch c coi l thnh cng nu khng xut hin bt k thng
bo li hoc cnh bo no. Tuy nhin mt s cnh bo c ng c th c chp nhn nu
k s d tnh v xc nhn rng cc cnh bo khng h nh hng n kt qu tnh
ton.

4. Cc thao tc vi kt qu - Qu trnh hu x l
4.1. Hin th kt qu
Sau qu trnh phn tch, vic hin th kt qu l yu cu tt yu. Vi mt bi ton phn tch kt
cu, cc kt qu hin th thng l: ni lc, ng sut, bin dng (chuyn v). Ngoi ra, cc kt
qu cn c th l: mt mt ng sut, dn di cp DL, vng, cc dng dao ng, ng
vi mi loi kt qu, cn xc nh xem nn hin th dng no th ph hp v c th s dng
d dng. Sau y l mt s dng hin th ph bin:
Kt qu dng ha: l kt qu c hin th di dng hnh v cng vi kt cu. Hai
dng kt qu ha thng s dng l biu (kt cu dng thanh) v ng ng
mc. Cc kt qu dng ha c u im rt trc quan, sinh ng gip cho ngi k
s c c thng tin mang tnh tng th v ng x ca ton kt cu khi chu lc. Tuy
nhin n c mc chi tit khng cao v ngi dng khng th bit c cc thng s
ti tng v tr. V vy kt qu dng ha thng c hin th phc v qu trnh
phn tch s b, nh tnh.

Hnh II-20: Biu m- men trong dm lin tc - cho php quan st phn b m- men trn
cc b phn

Kt qu dng bng: kt qu hin th bao gm d liu c trnh by trong cc , hng


v ct. Kt qu dng ny cho php lit k chi tit d liu v ng x ca kt cu ti
tng v tr c th. Do vy mc chi tit ca kt qu dng bng l rt cao v thng
c s dng lm u vo cho nhng qu trnh tip theo ca phn tch kt cu (v d
qu trnh kim ton).

Hnh II-21: Kt qu biu din ng sut di dng bng - c mc chi tit rt cao
Kt qu dng text: kt qu c hin th dng vn bn (thuyt minh) hoc cc file vn
bn. Kt qu dng ny rt chi tit v mang tnh trnh by tt. ng thi, cc kt qu
dng file vn bn cn to kh nng kt ni d liu vi cc phn mm khc (v d nh
cc phn mm kim ton, cc bng tnh,). Nh vy, kt qu dng text nn c s
dng khi trnh by thuyt minh hoc lm d liu u vo cho nhng chng trnh thc
hin qu trnh tip theo ca phn tch kt cu.

Hnh II-22: Kt qu phn tch di dng file text

4.2. Phn tch, nh gi kt qu


Sau khi tin hnh phn tch kt cu, vic hin th kt qu khng c ngha l cng vic hon
tt v kt qu cha chc c th s dng c. Qu trnh nh gi xem kt qu ph hp
vi thc t hay cha, mc ph hp nh th no l rt cn thit v n khng nh kt qu c
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

ng tin cy khng v t c th s dng hay khng. Tt nhin, s nh gi ny l hon ton


mang tnh tng i v ph thuc vo nng lc ca k s kt cu. V d, Hnh II-23 di y
trnh by biu m- men ca mt dm lin tc ba nhp chu ti trng bn thn: biu kt qu
(a) c nh gi l cha ph hp v tn ti m-men dng ti gi, biu (b) ph hp vi d
on ca k s kt cu hn.

a
?

b !
Hnh II-23: Cc kt qu biu m- men khng hp l v hp l cho dm lin tc 3 nhp
Sau y l mt s ch dn mang tnh kinh nghim trong vic nh gi s ph hp ca kt
qu:
Kim tra cc li v cnh bo trong qu trnh phn tch: thng thng, mt kt qu hp
l s xut pht t qu trnh phn tch m khng c bt c thng bo li cng nh cnh
bo no.
Kim tra s phn b ca kt qu theo d on hoc kinh nghim ca ngi k s.
Kim tra kt qu ti nhng v tr m k s c th d on mt cch chc chn: v d
nh chuyn v ti cc gi, s thay i ni lc ng sut ti ni c lin kt hoc ti trng
tp trung.
Nu chc chn hn, c th so snh kt qu vi mt tnh ton c lp khc (chng hn,
kt qu do mt k s khc thc hin).
CH Mt kt qu phn tch phi c xem l c mc ph hp cao th mi c s
dng. Nu kt qu b nh gi l khng ph hp th phi xem xt cc nguyn nhn (cc
yu t trong m hnh tnh, thit lp phn tch) v chnh sa; sau , phi thc hin li qu
trnh phn tch v nh gi li kt qu mi (xem thm tr ong Hnh II-5).

5. Xut kt qu
Qu trnh xut kt qu c din ra sau khi kt qu c nh gi l ph hp. Vic chn kt
qu no xut ph thuc vo yu cu ca bi ton phn tch cng nh cc qu trnh tip theo
ca phn tch kt cu. Cc cng vic thng c thc hin:
Lu d liu m hnh tnh ton.
Vi kt qu dng ha: lu di dng nh v a vo thuyt minh.
Vi kt qu dng bng: chuyn bng vo thuyt minh, c th lu sang dng bng tnh.
Vi kt qu dng text: lu thnh file hoc a vo thuyt minh tnh ton.
6. ng dng MIDAS/Civil trong m hnh ha v phn tch kt
cu.
6.1. Gii thiu v phn mm MIDAS/ Civil
MIDAS/Civil l sn phm mang li nhiu li nhun v ting tm nht c ho MIDAS IT, mc d
phn mm ny ch mi c a ra th trng trong thi gian gn y. MIDAS/Civil c pht
trin chuyn bit cho mc ch phn tch kt cu cu vi rt nhiu tnh nng chuyn bit.
Cc phin bn hin thi ca MIDAS/Civil ch mi c kh nng thit k cu kin theo mt s
dng mt ct nht nh c nh ngha trong c s d liu ca MIDAS/Civil. i vi kt
cu BTCT, MIDAS/Civil c kh nng tnh ton, b tr ct thp cng nh tnh duyt cc mt ct
c dng hnh ch nht, hnh trn,... Nhn chung, thit k cu kin vn cha phi l mt tnh
nng mnh ca MIDAS/Civil.
Theo cc thng k cha y ca MIDAS, cho n nay c hn 4000 cng trnh c thit
k, tnh ton bng cc phn mm ca MIDAS IT. Trong s ny, c rt nhiu cng trnh ni
ting th gii. Thp cao nht th gii ang c thit k hin nay Dubai c phn tch, thit
k vi MIDAS/Gen. Mt s cng trnh nc ta cng c thit k vi h phn mm ny,
trong phi k n ta nh International Business Center (IBC) TP. H Ch Minh. Thit k
ca cng trnh ny ot gii thng vng. Trong lnh vc thit k cu, MIDAS/Civil
c p dng ht sc rng ri trn th gii. Mt s cng trnh cu in hnh trong s ny l:
6.1.1. Cu SooTong

Hnh II-24: M hnh cu SooTong Tr ung Quc


Cu SooTong (Hnh II-24) l cu dy vng ln th hai th gii vi nhp chnh di 1088m, bc
qua sng Dng T, Trung Quc.
Cu SooTong c m hnh ha v phn tch trn MIDAS/Civil vi 1253 nt cng 1532
phn t, trong c 272 phn t cp v 1260 phn t thanh dm tng qut. Vic iu chnh ni
lc c thc hin theo phng php Unknown Load Factor.
6.1.2. Cu Stonecutte r

Hnh II-25: M hnh cu Stonecutter Hng Kng


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Stonecutter (Hnh II-25) l mt cu dy vng ni ting Hng Kng cng nh trn ton th
gii vi chiu di phn cu chnh l 1596 m (289 + 1018 + 289).
6.1.3. Cu Incheon 2 (Incheon 2nd Bridge)

Hnh II-26: M hnh tng th cu Incheon 2


Cu Incheon 2 l cu mi c xy dng ni thnh ph Songdo t lin vi sn bay quc t
Incheon o Youngjong, Hn Quc. Cu c tng chiu di 12,3 km, trong , phn cu dy
vng c nhp chnh 800 m v tng chiu di 1.480 m (80+260+800+260+80). Vi chiu di
nhp ny, cu dy vng Incheon 2 tr thnh mt trong nhng cu dy vng ln nht th gii
hin nay (Hnh II-26).
MIDAS/Civil c p dng tnh ton nhiu hng mc trong cu dy vng Incheon 2,
trong c phn tnh ton khng ch thi cng theo cc phng php m hnh ha thun
(forward modeling) v m hnh ha ngc (backward modeling) cng nh iu chnh ni lc
cp theo phng php Unknown Load Factor.
Ngoi ra MIDAS/Civil cng c p dng phn tch rt nhiu cu ln khc trn th gii
nh West Coast, Youngjong, Victory, Yangtze 3,...
6.2. Giao din lm vic
C th ni, MIDAS/Civil l mt trong nhng phn mm tnh ton kt cu c giao din ha
tt nht hin nay. Nhn chung, giao din ha ca MIDAS/Civil l mt h CAD hon chnh.
Bn cnh kh nng nhp v hin th kt cu theo cc gc nhn v h ta khc nhau,
MIDAS/Civil cn cho php la chn v hin th cc b phn kt cu theo cc iu kin khc
nhau, nh vt liu, loi phn t,..
Tng quan v h thng giao din ca MIDAS/Civil c trnh by trong Hnh II-27. H thng
Menu ca MIDAS/Civil cho php truy nhp d dng cc chc nng lin quan n ton b qu
trnh nhp, xut d liu v phn tch kt cu vi s dch chuyn chut t nht. Phn Works trong
Tree Menu c kh nng qun l ton b qu trnh m hnh ha v cho php ngi dng xem xt
trng thi ca d liu u vo mt cch nhanh chng. Vi tnh nng ko v th (drag drop)
chng trnh cho php hiu chnh mt cch nhanh chng d liu trong qu trnh m hnh ha.
Hnh II-27: H thng giao din ca MIDA S/Civ il
6.2.1. Menu (Menu)
Menu gip cho ngi s dng d dng kch hot cc chc nng hay c s dng trong
MIDAS/Civil.
File: bao gm cc chc nng v file, in n v cc chc nng lin quan.
Edit: cung cp cc chc nng Undo v Redo cng nh cc chc nng khc lin quan.
View: cung cp cch biu din trc quan v cc hm h tr, cc chc nng la chn,
cc chc nng kch hot v b kch hot,
Model: nhp d liu m hnh v t ng pht sinh li, nt, phn t, cc thng s mt
ct, cc iu kin bin, khi lng,
Analysis: nhp vo tt c cc d liu iu khin cn thit cho qu trnh phn tch v
cc chc nng thc thi phn tch.
Results: to cc t hp ti trng, a ra kt qu phn tch (phn lc, chuyn v, cc
thnh phn lc, ng sut, dng dao ng, dng mt n nh,), kim tra v cung cp
cc chc nng phn tch kt qu,
Design: t ng thit k kt cu thp, thp lin hp b tng, b tng ct thp, kim tra
theo tiu chun.
Mode: cung cp chc nng chuyn i gia hai ch tin x l v hu x l.
Query: cung cp cc chc nng kim tra trng thi ca nt, phn t v d liu lin
quan.
Tools: thit lp h thng n v v cc thng s giao din, thi hnh lnh qua file text
(MCT Command Shell), tnh ton thng k vt liu, pht sinh s liu ng t, tnh
ton c trng mt ct,
Window: cung cp cc chc nng iu khin i vi tt c cc ca s trong ca s
chnh v cc chc nng sp xp ca s.
Help: cung cc cng c gip v truy cp ti trang ch MIDAS IT.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

6.2.2. H thng thanh cng c (Toolbar)


Mi biu tng c nhm li vi cc biu tng c mc ch tng t nhau trong nhiu thanh
cng c (toolbar). Mi thanh cng c c th d dng c ko bng chut n v tr mong
mun trn mn hnh.
Cc menu cng nh toolbar c th c hiu chnh xut hin mt cch chn lc trn mn
hnh bng cch s dng menu Tools Customize (Hnh II-28). c thm thng tin v bt c
biu tng no trong thanh cng c ngi dng t v tr con tr chut ln biu tng , mt
m t ngn gn v n v biu tng (tooltip) s hin ra.

Hnh II-28: Hiu chnh menu v toolbars


6.2.3. Menu dng cy (Tree menu)
Menu dng cy l mt cu trc dng cy, gm ton b cng c m hnh ha t d liu u vo
cho phn tch, thit k v chun b tnh ton c t chc c h thng. Menu dng cy c cc
thnh phn sau:
Menu Tree: t chc thnh dng cy vi cc biu tng ca tt c cc menu h thng.
Table Tree: qun l tt c cc d liu ca kt cu dng bng.
Group Tree: lit k tt c cc nhm v cho php thm bt, chnh sa nhm, gn i
tng cho nhm.
Works Tree: cho php ngi dng nhn thy trng thi ca d liu m hnh hin thi
v c th hiu chnh chng bng cc th tc n gin nh ko v th.
Hnh II-29: Chc nng Ko & Th ( drag & drop) ca menu Works Tree
6.2.4. H thng cc ca s trong MIDAS/Civil
Ca s m hnh (Model View): c chc nng trnh by m hnh, biu din cc kt qu
phn tch v thit k thng qua giao din ha tng tc.
Ca s m hnh c th biu din mt s ca s ng thi trn mn hnh. Bi v mi
ca s trnh din mt cch c lp, nhng h thng ta ngi dng khc nhau c
th c gn cho cc ca s ring r cho mt m hnh. Thm na, mi ca s chia s
cng c s d liu nn ni dung c biu din trong mt ca s s thay i theo cc
ca s khc mt cch ng thi.
Ca s m hnh c th biu din cc hnh dng m hnh ph bin cng nh cc hnh
dng c pht sinh bng cc tnh nng lun cp nht nh cc ng khut, t loi b
cc mt khut, bng, chiu sng, t mu,
Ca s thng ip (Message Window): hin th thng tin cn thit cho m hnh ha,
cc thng tin cnh bo v li.
Ca s bng (Table Window): cc ca s dng bng hin th tt c ton b d liu, cc
kt qu phn tch v thit k trong dng bng ko di. Vi ca s bng, ngi dng c
th thc hin rt nhiu cng vic khc nhau nh hiu chnh v b sung d liu, bin
tp v sp xp d liu theo cc tiu chun khc nhau hoc tm kim. Cc d liu tro ng
cc ca s bng c th c chuyn i d dng vi cc c s d liu ph bin nh
MS-Access hay MS-Excel.

Hnh II-30: Chuyn i d liu gia MIDAS/ Civ il v MS-Excel


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Thanh trng thi (Status Bar): biu din cc vn lin quan n tt c cc loi h
thng ta , chuyn i h thng n v, la chn vic lc, truy vn nhanh, iu
khin bt phn t, lm tng hiu qu lm vic.
6.3. Mt s ch dn trong qu trnh lm vic vi MIDAS
6.3.1. La chn i tng
Cc tnh nng la chn rt quan trng v rt cn thit i vi tt c cc cng tc pht sinh m
hnh kt cu. Trong MIDAS/Civil vic la chn i tng tng t nh trong AutoCAD, gm
c nhng tnh nng ny nh sau:
La chn trc tip trn m hnh: la chn trc tip i tng (nt, phn t,)
trong ca s m hnh ta s dng cc nt sau trn h thng thanh cng c:

Select Single : Chn tng i tng

Select Window : Chn bng ca s ch nht

Select Polygon : Chn bng a gic

Select Intersect : Chn cc im giao

Select Identity-Nodes : Chn theo s hiu nt

Select Identity-Elements : Chn theo s hiu phn t

Select Previous : Chn li i tng c chn trc

Select Recent Entities : Chn cc i tng mi to

Select Plane : Chn theo mt phng

Select Volume : Chn theo khi khng gian

Select All : Chn tt c

Group : Nhm
Ngc li vi thao tc la chn, ta c cc thao tc ngc li l loi b i tng khi
tp hp ang chn nh:

Unselect window : B chn ca s

Unselect all : B chn tt c


Mt vi ch dn khi s dng cc chc nng la chn trc tip trn m hnh:

Select Single: Chn tng i tng mong mun bng mi ln kch chut. Cc
i tng c chn c th c b chn bng cch kch vo chng thm ln
na.

Select Window v Unselect Window: Chc nng ny chn hay b chn cc


i tng trong mt ca s c xc nh bi hai gc cho ca cc ln bm, ko
v th chut.
Khi xc nh ca s, ch chn cc nt v phn t nm hon ton trong ca s
bng cch ko con tr chut t tri qua phi cn khi chn tt c cc phn t bn
trong ca s v ct cc bin ca s bng cch ko chut t phi sang tri.
Select Polygon v Unselect Polygon: Chn hoc b chn cc nt hoc phn
t bng cch kch chut ti cc gc ca a gic cha cc i tng. Khi gc cui
cng c chn, kch chut tri hai ln xc nh mt a gic khp kn ni im
u v im cui va xc nh. Tt c cc nt v phn t nm trong a gic s
c chn hoc b chn.

Select Intersect v Unselect Intersect: Chn hoc b chn cc phn t bng


cch ly ct ngang mt chui cc on thng ni nhau lin tip giao vi cc phn
t bng chut trong ca s m hnh. Khi kch vo im cui cng ca on
thng bng cch nhn phm tri chut hai ln, qu trnh la chn s kt thc.

Select Plane v Unselect Plane: Chn hoc b chn tt c cc nt hoc phn


t nm trong mt phng nht nh. Mt phng c th c xc nh theo cc
cch sau:
3 Points (qua 3 im): Ch nh 3 im nm trong mt phng mong mun.
XY Plane (mt phng XY): Xc nh mt mt phng song song vi mt
phng XY vi ta Z cho trc.
XZ Plane (mt phng XZ): Xc nh mt mt phng song song vi mt
phng XZ vi ta Y cho trc.
YZ Plane (mt phng YZ): Xc nh mt mt phng song song vi mt
phng YZ vi ta X cho trc.

Select Volume v Unselect Volume: Chn hoc b chn tt c cc nt v


phn t nm trong mt khi.
La chn bng ch s: Ngoi vic la chn trc tip, ta c th la chn cc i tng
bng ch s. Vic nh s hiu nt hoc s hiu phn t lin quan c th l mt cp s
cng hoc cp s nhn. Khi , d liu c th c n gin bng cch vit s hiu
u tin to (hoc t) s hiu cui cng hoc s hiu u tin to (hoc t) s hiu
cui cng by bc tng.
V d: 21, 22,, 54, 55, 56 tng ng 21 to 56 hoc 21 t 56
V d: 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60 tng ng 35 to 60 by 5 hoc 35 t 60 by 5

Select Identity: Chn cc i tng bng theo cc thng s vt l hoc hnh hc


ca chng, ngha l chn cc nt hoc phn t vi cc thng s nhn bit, cc kiu hoc
nhm. Cc i tng c th c chn theo mt hoc nhiu thng s nhn bit ng thi.
Cc thng s nhn bit i tng c lit k trong bng sau:

Element Type (Kiu phn t) ngha


Material Chn theo kiu thuc tnh vt liu
Section Chn theo kiu mt ct
Thickness Chn theo kiu chiu dy
Named Plane Chn theo mt phng c t tn
Chn theo m nhn dng ca tng (kt cu dn
Story
dng)
Supports Chn cc nt theo iu kin gi
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Chn cc phn t dm theo iu kin lin kt hai


Beam End Release
u dm
Wall ID Chn theo s hiu ca tng (kt cu dn dng)
Structure Group Chn theo nhm kt cu
Boundary Group Chn theo nhm iu kin bin
Load Group Chn theo nhm ti trng
La chn theo thuc tnh (vt liu, mt ct,): Vic la chn cc i tng c thc
hin thng qua vic kch p trc tip ln loi vt liu, mt ct, c to trong
menu Work Tree v khi cc i tng tng ng s c nh du hin th trong
ca s m hnh (Hnh II-29).
6.3.2. Hin th i tng
MIDAS/Civil cung cp cc chc nng hin th i tng sau:
Biu din m hnh: Cc chc nng biu din hnh dng m hnh ca MIDAS/Civil nh
Wire Frame, Hidden, Shrink, Perspective v Render View dng biu din m hnh
vi nhiu kiu hnh dng v quan st khc nhau. Nhng chc nng ny gip ngi s
dng kim sot c trng thi nhp liu ca m hnh v thao tc vi m hnh nh
mong mun.

Hnh II-31: Hnh nh ca m hnh kt cu sau khi c Render View


Cc chc nng biu din hnh dng m hnh ca MIDAS/Civil gm c:

Shrink : hin th cc phn t c m hnh ha vi cc kch


thc b thu ngn. Tnh nng ny cho php kim tra s
kt ni gia cc phn t v nt.

Perspective : hin th quan st ba chiu ca m hnh.

Hidden : hin th hnh dng m hnh phn nh cc hnh dng mt


ct ca cc phn t v chiu dy ca chng nh khi
chng xut hin ngoi thc t.

Render View : hin th hnh dng m hnh phn nh cc hnh dng mt


ct ca cc phn t v chiu dy ca chng vi hiu ng
bng nh thc t. Vic iu chnh cc hiu ng v
nh sng v bng cho tnh nng Render View c
thc hin trong Rendering Option.

Rendering Option : iu chnh cc hiu ng v nh sng v bng cho


tnh nng Render View.

Display : hin th trong ca s lm vic cc s hiu nt v phn


t, cc k hiu vt liu v mt ct, cc trng thi u vo
ca ti trng, Cc thng s iu khin vic hin th
c t trong Display Option.

Display Option : iu khin tt c thng s ha c hin th trong


ca s lm vic gm tt c cc kiu hin th nh bng
mu ca cc tnh cht, kch thc biu din,

H tr quan st: Tt c cc tnh nng quan st ca MIDAS/Civil vi tnh nng


Render View h tr cho ngi dng c c cc quan st ba chiu ca m hnh v cc
kt qu phn tch, thit k mt cch chnh xc thng qua cc gc v im nhn.
Nhng tnh nng iu khin quan st ny nh sau:
im quan st
Iso View : biu din m hnh trong khng gian ba chiu.

Top View : biu din m hnh nh khi c nhn theo chiu +Z.

Left View : biu din m hnh nh khi c nhn theo chiu X.

Right View : biu din m hnh nh khi c nhn theo chiu +X.

Front View : biu din m hnh nh khi c nhn theo chiu Y.

Angle View : biu din m hnh nh khi c nhn t mt im c


ch nh trc.
Quay
Rotate Left : quay m hnh sang bn tri (theo chiu kim ng h quanh
trc Z).

Rotate Right : quay m hnh sang bn phi (theo ngc chiu kim ng
h quanh trc Z).

Rotate Up : quay m hnh ln trn t mt phng nm ngang.

Rotate Down : quay m hnh xung di t mt phng nm ngang.


Phng to/thu nh
Zoom Fit : a m hnh va kht vi kch thc mn hnh theo cc t
l tng/gim.

Zoom Window : n nh kch thc mong mun ca ca s b ng cch xc


nh mt phn ca s m hnh bng chut.

Zoom In : phng to t l hin th trong ca s hin ti mt cch t t.


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Zoom Out : thu nh t l hin th trong ca s hin ti mt cch t t.


Dch chuyn
Pan Left : dch chuyn ca s m hnh sang bn tri.

Pan Right : dch chuyn ca s m hnh sang bn phi.

Pan Up : dch chuyn ca s m hnh ln pha trn.

Pan Down : dch chuyn ca s m hnh xung pha di.

Quan st ng: Phn quan st ng ca MIDAS/Civil gm c cc tnh nng


Zoom, Pan v Rotate. M hnh s c hin th mt cch chn thc theo thi
gian thc t im nhn mong mun bng cch gi phm tri chut v r chut ng
thi.
Hin th mt phn ca m hnh: hin th mt phn ca m hnh ta s dng tnh
nng kch hot v b kch hot cc i tng ca MIDAS/Civil.
Tnh nng Active/Inactive c s dng hin th hoc n cc b phn nht nh
ca kt cu.
Active biu din mt trng thi m cc cng tc m hnh ha c th c thc hin.
Cc cng tc m hnh ha nh chn, thm v hiu chnh khng cho php i vi cc
phn khng kch hot.
Inactivated Object trong mc Draw phn View Display Option cho php b
kch hot cc phn s xut hin hoc khng xut hin trn mn hnh. Tnh nng ny c
th c s dng mt cch hiu qu i vi cc kt cu phc tp hoc cc cng tc
hu x l.

Hnh II-32: M hnh kt cu trc khi b kch hot

Hnh II-33: M hnh kt cu sau khi b kch hot


V d, bng cch kch hot phn bn ca mt kt cu cu trn mn hnh, vic m
hnh tr nn d qun l hn. Tnh nng ny lm n gin cc thao tc nh thm
hoc hiu chnh cc nt v phn t, xem xt cc kt qu phn tch bng cch kch
hot mt cch c la chn cc kiu phn t, mt ct hoc kiu thuc tnh nht nh.
Vic phn tch cc gi tr thnh phn lc ln nht v nh nht s tr nn d dng
hn.
Tnh nng Active/Inactive c s dng kt hp vi cc tnh nng la chn. Sau khi
chn cc phn i tng mong mun, kch hot hoc b kch hot cc s la chn
tng ng bng cc tnh nng c tm tt di y.

Active : hin th ch phn c chn trong khi cc phn khc b n.

Inactive : n i cc phn c chn trong khi cc phn khc c


hin th.

Inverse Active : chuyn ngc li trng thi n/hin ca cc i tng.

Active All : kch hot tt c cc i tng.

Active Identity : kch hot cc i tng c chn trn mt phng xy ca


UCS.

Active Previous : tr li trng thi kch hot hoc b kch hot trc .
6.3.3. Nhp d liu
Ton b d liu c th c nhp vo thng qua hp hi thoi,
ca s dng bng, lnh MCT v ca s m hnh trong
MIDAS/Civil. Qua giao din dng hp thoi, d liu c th
c nhp vo t c chut ln bn phm. Bn phm c s
dng ch yu cho cc kiu ca s bng v dng lnh MCT,
chut c s dng ch yu trong ca s m hnh.
Trong hp hi thoi, cc nt sau y c s dng
chp nhn hoc hy b d liu trong m hnh:
: Chp nhn ton b d liu trong m hnh v
ti cng mt thi gian, kt thc cc tnh to n
v ng hp hi thoi.
: Chp nhn ton b d liu hin ti trong m
hnh v chp nhn mt cch lin tc bt k d
liu thm no v s hiu chnh c duy tr
vi hp hi thoi lun kch hot.
: Hy b d liu hin ti v ng hp thoi.
: ng hp thoi.
Khi chuyn i cc phn t d liu trong mt hp thoi,
s dng phm Tab di chuyn t trng d liu ny
sang trng d liu khc hoc ch nh trc tip d liu
bng cch a chut qua trng d liu mong mun. Nu
phm Shift+Tab c s dng, chui nhp liu s c
thc hin.

Hnh II-34: Minh ha mt


ca s nhp d liu
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Ca s bng : l mt ca s dng bng ko di. , tt c cc d liu u vo v kt


qu thit k c th c nhn thy mt cch r rng. Ca s bng cho php ngi dng
to thm cc d liu hoc hiu chnh bt k. Qua ca s bng, cc d liu cn thit c
th nhp trc tip t bn phm hay trao i trc tip vi cc chng trnh khc nh
MS-Excel. Ca s bng cho php ngi dng to thm cc d liu hoc hiu chnh bt
k.

Hnh II-35: Minh ha mt ca s dng bng


Lnh MCT (MIDAS Command Text): l mt phng php nhp d liu di dng vn
bn rt tin li. Mc d khng trc quan nhng phng php MCT cho php nhp cc
d liu c quy lut rt nhanh chng. Ngi dng c th chun b d liu dng file
vn bn bt k sau dn vo ca s MCT Command Shell v chng trnh
chy. MIDAS/Civil h tr hai dng nhp d liu theo phng php MCT:
nh dng MCT (file c ui *.mct): l mt tnh nng m hnh ha cho php ngi
dng m hnh kt cu thng qua cc lnh dng vn bn rt tin li v c cu trc nh
sau (Hnh II-36):
Hnh II-36: Minh ha cu trc file *.mct

Ca s MCT Command Shell (Hnh II-37)

Hnh II-37: Minh ha ca s MCT Command Shell


D liu gm nhiu phn: cc d liu kiu s c nhp vo mt cch lin tc trong
mt trng d liu. Cc d liu ny c phn bit vi nhau bng mt du , (phy)
hoc mt du (du cch hay k t trng). V d 333, 102, 101 hoc 333 102
101.
D liu v v tr: cc thuc tnh v mt ct phn t v nhng d liu thch hp khc c
th c nhp vo thng qua cc php gn n gin trong ca s m hnh.
Chiu di hoc s gia tng theo hng c th c ch nh bng vic s dng chut la
chn v tr ban u v cc iu cui ph hp trong ca s m hnh hn l vic g nhng
d liu ny trc tip t bn phm.
D liu lp: nhng ni m chiu di bng nhau c lp li, vic nhp d liu c
th c n gin ha bng cch g s ln lp @ chiu di thay v lp i lp li
cng mt s.
V d: 20, 25, 22.3, 22.3, 22.3, 22.3, 22.3, 88 tng ng vi 20, 25, 5@22.3,88.
S dng cc php tnh s hc trong hp nhp d liu:
S v cc biu thc ton hc c th c dng trong dng t hp.
Cc k hiu ton hc v ngoc n c p dng trong tnh ton k thut c th c
s dng.

K hiu Ni dung V d

( M ngoc n -
) ng ngoc n -
^ Ly tha bc n (^2 bnh phng, ^3 lp phng) V d: 23 = 2^3
+ Cng -
- Tr -
* Nhn -
/ Chia -
PI S PI () = 3.141592653589793
SQRT Cn bc hai ( ) 2 = SQRT(2)
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

SIN Sin sin(30)


COS Cos cos(30)
TAN Tan tan(30)
-1
ASIN Arcsin sin (0.5) = arcsin(0.5) = ASIN(0.5)
ACOS Arccos cos-1(0.5) = arccos(0.5) = ACOS(0.5)
-1
ATAN Arctang tan (0.5) = arctan(0.5) = ATAN(0.5)
0.3
EXP Hm s m e = EXP(0.3)
SINH Sin Hypebol -
COSH Cos Hypebol -
COTAN Cotang -
LN Logarit t nhin -
LOG Logarit c s mi -
2
V d: Biu thc 20 tng ng vi PI * 20^2
V d: Biu thc 35 3(sin 30o 2 cos2 30o sin 2 30o )
Tng ng vi 35 + 3 * (sin(30) + 2 * SQRT(cos(30)^2+sin(30)^2))

CH Cc ton t chp nhn c ch hoa ln ch thng.


V cc ton t ging nh trong tnh ton k thut, nn cu tr c ca cc php ton theo qui
tc ca cc ton hc thng thng.

6.4. Cc thit lp khi bt u mt d n


6.4.1. n v
Trong thc t, c rt nhiu iu kin lm vic v cc dng d liu khc nhau. MIDAS/Civil
c thit k lm vic ti mt thi im vi mt h thng n v hoc mt t hp cc kiu
h thng n v. V d, n v m i vi d liu hnh hc v n v mm i vi mt ct c
th c s dng trong cng mt m hnh. Vic nhp d liu c th thc hin vi h n v
quc t (SI) trong khi kt qu phn tch v thit k li c th biu din trong h thng n v
Anh-M (Imperial). Tuy nhin, vic thay i h thng n v i vi d liu nhit li khng
cho php. Cc n v ca m- men, ng sut hoc m-un n hi, c t hp t cc n v o
chiu di v lc, c th c t ng iu chnh bi chng trnh thng qua cc kiu n v o
chiu di v o lc do ngi dng la chn.
Ngi s dng c th dng ca s nhp d liu
n v (Hnh II-38) (gi qua menu Tools Unit
System) hoc hm chuyn i h thng n v
ca thanh trng thi ti v tr pha di ca mn
hnh gn hoc chuyn i h thng n v.
Hnh II-38: Ca s t h thng n v
6.4.2. Thit lp mi trng lm vic
Ni chung, d liu ca mi mt d n l ring bit cho chnh d n . thun tin cho vic
nhp d liu, xy dng m hnh v x l kt qu, ngi dng nn nh ngha mi trng lm
vic trc khi bt u mt d n mi. Giao din thit lp mi trng lm vic c th hin
trn Giao din ci t mi trng lm vic.

Hnh II-39: Giao din ci t mi trng lm v ic


Giao din ci t mi trng lm vic c gi thng qua menu Tools Preferences ca
MIDAS/Civil. thit lp d liu c bn cn thit chy chng trnh, ngi dng s dng
menu dng cy bn tri v nhp cc d liu yu cu vo phn bn phi.
Environment (Mi trng lm vic)
General (Mi trng chung): Cung cp tn ngi s dng, biu tng cng ty, v cc
thit lp mc nh vic cho vic lu tr,...
Data Tolerance (Dung sai). Gn cc gii hn ca t hp nt v gii hn trn ca cc
gi tr s phn bit vi s khng (0).
Property (Thuc tnh): Gn cc d liu c bn mc nh v vt liu v mt ct.
Design (Thit k): Gn cc tiu chun thit k s c dng khi phn tch v thit k
kt cu.
Load (Ti trng): Ghi li c s d liu i vi cc ti trng sn.
View (Hin th): t mc nh cho ca s v cc kch thc ca n cng nh khong
cch li trn mn hnh lm vic:
Initial Model Boundary Size (Kch thc gii hn ca m hnh xut pht): Gn kch
thc ca ca s lm vic. V d, nu n v chiu di c t l m v s nhp vo
l 10, chiu rng ca ca s mi s c thit lp bng 10m.
Initial Point Grid (Li im xut pht): Gn khong cch cc li im hin th
trn ca s.
Grid Space x: khong cch li im theo phng x trong h ta ngi dng.
Grid Space y: khong cch li im theo phng y trong h ta ngi dng.
Grid On: la chn hin th li im trong ca s.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Initial View Point : gn h ta tng ng vi quan st 3 chiu (Iso View) hoc h


ta tng th theo mt phng XY.
Snap (bt im): Snap c s dng gn trng thi bt im. Cc chc nng bt
im c th c thit lp ng thi ti mt thi im. Khi cc nt hoc cc phn t
c nhp vo bng chut, Snap t ng thit lp v tr chut gn nht vi li, nt
hoc phn t. Cc kiu chc nng ca Snap c MIDAS/Civil h tr nh sau:

Point Grid Snap : Tm kim cc im li lin tc vi v tr con chut. Thit


lp li im bng cch dng lnh Set Point Grid.

Line Grid Snap : Tm kim cc v tr giao ca cc li ng lin tc vi v


tr chut. Thit lp li ng bng lnh Set Line Grid.

Node Snap : Tm kim cc im nt gn vi v tr chut.

Element Snap : Tm v tr gia phn t gn vi con tr chut. Trong


trng hp phn t thng, v tr bc nhy c th c iu
chnh bng cch s dng chc nng t im bt bn phi
ca thanh trng thi (status bar) gn v tr pha di ca ca
s. V d, ngi s dng c th nh v tr bt im ti im
phn ba ca mt phn t . Tnh nng ny rt hu
ch khi mt phn t thng c thit lp v phn t thng
khc s c lin kt vi mt v tr nht nh ca phn t
ang tn ti.

Snap All : Chn tt c cc chc nng bt im c cp trn.

Snap Free : B tt c cc ch bt im.


Output formats (nh dng): Gn s ch s thp phn c ngha cho d liu m hnh, ti trng
v cc kt qu phn tch.
6.4.3. Li v
MIDAS/Civil cung cp hai dng li h tr qu trnh m hnh kt cu theo cch v trc tip
trn mn hnh: h thng li dng im v h thng li dng ng thng. Chc nng ny
tng i ging vi chc nng Grids trong AutoCAD, tin cho vic m hnh cc bi ton n
gin.
6.4.3.1. H thng li im
H thng li im l tp hp cc im nh v c b tr theo cc khong cch nht nh.
Ngi dng c th t cc khong cch ny sao cho li ph hp nht vi yu cu m hnh ca
mnh. H thng li dng im c th p dng trong h to tng th cng nh trong h trc
to t nh ngha. H thng li ny c xy dng t 3 tham s l:
Khong cch gia cc im thuc li theo phng X (x).
Khong cch gia cc im thuc li theo phng Y (y).
ng bin ca li (c dng hnh ch nht trong h to 2 chiu X-Y).
Khong cch li im c t theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Model Grids Define Point Grid hoc chn nt trn thanh
cng c.
Nhp d liu vo th Point Grid trong ca s Define Grids nh trn Hnh II-40. y:
Grid Spaces vi dx, dy l khong cch li im theo phng trc x v trc y.
Model Boundary l min nhn thy ca ca s m hnh trn mn hnh.
Nu chn Apply To Grid Boundary: li im s ch hin ln trn min mt phng
c xc nh trong Model Boundary.

Hnh II-40: Nhp d liu cho li nh v im


Li im, do cch b tr nh trn, c khong cch nht nh theo mi phng x v y nn ch
thch hp vi cc kt cu c cu to hnh hc tng i u n.
6.4.3.2. H thng li ng
Li ng l tp hp cc ng song song nh v vi trc x v trc y. i vi cc kt cu c
nhiu bt thng trong cu to hnh hc, phng php li ng c s dng c hiu qu
hn v loi li ny cho php ngi dng nh ngha cc khong cch bt k nh mong mun.
Khong cch li ng c t theo trnh t sau:

Hnh II-41: Qu tr nh nhp d liu c ho li ng

Chn menu Model Grids Define Line Grid hoc chn nt trn thanh
cng c.
Nhp d liu vo th Point Grid trong ca s Define Grids nh trn Hnh II-41.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Khong cch gia cc ng trong li nh v c th c nhp theo dng tng i


(ng sau so vi ng trc) hay tuyt i (so vi gc ta ). Vic nhp gi tr
c tun theo cc ch dn trong mc 6.3.3. Kt qu ca vic xy dng li ng
nh v l mt tp hp cc ng c khong cch theo phng cc trc nh c
nhp.
6.4.4. La chn h ta
phc v qu trnh m hnh ho kt cu, MIDAS/Civil cung cp 4 loi h trc to c bn
sau y:
H trc to tng th (GCS).
H trc to phn t (ECS).
H trc to nt (NCS).
H trc to t nh ngha hay h ta ngi dng (UCS).
6.4.4.1. H ta tng th (GCS - Global Coordinate System)
GCS l mt h trc to Cc vung gc bao gm 3 trc X,Y,Z i mt vung gc vi
nhau, c chiu tun theo quy tc bn tay phi. Cc trc k hiu bng 3 ch in hoa : X,Y,Z.
im gc c mc nh c to (0,0,0).
Trong mn hnh chnh ca MIDAS/Civil, trc Z ca GCS mc nh trng vi trc thng ng
ca mn hnh. Mi im trong ca s m hnh ca MIDAS/Civil u tng ng vi mt to
nht nh trong h to tng th, cc gi tr (X,Y,Z) ny c hin th thanh Status Bar.

Hnh II-42: Ta tng th GCS


GCS c dng m hnh ho kt cu (v tr nt, v tr v chiu ca phn t), ti trng (im
t v chiu ca ti trng...).
GCS cng c dng lm mc nh ngha, xc nh cc h to khc (UCS, ECS, NCS).
6.4.4.2. H ta phn t (ECS - Element Coordinate System)
H trc to phn t (ECS) cng c dng 3 trc i mt vung gc (h to Cc). Chiu
dng ca cc trc c xc nh theo quy tc tam din thun (quy tc bn tay p hi). Cc trc
ca h to ny c k hiu bi cc ch ci thng (x,y,z).

Hnh II-43: H ta phn t UCS


H ta phn t c xc nh nh sau:
Gc ca ECS ly im gia phn t.
Trc x : dc theo phn t, c chiu trng vi chiu ca phn t.
Trc z : vung gc vi x, c chiu to vi Z ca GCS mt gc nhn, thng l trc
yu ca mt ct (m- men qun tnh ca mt ct quay trc z thng nh hn m- men
qun tnh quanh trc y)
Trc y : xc nh t x, y theo quy tc tam din thun.
ECS c dng nhp d liu, hin th cc kt qu, d liu lin quan n phn t nh ni lc
trong phn t, ng sut...
6.4.4.3. H ta nt (NCS - Node Coordinate System)
Trong gii bi ton kt cu bng phng php phn t hu hn (ly chuyn v nt lm n),
ta ch cn s dng h to a phng t ti phn t v h to tng th ca kt cu tnh
ton. Nh vy, vic xut hin h to nt (NCS) thc cht l thun tin cho vic m hnh
ho iu kin bin, ti trng v chuyn v t ti nt nh:
Gi cng (Supports).
Gi n hi (Spring Supports).
Chuyn v gi (Displacements of Support).
NCS cng l mt h to Cc vung gc, k hiu (x,y,z). Gc t ti nt.
6.4.4.4. H ta ngi dng(UCS - User Coordinate System)
thun tin cho vic m hnh ho kt cu nhng v tr c bit hoc phn kt cu c dng
c bit (v d m hnh cc phn t thuc cng mt mt phng trong kt cu tng th l kt cu
khng gian), ta c th t nh ngha ly h ta cho ph hp ri t m hnh kt cu, ti
trng. UCS c thit lp t mc l ta tng th UCS, UCS cng l mt h ta Cc
vung gc.

Hnh II-44: nh ngha h ta ngi dng

Khi nh ngha UCS, ni chung cc yu t cn khai bo l :


Ta gc ca h ta ngi dng UCS (Origin).
Phng, chiu ca cc trc.
Trnh t khai bo h ta ngi dng:
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Chn menu Model User Coordinate System X-Y plane

Hnh II-45: nh ngha h ta ngi dng X-Y


ngha cc th chnh (tab):
X-Y plane : nh ngha mt phng X-Y ca h ta ngi dng UCS trng vi mt
phng X-Y ca h ta tng th GCS.
Coordinates Origin : gc ca UCS trn h ta tng th.
Rotation Angle Angle : gc nghing (c du) to bi chiu dng ca trc X
trong mt phng X-Y ca h ta ngi dng UCS vi chiu dng ca trc X
ca h ta tng th UCS.
X-Z plane : nh ngha mt phng X-Y ca h ta ngi dng UCS trng vi mt
phng X-Z ca h ta tng th GCS.
Y-Z plane : nh ngha mt phng X-Y ca h ta ngi dng UCS trng vi mt
phng Y-Z ca h ta tng th GCS. Cch gi v nhp d liu hon ton ging vi
mt phng X-Y ca h ta ngi dng UCS.
Three Points (ba im): H ta ngi dng UCS c nh ngha bi ba im xc
nh.

Hnh II-46: nh ngha h ta ngi dng Three Points


H ta ny c nh ngha t 3 thng s l:
V tr gc ta trong h ta tng th.
Ta ca mt im thuc trc x ca h ta ny trn h ta tng th.
Ta ca mt im thuc mt phng x- y ca h ta ny trn h ta tng
th.
Three Angles (Ba gc): H ta ngi dng UCS c nh ngha bi 3 gc xc
nh.

Hnh II-47: nh ngha h ta ngi dng Three Angles


Dng Three Angles dng nh ngha h ta ngi dng, c dng ln t h ta
tng th thng qua cc php bin hnh ln lt nh sau:
Tnh tin gc ca GCS v v tr mi (s l v tr gc ca UCS sau ny).
Quay h ta tnh tin quanh trc song song vi X mt gc nh trc.
Quay tip h ta thu c quay trc song song vi Y mt gc nh trc.
Quay tip h ta thu c quay trc song song vi Z mt gc nh trc.
Activate UCS Plane: Kch hot h ta ngi dng UCS.
Change View Direction: Thay di hng nhn.

CH Ta c th nh ngha nhiu UCS tin m hnh ho, nhng trong qu trnh m


hnh ho phi lun nh mnh ang m hnh trong h ta no. Tt nht l m hnh theo
h ta tng th GCS. chuyn i qua li hai dng h tr c to s dng thanh
cng c:

6.5. Thc hin m hnh ha


M hnh ha kt cu thuc giai on tin x l. Tp trung vo cc cng tc nh ngha vt liu,
mt ct, phn t, iu kin bin v ti trng. Kt qu phn tch s ph thuc hon ton vo m
hnh kt cu c xy dng. Do vy, cng lm chnh xc trong giai on m hnh ha cng
phn nh ng x ca kt cu ang c phn tch. MIDAS/Civil h tr nhiu cng c phc v
cng tc m hnh ha. Gm cc nhm chc nng c bn sau:
M hnh ha hnh hc
M hnh ha vt liu
M hnh ha mt ct
M hnh ha iu kin bin
M hnh ha ti trng
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

M hnh ha qu trnh thi cng


Kim tra cng tc m hnh
6.5.1. M hnh ha hnh hc
6.5.1.1. Xc nh kiu kt cu
Trc khi m hnh cn xc nh kiu kt cu l 2D hay 3D, thit lp cc thng s c bn
Chn menu Model Structure Type

Hnh II-48: Thit lp kiu kt cu


Structure Type: Cc kiu kt cu c th c chn l:
3-D: Kt cu 3 chiu.
X-Z Plane, Y-Z Plane, X-Y Plane: Kt cu phng theo cc mt phng tng ng.
Constraint RZ: Kt cu khng gian b hn ch bc t do quay quanh trc Z.
Converting Type of Model weight to Masses: Cc la chn chuyn i trng lng cc b
phn kt cu thnh khi lng.
Gravity acceleration: Gia tc trng trng.
Initial Temperature: Nhit ban u ca kt cu.
6.5.1.2. Xy dng m hnh phn t
6.5.1.2.1. Mt s ch dn khi lm vic vi m hnh
Lm vic vi m hnh bao gm vic khi to v chnh sa cc b phn ca n nh nt, phn t,
iu kin bin, ti trng,... Khi m hnh ha kt cu, cc cng c hay c p dng c thng
k trn Hnh II-49. Gn nh tt c cc chc nng cn thit u c th truy cp c rt nhiu
cch: menu, thanh cng c, bng chc nng,...
Hnh II-49: Cc chc nng lin quan n m hnh ha hay c s dng
6.5.1.2.2. Lm vic vi nt
MIDAS/Civil cung cp cc cng c gip khi to, chnh sa v xa cc nt trong m hnh. Cc
lnh chnh lm vic vi nt c lit k di y. Cc lnh ny c th c truy cp t
thanh cng c, menu Model Nodes hay t Tree Menu Structure Analysis Geometry
Nodes.

Create Nodes Ctrl-Alt-1 To cc nt mi v cc nt thm ti cc


khong cch cho trc mt cch ng thi
bng cch nhp kp cc nt mi
Delete Nodes Ctrl-Alt-2 Xa nt
Translate Nodes Ctrl-Alt-3 Sao chp (copy) hoc dch chuyn cc nt
cho trc vi cc khong cch u nhau
hoc khng u nhau
Rotate Nodes Ctrl-Alt-4 Copy hoc dch chuyn cc nt cho trc
bng cch xoay quanh mt trc cho trc
Project Nodes Ctrl-Alt-5 Copy hoc dch chuyn cc nt cho trc
bng vic chiu theo mt ng hoc mt
mt no (mt phng, mt bc ba, mt
cu, mt elip,...)
Mirror Nodes Ctrl-Alt-6 Copy hoc dch chuyn cc nt cho trc
theo cch ly i xng vi mt mt no
Divide Nodes Ctrl-Alt-7 To cc nt mi bng cch chia mt on
thng gia hai nt vi cc khong cch
bng nhau hoc khng bng nhau
Merge Nodes Ctrl-Alt-8 Trn cc nt gn nhau thnh mt nt
Scale Nodes Gim hoc tng khong cch gia hai nt
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

cho trc bng cch ch nh mt t s


Compact Node Numbers Ctrl-Alt-9 iu chnh cc s hiu nt b mt do b
xa, v sp xp cc nt theo mt trt t
lin tip
Renumber Node ID nh s li cc s hiu nt c theo tng
phn hay tt c
Start Number Gn s hiu u tin cho cc nt mi c
to
Chi tit mt s chc nng lm vic vi nt
To nt - Create Nodes
to nt chn menu Model Nodes Create Nodes hoc Tree menu Structure Analysis
Geometry Nodes Create. Ca s nhp d liu cho nt mi s xut hin nh trn Hnh
II-51.
Start Node Number: S th t ca nt c to, mc
nh s tng thm 1. thay i mc nh ny, chn
biu tng bn phi dng Start Node Number.

Hnh II-50: Thit lp s hiu nt


Smallest Unused Number: Dng s th t b nht cha
dng.
Largest Used Number +1: Dng s th t ln nht
dng cng thm 1.
User- Defined Number : T t s nt.
Hnh II-51: Nhp d liu to nt
Copy: ng thi to nhiu nt cch nhau nhng khong nh trc.
Number of Times: s ln copy nt.
Distances (dx, dy, dz) : Khong cch gia cc nt to thnh theo phng x,y,z.
Merge Duplicate Nodes: T ng ng nht cc nt cnh nhau trong mt khong b no
thnh mt nt.
Inte rsect Frame Elements: T ng to thm nt ti cc im giao vi phn t.
Chn nt - Select Nodes
Trc khi iu chnh mt hai nhiu nt no , ta phi tin hnh chn nt. C 2 cch lm sau:
Cch 1 : S dng cc cng c la chn, chn trc tip cc phn t trn khng gian m hnh.

Hnh II-52: Chn nt


Cch 2 : Chn nt thng qua s th t ca nt. Nhp trc tip hoc chn s th t cc nt vo
ComboBox ca thanh cng c Selection. Nh hnh trn, nt s 1 v cc nt t 1 n 3
c la chn.
Xa nt - Delete Nodes
Nhn phm Delete xa nhng nt chn.
Dch chuyn nt - Translate Nodes
Cho php dch chuyn hoc copy mt nt c ti mt v tr mi. Chn menu Model Nodes
Translate
Bng Translate Nodes hin ra bn tri mn hnh nh sau :
Cc ty chn Start Node Number, Merge Duplicate
Nodes, Intersect Frame Ele ment c chc nng v cch
nhp thng tin ging ca chc nng Create Nodes.
Copy Node Attributes: Ty chn sao chp thuc tnh ca
nt.
Ty chn Mode cung cp 2 la chn l:
Copy: To nt mi khng xa nt hin hnh.
Move: Di chuyn nt hin hnh n v tr mi.
Ty chn Translation i hi nhp vo khong cch t v
tr nt hin hnh n v tr nt mi, c th la chn:
Equal Distance: To cc nt vi khong cch gia
cc nt bng nhau.
Unequal Distance: Khong cch gia cc nt khc
nhau.

Hnh II-53: Translate nt

nh s li nt - Renumbering
nh li s th t ca nt theo khong cch n im gc theo cc phng x, y, z (Cartesian
Coordinate) hoc theo khong cch tuyt i t nt n gc to (Cylindarical Coordinate).
Qun l h thng nt bng bng nt - Nodes table
Cc thng s v h thng nt c th hin trc quan trn mn hnh chnh, bn cnh , cn
c th hin qua mt bng ghi s th t, to ca cc nt.
Chn menu Model Nodes Nodes Table xut hin bng h thng nt c dng:
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-54: Bng nt


Bng hin th 4 thng s: Tn nt, to ca nt theo 3 phng X, Y, Z. Trong , to ca
nt theo 3 phng cho php chnh sa trc tip.
6.5.1.2.3. Lm vic vi phn t
Cng c lm vic vi m hnh phn t
Cng nh khi lm vic vi nt, cc cng c lm vic vi phn t cng c th truy cp theo
nhiu cch khc nhau nh menu Model Elements, thanh cng c v Tree menu Structure
Analysis Geometry Elements.
Tp hp cc lnh lin quan n phn t c lit m t nh sau:

Create Elements Ctrl-1 To cc phn t mi


Create Line Elements on Curve To cc phn t dng thanh dc theo
ng cong nh ng trn, cung
trn, elp hoc parbol,...
Delete Elements Ctrl-2 Xa cc phn t
Translate Elements Ctrl-3 To mi hoc dch chuyn cc phn t
c vi cc khong cch u hoc
khng u nhau
Rotate Elements Ctrl-4 To mi hoc dch chuyn cc phn t
c bng cch quay quanh mt trc
cho trc
Extrude Elements Ctrl-5 To thm mt chiu hnh hc ca phn
t (cc phn t thng, cc phn t
tm v cc phn t khi) bng cch
m rng cc nt, cc phn t thng v
cc phn t phng c nh sau:
To mt phn t thanh bng
cch dch chuyn tnh tin mt
nt.
To mt phn t phng t s
dch chuyn ca mt phn t
thanh.
To mt phn t khi t s dch
chuyn ca mt phn t phng.
Mirror Elements Ctrl-6 To mi hoc dch chuyn cc phn t
c theo cch ly i xng vi mt
mt phng nht nh
Divide Elements Ctrl-7 Chia cc phn t c thnh cc phn
t con u hoc khng u nhau
Merge Elements Ghp cc phn t c cng tnh cht
(vt liu, mt ct, kiu phn t,...)
thnh mt phn t
Intersect Elements Ctrl-8 Chia mt cch t ng cc phn t
thng cho trc ct nhau bi cc im
giao
Change Element Parameters Ctrl-9 Thay i cc thng s ca phn t
Compact Element Numbers Ctrl-0 iu chnh cc s hiu phn t b mt
khi xa, v sp xp cc s hiu ny
theo th t tng dn
Renumber Element ID nh s li tng phn hay ton b cc
phn t trong kt cu
Start Number Gn s hiu u tin cho cc phn t
mi s c to lp

To phn t - Create Elements


To phn t mi, chn menu Model Elements Create Elements
Node Number, Element Number: Xc lp s (tn) ca phn t.
Ele ment Type: Kiu phn t, chn kiu phn t ph hp vi m
hnh kt cu.
Material: Chn vt liu cho phn t c to.
Section: Chn loi mt ct cho phn t c to.
Orientation: Xc nh chiu cc trc z, y ca ECS.
c xc nh theo cc cch sau:
Beta Angle: Gc to bi chiu dng ca trc z trong ECS
vi chiu dng ca trc Z i qua nt th nht v song song vi
trc Z trong GCS. V d =0o v =60o .

Hnh II-55: Minh ha ta a phng ca mt ct


Ref. Point : Nhp vo to ca im tham chiu,
MIDAS/Civil s t ng tnh gc .
Ref. Vector: Nhp vo 1 vect, MIDAS/Civil s t ng
tnh gc theo vector ny.
Nodal Connectivity: To phn t bng cch ni cc nt:
Dng chut chn 2 nt to phn t.
Dng chut chn 1 nt, nt cn li xc nh theo 3 cch.
Inte rsect: T ng to phn t v nt ti cc im giao ct.

Hnh II-56: To phn t


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

To phn t bng phng php Extrude - Extrude Elements


To phn t bng cch dch chuyn. C 3 kiu:
To mt phn t thng dc theo ng c to bi s dch chuyn ca mt nt.
To mt phn t phng dc theo ng c to bi s dch chuyn ca mt phn t
thng.
To mt phn t khi dc theo ng c to bi s dch chuyn ca mt phn t
phng.
Phng php to phn t c th l Translate (tnh tin), Rotate (quay) v Project (chiu).
Tng ng vi cc phng php ny l cc gi tr tham s cn thit nh khong cch tnh tin
theo cc phng hay gc quay hoc mt phng chiu
V d to phn t thng theo phng php tnh tin (Translate):
C 2 cch tnh tin:
Equal Distance : Theo cch ny phn t s c to bi 2
nt:
Nt 1 l cc nt c chn trn m hnh, c th chn
nhiu nt.
Nt 2 c xc nh qua dx, dy, dz l khong cch
ca nt 2 so vi nt 1 theo 3 phng.
Unequal Distance : Phn t c to bi 2 nt.
Nt 1 l cc nt c chn trn m hnh.
Nt 2 c xc nh da vo khong cch gia nt 2
v nt 1 theo cc phng X, Y, Z hoc mt vector ty
(Arbitrary).
Theo cch ny c th to nhiu phn t c di
khc nhau theo mt trc no .

Hnh II-57: Nhp khong cch cho phn t


Trong v d trn s to 5 phn t dm, bt u t im
chn trn m hnh. C 2 phn t di 5m, 3 phn t di 4m.

Hnh II-58: Extrude phn t

Qun l h thng phn t bng bng phn t - Elements table


Tt c cc phn t trong d n c th hin trong bng phn t. Bng cho php qun l, chnh
sa s liu v phn t.
Chn menu Model Elements Elements Table xut hin bng phn t c cu trc nh sau:
Hnh II-59: Bng thng k cc phn t trong kt cu
Bng phn t lu gi cc thng s v:
Ele ment : S hiu phn t.
Type v Sub Type : Dng phn t.
Material : Vt liu ca phn t.
Property : Mt ct.
Angle : Gc nh hng mt ct.
Node1, Node2,...Node8 : Cc nt xc nh v tr phn t.
Kind : Ty chn kiu nhp lc cng cho phn t Cable: Lu,
Pretension, Horizontal.
Hook/Gap : dn di, co ngn trc khi chu lc.
Tension : Lc cng.
Lu : di khng b cng ko ca phn t cable khi lc cng cp
c nhp trong phm vi ca Lu/L.
Bng cch qun l phn t qua bng, ta c th kim sot c cc thuc tnh ca phn t.
6.5.1.2.4. Kt ni d liu
S dng AutoCAD v s hnh hc ca kt cu. Lu , thng thng bn v trong AutoCAD
l dng 2D theo h ta phng X-Y.
MIDAS/Civil h tr nhp m hnh c 2 dng 2D/3D t nh dng file d liu *.DXF ca
AutoCAD. Cc bc lm nh sau.
To bn v m hnh trong AutoCAD. Trong v d ny l bn v 2D theo h ta X-Y.

Hnh II-60: To bn v m hnh trong AutoCA D


Lu file theo nh dng *.DXF ca AutoCAD (Hnh II-61)
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-61: Hp thoi la chn ng dn n file d liu DXF


Gi tnh nng nhp d liu t DXF ca MIDAS/Civil thng qua menu File Import
AutoCAD DXF xut hin hp thoi nh Hnh II-63.
DXF File Name: ng dn ca file dxf
Selected Layers : Chn lp bn v cha m hnh.
Import: Ch nhp nt hay c nt v phn t.
Numbering: Cc la chn nh s nt v phn t.
Properties: Thuc tnh ca phn t.
Scale and Origin: Xc nh t l phng v im chn m
hnh theo h ta tng th GCS.
Rotation Angle : La chn xoay m hnh. S dng cho
trng hp cc h ta b sai lch nhau.
Trong v d ny, m hnh c v trong lp Thp. Mt
phng 2D X-Y.
Vi MIDAS/Civil, m hnh dng 3D v ng trong mt
phng X-Z vy ta cn phi xoay m hnh quanh trc X mt
gc 90o .
Sau khi thit lp y cc thng s ta c m hnh trong
MIDAS/Civil gc nhn Iso nh sau:

Hnh II-62: M hnh dn thp c to t file d liu


DXF
Hnh II-63: Nhp file d liu
DXF
6.5.2. Khai bo mt ct
Tng t nh vt liu, mt ct cho cc phn t dng tha nh c th c chn da trn cc tiu
chun, do ngi dng t nh ngha hay nhp t cc d n khc.
Mt ct cho cc phn t trong m hnh kt cu c nh ngha v qun l nh sau:
Gi menu Model Properties Section hoc chn nt t thanh cng c
Properties hay Tree Menu Structure Analysis Properties Section, giao din
Properties vi trang Section xut hin.
nhp d liu cho mt ct mi, ngi dng bm nt Add v sau , thc hin cc thao
tc nhp d liu trn cc giao din thch hp.

Hnh II-64: Ca s qun l v nhp thng s mt ct


6.5.2.1. Cc dng mt ct c h tr trong MIDAS/Civil
6.5.2.1.1. Mt ct dng DB/User
y l loi mt ct t nh ngha hoc la chn theo cc tiu chun.
Mt s tiu chun mt ct in hnh m MIDAS/Civil h tr l:
AISC 2K (SI) (American Institute of Steel Construction, 2000 Metric Unit).
AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction).
BS (British Standards).
DIN (Deutsches Institut fr Normung e.V....).
Vic nh ngha mt ct theo tiu chun cng c thc hin tng t nh i vi vt liu tiu
chun. Hin thi, cc mt ct tiu chun ch ph hp vi mt ct ca cc cu kin thp hnh.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Section ID: s hiu ca mt ct.


Name: Tn mt ct
Chn hnh dng in hnh ca mt ct.
La chn gia mt ct t nh ngha (User) hay
mt ct nh hnh theo cc tiu chun (DB):
Nu mt ct chn theo nh hnh th phi
la chn tiu chun tng ng.
Nu mt ct t nh ngha th nhp cc
kch thc mt ct theo hnh minh ha.
Offset: im tham chiu ca mt ct.

Hnh II-65: im offset


Show Calculation Result: Xem kt qu tnh
cc c trng hnh hc.
Hnh II-66: Mt ct dng DB/ User
6.5.2.1.2. Mt ct dng Value
Mt ct dng Value l mt ct c nhp theo cc gi tr ca c trng hnh hc.
Thng thng, khi hnh dng hnh hc ca
mt ct qu phc tp, vt qu kh nng th
hin ca chng trnh, ngi dng cn nhp
chng theo cc gi tr ca c trng hnh hc.
Trong mt s trng hp, khi kch thc mt
ct tht qu ln hoc qu nh, nh hng n
vic th hin n trn m hnh, ngi dng
cng c th nhp cc kch thc khc vic
th hin c hi ha hn.
Trong nhng trng hp ny, cc kch thc
hnh hc ch ng vai tr th hin m khng
c ngha trong vic phn tch kt cu ca
chng trnh.

Hnh II-67: Mt ct dng Value


6.5.2.1.3. Mt ct t hp SRC (Steel Reinforced Concrete)
Mt ct dng t hp gia b tng v cc cu kin thp hnh.
nh ngha li mt ct ny ngi dng chn k iu mt ct, nhp kch thc v chn vt liu
cho thp v b tng t cc tiu chun.
Concrete Data: D liu b tng.
Steel Data: D liu mt ct thp
Material: S liu v vt liu, nhp theo quy
trnh hoc nhp trc tip gi tr.
Es/Ec: T s gia m un n hi ca thp v
m un n hi ca btng.
Ds/Dc: T s gia khi lng ring ca thp
v khi lng ring ca b tng.
Ps, Pc: h s Pot-xng cho thp, b tng.

Hnh II-68: Mt ct t hp
6.5.2.1.4. Mt ct ghp Combined
Dng mt ct ghp to t cc thp hnh.
Chn cc dng ghp tiu chun cho:

Hnh II-69: Mt ct ghp


Chn thng s thp hnh t tiu chun hoc nhp theo ngi dng t nh ngha.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

6.5.2.1.5. Mt ct dng PSC (Prestressed Concrete)


Mt ct dng PSC l dng mt ct cho cc cu kin dm b tng ct thp d ng lc.
MIDAS/Civil cung cp rt nhiu chun mt ct cho cc dng dm in hnh nh hnh hp c
mt hoc nhiu ngn, ch I, T,
Cc mt ct ny c th c hnh dng i xng hay bt i xng.

Hnh II-70: Mt ct b tng ct thp


Sau khi chn dng mt ct, tin hnh nhp cc thuc tnh cho mt ct.
Mesh Size for Stiff. Calc: Kch thc li cho vic tnh ton cng ca mt ct.
Joint On/ Off: Da vo hnh minh ha, nh du cc im khng ch cn thit phc v qu
trnh m t mt ct. JO1, JO2... Cc im khng ch bao ngoi, JI1, JI2... Cc im khng ch
bao trong. Theo hnh minh ha nhp cc kch thc vo mc Outer v Inner.
Shear Check: Kim tra ng sut ct ti v tr Z1, Z2 v Z3. Z1 v Z3 c th nhp trc tip hoc
t ng tnh ton. Nu chn Auto, chng trnh s kim tra lc ct ti v tr nh v y ca
dm.
Z1: Khong cch t trng tm ti mp di ca bn cnh dm.
Z3: Khong cch t trng tm ti mp trn ca bn y dm.
Web thick: B dy bn bng.
T phin bn 6.7.1, ngi dng c th nhp y cc thng tin v ct thp thng vo cc
mt ct dm b tng ng sut trc (PSC). Hai loi ct thp thng c th c m t l ct
thp ch theo phng dc v ct thp ai chu ct do lc ct v xon. Vic a ct thp thng
vo mt ct cho php tnh ton chnh xc cng v xem xt cc hiu ng rng buc ca ct
thp thng chng li qu trnh t bin v co ngt. Hn na, ct thp chu ct do cc thanh ct
thp thng v ct thp ng sut trc c th c xem xt ng thi.
Di y l mt s dng mt ct PSC c MIDAS/Civil cung cp

PSC - 1CELL PSC - 2CELL

PSC - 3CELL PSC nCELL

PSC - I PSC TEE


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

PSC PLAT

Section Type : Half Section Type : 2CELL

Section Type : 1CELL(Type = Circle) Section Type : 1CELL(Type = Polygon)


PSC MID

Cell Type : None Cell Type : Circle


PSC HALF

Cell Type : None Cell Type : Circle

PSC - nCELL

Cell Type : Polygon(Cell Num=1) Cell Type : Polygon(Cell Num>1)

Hnh II-71: Cc dng mt ct b tng ct thp


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

6.5.2.1.6. Mt ct thay i (Tapered)


Tapered l dng mt ct thay i. Khi nh ngha, ngi dng cn khai bo hai mt ct u v
cui. Cc mt ct ny c th l mt ct theo tiu chun hay mt ct do ngi dng t nh ngha
theo cc dng nh trc.

Hnh II-72: Khai bo mt ct thay i


Chn dng mt ct: I, T, O, mt ct hp Cc dng mt ct trong Tapered bao gm y cc
dng mt ct cp trong User/DB, PSC.
Nhp kch thc mt ct ti 2 u i, j ca phn t theo cc cch sau:
Nhp trc tip.
Tra tiu chun nu l thp hnh.
Nhp t mt mt ct c nh ngha (nu l dng PSC).
Dng thay i mt ct theo trc y v trc z:
Linear: dng ng thng.
Parabolic: dng ng cong bc hai.
Cubic: dng ng cong bc ba.
6.5.2.1.7. Mt ct dng Composite
Composite l dng mt ct lin hp. MIDAS/Civil h tr cc kiu mt ct lin hp sau:
Steel Box
Steel I
Composite I
Composite T
User

Hnh II-73: Khai bo mt ct lin hp


Vic nhp cc thng s cng tng t nh i vi cc mt ct trn. Hnh trn l v d cc thng
s nhp cho trng hp thng gp l dm thp lin hp bn b tng ct thp.
Slab width: B rng bn mt
Girder:
Num: S lng dm dc.
CTC: Khong cch gia 2 dm dc.
Slab: Kch thc bn b tng trn dm I.
Girder: Cc thng s cho dm I, nhp theo hnh minh ha.
Material: Nhp h s quy i vt liu.
6.5.2.2. Gn mt ct cho phn t
Vic gn mt ct cho cc phn t cng c thc hin hon ton nh vic gn vt liu (xem
phn 6.5.3.5).
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

6.5.2.3. Khai bo mt ct thay i cho nhm phn t


Chc nng ny cho php nh ngha s thay i mt ct lin tc trn mt nhm phn t. Chc
nng ny khc vi dng mt ct Tapered trong phn 6.5.2.1.6 ch, chc nng Tapered ch
cho php thay i mt ct trong phm vi mt phn t. Do vy, s dng chc nng Tapered
Section Group s cho php m hnh s thay i mt ct cho mt nhm phn t nhanh hn vic
s dng mt ct Tapered cho tng phn t.

Hnh II-74: Mt ct thay i theo nhm phn t


Sau khi khai bo mt ct thay i v gn cho cc phn t. Gi chc nng Tapered Section
Group bng cch chn menu Model Properties Tapered Section Group

Hnh II-75:To nhm phn t c mt ct thay i


Section Group: Tn nhm phn t mt ct thay i.
Ele ment List: S hiu cc phn t trong nhm mun gn mt ct thay i. C th nhp trc
tip hoc dng chut la chn trn m hnh.
Section Shape Variation: Dng mt ct thay i theo trc z v trc y.
Linear: Thay i theo ng bc nht
Polynomial: Thay i theo a thc bc cao, chn s m trong bn cnh.
Symmetric Plane: Mt phng i xng
From: Chn i, j tu vo v tr trc i xng ca ng cong u i hay u j phn t.
Vi v d ny, do trc i xng ca ng cong parabol nm u i ca phn t s 1
nn ta chn i mc From.
Distance: Khong cch t u i ca phn t n v tr tm ca ng cong
Mt i xng u j

Mt i xng u i

Hnh II-76: Xc nh mt phng i xng


Chn Add thm nhm vo danh sch. Chn Modify thay i cc thng s ca nhm, hoc
chn Delete xa nhm.

Hnh II-77: Cc tnh nng qun l nhm mt ct thay i


Conve rt Tapered Section: Chc nng ny t ng tnh ton d liu to mi mt ct thay
i v gn cho tng phn t trong nhm. Cc mt ct c to tng ng vi s phn t c
gn trong nhm.
V d, nhm c 10 phn t, chc nng ny s to thm 10 mt ct thay i tng ng vi 10
phn t, m bo s thay i lin tc ca cc mt ct trong nhm.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

6.5.2.4. D liu chiu dy


D liu mt ct c khai bo trn ch p dng c cho cc phn t dng thanh. Khi phn
tch cc phn t tm, chng trnh cn cc d liu v chiu dy. D liu v chiu dy ca cc
phn t tm trong MIDAS/Civil c xem xt theo hai cch sau:
a vo cng mt chiu dy tnh ton cng cho c hai chiu trong v ngoi mt
phng.
a vo cc chiu dy khc nhau tnh ton cng cho c hai chiu trong v ngoi
mt phng.
i vi cc phn t ng sut phng, ch c ng x trong mt phng c a vo tnh ton nn
ch cn s liu chiu dy trong mt phng.
6.5.2.5. Nhp mt ct t d n khc
Mt ct dng trong d n c th c nhp t mt d n khc. Thay v chn nt Add th kch
chn nt Import.
Chn ngun v chn cc mt ct mun thm vo d n.

Hnh II-78: Nhp mt ct t d n khc


6.5.2.6. Xy dng v tnh ton mt ct t nh ngha bng SPC
Chc nng ny ch xut hin t phin bn MIDAS/Civil 6.7.1.
Trong trng hp mt ct cn m hnh khng c MIDAS/Civil h tr, MIDAS/Civil cung
cp mt chng trnh c kh nng tnh ton c trng hnh hc ca mt ct bt k. Da vo
cng c ny, ngi dng c th t xy dng cc mt ct.
Cc hnh dng mt ct c th c v, hoc nhp t file DXF ca AutoCAD. Gi chng trnh
MIDAS/SPC t menu Tool Sectional Property Calculator.
Hnh II-79: SPC h tr m hnh mt ct bt k
Sau khi m hnh v tnh ton, MIDAS/SPC cho php xut d liu mt ct theo nhiu dng, t
tin hnh nhp mt ct vo trong d n chng trnh chnh.
Mt ct nhp t MIDAS/SPC c nhp trong th Value, dng mt ct l General Section.

Hnh II-80: Nhp mt ct bt k t SPC


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

6.5.2.7. H s t l cng mt ct
Trong mt s trng hp ti trng v trng thi thi cng, mt s mt ct c th xut hin cc
vt nt v do b gim yu v cng. Khi m hnh ha kt cu trong MIDAS/Civil, ngi
dng c th yu cu chng trnh xem xt n cc yu t ny bng cch a h s t l cng
cho cc mt ct theo cc nhm iu kin bin. Cc h s t l cng s c xem xt c khi
tnh ton ni lc/ vng v ng sut nu ngi dng thit lp cc yu cu phn tch cn thit.
yu cu chng trnh xem xt n h s t l cng khi tnh ton ng sut, ngi dng
chn: Consider Section Stiffness Scale Factor for Stress Calculation khi thc hin cc thit
lp phn tch (menu Analysis Main Control Data).

Hnh II-81: Khai bo phn t ch xem xt h s t l cng mt ct


gn cc h s t l cng mt ct cho cc nhm iu kin bin ngi dng gi menu
Model Properties Section Stiffness Scale Factor v nhp s liu thng qua giao din.

Hnh II-82: H s t l cng mt ct


6.5.2.8. Nhp ct thp thng cho mt ct dng PSC
Cc mt ct dm b tng ng sut trc (kiu PSC) c th c m hnh y ct thp
thng. MIDAS/Civil h tr m hnh 2 loi ct thp thng l ct thp ch theo phng dc v
ct thp chu ct do lc ct v xon.
Vic a ct thp thng vo mt ct cho php tnh ton cng v xem xt cc hiu ng rng
buc ca ct thp thng chng li qu trnh t bin v co ngt. Hn na, ct thp chu ct do
cc thanh ct thp thng v ct thp ng sut trc c th c xem xt.
yu cu chng trnh xem xt n ct thp thng trong mt ct, ngi dng chn:
Consider Reinforcement for Section Stiffness Calculation khi thc hin cc thit lp phn tch
(menu Analysis Main Control Data).

Hnh II-83: Khai bo phn t ch xem xt tc dng ca ct thp thng

Khai bo ct thp ch theo phng dc


Both end parts (i & j) have the same
reinforcement: gia c 2 u i, j ging nhau.
Dia.: Chn ng knh ct thp.
Number: S thanh thp
Ref.Y: im tham chiu theo trc Y.
Y: Khong cch t Ref.Y n trng tm
ca ct thp gia c theo phng ngang.
Ref.Z: im tham chiu theo trc Z..
Khi Ref.Z c gi tr Top, chiu +
hng xung di.
Khi Ref.Z c gi tr Bottom, chiu
+ hng ln trn.
Z: Khong cch ng t Ref.Z n thp gia
c.
Spacing: Khong cch theo phng ngang
gia cc thanh thp gia c.

Hnh II-84: Khai bo ct thp dc

Khai bo ct thp chu ct


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Both end parts (i & j) have the same


reinforcement: gia c 2 u i, j ging nhau.
Diagonal Reinforcement: Ct thp cho.
Pitch: Khong cch.
Angle: Gc nghing, du nh hnh bn.
Aw: Tng din tch ct thp.
Steel Bar for Web: Ct thp bn bng.
Pitch: Khong cch.
Angle: Gc nghing.
Ap: Tng din tch ct thp.
Pe: ng sut trc.
Torsion Reinforcement : Ct thp chng xon.
Pitch: Khong cch.
Awt:
Tng din tch ct thp ngang.
Alt: Tng din tch ct thp dc.

Hnh II-85: Khai bo ct thp chu ct


6.5.3. M hnh ha vt liu
MIDAS/Civil cung cp trong cc c s d liu ca mnh nhiu loi vt liu theo nhiu tiu
chun khc nhau. ng thi, ngi dng cng hon ton c th nh ngha cc vt liu mi cho
ring mnh. Tt c cc vt liu c trong d n c qun l trong ca s Properties, trang
Material. y, ngi dng c th thm mi, sa i, sao chp hay xa cc vt liu ang c.
Bn cnh kh nng nh ngha vt liu mi, ngi dng c th s dng cc vt liu c
khai bo cc d n khc thng qua chc nng Import.
6.5.3.1. Vt liu tiu chun
6.5.3.1.1. C s d liu vt liu
Mt s vt liu theo cc tiu chun in hnh c trong c s d liu ca MIDAS/Civil l:
Thp (Steel)
ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials)
BS (British Standards)
DIN (Deutsches Institut fr Normung e.V.)
EN (European Code)
JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards)
GB (Guojia Biao Zhun, China)
KS (Korea Standard),...
B tng (Concrete)
ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials)
BS (British Standards)
EN (European Code)
JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards)
GB (Guojia Biao Zhun, China)
KS (Korea Standard),...
Ct thp (Reinforcing steel)
ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials)
CSA (Canadian Standards Association)
BS (British Standards)
EN (European Code)
JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards)
GB (Guojia Biao Zhun, China)
GB-Civil (Guojia Biao Zhun, China)
KS (Korea Standard), KS-Civil
6.5.3.1.2. Khai bo theo vt liu tiu chun
khai bo vt liu, ngi dng c th thc hin nh sau:
Chn menu Model Properties Material hoc kch vo nt t thanh cng c
Property
Sau nhp cc d liu cn thit t ca s nhp liu nh trn Hnh II-86. khai bo,
ngi dng cn nhp tn ty ca vt liu vo Name, chn kiu thit k cho vt liu
Type of Design chn tiu chun trong Standard v m vt liu t DB.

Hnh II-86: Khai bo vt liu theo tiu chun


6.5.3.2. Vt liu do ngi dng t nh ngha
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Qu trnh nhp d liu cho vt liu do ngi dng t nh ngha cng c thc hin nh i
vi vt liu tiu chun. Tuy nhin, thay cho vic chn tiu chun vt liu, ngi dng chn
None vi ngha khng theo tiu chun v nhp cc c trng c l ca vt liu mong mun
vo cc trng tng ng (Hnh II-87).

Hnh II-87: Khai bo vt liu do ngi dng t nh ngha


6.5.3.3. Nhp vt liu t cc d n khc
Vt liu dng trong mt d n c th c nhp t mt d n khc thng qua tnh nng menu
Model Import. Trn giao din Properties (menu Model Property) bm nt Import v
chn d n m vt liu ca n s c nhp. Sau , ngi dng chn vt liu cn nhp t giao
din Import Material from other Project nh Hnh II-88.

Hnh II-88: Nhp vt liu t d n khc


6.5.3.4. Vt liu c tnh nng thay i theo thi gian
m t s thay i cng v bin dng theo thi gian nh co ngt v t bin ca b tng
trong MIDAS/Civil, ngi dng cn thc hin cc cng vic sau:
nh ngha cc hm c trng m t s bin thin cng v co ngt t bin theo thi
gian. Cc hm ny c th c ly theo tiu chun hay do ngi dng t nh ngha.
Gn cc hm ni trn cho cc vt liu cn tnh n s bin thin tnh nng theo thi gian.
6.5.3.4.1. Khai bo c trng co ngt/t bin
Ngi dng c th thc hin vic khai bo c trng co ngt / t bin nh sau:
Chn menu Model Properties Time Dependent Material(Creep/Shrinkage) hoc
kch vo nt t thanh cng c Property
Sau nhp cc d liu cn thit vo ca s nhp liu nh trn Hnh II-89. Trn hnh
ny, ca s bn tri l ni qun l cc c trng co ngt/t bin. y, ngi dng c
th thm mi, sa i hay xa cc c trng c. nh ngha mt c trng mi,
ngi dng chn tiu chun s p dng trong mc Code. Lu rng cc hm co ngt / t
bin do ngi dng t nh ngha cng c chn mc ny. Ph thuc vo tiu chun
c chn, ngi dng phi nhp cc gi tr cn thit tng ng.

Hnh II-89: Khai bo c trng co ngt/t bin


6.5.3.4.2. Khai bo c trng bin thin cng
c trng bin thin cng theo thi gian cng c khai bo theo qu trnh hon ton
tng t nh khi khai bo c trng co ngt/t bin (Hnh II-90).
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-90: Khai bo c trng bin thin cng


6.5.3.4.3. Gn cc c trng bin i tnh nng cho vt liu
Vt liu trong m hnh kt cu s c chng trnh xt n cc tnh nng bin thin theo thi
gian khi chng c gn cc c trng k trn. Nh vy, mt vt liu c coi l c tnh
nng bin i theo thi gian th ngoi cc c trng c l thng thng nh cng , m-un
n hi, n cn c thm cc khai bo v c trng bin i theo thi gian (Hnh II-91).

Vt liu
(c tnh nng bin thin theo thi gian)

c trng c, l thng c trng bin i theo thi


thng gian (cng , co ngt/t
bin)

Hnh II-91: Vt liu c tnh nng bin thin theo thi gian
Qu trnh gn c trng bin i tnh nng vt liu c thc hin nh sau:
Chn menu Model Properties Time Dependent Material Link hoc kch vo
nt t thanh cng c Property
Nhp d liu vo ca s nh c trnh by trn Hnh II-92
Hnh II-92: Gn cc c trng bin thin theo thi gian vi vt liu

6.5.3.5. Gn vt liu cho phn t


Cc phn t c th c gn vt liu ngay khi chng c khi to, nu vt liu c khai
bo, hay c c gn sau . Vt liu ca phn t cng c th c thay i nh l mt
thuc tnh ca phn t trong qu trnh m hnh ha. Vic gn hay thay i vt liu cho phn t
c th c thc hin theo cc phng php sau:
Thay i gi tr trn bng: Nh ch ra phn trn, tt c cc phn t ca m hnh u
c qun l trong cc bng. Ngi dng c th la chn phn t v thc hin sa i
mt cch nhanh chng trn bng (Hnh II-93).

Hnh II-93: Gn vt liu cho phn t trn bng

Ko & th (drag-drop): y l phng php rt trc quan v n gin, c th thc hin


cho nhiu phn t ng thi (Hnh II-94).
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-94: Gn vt liu theo phng php ko & th


6.5.4. M hnh ha lin kt
MIDAS/Civil cung cp cc cng c m hnh ha cc iu kin bin rt khc nhau, ph hp
vi thc t phn tch kt cu cu. thc hin m hnh ha lin kt v iu kin bin, ngi
dng gi menu Model Boundaries v chn kiu lin kt hay iu kin bin tng ng
nh ch dn sau y. Hu ht cc lin kt v iu kin bin u p dng cho nt. Do , khi
khai bo lin kt hoc iu kin bin, ngi dng phi chn nt gn chng. Cc lin kt
hoc iu kin bin, sau khi c nh ngha v gn cho mt s nt c th gn m rng cho cc
nt khc theo cc phng php chung nh ko th, sa i trn bng,...
Cc lin kt v iu kin bin trong MIDAS/Civil c th c nhm thnh cc dng gi v lin
kt.
Gi l dng lin kt c bit ni kt cu vi mi trng v d nh nn t.
Lin kt c dng m ch cc i tng kt ni hai hay nhiu nt trong kt cu vi
nhau.
Vic m hnh ha gi v lin kt c thc hin thng qua menu Model Boundaries. Chi
tit chc nng ca cc biu tng trong menu ny:
Supports : Gi cng.
Define General Spring Type : nh ngha kiu gi n hi tng qut.
Surface Spring Support : Gi n hi cho mt.
Nonlinear Link Properties : Cc thng s lin kt phi tuyn.
Beam End Release : Gii phng lin kt u dm.
Plate End Release : Gii phng lin kt u tm.
Panel Zone Effect : Hiu ng vng lin kt.
Effective Width Scale Factor : H s t l chiu rng c hiu.
Point Spring Supports : Gi n hi im.
General Spring Supports : Gi n hi tng qut.
Elastic Link : Lin kt n hi.
General Link : Lin kt phi tuyn.
Beam End Offset : on cng u dm.
Rigid Link : Lin kt cng.
Node Local Axis : Trc ta a phng nt.
6.5.4.1. Gi cng
Supports, dng m hnh ha cc gi cng thng thng.
y, ngi dng c th quy nh cc bc t do b gi hn ch tng ng vi m hnh tnh
ton. Lin kt gi cng c gn cho nt.
V d xc nh cc thng s gi cng th hin trn Hnh II-95.
Boundary Group Name: Tn ca nhm iu kin bin, mc
nh l Default
Options: Cc dng la chn khi khai bao gi:
Add: b sung cc hn ch bc t do cho gi.
Replace: Thay th cc khai bo trc bng khai bo hin
thi.
Delete: Xa cc khai bo ang c.
Support Type (Local Direction): Kiu gi (hn ch bc t do
theo h ta a phng):
D-ALL: Hn ch tt c cc bc t do chuyn v ng.
Dx: Hn ch bc t do chuyn v ng theo trc X.
Dy: Hn ch bc t do chuyn v ng theo trc Y.
Dz: Hn ch bc t do chuyn v ng theo trc Z.
R-ALL: Hn ch tt c cc bc t do quay.
Rx: Hn ch bc t do quay quanh trc X.
Ry: Hn ch bc t do quay quanh trc Y.
Rz: Hn ch bc t do quay quanh trc Z.
Hnh II-95: M hnh ha gi
cng

6.5.4.2. Gi n hi
Gi n hi trong Midas/Civil c 3 loi:
General Spring Supports l dng gi n hi tng qut, c cng theo tng bc t
do. Thng s n hi ca gi c nh ngha trong General Spring Type.
Point Spring Supports l gi n hi im (nt). y, ngi dng c th nh ngha
cng theo cc bc t do ca nt. Loi ny thng c p dng m hnh ha cc
gi cao su hay im k ca giao trong qu trnh thi cng.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Point Spring (Local Direction): cng n hi


(theo cc bc t do trong h ta a phng):
SDx: cng n hi theo phng trc X.
SDy: cng n hi theo phng trc Y.
SDz: cng n hi theo phng trc Z.
SRx: cng n hi chng quay quanh
trc X.
SRy: cng n hi chng quay quanh
trc Y.
SRz: cng n hi chng quay quanh
trc Z.

Hnh II-96: M hnh ha gi n hi

Surface Spring Support l n hi mt, p dng cho trng hp kt cu c cc mt


tip xc vi t nn nh hm hay mng bng, mng b,...
6.5.4.3. Rng buc cng (Rigid Link)
Rigid Link l dng lin kt m hnh ha cc rng buc cng gia mt nt chun (Master)
v nhiu nt ph khc (Slave).
Master Node Number: S hiu nt chnh. C hai cch nhp:
t bn phm hoc dng chut la chn trn m hnh (yu
cu trc phi kch chut vo cn nhp).
DOF of Rigid Link: Gn bc t do cho lin kt Rigid Link.
DX, DY, DZ: bc t do v chuyn v theo phng trc
X, Y, Z ca h ta tng th GCS.
RX, RY, RZ: Bc t do v chuyn v quanh trc X, Y,
Z ca h ta tng th GCS.
Typical Types: mt s dng thng dng, n gin ho cc
bc nhp iu kin trn.
Rigid Body: khng ch dch chuyn tng i ca nt
chnh v nt ph ging nh chng c ni vi nhau
bng mt vt th cng dng khi.
Plane X-Y, Y-Z, X-Z: lin kt thnh tm cng trong
mt phng X-Y, Y-Z, X-Z ca GCS.
Copy Rigid Link: copy cc iu kin lin kt cng c
nh ngha.
Axis: Trc ta .
Distance: Khong cch gia cc lin kt Rigid link.
Hnh II-97: Rng buc cng
CH Cc nt ph (Slave ) c chn trn m hnh.
Mun s dng Copy Rigid Link, yu cu phi tn ti cc nt ti v tr cn copy.

6.5.4.4. Rng buc n hi (Elastic Link)


Elastic Link l lin kt n hi ni hai im trong m hnh vi nhau. Mt cch tng qut,
ngi dng xc nh cng theo cc bc t do trong Elastic Link. Dng lin kt ny cng
c s dng m hnh ha lin kt cng, lin kt khp, lin kt ch chu ko hay ch chu
nn.
Link Type: Dng lin kt
General Type: Dng tng qut
Rigid Type: Dng lin kt cng
Tens.-only: Lin kt dng thanh ch chu ko
Comp.-only: Lin kt dng thanh ch chu nn
SDx: cng n hi theo phng trc x
SDy: cng n hi theo phng trc y
SDz: cng n hi theo phng trc z
SRx: cng n hi chng quay quanh trc x
SRy: cng n hi chng quay quanh trc y
SRz: cng n hi chng quay quanh trc z

Hnh II-98: Rng buc n


hi
6.5.4.5. Gii phng lin kt cc nt ca phn t (Beam End Release)
Beam End Release l dng gii phng lin kt theo cc bc t do nht nh u cc
phn t dm. iu kin bin ny yu cu phi khai bo cho phn t dm.
Vy lu phi chn phn t dm trc, v nhn nh r s m hnh u i hay j.
Options : Cc dng la chn khi khai bo:
Add/Replace: B sung, thay th cc khai bo trc bng khai bo hin thi.
Delete: Xa cc khai bo ang c.
General Types and Partial Fixity: Chn loi lin kt hoc nhp gi tr cng tng thnh
phn cho tng bc t do c 2 u phn t theo h ta a phng.
Type: Kiu nhp d liu, c 2 kiu:
Relative: Nhp theo h s cng.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

V d, 0 v 1 m t iu kin bin gii phng hon ton v iu kin bin cng


hon ton.
Nhp 0.3 cho My (m- men un) ca nt i m t s
ch 30% ca My c tc dng.
Value: Nhp h s c nh bc t do u phn t
theo gi tr cng.
Cn c vo c im ca tng phn t m kch chn vo
cc la chn Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My, Mz... v nhp d liu.
Fx, Fy, Fz: gii phng thnh phn lc dc trc theo
trc x, lc ct theo trc y, z ca h to ECS.
Mx: gii phng thnh phn m- men xon quanh vi
trc x ca h to ECS.
My, Mz: gii phng thnh phn m-men un quanh vi
trc y, z ca h to ECS.
n gin cho ngi s dng, thay v la chn theo cc thnh
phn cng trn, chng trnh h tr 4 la chn nha nh:
Pinned-Pinned: gii phng thnh phn cng chng un
theo c hai trc y v z c hai u ca phn t la chn.
Pinned-Fixed: gii phng thnh phn cng chng un
theo c hai trc y v z u i (nt N1) ca phn t c
la chn.
Fixed-Pinned: gii phng thnh phn cng chng un
theo c hai trc y v z u j (nt N2) ca phn t c
la chn.
Fixed-Fixed: xo mi la chn lp trc , a phn
t tr li iu kin lin kt cng ban u.
Hnh II-99: Rng buc n
hi
6.5.4.6. H ta a phng ca nt (Node Local Axis)
Node Local Axis nh ngha ta a phng ca nt.
Ta a phng ca nt c th s dng kt hp vi cc chc nng m hnh ha sau:
Supports : Gi cng
Point Spring Supports: Gi n hi im nt.
General Spring Supports : Gi n hi tng qut..
Surface Spring Supports: Gi n hi cho b mt.
Specified Displacement of Supports : Chuyn v cng bc ti gi.
Input Method: C 3 phng thc nh ngha
Angle: nh ngha trn c s 3 gc xoay quanh trc x, y , z .
about x: Gc quay quanh trc X ca GCS.
about y : Gc quay quanh trc y trc c quay
quanh X.
about z : Gc quay quanh z trc c quay quanh
trc X v trc y .

3 points: nh ngha trn c s 3 im


P0: to gc ca h to nt.
P1: to mt im bt k trn trc x ca h to nt.
P2: to ca mt im bng cch dch chuyn t im
P1 v song song vi trc y ca h to nt.

Vector: nh ngha da trn 2 vect


V1: vect theo phng trc x, bt u t im gc ca
h to nt.
V2: vect bt u t im gc ca h to nt ti im
P2 xc nh theo phng php 3 Points trn.

Hnh II-100: nh ngha h


ta a phng ca nt
6.5.5. M hnh ha ti trng
Cc ti trng thc t c MIDAS/Civil m hnh ha thnh cc kiu c bn sau:
Ti trng tnh c s dng thc hin cc phn tch tnh i vi cc iu kin t ti
khng i.
Ti trng di ng c s dng cho cc phn tch kt cu c lin quan n ti trng on
xe tc ng tnh nhng c v tr tc dng thay i. Ti trng di ng thng c phn
tch vi vic s dng ng nh hng hoc mt nh hng.
Ti trng ng l ti trng c tc dng gy lc qun tnh trong kt cu. Cc phng php
phn tch ti trng ng l ph phn ng hay lch s thi gian.
6.5.5.1. Ti trng tnh
Ti trng tnh c khai bo trong MIDAS/Civil theo cc bc sau:
To cc trng hp ti trng tnh (Static Load Cases)
Khai bo cc ti trng tnh v gn chng cho tng trng hp ti trng. Vic gn ny l
bt buc: mt ti trng tnh nht thit phi thuc v mt trng hp ti trng nht nh.
C th c nhiu ti trng tnh trong mt trng hp ti trng.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

6.5.5.1.1. To cc trng hp ti trng tnh


nh ngha cc trng hp ti trng tnh, ngi dng gi menu Load Static Load
Cases hoc chn t Menu Tree Structure Analysis Static Loads Static Load Cases
sau nhp tn, kiu v m t cho cc trng hp ti trng nh trn Hnh II-101.

Hnh II-101: nh ngha trng hp ti trng t nh


Name: Tn ca trng hp ti trng tnh, c th c t ty .
Type: Kiu ca trng hp ti trng tnh, c th c chn l User Defined Load (ti trng
do ngi dng t nh ngha) hoc cc kiu khc do chng trnh nh ngha sn theo cc tiu
chun ph bin. Nu kiu ti trng c chn theo tiu chun, chng s c mt trong cc t
hp kt qu c xy dng t ng theo tiu chun.
6.5.5.1.2. Ti trng bn thn
Self Weight (trng lng bn thn).
MIDAS/Civil t ng tnh ton trng lng
bn thn ca kt cu cn c vo trng lng
ring ca vt liu v kch thc hnh hc ca
cc phn t. Lu rng, trng lng bn thn
khng phi l ti trng mc nh, ngha l
chng trnh khng t ng tnh n ti trng
ny nu ngi dng cha yu cu.
khai bo, ngi dng gi menu Load
Self Weight hoc chn lnh Self Weight
trn bng Load trong Model Entity. D liu
cho trng lng bn thn c nhp nh c
m t trn Hnh II-102. H s trng lng bn
thn phn nh nh hng ca trng lng bn
thn theo tng phng ca h ta tng.
Mc nh, khi phng Z ca h ny c chn
theo phng thng ng t di ln th h s
trng lng bn thn l theo phng trc Z l
-1, theo phng cc trc khc l 0. Cc trc
khc cng c xt tng t.

Hnh II-102: Nhp d liu cho trng lng


bn thn
6.5.5.1.3. Ti trng trn phn t dm
Element Beam Loads (ti trng dm) c dng m hnh ha cc ti trng (lc v m-
men) tp trung hay phn b tc dng trn cc phn t dm. V tr tc dng ca ti trng c
xc nh trong h ta phn t (ECS). Phng tc dng c th c xc nh theo h ta
tng (GCS) hay theo h ta phn t (ECS).
Khai bo trong menu Load Element Beam Loads
Chn phn t mun gn ti trng.
Load Case Name: Gn trng hp ti cho ti trng ang nh
ngha.
Load Type : Kiu lc gm:
Lc tp trung, lc phn b u hoc phn b khng u.
M-men tp trung, m-men phn b u hoc phn b
khng u.
Direction: Hng ti trng gm:
Cc phng Local x, Local y, Local z ca h trc ta
phn t ECS.
Cc phng Global X, Global Y, Global Z ca h ta
tng th GCS.
Projection:
Yes: Ch thnh phn ti trng ng tc dng ln dm.
No: Ti trng tc tc dng trn ton b chiu di dm.
Value: Nhp gi tr cho v tr tc dng v gi tr ca ti trng
Relative: Chiu di dm tng i (Coi ton b dm l 1
n v).
Absolute: Nhp ti trng theo chiu di tht ca dm.
Hnh II-103: Khai bo ti
trng dm

Line Beam Loads (ti trng tc dng ln cc dm thng) c dng m hnh ha cc ti


trng (lc v m- men) tc dng ln cc on dm lin tc v nm trn cng mt on thng
theo phng tc dng ca lc. V tr tc dng ca lc c xc nh theo c khong nhiu phn
t do ngi dng la chn.
Khai bo trong menu Load Line Beam Loads.
Load Case Name: Gn trng hp ti cho ti trng ang nh ngha.
Load Type : Kiu lc gm:
Lc tp trung, lc phn b u, phn b khng u, lc phn b theo phng trnh bc
hai.
M-men tp trung, m- men phn b u, phn b khng u.
Ele ment Selection: Chn phn t theo ng lc hoc theo cc phn t c chn.
Direction: Hng ti trng gm:
Cc phng Local x, Local y, Local z ca h trc ta phn t ECS.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Cc phng Global X, Global Y, Global Z ca h ta


tng th GCS.
Projection:
Yes: Ch thnh phn ti trng ng tc dng ln dm.
No: Ti trng tc tc dng trn ton b chiu di dm.
Value: Nhp gi tr cho v tr tc dng v gi tr ca ti trng
Relative: Chiu di dm tng i (Coi ton b dm l 1
n v)
Absolute: Nhp ti trng theo chiu di tht ca dm.
Nodes for Loading Line : 2 nt xc nh ng lc.

Hnh II-104: Khai bo ti


trng trn dm thng

Typical Beam Loads (cc ti trng dm in hnh) cung cp cc dng ph bin ca cc ti


trng dm c to ra t cc ti ti trng sn nh phn b u, hnh tam gic, hnh thang,...
6.5.5.1.4. Ti trng nt
Nodal Loads (ti trng tp trung ti nt). Loi ti trng ny
p dng cho lc v m- men tp trung. Khi khai bo, ngi dng
nhp d liu cho cc thnh phn lc v m-men theo cc
phng v gn cho cc nt mong mun.
p dng cho lc v m- men tp trung. Khi khai bo nhp d
liu cho cc thnh phn lc v m-men theo cc phng v gn
cho cc nt mong mun.
Khai bo trong menu Load Nodal Loads
Chn nt mun gn ti trng.
Load Case Name: Trng hp ti trng
Load Group Name: Nhm ti trng
Options : Ty chn thm, thay th hoc xa.
Nhp ti trng tp trung ti nt theo cc gi tr lc FX, FY, FZ
v m-men MX, MY, MZ theo h ta tng th GCS.

Hnh II-105: Ti trng nt


6.5.5.1.5. Ti trng chuyn v cng bc
Specified Displacement of Supports (chuyn v cng
bc ca gi). ng nh tn gi, loi ti trng ny c dng
m hnh ha cc chuyn v gi trong kt cu. Khi khai
bo, ngi dng nhp cc gi tr chuyn v thng v gc quay
theo cc phng ca h ta tng th (GCS).
Dng m hnh ha cc chuyn v gi trong kt cu. Khi
khai bo, ngi dng nhp cc gi tr chuyn v thng v gc
quay theo cc phng ca h ta tng th (GCS).
Khai bo trong menu Load Specified Displacement of
Supports
Chn nt mun gn chuyn v.
Load Case Name: Trng hp ti trng
Load Group Name: Nhm ti trng
Options : Ty chn thm, thay th hoc xa.
Nhp chuyn v cng bc theo cc phng Dx, Dy, Dz v
gc xoay cng bc Rx, Ry, Rz theo h ta nt NCS.

Hnh II-106: Khai bo ti


trng chuyn v cng bc
6.5.5.2. Ti trng di ng (hot ti)
Vic khai bo ti trng di ng trong MIDAS/Civil c thc hin theo cc bc sau:
La chn tiu chun s c p dng cho vic phn tch ti trng di ng. Cc tiu chun
c MIDAS/Civil h tr hin thi l AASHTO Standard, AASHTO LRDF, BS,... Nu
la chn tiu chun ti trng di ng l None, ngi dng khng th thc hin cc
phn tch ti trng di ng. Tiu chun ti trng di ng c la chn t menu Load
Moving Load Code hoc t Menu Tree Structure Analysis Moving Load
Analysis Moving Load Code.

Hnh II-107: La chn t iu chun s p dng cho phn tch ti trng di ng


nh ngha cc ln xe chy hoc mt xe chy trong m hnh phn nh ng di chuyn
ca phng tin, s ln xe v b rng ln. Cc ln xe c gn cho cc phn t dm v
mt xe chy c gn cho cc phn t tm. Vic nh ngha ln xe chy c bt u t
menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Traffic Line Lanes v vic nh ngha
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

mt xe chy c bt u t menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Traffic


Surface Lanes
nh ngha xe ti thit kti trng xe s tc dng trn cc ln xe hoc cc mt ln xe chy
bng cch s dng menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Vehicles Ti trng
di ng c th c ly t c s d liu ca cc tiu chun nh AASHTO Standard,
AASHTO LRDF, Caltrans,... Cc on xe tiu chun c trong c s d liu ca
MIDAS/Civil c lit k trong bng sau.

Tiu chun Ti trng xe thit k tiu chun


H15-44, HS15-44, H15-44L, HS15-44L H20-44,
AASHTO Standard
HS20-44, H20-44L, HS20-44L, AML
AASHTO LRFD HL93-TRK, HL93-TDM, HS20-FTG
Caltrans Standard P5, P7, P9, P11, P13
KS Standard Load (Specification
DB-24, DB-18, DB-13.5, DL-24, DL-18, DL-13.5
for Roadway Bridges)
L-25, L-22, L-18, L-15,S-25, S-22, S-18, S-15, EL-
KS Standard Train Loads
25, EL-22, EL-18 & HL

Ngoi ra, ngi dng cng c th t nh ngha cc on xe ca mnh. Theo cch ny,
cc ti trng nh H10, H13, H30,... theo tiu chun thit k cu 22TCN18-79 cng c th
c khai bo trong MIDAS/Civil.

Hnh II-108: nh ngha cc on xe tiu chun theo t iu chun AASHTO LRDF


S dng menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Vehicle Classes nhm mt
s ti trng di ng c tc dng ng thi thnh cc lp xe.
Hnh II-109: nh ngha lp xe
Gn cc phn t dm gn cc gi gia ca cc dm lin tc xc nh m- men m ln
nht cho chng, nu tnh theo tiu chun AASHTO Standard. Vic gn ny c thc
hin t menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Lane Support-Negative
Moment at Interior Piers Tng t, xc nh phn lc gi ln nht ca cc gi
gia theo cc tiu chun AASHTO Standard v AASHTO LRDF, ngi dng gn cc gi
ny qua menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Lane Support-Reactions at
Inte rior Pie rs
nh ngha cc trng hp ti trng di ng sau khi nh ngha cc ln xe hoc mt xe
chy v cc lp xe. Mi trng hp ti trng di ng c cha mt hoc mt s trng
hp con (Sub- Load Cases), , ngi dng xc nh ln xe c cht ti vi cc lp xe
c nh ngha (Hnh II-110). Cc trng hp ti trng di ng c nh ngha t
menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Moving Load Cases. Nhng trng hp
ti trng ny sau c t hp vi cc kt qu phn tch khc bng cch s dng menu
Results Combinations.

Hnh II-110: nh ngha cc trng hp ti trng di ng


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

6.5.5.3. Ti trng nhit


System Temperature (ti trng nhit ton kt cu) c dng phn tch nh hng
ca s tng hay gim nhit ca ton kt cu. Nhit ban u ca kt cu c xc nh
trong phn Xc nh kiu kt cu (mc 6.5.1.1). y, ngi dng cn nhp nhit tnh ton
cui cng cho tng trng hp ti trng.
Nodal Temperatures (ti trng do thay i nhit nt) c dng phn tch nh hng
ca s tng hay gim nhit tng nt. Nhit ban u l nhit ca ton kt cu. Nhit
cui cng c gn cho tng nt.
Element Temperatures (ti trng do thay i nhit phn t) c dng phn tch nh
hng ca s tng hay gim nhit tng phn t. Cc d liu cn thit cng c xc nh
tng t trn.
Temperature Gradient (ti trng do chnh lch nhit ). Loi ti trng ny c dng
phn tch nh hng ca s chnh lch nhit tng pha ca mt ct dm hoc phn t
phng. S chnh lch nhit c th c xc nh theo c hai phng ca mt ct.

Beam Section Temperatures (ti trng do chnh lch nhit trn mt ct dm) c s
dng phn tch nh hng ca s chnh lch nhit trn tng phn ca mt ct dm.
Khai bo trong menu Load Te mperature Loads Beam Section Temperatures
Selection Type: Kiu dm tng qut hay dm hp.
Initial: Nhit ban u ca kt cu.
Material: Vt liu.
H: B dy th trn.
T1: Nhit th trn.
T2: Nhit th di.

Hnh II-111: Khai bo nhit


trn mt ct dm
6.5.5.4. Ti trng d ng lc
Prestress Beam Loads (d ng lc cho dm) c dng m hnh ha cc ti trng ng
sut trc trong cc phn t dm. Cc d liu cn thit l d ng lc v lch tm ca lc
ny ti cc v tr u, gia v cui ca phn t.
Pretension Loads (ti trng cng trc) nh ngha cc ti trng cng trc trong phn t
dn, cp v phn t ch chu ko hoc nn. D liu cn thit y ch l lc ko trong phn t.
Tendon Prestress Loads (ti trng d ng lc ca cp) m t cc ti trng gy ra do ng
sut trc ca cp. Loi ti trng ny thng c p dng cho cc kt cu b tng d ng lc.
Trc khi khai bo ti trng ny, ngi dng nh ngha cc thuc tnh ca cp d ng lc
(tendon property) v hnh dng cp trong cc phn t (tendon profile).
6.5.5.5. To t hp ti trng
MIDAS/Civil c th t hp cc trng hp ti trng bng chc nng Results/Combinations.
Vic t hp cc trng hp ti trng c th to ra cc trng hp ti trng mi. Hnh II-112
trnh by cch t hp kt qu phn tch trn MIDAS/Civil.

Hnh II-112: Hp thoi t hp ti trng tc dng ln kt cu


Vic t hp ti trng c th c thc hin theo cc phng php sau y:
Ngi dng ch nh trc tip cc s liu t hp ti trng.
Nhp cc file cha cc t hp ti trng qua tnh nng Import.
Chng trnh t ng pht sinh cc t hp ti trng theo tiu chun t tnh n ng Auto
Generation.
Cc ti trng c th c t hp theo cc phng php sau:
Add: t hp tuyn tnh (cng) cc kt qu phn tch.
Envelope (gi tr bao): cc gi tr ln nht, nh nht v ln nht tuyt i t cc kt qu
ca mi phn tch.
ABS (Absolute Sum): t hp tuyn tnh ca tng cc gi tr tuyt i ca phn tch ph
phn ng v cc kt qu phn tch khc.
Rmax R1 R2 .. Rn
SRSS: t hp tuyn tnh ca t hp SRSS (Square Root of the Sum of the Squares) v kt
qu phn tch ph phn ng v cc kt qu phn tch khc.
1/ 2
Rmax R12 R22 ... Rn2
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

6.6. Thc hin phn tch


MIDAS/Civil cung cp cc kh nng phn tch cc kt cu khng b gii hn v s lng nt,
phn t, trng hp ti trng v cc t hp ti trng. Dng phn tch c th l tuyn tnh hoc
phi tuyn, bao gm phi tuyn hnh hc, phi tuyn vt liu v phi tuyn iu kin bin. Chng
trnh c cha mt th vin ln cc phn t hu hn v cc kt cu xy dng dn dng v giao
thng. MIDAS/Civil c xy dng da trn cc thut ton mi nht v hiu qu nht nn c
tc tnh ton ln v chnh xc cao, tha mn c cc yu cu ngy cng cao ca thc t.
6.6.1. Thit lp phn tch
Trong qu trnh thit lp phn tch, vic la chn phng php phn tch v cng quan trng.
MIDAS/Civil cung cp hai phng php phn tch kt cu: phng php Skyline v phng
php a mt trn (Multi Frontal Sparse Gaussian). Cc phng php ny ngi dng c th la
chn t menu Analysis Analysis Options. Mc nh l phng php gii a mt trn (Hnh
II-113).

Hnh II-113: La chn cc phng php phn tch


Phng php Skyline, ni chung, c s dng trong hu ht cc chng trnh phn tch kt
cu. N c th c p dng cho nhiu loi m hnh kt cu vi cc quy m phn tch khc
nhau. y l mt phng php ti u, c th cung cp cc li gii trong nhng khong thi
gian ngn nht.
Vic p dng thut gii a mt trn da theo php gii Gauss (Multi-Frontal Sparse Gausian
Solver, MFSGS) l mt trong nhng th mnh ca MIDAS/Civil. Phng php MFSGS s
dng mt thut ton chia mt trn ti u gim ti a s php tnh khi gii h phng trnh
tuyn tnh. Phng php MFSGS c bit hu ch cho cc phn t hu hn c mt s lng ln
cc bc t do. cc kt cu vi nhiu nt, phng php MFSGS c th cung cp li gii nhanh
hn 3-5 ln so vi cc phng php khc ph thuc vo tng trng hp c th. Phng php
MFSGS cng l mt phng php c bit hu ch khi phn tch chi tit mt kt cu gm c
cc phn t tm v khi.
T phin bn 6.7.1, phng php Multi-Frontal Solver ngoi vic thc hin tnh ton trn my
c b x l n cn c thit k h tr cho cc b a x l v c th lm gim ng k thi
gian phn tch. Nu c hai CPU cng c s dng, thi gian phn tch s gim xung xp x
30-40%.
6.6.2. Tin hnh phn tch
Nu khng c cc yu cu khc, vic phn tch kt cu mc nh ca MIDAS/Civil l phn tch
tnh tuyn tnh. Qu trnh phn tch tnh tuyn tnh c tin hnh theo trnh t sau:
Khai bo cc trng hp ti trng tnh (xem mc 6.5.5.1.1).
nh ngha cc ti trng tnh tham gia trong qu trnh phn tch (xem mc 6.5.5.1).
Thc hin qu trnh phn tch t vic gi menu Analysis Perform Analysis hoc bm
nt F5.
Thc hin phn tch nh gi kt qu khi qu trnh phn tch hon thnh.

MIDAS/Civil t chc mi trng x l ca chng trnh thnh giai on tin x l v giai


on hu x l ngi dng khai thc tin li v hiu qu.
Tt c cc cng tc nhp s liu v chnh sa m hnh ch c th thc hin trong giai on tin
x l. Trong khi , vic xem v kim tra kt qu phn tch nh t hp ti trng, phn lc,
chuyn v, cc thnh phn lc v ng sut ch c thc hin trong giai on hu x l.
Nu qu trnh phn tch c thc hin thnh cng v khng c li pht sinh, giai on tin x
l s c chuyn i mt cch t ng sang giai on hu x l. Ngi dng cng c th t
chuyn i trng thi nh menu Mode hay thanh cng c
6.7. Hin th kt qu
6.7.1. Cc kiu biu din kt qu
Ngi dng c th la chn ng thi cc kiu biu din kt qu khc nhau.
6.7.1.1. Contour
Contour l cch biu din cc kt qu phn tch v thit k theo dng biu ng mc. Ngi
dng c th gn kiu ca cc ng ng mc, s mu (Number of Colors), phm vi phn b
ca mu (Customize Range), kiu mu (Color Table), s thay i ca mu (Customize Color
Table),... trn giao din iu khin Contour Details (Hnh II-114)

Hnh II-114: iu khin Contour


6.7.1.2. Deform
Deform l cch hin th biu chuyn v ca cc b phn kt cu. c c biu mong
mun, ngi dng c th thc hin cc ci t ty bin (Hnh II-115). T l bin dng
(Deformation Scale Factor) xc nh t l ca biu . MIDAS/Civil cung cp hai kiu biu
chuyn v. Kiu Nodal Deform phn nh ch cc chuyn v nt v kiu Real Deform tnh
ton cc im trung gian ca phn t dm gia cc im nt.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-115: Ty bin biu bin dng


6.7.1.3. Values
Kiu Values cho php hin th cc gi tr ca chuyn v, cc lc v ng sut thnh phn ti v tr
cho trc. c c cch biu din mong mun, ngi dng c th t cc ty bin trong
giao din iu khin nh s lng ch s thp phn sau du phy (Decimal Points), yu cu
ch hin th cc gi tr ln nht, nh nht, phng biu din gi tr trn mn hnh,... (Hnh
II-116). C th s dng trang Font giao din Display Option iu chnh mu v c ca cc
gi tr s.

Hnh II-116: Ty bin cch biu din gi tr

6.7.1.4. Legend
Legend l cch th hin kt qu trn biu di dng ghi ch. Ngi dng c th ty bin v
tr v mu sc cho phn ghi ch cho cc i tng c xem xt mn hnh hu x l.
6.7.1.5. Animate
Animate (hot hnh) l cch m phng qu trnh bin dng ca m hnh mt cch ng. Tng
t cc cch biu din khc, ngi dng cng c th ty bin cc c trng th hin ca Animate
nh la chn th hin ng ng mc theo qu trnh bin dng ng (Animate Co ntour), s
mu (Bits per Pixel), s nh trong tng n v thi gian,...
Hnh II-117: Ty bin Animate

6.7.2. Trnh t thc hin cng tc hu x l

Trnh t tng qut thc hin qu trnh hu x l ca MIDAS/Civil nh sau:


1. Chuyn ch sang hu x l ca mi trng ng
dng bng cch chn menu Mode Post-processing
Mode (phm tt Ctrl+F7) hoc bm vo nt trn
thanh cng c .
2. S dng menu Results hoc cc biu tng trn thanh
cng c gi cc hm hu x l mong mun.
3. Chn trng hp ti trng v t hp ti trng trong
menu Load Cases Combination. Kch vo nt v
tr bn phi ca danh sch cc trng hp ti trng v t
hp ti trng nhp mt t hp ti trng mi.
4. La chn cc gi tr kt qu cn biu din nh phn
lc, chuyn v, lc thnh phn hoc thnh phn ng sut
trong mc Components.
5. t thng s ng ng mc, hnh dng chuyn v,
cc gi tr s,... trong mc Type of Display. Nhn vo bn
phi ca mc chn thay i chi tit cc thng s
hin th cn thit.
6. hin th mt cch la chn mt phn ca kt cu
tng th, s dng menu Vie w Seclect chn cc i
tng mong mun, v dng menu View Activities
Active kch hot i tng. Tnh nng la chn c th
s dng bt k thi im no v n c lp vi qu trnh
hu x l.
Hnh II-118: Minh ha cho mt
cng tc hu x l
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7. Bm nt Apply hin th kt qu hu x l, theo cc iu kin c gn trn.


6.7.3. Kt qu ni lc
6.7.3.1. Dng biu
Hin th kt qu ni lc dng biu ca kt cu bng cch chn menu Results Forces.
Trong menu ny ty tng yu cu bi ton m s la chn hin th loi biu ni lc no (ni
lc trong dn, ni lc trong dm, biu ni lc trong dm, ni lc trong tm,).

Hnh II-119: Hin th biu ni lc


6.7.3.2. Dng bng
Hin th kt qu ni lc dng bng ca kt cu bng cch chn menu Results Result Tables.
Trong menu ny ty tng yu cu bi ton m s la chn a ra bng ni lc no (phn t
dn, phn t dm, phn t tm, phn t khi).

Hnh II-120: Hin th kt qu ni lc dng bng


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

6.7.4. Kt qu ng sut
Hin th kt qu ng sut ca kt cu bng cch chn menu Results Stresses...
Trong menu ny ty tng yu cu bi ton m s la chn a ra ng sut ca loi phn t no
(phn t dn, phn t dm, phn t tm, phn t khi).

Hnh II-121: Hin th ng sut khi


6.7.5. Phn b ng sut trn mt ct ngang
Hin th kt qu phn b ng sut trn mt ct ngang bng cch chn menu Results Beam
Detail Analysis...
hin th phn b ng sut trn mt ct ngang ca phn t no bng cch nhp s th t ca
phn t vo Element Number trong mc Load Cases/Combinations hoc kch trc tip vo
phn t mun chn trong ca s m hnh (Hnh II-122).

Hnh II-122: Kt qu phn t ch cc phn t dm c th c biu din chi tit dng cc


biu ni lc (m- men, lc ct), chuyn v cng nh biu ng sut trn mt ct ngang
6.7.6. Kt qu phn lc
Hin th kt qu phn lc ca tt c cc gi trong kt cu bng cch chn menu Results
Reactions Reaction Forces/Moments hoc chn menu Results Reactions
SearchReaction Forces/Moments hin th phn lc ti mt gi bt k.

Hnh II-123: Hin th phn lc ca tt c cc gi trong kt cu


Gi tr phn lc mun biu din c la chn trong phn Components vi FX, FY, FZ l cc
thnh phn phn lc tp trung v MX, MY, MZ l cc m-men theo cc phng ca h ta
tng. th hin gi tr, ngi dng chn Values v th hin ghi ch, chn Legend trong
phn Type of Display (Hnh II-123).
6.7.7. Kt qu chuyn v
6.7.7.1. Dng biu
Hin th kt qu chuyn v dng biu ca kt cu bng cch chn menu Results
Deformations Deformed Shape c kt qu biu din nh hnh di.

Hnh II-124: Hin th s chuyn v


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Biu chuyn v c th c th hin di dng ng ng mc c mu (Contour) cng s


khng chuyn v ban u (Undeformed) cng ghi ch (Legend) nh hnh trn.
6.7.7.2. Dng bng
Hin th kt qu ni lc dng bng ca kt cu bng cch chn menu Results Result Tables
Displacements c kt qu biu din nh hnh di.

Hnh II-125: Hin th kt qu chuyn v dng bng


6.7.8. File text lu tr kt qu phn tch
6.7.8.1. Tng quan
Chc nng Results Text Output cung cp cc kt qu phn tch v thit k kt cu theo
dng file vn bn. Cc tnh nng chnh lin quan n kt qu dng vn bn trong MIDAS/Civil
l:
To kt qu di dng Load Sets cho tng nhm t hp ti trng (c th gn cc t hp
ti trng khc nhau cho cc kt qu khc nhau).
To kt qu v lc v ng sut cho cc phn t c thuc tnh vt liu, thuc tnh mt ct,
s hiu phn t,... c ch nh.
To kt qu vi cc gi tr ln nht v nh nht cho mi thuc tnh mt ct.
To cc chuyn v nt v phn lc.
To kt qu dng ng bao hoc tng hp cho mi kiu ph n t.
To kt qu trong h ta phn t v h ta tng qut.
6.7.8.2. Trnh t thc hin
Tnh nng Text Output thc hin vic ly cc thng tin mong mun theo tng bc to kt
qu cui cng. Trnh t s dng tnh nng ny nh sau:
Gn Load Set: Chn menu Results Text Output hin th giao din chn t hp ti
trng cho u ra. Mt Load Set l mt tp hp cc trng hp ti trng hoc t hp ca
chng ng vi cc u ra mong mun cho cc kt qu khc nhau nh thnh phn lc,
chuyn v nt, phn lc,... nh ngha mt Load Set mi, chn nt Add New Load Set,
thay i mt Load Set, chn nt Modify Load Set v xa mt Load Set, chn nt
Delete Load Set.

Hnh II-126: nh ngha Load Set


Chn kt qu cn xut cho phn t: Bc tip theo l chn loi phn t mun xut kt
qu, loi kt qu v nh dng ca chng. Trong mc Output Load Set for Element
Output, chn Load Set mong mun. Chn cc kiu phn t s ly kt qu bng cch tch
vo mc chn thch hp. Ch c cc phn t m kt qu c th c to ra c kch hot
trong giao din.

Hnh II-127: Chn kt qu cn xut cho phn t


Khi bm vo nt bn phi ca kiu phn t, giao din iu khin l a chn (Element
Selection Detail) cc thng s chi tit lin quan n kt qa phn t s xut hin. y,
ngi dng c th chn tng phn t mong mun qua m (ID), vt liu (material), mt
ct (section),... Loi kt qu cn xut nh ni lc (Frc) v ng sut (Str) cng c th
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

c la chn qua phn Select Output. nh dng ca kt qu (s ch s sau du phy)


c la chn phn Output Detail (Hnh II-127).
Chn kt qu chuyn v v phn lc cn xut: y thc cht l phn xut kt qu cho nt.
Qu trnh ny cng c thc hin tng t nh phn xut kt qu cho phn t.
Chn tn file v nh dng file: Bc cui cng l gn tn file v nh dng file cng nh
mt s hnh thc xut kt qu.
7. Mt s v d minh ha
7.1. Bi ton dm vi ti trng tnh
7.1.1. S liu
S kt cu
3 x 3m 3 x 3m
12 KN/m 150 KN 150 KN 12 KN/m
8 KN/m 8 KN/m 8 KN/m 8 KN/m

A B C D E F G

12m 16m 9m 9m 16m 12m

Hnh II-128: V d m hnh kt cu bi ton dm vi ti trng tnh


Vt liu:
VL1 (p dng cho cc thanh AB, CD, DE, FG) vi cc thng s sau:
E = 2,51.107 (KN/m2 ); = 0,2; = 9.10-6 (1/o C); = 23,56 (KN/m3 ).
VL2 (p dng cho cc thanh BC v EG) vi cc thng s sau:
E = 1,99.108 (KN/m2 ); = 0,3; = 1,17.10-5 (1/o C); = 77,09 (KN/m3 ).
Mt ct:
MC1 (p dng p dng cho cc thanh AB, CD, DE, FG): mt ct dng ch nht vi
kch thc B x H = 60 cm x 30 cm.
MC2 (p dng cho cc thanh BC v EG): mt ct dng hp rng ch nht vi kch
thc B x H x d = 10 cm x 20 cm x 2 cm.
Ti trng:
Ti trng bn thn (TH1).
Cc ti trng phn b (TH2).
Cc ti trng tp trung (TH3).
T hp ti trng (CB): CB = TH1 x 1.1 + TH2 x 1.4 + TH3 x 1.25
Y u cu thc hin:
Xy dng m hnh theo s tnh trn.
Xut cc kt qu: phn lc, biu m-men, lc ct v chuyn v ng vi tng trng
hp ti v t hp ti trng cho.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Bi ton ny c thc hin trn phin bn MIDAS/Civil 6.3


7.1.2. Thit lp ban u ca d n
Thit lp n v:
Theo bi ton cho h thng n v c chn: chiu di l m v lc l kN.
Chn menu Tools Unit System v chn n v trn giao din Unit System nh
Hnh II-129.
Nhn nt OK xc nhn.

Hnh II-129: Thit lp n v cho bi ton


Xc nh kiu kt cu: Bi ton cho l bi ton kt cu phng nn ta thit lp kiu kt
cu nh sau:
Chn menu Model Structure Type.
Trong mc Structure Type: chn X Z Plane.
Nhn OK kt thc vic thit lp.

Hnh II-130: Xc nh kiu kt cu cho bi ton

Bm vo nt Front c th quan st m hnh kt cu d dng hn.


7.1.3. Thc hin m hnh ha
7.1.3.1. Xy dng m hnh phn t
Xy dng m hnh phn t bao gm cc cng vic chnh l to cc nt v phn t. Vic m
hnh ha phn t c thc hin cn c vo cu to v iu kin lm vic ca cng trnh.
Cc phn t trong m hnh c xy dng theo phng php Extrude. Trc ht, phi to
nt xut pht cho dm:
Chn menu Model Nodes Create Nodes xut hin hp thoi nh hnh sau:

Hnh II-131: Hp thoi nhp cc thng s khi to nt cho m hnh

Nhp ta nt u tin Coordinate (x,y,z): 0,0,0


Nhp s ln lp khi to nt Number of Times: 1
Khng nh vic nhp bng bm nt Apply. Kt qu
s to ra 1 nt tng ng vi im nt A u tin
ca dm.
Thc hin lnh Extrude to cc phn t dm vi cc
chiu di nh cho trn hnh v t nt va to:
Gi menu Model Elements Extrude xut
hin hp thoi.
Chn Generation Type: Translate
Trong mc Translation
Chn Unequal Distance v chn Axis l x
Nhp vo Distances: 12,16,2@9, 16,12

Bm vo nt Select Window trn thanh cng


c v la chn nt va to ra trn ca s m hnh.
Bm nt Apply xc nhn.

Hnh II-132: To m hnh kt


cu bng Extrude
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Bm vo nt Fit trn thanh cng c hiu chnh ton b kt cu va vi khung


nhn trong ca s m hnh.
Kt qu ta c m hnh dm nh hnh di y.

Hnh II-133: M hnh phn t sau khi to


7.1.3.2. Khai bo vt liu
Trong bi ton ny ta tin hnh khai bo 2 vt liu sau:
VL1 (p dng cho cc thanh AB, CD, DE, FG).
VL2 (p dng cho cc thanh BC v EF).
Qu trnh khai bo vt liu VL1 c tin hnh nh sau:
u tin, chn menu Model Properties Material hoc TreeMenu Structure
Analysis Geometry Properties Material, xut hin hp thoi Properties
vi th Material:

Hnh II-134: Hp thoi Propert ies vi th Material

Bm nt Add trong hp thoi Properties Xut hin hp thoi Material Data.


Trong hp thoi ny nhp cc thng s tng ng vo giao din nh Hnh II-135:
Nhp d liu cho vt liu VL1 (a) v vt liu VL2:
Nhp tn vt liu VL1 vo Name.
Chn User Defined trong mc Type of Design ca phn Elasticity Data.
Nhp E = 2.51e+7 (KN/m2 ) vo Modulus of Elasticity.
Nhp = 0.2 vo Poissions Ratio.
Nhp = 9e-6 (1/o C) vo Thermal Coefficient.
Nhp = 23.56 (KN/m3 ) vo Weight Density.
Bm nt OK kt thc vic nhp d liu.
(a) (b)
Hnh II-135: Nhp d liu cho vt liu VL1 (a) v vt liu VL2 (b)
p dng qu trnh tng t cho vt liu VL2 cn li. Kt qu khai bo vt liu c qun
l trn th Material ca hp thoi Properties nh trn hnh bn.

Hnh II-136: Kt qu khai bo vt liu.


Gn vt liu cho tng phn ca kt cu:

Nhn vo nt Select Window trn thanh cng c v chn cc phn t mun gn


vt liu.
Chn vt liu cn gn trong ca s Tree Menu. Kch chut phi v chn Assign.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7.1.3.3. Khai bo mt ct
Trong bi ton ny c hai loi mt ct:
MC1 (p dng cho cc thanh AB, CD, DE, FG).
MC2 (p dng cho cc thanh BC v EF).
Qu trnh khai bo mt ct MC1
c tin hnh nh sau:
u tin, chn menu Model
Properties Section hoc
Tree Menu Structure Analysis
Geometry Properties
Section Xut hin hp thoi
Properties vi th Section.

Hnh II-137: Hp thoi Propert ies vi th Section

Bm nt Add trn hp thoi ny nhp mt ct mi Xut hin hp thoi Section


Data. Trong hp thoi ny, ta chn th c tn l DB/User sau tin hnh nhp cc s
liu ca mt ct MC1.

(a) (b)
Hnh II-138: Nhp d liu cho mt ct MC1 (a) v mt ct MC2 (b)
Nhp tn mt ct MC1 vo Name.
V mt ct MC1 l mt ct dng ch nht c nn ta chn kiu mt ct l Solid
Rectangle. S liu nhp c minh ha nh trn hnh.
Kch chn User nhp kch
thc cho mt ct:
Nhp H = 0.3 (m)
Nhp B = 0.6 (m)
Bm nt OK kt thc vic nhp
d liu.
p dng qu trnh tng t cho mt
ct MC2 cn li. Tuy nhin, v mt
ct MC2 l mt ct ch nht rng
nn ta chn kiu mt ct l Box.
Kt qu khai bo mt ct c qun
l trn th Section ca hp thoi
Properties nh trn hnh.
Hnh II-139: Kt qu khai bo mt ct
7.1.3.4. Khai bo lin kt
Trong bi ton ny, c hai loi lin kt c s dng l lin kt ngoi v lin kt trong:
Lin kt ngoi: bi ton ny lin kt ngoi chnh l cc gi ca dm bao gm
Gi c nh: l cc gi ti im F ca kt cu. Trnh t khai bo gi c nh thc hin
nh sau:
Chn menu Model Boundaries Support xut hin hp thoi nh hnh sau:

(a) (b)
Hnh II-140: Hp hi thoi khai bo gi c nh (a) v gi di ng (b)
Khng ch cc thnh phn chuyn v ca nt: Trong hp hi thoi ny kch chn
cc thnh phn Dx, Dy, Dz, Rx, Rz.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Kch nt Select Window trn thanh


cng c v qut chn nt s to gi c nh.
Cui cng nhn nt Apply xc nhn.
Gi di ng: l cc gi A, B, C, E, G. Vic m
hnh ha gi di ng cng c thc hin
tng t nh m hnh ha gi c nh nhng
ti bc khng ch cc thnh phn chuyn v
th kch chn cc thnh phn Dy, Dz, Rx, Rz.

Hnh II-141: Hp thoi bt chiu


xc nh ca phn t
Lin kt trong: chnh l lin kt khp ti im D. m hnh ha khp (cht) l tng
trong MIDAS ta s dng chc nng gii phng lin kt Beam End Release. Trnh t thc
hin nh sau:
Bt ch hin th chiu ca phn t bng cch
kch vo nt trn thanh cng c. Xut hin hp
thoi nh hnh bn. Chn th Element kch chn
mc Local Direction.
Chn menu Model Boundaries Beam End
Release... xut hin hp thoi nh Hnh II-142.

Dng nt Select Window la chn phn t


cn gii phng lin kt mt u v kch chn thnh
phn ni lc gii phng trong hp thoi.
Kch vo nt Apply xc nhn.

Hnh II-142: Hp thoi gii


phng lin kt u phn t
Kt qu nh sau:

Hnh II-143: Kt qu khai bo lin kt trong (khp quay ti im D)


7.1.3.5. Khai bo ti trng
7.1.3.5.1. Khai bo cc trng hp ti trng tnh
Vic khai bo cc trng hp ti trng tnh c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Load Static Load Case xut hin hp thoi Static Load Cases.
Tin hnh thm cc trng hp ti vo chng trnh (TH1, TH2, TH3) nh sau.

Tn trng hp Kiu (Type) M t


ti trng (Name) (Description)
TH1 Dead Load of Component and Attachments(DC) Tai trong ban than
TH2 Dead Load of Wearing Surfaces and Utilities (DW) Tai trong phan bo
TH3 User Defined Load (USER) Tai trong tap trung

Hnh II-144: Khai bo cc trng hp ti trng tnh


7.1.3.5.2. Khao bo ti trng bn thn (TH1)
Vic khai bo ti trng bn thn c thc hin nh sau:
Chn menu Load Self Weight xut hin hp thoi
nh hnh bn.
Trong mc Load Cases Name chn TH1.
Trong mc Self Weight Factor phn Z nhp vo -1.
Nhn nt Add xc nhn.
Kt qu thu c nh trn hnh.
Hnh II-145: Khai bo ti
trng bn thn kt cu
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7.1.3.5.3. Khai bo cc ti trng phn b (TH2)


Trong bi ton c 2 loi ti trng phn b:
Ti trng phn b u nm trn 2 thanh CD v DE (phn
t s 3 v 4).
Ti trng phn b khng u nm trn 2 thanh AB v FG
(phn t s 1 v 6).
Trnh t khai bo ti trng phn b u trn 2 thanh CD v DE:

Dng nt Select Window chn 2 phn t s 3 v 4.


Gi menu Load / Element Beam Loads v nhp d liu
vo trong trang Load:
Load Case Name: TH2
Options: Add
Load Type: Uniform Loads
Direction: Global Z
Value: Relative
x1: 1/3; x2: 2/3
w: -8
Sau kch bm nt Apply xc nhn.
Hnh II-146: Khai bo ti
trng phn b u
Trnh t khai bo ti trng phn b khng u trn thanh AB:

Dng nt Select Window chn phn t s 1.


Gi menu Load Element Beam Loads v nhp d
liu vo trong trang Load:
Load Case Name: TH2
Options: Add
Load Type: Trapezoidal Loads
Direction: Global Z
Value: Relative
x1: 0; x2: 1
w1: -12; w2: -8
Sau kch bm nt Apply xc nhn.
Trnh t khai bo ti trng phn b khng u trn thanh FG:

Dng nt Select Window chn phn t s 6.


Gi menu Load Element Beam Loads v nhp d
liu vo trong trang Load:
Hnh II-147: Khai bo ti
trng khng u
Load Case Name: TH2
Options: Add
Load Type: Trapezoidal Loads
Direction: Global Z
Value: Relative
x1: 0; x2: 1
w1: -8; w2: -12.
Sau kch bm nt Apply xc nhn.
Kt qu thu c nh trn hnh.

Hnh II-148: Kt qu khai bo ti trng phn b kt cu


7.1.3.5.4. Khai bo cc ti trng tp trung (TH3)
Trong bi ton c ti trng tp trung nm trn 2 thanh BC v EF (phn t s 2 v 5).
Trnh t khai bo ti trng tp trung nh sau:

Dng nt Select Window chn 2 phn t s 2 v


5.
Gi menu Load Element Beam Loads v nhp
d liu vo trong trang Load:
Load Case Name: TH3
Options: Add
Load Type: Concentrated Forces
Direction: Global Z
Value: Relative
x1: 1/2
P1: -150
Sau kch bm nt Apply xc nhn.

Hnh II-149: Khai bo ti


trng tp trung
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Kt qu thu c nh trn hnh.

Hnh II-150: Kt qu khai bo ti trng tp trung


7.1.3.6. T hp ti trng(CB)
Vic khai bo t hp ti trng c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Results Combinations hoc nhn t hp phm Ctrl + F9 xut hin hp
thoi Load Combinations.
Sau thc hin thm t hp trng vi cc ti trng kha i bo phn trn vo phn
Load Combinations List cng vi cc h s tng ng ca tng trng hp ti trng vo
trong phn Load Cases and Factors nh hnh di:

Hnh II-151: Khai bo t hp ti trng


7.1.4. Chy chng trnh
Sau khi tin hnh m hnh ha kt cu, ta chn menu Analysis Perform Analysis hoc
nhn nt F5 chy chng trnh. Nu qu trnh m hnh ha khng c li th s c thng bo
thc hin thnh cng trong ca s Analysis Message nh hnh:

Hnh II-152: Thng bo sau khi chy chng trnh


7.1.5. Cc kt qu chnh
7.1.5.1. Phn lc
xem gi tr phn lc, chn menu Results Reactions Reaction Forces/Moments
xut hin hp thoi hin th kt qu. La chn trng hp ti trng, loi phn lc cn hin th
trong hp thoi va xut hin. Hnh di minh ha vic chn trng hp ti trng bn thn
(TH1) v phn lc FXYZ:

Hnh II-153: Gi tr phn lc Fxyz ti cc gi


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7.1.5.2. Biu ni lc, bng ni lc


xem biu ni lc, chn menu Results Forces Beam Diagram xut hin hp
thoi hin th kt qu. La chn trng hp ti trng, loi biu ni lc (m-men hoc lc
ct) cn hin th trong hp thoi va xut hin. Hnh di minh ha vic chn trng hp ti
trng bn thn (TH1) v biu m- men My:

Hnh II-154: Biu m- men My ca bi ton


xem bng ni lc, chn menu Results Result Tables Beam Force xut hin hp
thoi:

Hnh II-155: Hp thoi xut bng ni lc

Trong hp thoi ny, la chn trng hp ti trng v t hp ti trng, nt cn xem sau n


nt OK xc nhn. Kt qu thu c nh sau:
Hnh II-156: Kt qu bng gi tr ni lc
7.1.5.3. Biu chuyn v, bng chuyn v
xem gi tr chuyn v, chn menu Results Displacements... xut hin hp thoi hin th
kt qu. La chn trng hp ti trng, loi phn lc cn hin th trong hp thoi va xut
hin. Hnh di minh ha cho la chn trng hp ti trng bn thn (TH1) v chuyn v theo
3 phng x, y, z :

Hnh II-157: Biu chuyn v


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

xem bng chuyn v, chn menu Results Result Tables Displacements xut hin
hp thoi:

Hnh II-158: Hp thoi xut bng chuyn v

Trong hp thoi ny, la chn trng hp ti trng v t hp ti trng, nt cn xem sau n


nt OK xc nhn. Kt qu thu c nh sau:

Hnh II-159: Kt qu bng gi tr chuyn v


7.2. Bi ton khung
7.2.1. S liu
S kt cu
Kch thc hnh hc: L1 = 30m, L2 = 40m, L3 = 30m, H = 20m.

M q2
q1 q3

P1 P2
6m
50cm

3m
10cm
4cm

H/2
2m
45

L1 L2 L3

Hnh II-160: Hnh v m hnh kt cu bi ton khung


Vt liu:
Thp (p dng cho dm) vi cc thng s sau:
= 78,5 kN/m3 ; E = 2.108 kN/m2 ; = 0,3; = 1,2.10-5 (1/o C);
B tng (p dng cc tr) vi cc thng s sau:
= 24,5 kN/m3 ; E = 3,1.107 kN/m2 ; = 0,2; = 1,08.10-5 (1/o C);
Mt ct:
Dm: c mt ct dng hp nh hnh v.
Tr: c dng ng nh hnh v.
Ti trng:
Ti trng bn thn (DC).
Cc ti trng phn b (DW) vi q1 = 45 kN/m, q2 = 60kN/m, q3 = 40kN/m.
Ti trng tp trung (USER) vi P1 = 145 kN, P2 = 145kN, M = 120kN.m.
Ti trng di ng (MV): HL93.
T hp ti trng (CB): CB = DC x 1,1 + DW x 1,4 + USER x 1,25 + MV x 1,75
Y u cu thc hin:
Xy dng m hnh theo s tnh trn.
Xut cc kt qu: biu m- men, lc ct v chuyn v ng vi tng trng hp ti
v t hp ti trng cho.
V ng nh hng v xut kt qu v tr bt li ca ti trng cho m- men mt ct
gia nhp 3.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Bi ton ny c thc hin trn phin bn MIDAS/Civil 7.01


7.2.2. Thit lp ban u ca d n
Thit lp n v:
Theo bi ton cho h thng n v c chn: chiu di l m v lc l kN.
Chn menu Tools Unit System v chn n v trn giao din Unit System nh
Hnh II-161.
Nhn nt OK xc nhn.

Hnh II-161: Thit lp n v cho bi ton


Xc nh kiu kt cu: Bi ton cho l bi ton kt cu phng nn ta thit lp kiu kt
cu nh sau:
Chn menu Model Structure Type.
Trong mc Structure Type: chn X Z Plane.
Nhn OK kt thc vic thit lp.

Hnh II-162: Xc nh kiu kt cu cho bi ton

Bm vo nt Front c th quan st m hnh kt cu d dng hn.


7.2.3. Thc hin m hnh ha
7.2.3.1. Khai bo vt liu
Trong bi ton ny ta tin hnh khai bo 2 vt liu sau:
Vt liu b tng (p dng cho dm).
Vt liu thp (p dng cho cc tr).
Qu trnh khai bo vt liu b tng c tin hnh nh sau:
u tin, chn menu Model Properties Material hoc TreeMenu Structure
Analysis Geometry Properties Material, xut hin hp thoi Properties
vi th Material:

Hnh II-163: Hp thoi Propert ies vi th Material

Bm nt Add trong hp thoi Properties Xut hin hp thoi Material Data.


Trong hp thoi ny nhp cc thng s tng ng vo giao din nh Hnh II-163:
Nhp tn vt liu Thep vo Name.
Chn Steel trong mc Type of Design ca phn Elasticity Data.
Chn None trong mc Standard ca phn Steel.
Nhp E = 2e+8 (KN/m2 ) vo Modulus of Elasticity.
Nhp = 0.3 vo Poissions Ratio.
Nhp = 1.2e-5 (1/o C) vo Thermal Coefficient.
Nhp = 78.5 (KN/m3 ) vo Weight Density.
Bm nt OK kt thc vic nhp d liu.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

(a) (b)
Hnh II-164: Nhp d liu cho vt liu Thep (a) v Betong (b)
p dng qu trnh tng t cho vt liu Betong cn li. Kt qu khai bo vt liu c
qun l trn th Material ca hp thoi Properties nh trn hnh bn.

Hnh II-165: Kt qu khai bo vt liu.


Gn vt liu cho tng phn ca kt cu:

Nhn vo nt Select Window trn thanh cng c v chn cc phn t mun gn


vt liu.
Chn vt liu cn gn trong ca s Tree Menu. Kch chut phi v chn Assign.
7.2.3.2. Khai bo mt ct
Trong bi ton ny c hai loi mt ct:
Mt ct dm (p dng cho dm).
Mt ct tr (p dng cho cc tr).
Qu trnh khai bo mt ct dm c tin hnh nh sau:
u tin, chn menu Model
Properties Section hoc
Tree Menu Structure Analysis
Geometry Properties
Section Xut hin hp thoi
Properties vi th Section.

Hnh II-166: Hp thoi Propert ies vi th Section

Bm nt Add trn hp thoi ny nhp mt ct mi Xut hin hp thoi Section


Data. Trong hp thoi ny, ta chn th c tn l DB/User sau tin hnh nhp cc s
liu ca mt ct dm.

(a) (b)
Hnh II-167: Nhp d liu cho mt ct dm (a) v mt ct tr (b)
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Nhp tn mt ct Dam vo Name.


V mt ct Dam l mt ct dng ch nht rng nn ta chn kiu mt ct l Box.
S liu nhp c minh ha nh trn hnh.
Kch chn User nhp kch thc cho mt ct:
Nhp H = 2 (m)
Nhp B = 6 (m)
Nhp tw = 0.1 (m)
Nhp tf = 0.04 (m)
Bm nt OK kt thc vic
nhp d liu.
p dng qu trnh tng t cho
mt ct tr cn li. Tuy nhin, v
mt ct tr l mt ct trn rng nn
ta chn kiu mt ct l Pipe.
Kt qu khai bo mt ct c
qun l trn th Section ca hp
thoi Properties nh trn hnh.
Hnh II-168: Kt qu khai bo mt ct
7.2.3.3. Xy dng m hnh phn t
Xy dng m hnh phn t bao gm cc cng vic chnh l to cc nt v phn t. Vic m
hnh ha phn t c thc hin cn c vo cu to v iu kin lm vic ca cng trnh.
Cc phn t trong m hnh c th c xy dng bng nhiu cch khc nhau. Trong v d
minh ha ny, m hnh phn t s c m hnh theo phng php Extrude. Trc ht,
phi to nt xut pht cho dm:
Chn menu Model Nodes Create Nodes xut hin hp thoi nh hnh sau:

Hnh II-169: Hp thoi nhp cc thng s khi to nt cho m hnh


Nhp ta nt u tin Coordinate (x,y,z): 0,0,0
Nhp s ln lp khi to nt Number of Times: 1
Khng nh vic nhp bng bm nt Apply. Kt qu s
to ra 1 nt tng ng vi im nt u tin ca kt
cu.
u tin, phn dm ca khung s c m hnh s bng
cch s dng lnh Extrude vi chiu di cho nh hnh
v t nt to.
Gi menu Model Elements Extrude xut hin
hp thoi.
Chn Generation Type: Translate
Trong mc Translation chn Unequal Distance v
nhp vo Distances: 30,2@20,30

Bm vo nt Select Window trn thanh cng c


v la chn nt va to ra trn ca s m hnh.
Bm nt Apply khng nh.

Hnh II-170: To phn dm


ca kt cu bng phng
php Extrude
Tip theo, hai tr s c m hnh cng bng phng
php Extrude. Phn sau minh ha vic to tr bn tri cn
tr bn phi s thc hin tng t:
Gi menu Model Elements Extrude... xut hin
hp thoi.
Chn Generation Type: Translate
Trong mc Translation
Chn Equal Distance v chn Axis l x
Nhp vo dx,dy,dz: -20,0,-20
Phn Number of Times : 1

Bm vo nt Select Window trn thanh cng c v


la chn nt s 2 (nt cui ca phn t th nht) va
to ra trn ca s m hnh.
Bm nt Apply khng nh.

Bm vo nt Fit trn thanh cng c hiu chnh


ton b kt cu va vi khung nhn trong ca s m hnh

Hnh II-171: To tr bn
tri ca kt cu bng
phng php Extrude
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Kt qu ta c m hnh dm nh hnh sau.

Hnh II-172: Kt cu khung sau khi c m hnh trong ng dng


7.2.3.4. Khai bo lin kt
Trong bi ton ny, c hai loi lin kt c s dng l lin kt ngoi v lin kt trong:
Lin kt ngoi: bi ton ny lin kt ngoi chnh l cc gi ca ca kt cu bao gm
Ngm c nh: ti cc chn tr ca kt cu. Trnh t khai bo ngm c nh c thc
hin nh sau:
Chn menu Model Boundaries Support xut hin hp thoi nh hnh sau:

(a) Ngm c nh (b) Gi di ng


Hnh II-173: Hp hi thoi khai bo ngm c nh (a) v gi di ng (b)
Khng ch cc thnh phn chuyn v ca nt: Trong hp hi thoi ny kch chn tt
c cc thnh phn Dx, Dy, Dz, Rx, Ry, Rz (hoc kch chn D-All v R-All) khng
ch ton b cc thnh phn chuyn v ca nt.

Kch nt Select Window trn thanh cng c v qut chn nt s to ngm c


nh.
Cui cng nhn nt Apply xc nhn.
Gi di ng: l cc gi ti hai im u v cui ca dm. Vic m hnh ha gi di
ng cng c thc hin tng t nh m hnh ha ngm c nh nhng ti bc
khng ch cc thnh phn chuyn v th ch kch chn cc thnh phn Dy, Dz, Rx, Rz.
Tuy nhin, trong v d ny hai tr ca kt cu u nghing mt gc 45o. Do vy m
hnh kt cu trong ng dng m t ng vi s lm vic ca n ngoi thc t nn phi
xoay hai ngm c nh to mt gc 45 o (chn tr tri) v -45o (chn tr phi).
Di y l trnh thc hin vic xoay ngm c nh chn tr tri:
Bt ch hin th h ta ca nt bng cch kch vo nt trn thanh cng
c. Xut hin hp thoi nh hnh bn. Chn th Node kch chn mc Node Local
Axis.Nhn Ok xc nhn.

Hnh II-174: Hp thoi h ta nt

Kch nt Select Window trn thanh cng c


v qut chn nt chn ca tr bn tri.
Chn menu Model Boundaries Node Local
Axis xut hin hp thoi nh hnh sau.
Chn Add/Replace trong mc Options.
Trong mc Define Local Axis:
Input Method : Angle
about y: 45
Nhn nt Apply xc nhn.
Vic xoay ngm c nh chn tr phi cng thc
hin tng t nh xoay ngm c nh chn tr tri
ch khc ch l gc xoay l -45o .

Hnh II-175: Hp thoi nh


ngha h ta nt
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Lin kt trong: chnh l lin kt khp ti im


gia ca kt cu. m hnh ha khp (cht) l
tng trong MIDAS ta s dng chc nng gii
phng lin kt Beam End Release. Trnh t thc
hin nh sau:
Bt ch hin th chiu ca phn t bng
cch kch vo nt trn thanh cng c.
Xut hin hp thoi nh hnh di. Chn th
Element kch chn mc Local Direction.

Hnh II-176: Hp thoi bt chiu xc nh


ca phn t

Chn menu Model Boundaries Beam


End Release... xut hin hp thoi nh Hnh
II-177.
Hnh II-177: Hp thoi gii phng
lin kt u phn t

Dng nt Select Window la chn phn t cn gii phng lin kt mt u v


kch chn thnh phn ni lc gii phng trong hp thoi. Kch vo nt Apply xc
nhn.
Kt qu nh sau:

Hnh II-178: Kt qu khai bo lin kt ca kt cu


7.2.3.5. Khai bo ti trng tnh
7.2.3.5.1. Khai bo cc trng hp ti trng tnh
Vic khai bo cc trng hp ti trng tnh c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Load Static Load Case xut hin hp thoi Static Load Cases.
Tin hnh thm cc trng hp ti vo chng trnh (DC, DW, USER) nh sau.

Tn trng hp Kiu (Type) M t


ti trng (Name) (Description)
DC Dead Load of Component and Attachments(DC) Tai trong ban than
DW Dead Load of Wearing Surfaces and Utilities (DW) Tai trong phan bo
USER User Defined Load (USER) Tai trong tap trung

Hnh II-179: Khai bo cc trng hp ti trng tnh


7.2.3.5.2. Khao bo ti trng bn thn (DC)
Vic khai bo ti trng bn thn c thc hin nh
sau:
Chn menu Load Self Weight xut hin hp
thoi nh hnh bn.
Trong mc Load Cases Name chn DC.
Trong mc Self Weight Factor phn Z nhp
vo gi tr -1.
Nhn nt Add xc nhn.
Kt qu thu c nh trn hnh.

Hnh II-180: Khai bo ti trng bn


thn kt cu
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7.2.3.5.3. Khai bo cc ti trng phn b (DW)


Trong bi ton c 2 loi ti trng phn b:
Ti trng phn b u nm trn nhp 1.
Ti trng phn b khng u nm trn nhp 3.
Trnh t khai bo ti trng phn b u trn nhp 1:

Dng nt Select Window chn phn t ca nhp 1.


Gi menu Load / Element Beam Loads v nhp d
liu vo trong trang Load:
Load Case Name: DW
Options: Add
Load Type: Uniform Loads
Direction: Global Z
Value: Relative
x1: 0; x2:1
w: -45
Sau kch bm nt Apply xc nhn.

Hnh II-181: Khai bo ti


trng phn b u
Trnh t khai bo ti trng phn b khng u trn nhp 3:

Dng nt Select Window chn phn t ca nhp 3.


Gi menu Load Element Beam Loads v nhp d
liu vo trong trang Load:
Load Case Name: DW
Options: Add
Load Type: Trapezoidal Loads
Direction: Global Z
Value: Relative
x1: 0; x2: 1
w1: -60; w2: -40.
Sau kch bm nt Apply xc nhn.

Hnh II-182: Khai bo ti


trng khng u
Kt qu thu c nh trn hnh.

Hnh II-183: Kt qu khai bo ti trng phn b kt cu


7.2.3.5.4. Khai bo cc ti trng tp trung (USER)
Trong bi ton c 2 loi ti trng tp trung:
Lc tp trung nm trn 2 tr:
Lc tp trung th nht tc dng vung gc vi tr tri.
Lc tp trung th hai tc dng thng ng t trn xung tr phi.
M-men tp trung tc dng gia nhp 2 nhng tc dng vo cui ca phn t bn tri
nhp 2.
Trnh t khai bo lc tp trung tc dng ln tr tri:

Bt ch hin th chiu ca phn t bng cch kch vo nt trn thanh cng c.


Xut hin hp thoi nh hnh di. Chn th Element kch chn mc Local Axis.

Hnh II-184: Hp thoi bt h trc ta ca phn t


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Dng nt Select Window chn phn t tr bn tri.


Gi menu Load Ele ment Beam Loads v nhp d
liu vo trong trang Load:
Load Case Name: USER
Options: Add
Load Type: Concentrated Forces
Direction: Local z
Value: Relative
x1: 1/2
P1: -145
Sau kch bm nt Apply xc nhn.

Hnh II-185: Khai bo ti


trng tp trung
Trnh t khai bo lc tp trung tc dng ln tr phi:

Dng nt Select Window chn phn t tr bn tri.


Gi menu Load Ele ment Beam Loads v nhp d
liu vo trong trang Load:
Load Case Name: USER
Options: Add
Load Type: Concentrated Forces
Direction: Global Z
Value: Relative
x1: 1/2
P1: -145
Sau kch bm nt Apply xc nhn.

Hnh II-186: Khai bo ti


trng tp trung
Trnh t khai bo m- men tp trung tc dng ln im gia nhp
th 2:

Dng nt Select Window chn phn t bn tri ca nt


nm gia nhp 2.
Gi menu Load Element Beam Loads v nhp d
liu vo trong trang Load:
Load Case Name: USER
Options: Add
Load Type: Concentrated Moments/Torsions
Direction: Global Y
Value: Relative
x1: 1
M1: -120
Sau kch bm nt Apply.

Hnh II-187: Khai bo ti


trng tp trung
Kt qu thu c nh trn hnh.

Hnh II-188: Kt qu khai bo ti trng tp trung

7.2.3.6. Khai bo ti trng di ng


7.2.3.6.1. La chn tiu chun s c p dng cho vic phn tch ti trng di ng
Tiu chun ti trng di ng c la chn t menu Load Moving Load Code hoc t
menu Tree Structure Analysis Moving Load Analysis Moving Load Code s xut hin
hp thoi Select Moving Load Code.
Trong hp thoi ny la chn tiu chun AASHTO LRFD (tiu chun tng ng vi tiu
chun 22TCN272-05).
Nhn OK xc nhn.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-189: La chn t iu chun s p dng cho phn tch ti trng di ng


7.2.3.6.2. nh ngha ln xe
Vic nh ngha ln xe chy c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data
Traffic Line Lanes xut hin hp thoi:

Hnh II-190: Hp thoi thm ln xe vo m hnh


Nhn nt Add s xut hin hp thoi nh hnh bn
nhp cc cc thng s ca ln xe:
Lane Name: Lanxe
Eccentricity: 0
Vehicular Load Distribution: Lane Element
Moving Direction: Both
Selection by: 2 Points
Chn im nt u v cui ca ln xe cn nh ngha.
Nhn OK xc nhn.
Hnh II-191: Hp thoi nh
ngha cc thng s ln xe
Kt qu ca vic khai bo ln xe nh sau:

Hnh II-192: Kt qu vic khai bo ln xe


7.2.3.6.3. nh ngha ti trng xe
Vic nh ngha ti trng xe c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Vehicles xut hin hp thoi
nh hnh di.

Hnh II-193: Hp thoi dng thm ti trng xe tc dng trn kt cu


Nhn vo nt Add Standard thm cc ti trng xe tiu chun:

(a) Xe ti 3 trc (b) Xe ti 2 trc


Hnh II-194: Hp thoi dng nh ti trng xe t iu chun
Kt qu khai bo ti trng xe tiu chun:

Hnh II-195: Kt qu khai bo ti trng xe tiu chun


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7.2.3.6.4. nh ngha nhm xe


Vic nh ngha nhm xe c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Vehicle Classes nhm hai ti
trng xe tiu chun va nh ngha thnh mt lp xe c tn l Xetai. Hp thoi Vehicle
Class Data nh hnh di s xut hin sau khi chn menu trn:

(a) (b)
Hnh II-196: Hp thoi trc khi (a) v sau khi (b) la chn ti trng xe

Nhp vo Vehicle Class Name: Xetai


La chn ton b ti trng xe trong phn Vehicle Load sau bm vo nt
chuyn ton b ti trng xe sang phn Selected Load.
Nhn OK xc nhn.
Kt qu khai bo lp xe nh hnh sau:

Hnh II-197: Kt qu vic khai bo lp xe


7.2.3.6.5. nh ngha cc trng hp ti trng di ng
Sau khi nh ngha cc ln xe v cc lp xe, cc trng hp ti trng di ng s c nh
ngha xc nh cc trng hp ti trng di ng tc dng ln kt cu. Trong v d ny ta ch
nh ngha 1 trng hp ti trng xe ti tc dng ln kt cu. Trnh t nh ngha nh sau
Chn menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Moving Load Cases xut hin
hp thoi Moving Load Cases.
Hnh II-198: Hp thoi nh ngha trng hp ti
Nhn vo nt Add thm trng hp ti xut hin hp thoi Define Moving Load Case.
Nhp cc thng s nh hnh di y:
Load Case Name: MV
Description: Hoat tai
Mc Sub-Load Cases phn Loading
Effect chn phn Independent.
Nhn nt Add thm trng hp ti
trng di ng tc dng ln kt cu. Xut hin
hp thoi sau:

Hnh II-199: nh ngha trng hp ca ti di


ng
Hnh II-200: nh ngha trng hp
con ca ti di ng

Nhn OK xc nhn c kt qu nh hnh sau:


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-201: Kt qu khai bo trng hp ti trng di ng


7.2.3.7. T hp ti trng(CB)
Vic khai bo t hp ti trng c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Results Combinations hoc nhn t hp phm Ctrl + F9 xut hin hp
thoi Load Combinations.
Sau thc hin thm t hp trng vi cc ti trng khai bo phn trn vo phn
Load Combinations List cng vi cc h s tng ng ca tng trng hp ti trng vo
trong phn Load Cases and Factors nh hnh di y:

Hnh II-202: Khai bo t hp ti trng


7.2.4. Chy chng trnh
Sau khi tin hnh m hnh ha kt cu, ta chn menu Analysis Perform Analysis hoc nhn
nt F5 chy chng trnh. Nu qu trnh m hnh ha khng c li th s c thng bo thc
hin thnh cng trong ca s Analysis Message nh hnh di y:

Hnh II-203: Thng bo sau khi chy chng trnh


7.2.5. Cc kt qu chnh
7.2.5.1. Phn lc
xem gi tr phn lc, chn menu Results Reactions Reaction Forces/Moments
xut hin hp thoi hin th kt qu. La chn trng hp ti trng, loi phn lc cn hin th
trong hp thoi va xut hin. Hnh di minh ha vic chn trng hp ti trng bn thn
(DC) v phn lc FXYZ:

Hnh II-204: Gi tr phn lc Fxyz ti cc gi


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7.2.5.2. Biu ni lc, bng ni lc


xem biu ni lc, chn menu Results Forces Beam Diagram xut hin hp
thoi hin th kt qu. La chn trng hp ti trng, loi biu ni lc ( m-men hoc lc
ct) cn hin th trong hp thoi va xut hin. Hnh di minh ha vic chn trng hp ti
trng bn thn (DC) v biu m- men My:

Hnh II-205: Biu m- men My ca bi ton


xem bng ni lc, chn menu Results Result Tables Beam Force xut hin hp
thoi:

Hnh II-206: Hp thoi xut bng ni lc

Trong hp thoi ny, la chn trng hp ti trng v t hp ti trng, nt cn xem sau n


nt Ok xc nhn. Kt qu thu c nh sau:
Hnh II-207: Kt qu bng gi tr ni lc
7.2.5.3. Biu chuyn v, bng chuyn v
xem gi tr chuyn v, chn menu Results Deformations Deformed Shape... xut
hin hp thoi hin th kt qu. La chn trng hp ti trng, loi phn lc cn hin th trong
hp thoi va xut hin. Hnh di minh ha cho la chn trng hp ti trng bn thn (DC)
v chuyn v theo phng z :

Hnh II-208: Biu chuyn v


xem bng chuyn v, chn menu Results Result Tables Displacements xut hin
hp thoi:
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-209: Hp thoi xut bng chuyn v


Trong hp thoi ny, la chn trng hp ti trng v t hp ti trng, nt cn xem sau n
nt Ok xc nhn. Kt qu thu c nh sau:

Hnh II-210: Kt qu bng gi tr chuyn v


7.2.5.4. ng nh hng ca ti trng cho m-men
xem ng nh hng ca ti trng cho m- men mt ct gia nhp 3, chn menu Results
Influence Line Beam Forces/Moments xut hin hp thoi hin th kt qu. Trong hp
thoi va xut hin nhp vo Key Element s th t ca phn t nm gia nhp 3 hoc la
chn phn t nm gia nhp 3 v chn gi tr 1/2 trong phn Parts. Kt qu nh sau:
Hnh II-211: Kt qu ng nh hng ca ti trng cho m- men mt ct gia nhp 3
7.2.5.5. V tr bt li ca ti trng cho m-men
xem v tr bt li ca ti trng cho m- men mt ct gia nhp 3, chn menu Results
Moving Load Tracer Beam Forces/Moments xut hin hp thoi hin th kt qu. Trong
hp thoi va xut hin nhp vo Key Element s th t ca phn t nm gia nhp 3 hoc
la chn phn t nm gia nhp 3 v chn gi tr 1/2 trong phn Parts. Hnh di minh ha cho
trng hp v tr bt li ca ti trng cho m-men do ti trng ln nht gy ra:

Hnh II-212: Kt qu v tr bt li ca ti trng cho m- men mt ct gia nhp 3


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7.3. Bi ton dn phng


7.3.1. S liu
S kt cu
Kch thc hnh hc trong hnh v: d = 10m, H = 15m.
P1 P1 P1
H

P2 P2 P2 P2

4xd 4xd

Hnh II-213: V d m hnh kt cu bi ton dn phng

Vt liu:
Thp vi cc thng s sau:
= 78,5 kN/m3 ; E = 2.108 kN/m2 ; = 0,3; = 1,2.10-5 (1/o C);
Mt ct:
Thanh bin: Hnh hp bxh = 80x110cm (b = chiu rng, h = chiu cao); dy 2cm.
Thanh xin: Ch H (ch I xoay ngang); b = 80cm; h = 90cm; dy cnh 2cm; dy sn
1,5cm.
Thanh ng: 2 ch C c b = 80cm; h = 20cm; dy cnh 1,5cm; dy sn 1cm.
Ti trng:
Ti trng bn thn (DC).
Ti trng tp trung (USER) vi P1 = 160 kN, P2 = 180 kN.
Ti trng di ng (MV): HL93.
T hp ti trng (CB): CB = DC x 1,1 + USER x 1,3 + MV x 1,25
Y u cu thc hin:
Xy dng m hnh theo s tnh trn.
Xut cc kt qu: biu m- men, lc ct v chuyn v ng vi tng trng hp
ti v t hp ti trng cho.
V ng nh hng v xut kt qu v tr bt li ca ti trng cho ni lc gia nhp
th 2.
Bi ton ny c thc hin trn phin bn MIDAS/Civil 7.01
7.3.2. Thit lp ban u ca d n
Thit lp n v:
Theo bi ton cho h thng n v c chn: chiu di l m v lc l kN.
Chn menu Tools Unit System v chn n v trn giao din Unit System nh
Hnh II-214.
Nhn nt OK xc nhn.

Hnh II-214: Thit lp n v cho bi ton


Xc nh kiu kt cu: Bi ton cho l bi ton kt cu phng nn ta thit lp kiu kt
cu nh sau:
Chn menu Model Structure Type.
Trong mc Structure Type: chn X Z Plane.
Nhn OK kt thc vic thit lp.

Hnh II-215: Xc nh kiu kt cu cho bi ton

Bm vo nt Front c th quan st m hnh kt cu d dng hn.


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7.3.3. Thc hin m hnh ha


7.3.3.1. Xy dng m hnh phn t
Xy dng m hnh phn t bao gm cc cng vic chnh l to cc nt v phn t. Vic m
hnh ha phn t c thc hin cn c vo cu to v iu kin lm vic ca cng trnh.
Cc phn t trong m hnh c th c xy dng bng nhiu cch khc nhau. Trong v d
minh ha ny, m hnh phn t s c m hnh bng cch v trn mt phng XY trong
AutoCAD vi n v bn v l m v lu li thnh mt file c ui *.DXF.

Hnh II-216: M hnh dn c xy dng trong AutoCAD

Chn menu File Import AutoCAD DXF File


xut hin hp thoi nh hnh sau:
Chn ng file AutoCAD va to bng cch nhn
vo nt Browse
Chn Layer cha m hnh.
Trong mc Rotation Angle mc Rx nhp vo gi tr
90.
Khng nh vic nhp bng vic bm nt Apply.
Kt qu s to ra m hnh ca kt cu nh v d
cho.

Hnh II-217: Hp thoi


nhp file m hnh
Tip theo, c th khai bo c ln xe chy trn kt
cu ta phi i xy dng mt lp dm gi chy dc dn v cch
dn mt khong bt k (trong v d ny chn khong cch ny
l 0.5m).
Gi menu Model Ele ments Translate... xut
hin hp thoi.
Chn Mode: Cope
Trong mc Translation chn Equal Distance:
Nhp vo dx,dy,dz: 0,0,0.5
Phn Number of Times : 1

Bm vo nt Select Window trn thanh cng c


v la chn ton b cc phn t bin di ca dn trn ca s
m hnh.
Bm nt Apply khng nh.

Hnh II-218: To tr bn tri ca kt cu bng phng


php Translate
Sau , ta tin hnh i ton b phn dn ca kt cu
t phn t dm sang phn t dn m hnh kt cu
xy dng m t ng vi s lm vic thc t ca n.
Gi menu Model Ele ments Change Ele ment
Parameters xut hin hp thoi.
Trong mc Parameter Type chn Element Type
Trong mc Mode:
From: General beam/Tapered beam
To: Truss

Bm vo nt Select Window trn thanh cng


c v la chn ton b phn t ca dn va to ra
trn ca s m hnh.
Bm nt Apply khng nh.
Hnh II-219: Chuyn t phn t
dm sang phn t dn
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Bm vo nt Fit trn thanh cng c hiu chnh ton b kt cu va vi khung


nhn trong ca s m hnh.
Kt qu ta c m hnh nh hnh di.

Hnh II-220: Kt cu dn sau khi c m hnh trong ng dng


7.3.3.2. Khai bo vt liu
Trong bi ton ny ta tin hnh khai bo 2 vt liu sau:
Vt liu b tng (p dng cho dm gi).
Vt liu thp (p dng cho cc thanh dn).
Qu trnh khai bo vt liu b tng c tin hnh nh sau:
u tin, chn menu Model Properties Material hoc TreeMenu Structure
Analysis Geometry Prope rties Material Xut hin hp thoi Properties
vi th Material:

Hnh II-221: Hp thoi Propert ies vi th Material

Bm nt Add trong hp thoi Properties Xut hin hp thoi Material Data.


Trong hp thoi ny nhp cc thng s tng ng vo giao din nh Hnh II-221:
Nhp tn vt liu Thep vo Name.
Chn Steel trong mc Type of Design ca phn Elasticity Data.
Chn None trong mc Standard ca phn Steel.
Nhp E = 2e+8 (KN/m2 ) vo Modulus of Elasticity.
Nhp = 0.3 vo Poissions Ratio.
Nhp = 1.2e-5 (1/o C) vo Thermal Coefficient.
Nhp = 78.5 (KN/m3 ) vo Weight Density.
Bm nt OK kt thc vic nhp d liu.

(a) (b)
Hnh II-222: Nh p d liu cho vt liu Thep (a) v Betong (b)
p dng qu trnh tng t cho vt liu Betong cn li. Tuy nhin, trong v d ny ta dm
khng gy ra tc dng bi trng lng bn thn nn mc Weight Dentiny nhp l 0. Kt
qu khai bo hnh di.

Hnh II-223: Kt qu khai bo vt liu.


Gn vt liu cho tng phn ca kt cu:
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Nhn vo nt Select Window trn thanh cng c v chn cc phn t mun gn


vt liu.
Chn vt liu cn gn trong ca s Tree Menu. Kch chut phi v chn Assign.
7.3.3.3. Khai bo mt ct
Trong bi ton ny c hai loi mt ct:
Mt ct dm (p dng cho dm
gi).
Mt ct dn (p dng cho cc
thanh dn).
Qu trnh khai bo mt ct dm
c tin hnh nh sau:
u tin, chn menu Model
Properties Section hoc
Tree Menu Structure Analysis
Geometry Properties
Section Xut hin hp thoi
Properties vi th Section.

Hnh II-224: Hp thoi Propert ies vi th Section

Bm nt Add trn hp thoi ny nhp mt ct mi Xut hin hp thoi Section


Data. Trong hp thoi ny, ta chn th c tn l DB/User sau tin hnh nhp cc s
liu ca mt ct dm.
(a) (b)
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

(c) (d)
Hnh II-225: Nhp d liu cho mt ct dm gi (a), thanh bin (b), thanh xien (c) v
thanh ng (d)
Nhp tn mt ct Dam vo Name.
V mt ct Dam l mt ct dng ch nht rng nn ta chn kiu mt ct l Box.
S liu nhp c minh ha nh trn hnh.
Kch chn User nhp kch thc cho mt ct:
Nhp H = 2 (m)
Nhp B = 6 (m)
Nhp tw = 0.1 (m)
Nhp tf = 0.1 (m)
Bm nt OK kt thc vic
nhp d liu.
p dng qu trnh tng t cho mt
ct cn li.
Kt qu khai bo mt ct c qun
l trn th Section ca hp thoi
Properties nh trn hnh.
Cui cng gn mt ct va khai bo
cho tng phn t tng ng trn kt
cu.
Hnh II-226: Kt qu khai bo mt ct
Theo bi, mt ct thanh xin l mt ct ch H (ch I xoay ngang). Do vy ta phi tin
hnh bc cui cng l xoay ngang mt ct ch I khai bo pha trn m thc cht
ca qu trnh ny l xoay h trc ta phn t i mt gc 90 o . Trnh t thc hin nh
sau:

Bt ch hin th chiu ca phn t bng cch kch vo nt trn thanh cng c.


Xut hin hp thoi nh hnh di. Chn th Element tch chn mc Local Axis.

Hnh II-227: Hp thoi bt h trc ta ca phn t

Nhn vo nt Select Window trn thanh cng c


v chn tt c cc thanh xin ca dn.
Chn menu Model Ele ments Change Element
Parameters xut hin hp thoi
Trong mc Parameter Type chn Element Local
Axis.
Trong mc Mode chn Assign v chn Beta Angle.
Nhn nt Apply xc nhn.

Hnh II-228: Hp thoi quay


h trc ta ca phn t
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7.3.3.4. Khai bo lin kt


Trong bi ton ny, c hai loi lin kt c s dng l lin kt ngoi v lin kt trong:
Lin kt ngoi: bi ton ny lin kt ngoi chnh l cc gi ca kt cu bao gm
Gi c nh: ti nt ngoi cng bn tri kt cu. Trnh t khai bo gi c nh c
thc hin nh sau:
Chn menu Model Boundaries Support xut hin hp thoi nh hnh sau:

(a) Gi c nh (b) Gi di ng
Hnh II-229: Hp hi thoi khai bo gi c nh v gi di ng
Khng ch cc thnh phn chuyn v ca nt: Trong hp hi thoi ny kch chn tt
c cc thnh phn Dx, Dy, Dz, Rx, Rz khng ch cc thnh phn chuyn v ny
ca nt.

Kch nt Select Window trn thanh cng c v qut chn nt s to gi c nh.


Cui cng nhn nt Apply xc nhn.
Gi di ng: l cc gi ti hai im gia v cui ca dn. Vic m hnh ha gi di
ng cng c thc hin tng t nh m hnh ha ngm c nh nhng ti bc
khng ch cc thnh phn chuyn v th ch kch chn cc thnh phn Dy, Dz, Rx, Rz.
Lin kt trong: trong v d ny chnh l lin kt
cng gia dm gi v cc thanh bin bn di
ca dn m t s lm vic cng nhau ca
chng. m hnh ha cc lin kt ny trong
MIDAS ta s dng loi lin kt n hi Elastic
Link. Trnh t thc hin nh sau:
Chn menu Model Boundaries Elastic
Link... xut hin hp thoi nh bn.
Mc Option chn Add.
Mc Link Type chn Rigid Type.
Mc Copy Elastic Link chn Distance:
Axis: x
Distances: 16@5
Kch chut vo 2 Nodes v chn hai nt u
ca dm gi v nt u ca thanh dn u tin
bn di ca kt cu.
Nhn nt Apply xc nhn.

Hnh II-230: Hp thoi gii


phng lin kt u phn t

Kt qu nh sau:
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-231: Kt qu khai bo lin kt ca kt cu


7.3.3.5. Khai bo ti trng tnh
7.3.3.5.1. Khai bo cc trng hp ti trng tnh
Vic khai bo cc trng hp ti c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Load Static Load Case xut hin hp thoi Static Load Cases.
Tin hnh thm cc trng hp ti vo chng trnh (DC, USER) nh sau.

Tn trng hp Kiu (Type) M t


ti trng (Name) (Description)
DC Dead Load of Component and Attachments(DC) Tai trong ban than
USER User Defined Load (USER) Tai trong tap trung

Hnh II-232: Khai bo cc trng hp ti trng tnh


7.3.3.5.2. Khao bo ti trng bn thn (DC)
Vic khai bo ti trng bn thn c thc hin nh
sau:
Chn menu Load Self Weight xut hin hp
thoi nh hnh bn.
Trong mc Load Cases Name chn DC.
Trong mc Self Weight Factor phn Z nhp vo gi tr -1.
Nhn nt Add xc nhn.
Kt qu thu c nh trn hnh.

Hnh II-233: Khai bo ti trng bn


thn kt cu

7.3.3.5.3. Khai bo cc ti trng tp trung (USER)


Trong bi ton ch c lc tp ti cc nt dn.
Trnh t khai bo lc tp trung tc dng ln cc nt pha trn nh dn:

Dng nt Select Window chn cc nt pha trn


nh dn c lc tc dng.
Gi menu Load Nodal Loads v nhp d liu
vo trong trang Load:
Load Case Name: USER
Options: Add
Trong mc Nodal Loads phn FZ nhp vo gi
tr -160.
Sau kch bm nt Apply xc nhn.
Vic khai bo lc tp trung t ti cc nt ca thanh dn
bin di tng t nh nh trn.

Hnh II-234: Khai bo ti trng tp


trung

Kt qu thu c nh trn hnh.


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-235: Kt qu khai bo ti trng tp trung


7.3.3.6. Khai bo ti trng di ng
7.3.3.6.1. La chn tiu chun s c p dng cho vic phn tch ti trng di ng
Tiu chun ti trng di ng c la chn t menu Load Moving Load Code hoc t
menu Tree Structure Analysis Moving Load Analysis Moving Load Code s xut hin
hp thoi Select Moving Load Code.
Trong hp thoi ny la chn tiu chun AASHTO LRFD.
Nhn OK
xc nhn.

Hnh II-236: La chn t iu chun s p dng cho phn tch ti trng di ng


7.3.3.6.2. nh ngha ln xe
Vic nh ngha ln xe chy c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data
Traffic Line Lanes xut hin hp thoi:

Hnh II-237: Hp thoi thm ln xe vo m hnh


Nhn nt Add s xut hin hp thoi nh hnh bn
nhp cc cc thng s ca ln xe:
Lane Name: Lanxe
Eccentricity: 0
Vehiecular Load Distribution: Lane Element
Moving Direction: Both
Selection by: 2 Points
Chn im nt u v cui ca dm gi cn nh
ngha ln xe.
Nhn OK xc nhn.

H
nh II-238: Hp thoi nh
ngha cc thng s ln xe
Kt qu ca vic khai bo ln xe nh sau:

Hnh II-239: Kt qu vic khai bo ln xe


7.3.3.6.3. nh ngha ti trng xe
Vic nh ngha ti trng xe c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Vehicles xut hin hp thoi
nh hnh di.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-240: Hp thoi dng thm ti trng xe tc dng trn kt cu


Nhn vo nt Add Standard thm cc ti trng xe tiu chun:

(a) Xe ti 3 trc (b) Xe ti 2 trc


Hnh II-241: Hp thoi dng nh ti trng xe t iu chun

Kt qu khai bo ti trng xe tiu chun:

Hnh II-242: Kt qu khai bo ti trng xe tiu chun


7.3.3.6.4. nh ngha nhm xe
Vic nh ngha nhm xe c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Vehicle Classes nhm hai ti
trng xe tiu chun va nh ngha thnh mt lp xe c tn l Xetai. Hp thoi Vehicle
Class Data nh hnh di s xut hin sau khi chn menu trn:

Hnh II-243: Hp thoi trc khi v sau khi la chn ti trng xe


Nhp vo Vehicle Class Name: Xetai

La chn ton b ti trng xe trong phn Vehicle Load sau bm vo nt


chuyn ton b ti trng xe sang phn Selected Load.
Nhn OK xc nhn.
Kt qu khai bo lp xe nh hnh sau:

Hnh II-244: Kt qu vic khai bo lp xe


7.3.3.6.5. nh ngha cc trng hp ti trng di ng
Sau khi nh ngha cc ln xe v cc lp xe, cc trng hp ti trng di ng s c nh
ngha xc nh cc trng hp ti trng di ng tc dng ln kt cu. Trong v d ny ta ch
nh ngha 1 trng hp ti trng xe ti tc dng ln kt cu. Trnh t nh ngha nh sau
Chn menu Load Moving Load Analysis Data Moving Load Cases xut hin
hp thoi Moving Load Cases.
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-245: Hp thoi nh ngha trng hp ti


Nhn vo nt Add thm trng hp ti xut hin hp thoi Define Moving Load Case.
Nhp cc thng s nh hnh di:
Load Case Name: MV
Description: Hoat tai
Mc Sub-Load Cases phn Loading
Effect chn phn Independent.
Nhn nt Add thm trng hp ti
trng di ng tc dng ln kt cu. Xut hin
hp thoi sau:

Hnh II-246: nh ngha trng hp ca ti di


ng
Hnh II-247: nh ngha trng hp
con ca ti di ng

Nhn OK xc nhn c kt qu nh hnh sau:


Hnh II-248: Kt qu khai bo trng hp ti trng di ng
7.3.3.7. T hp ti trng(CB)
Vic khai bo t hp ti trng c thc hin theo trnh t sau:
Chn menu Results Combinations hoc nhn t hp phm Ctrl + F9 xut hin hp
thoi Load Combinations.
Sau thc hin thm t hp trng vi cc ti trng khai bo phn trn vo phn
Load Combinations List cng vi cc h s tng ng ca tng trng hp ti trng vo
trong phn Load Cases and Factors nh hnh di:

Hnh II-249: Khai bo t hp ti trng


B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

7.3.4. Chy chng trnh


Sau khi tin hnh m hnh ha kt cu, ta chn menu Analysis Perform Analysis hoc nhn
nt F5 chy chng trnh. Nu qu trnh m hnh ha khng c li th s c thng bo thc
hin thnh cng trong ca s Analysis Message nh hnh:

Hnh II-250: Thng bo sau khi chy chng trnh


7.3.5. Cc kt qu chnh
7.3.5.1. Phn lc
xem gi tr phn lc, chn menu Results Reactions Reaction Forces/Moments
xut hin hp thoi hin th kt qu. La chn trng hp ti trng, loi phn lc cn hin th
trong hp thoi va xut hin. Hnh di minh ha vic chn trng hp ti trng bn thn
(DC) v phn lc FXYZ:

Hnh II-251: Gi tr phn lc FXYZ ti cc gi


7.3.5.2. Biu ni lc, bng ni lc
xem biu ni lc, chn menu Results Forces Beam Diagram xut hin hp
thoi hin th kt qu. La chn trng hp ti trng, loi biu ni lc ( m-men hoc lc
ct) cn hin th trong hp thoi va xut hin. Hnh di minh ha vic chn trng hp ti
trng bn thn (DC) v biu m- men My:

Hnh II-252: Biu lc dc ca cc thanh dn


xem bng ni lc, chn menu Results Result Tables Truss Force xut hin hp
thoi:

Hnh II-253: Hp thoi xut bng ni lc ca cc thanh dn

Trong hp thoi ny, la chn trng hp ti trng v t hp ti trng, nt cn xem sau n


nt OK xc nhn. Kt qu thu c nh sau:
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-254: Kt qu bng gi tr ni lc


7.3.5.3. Biu chuyn v, bng chuyn v
xem gi tr chuyn v, chn menu Results Deformations Deformed Shape... xut
hin hp thoi hin th kt qu. La chn trng hp ti trng, loi phn lc cn hin th trong
hp thoi va xut hin. Hnh di minh ha cho la chn trng hp ti trng bn thn (DC)
v chuyn v theo 3 phng x, y, z :

Hnh II-255: Biu chuyn v


xem bng chuyn v, chn menu Results Result Tables Displacements xut hin
hp thoi:
Hnh II-256: Hp thoi xut bng chuyn v
Trong hp thoi ny, la chn trng hp ti trng v t hp ti trng, nt cn xem sau n
nt OK xc nhn. Kt qu thu c nh sau:

Hnh II-257: Kt qu bng gi tr chuyn v


7.3.5.4. ng nh hng ca ti trng cho m-men
xem ng nh hng ca ti trng cho ni lc trong dn ti mt ct gia nhp 2, chn
menu Results Influence Line Truss Forces xut hin hp thoi hin th kt qu. Trong
hp thoi va xut hin nhp vo Key Element s th t ca phn t dm nm gia nhp 2
hoc la chn phn t nm gia nhp 2. Kt qu nh sau:
B i gin g PH NG PHP PTHH & NG DNG B mn TH TKC

Hnh II-258: Kt qu ng nh hng ca ti trng cho m- men mt ct gia nhp 3


7.3.5.5. V tr bt li ca ti trng cho m-men
xem v tr bt li ca ti trng cho m- men mt ct gia nhp 3, chn menu Results
Moving Load Trace r Truss Forces xut hin hp thoi hin th kt qu. Trong hp thoi
va xut hin nhp vo Key Element s th t ca phn t nm gia nhp 2 hoc la chn
phn t nm gia nhp 2. Hnh di minh ha cho trng hp v tr bt li ca ti trng cho
m- men do ti trng ln nht gy ra:

Hnh II-259: Kt qu v tr bt li ca ti trng cho ni lc thanh dn mt ct gia nhp 2


G IO TRN H T NG HO TH IT K CU NG

PHN II: T I LIU THAM KHO


[1] John Walkenbach Excel 2002 Power Programming with VBA M&T Books 2001.
[2] Steve Saunders, Jeff Webb Programming Excel with VBA and.NET O'Reilly
2006.
[3] Richard Shepherd Excel VBA Macro Programming McGraw-Hill 2004.
[4] Autodesk (Ngi dch:L Qunh Mai, Trng Thanh Hong, Hong Thu Linh)
Pht trin AutoCAD bng ActiveX & VBA 2006.
[5] Joe Sutphin AutoCAD 2006 VBA: A Programmers Reference Apress 2005.
[6] Ng ng Quang, Trn Ngc Linh, Bi Cng , Nguyn Trng Ngha, Nguyn
Vit Anh M hnh ha v phn tch kt cu cu vi MIDAS/Civil (Tp 1, 2) NXB
Xy dng 2006, 2007.
[7] L c Hin Ti liu hng dn s dng MIDAS/Civil BM T ng ha Thit k
cu ng, H Giao thng vn ti 2008.
[8] MIDAS/Civil Help Online MIDAS Inc.
[9] Ti liu t website www.midasuser.com.
[10] Hng dn s dng Nova- TDN, Cng ty TNHH Hi Ha.
[11] Cc ti liu khc: sch hng dn s dng Visual Basic v cc phn mm ng dng.