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Original Title: Assumed stress quasi-conforming technique for static and free vibration analysis of Reissner–Mindlin plates

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Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/nme.5510

vibration analysis of ReissnerMindlin plates

Changsheng Wang, Xuan Wang , Xiangkui Zhang*, and Ping Hu

School of Automotive Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Dalian

University of Technology, Dalian, 116023, China

SUMMARY

This paper presents a novel formulation based on Hellinger Reissner variational principle in the frame-

work of quasi-conforming method for static and free vibration analysis of Reissner Mindlin plates. The

formulation starts from polynomial approximation of stresses, which satisfy the equilibrium equations of

Reissner Mindlin plate theory. Then the stress matrix is treated as the weighted function to weaken the strain-

displacement equations after the strains are derived by using the constitutive equations. Finally, the string-net

functions are introduced to calculate strain integration. As examples, two new plate bending elements, a

4-node quadrilateral element QC-P4-11 and a 3-node triangular element QC-P3-7, are proposed. Several

benchmark examples are demonstrated to show the performance of the elements, and the results obtained are

compared with other available ones. Numerical results have proved that both elements possess excellent pre-

cision. In particular, the quadrilateral element performs well even when the element shape degenerates into

a triangle or concave quadrangle. Copyright 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KEY WORDS: finite element methods; quasi-conforming; Reissner Mindlin plate theory; fundamental

analytical solutions; Hellinger Reissner variational principle

1. INTRODUCTION

Finite element analysis of plate structures play an increasing important role in engineering appli-

cations because the plate is one of the most widely used structural components. A considerable

amount of research has been devoted to the analysis of plate structures. A state-of-the-art review

and some recent developments in this field can be found in [15] and the references therein. The

displacement-based plate deformation theories can be divided into two categories: the Kirchhoff plate

theory [68] and the Reissner Mindlin plate theory [911]. The Kirchhoff plate theory is a com-

mon approach used to attain quick and simple predictions especially for the behavior of thin plated

structures. However, the development of Kirchhoff plate elements is restricted because C1 continu-

ity between adjacent elements is required. Besides, it is well known from experimental observations

that the Kirchhoff plate theory neglects transverse shear strains, which brings about considerable

errors in deflections, stresses, and natural frequencies for the analysis of laminated plates [1214].

The plate elements based on Reissner Mindlin plate theory, which considers the role of transverse

shear deformations, are attractive for that only C0 continuity is required and can be used to simulate

both the thin and moderately thick plates [1517].

However, when the thickness of the plate is decreasing, shear locking phenomenon is observed.

For this problem to be overcome, various effective approaches and schemes have been proposed.

Refer to [18] for a summary. Commonly adopted techniques to handle shear locking are reduced

integration [19, 20] and selective integration techniques [21, 22]. Unfortunately, these elements are

*Correspondence to: Xiangkui Zhang, School of Automotive Engineering, Dalian University of Technology. No.2

Linggong Road, Ganjingzi District, Dalian, Liaoning Province, 116023, China.

E-mail: zhangxk@dlut.edu.cn

C. WANG ET AL.

still subjected to some other drawbacks, such as instability for rank deficiency, zero energy modes, or

severe accuracy loss on the occasion of mesh distortions. To yield a much higher accuracy and stabil-

ity of numerical methods, many new formulations, such as the assumed natural strain (ANS) method

[2325], the mixed shear projected approach [26, 27], and the discrete shear gap (DSG) method [28]

have been developed. Other models, including the improved shear strain interpolations approaches

derived from Timoshenkos beam function [29, 30], the enhanced assumed strain methods [31, 32],

the mixed interpolated tensorial components (MITC) technique [3336] and its extension [37, 38]

have also been introduced for the linear and nonlinear analysis of plates and shells.

To further advance finite element technologies, Chen and Cheung [3941] developed a series

of triangular and quadrilateral plate/shell elements based on the refined non-conforming element

method. In their work, the exact displacement function of the Timoshenkos beam is used to derive the

element displacements. Numerical examples demonstrated the proposed model is not only free from

shear locking but also indeed possesses higher accuracy for both thin and thick plates. The smoothed

finite element methods (S-FEM) based on strain smoothing technique [42], including the cell-based

S-FEM (CS-FEM) [43], the node-based S-FEM (NS-FEM) [44], the edge-based S-FEM (ES-FEM)

[45], were first introduced by Liu et al. [46] into the analysis of plate and shell structures [47].

Cen et al. [4850] proposed a hybrid displacement function method based on Reissner Mindlin

plate theory, in which the displacement function [51] satisfying all governing equations are used to

derive displacement components. Numerical examples had proved that the element models presented

in their works perform well even when a severely distorted mesh is employed and can effectively

handle the edge effect [50] caused by certain boundary conditions. Belinha et al. [52, 53] provided

an innovative numerical approach to the elastostatic analysis of thick plates and composite laminated

plates, which combining the simplicity of low-order finite elements connectivity with the geometric

flexibility of meshless. More recently, the isogeometric analysis method, which was first proposed

by Hughes et al. [54], has been applied successfully to bending and free vibration analysis of the

Kirchhoff plate [55] and Reissner Mindlin plate [56, 57]. For an excellent review of isogeometric

analysis, see Nguyen et al. [58].

The Quasi-Conforming (QC) technique was first proposed by Tang et al. [59] to meet the challenge

of inter-elements conforming problems. In the QC technique, the strain-displacement functions as

well as the equilibrium functions are weakened by integrations, and multiple sets of approximating

functions are used for displacement fields on the element boundary and the inner-element. Many

plane elements [60, 61] and plate/shell elements [6267] based on the QC technique have been devel-

oped during past few decades, and the readers can refer to the review articles [64, 68]. Kim et al. [63,

64] presented a 4-node QC shell element based on assumed strain QC technique for linear and nonlin-

ear analysis of plates and shells. Hu et al. [65] developed a four-node quadrilateral flat shell element

based on assumed displacement QC technique, in which the complete quadratic polynomials were

used to discrete membrane and bending displacement fields. Wang et al. [66, 67] proposed 4-node

quadrilateral and 3-node triangular Reissner Mindlin shell elements by using Timoshenkos beam

function within the framework of assumed displacement QC technique. Good results are obtained

in their works, and the differences between the assumed strains QC technique and the assumed dis-

placements QC technique are detailed in [65, 66]. The assumed stress QC technique was proposed

in [61, 69], which are formulated for plane and couple stress issues.

In this paper, we introduce two QC plate elements in the framework of assumed stress QC tech-

nique for static and free vibration analysis of Reissner Mindlin plates. The shear locking can be

overcome in the QC method by the use of different displacement interpolations for each group of

strain components. Spurious zero energy mode, which may also be a challenge in finite elements with

reduced integration, is avoided here by an appropriate choice of the initial polynomials approxima-

tion of strain. Another advantage of the QC technique, when compared with the more widely used

selective integration method, is the fact that the stiffness matrix of the element is given explicitly.

A good plate bending element should possesses the general characteristics: free from shear locking

and zero energy modes, insensitive to mesh distortion, high-accuracy solutions for both displace-

ment and stress. In this paper, a novel formulation based on Hellinger Reissner variational principle

within the framework of QC method is proposed. The formulation starts from polynomial approx-

imation of stresses which derived from a displacement function F. Then the strain-displacement

Copyright 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng (2017)

DOI: 10.1002/nme

QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

equations are weakened by using the stress matrix. Finally, the Timoshenkos beam functions are

used as the string-net functions to calculate strain integration. As examples, new 4-node quadrilat-

eral and 3-node triangular elements are developed. Both elements can not only yield high-accuracy

solutions in static and free vibration analysis but also are free form shear locking and insensitive to

mesh distortion. In particular, the quadrilateral element is a shape-free element and can perform well

even when the distorted mesh element degenerates into a concave quadrangle element or triangular

element.

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the governing equations are reviewed, and the

displacement function of the Reissner Mindlin plate is introduced. Section 3 details the formula-

tions of assumed stress QC plate elements, including the Hellinger Reissner variational principle,

initial assumed stress, and strain integrations. Several numerical examples are provided in Section

4 to illustrate the effectiveness of the new elements for static and free vibration analysis. Finally,

concluding remarks are given in Section 5.

REISSNERMINDLIN PLATE THEORY

The Reissner Mindlin plate theory takes into account the effects of a constant transverse shear stress

state by removing the normality conditions from the kinematic assumptions of classical Kirchoff-

Love plate theory. The displacement components at an arbitrary point of the plate are

The governing equations of the Reissner Mindlin plate theory can be given as follows:

The equilibrium equations:

Mx Mxy

+ Tx = 0

x y

Mxy My

+ Ty = 0 (2)

x y

Tx Ty

+ +q=0

x y

in which = (Mx , My , Mxy , Tx , Ty )T is moment vector, Mx , My , Mxy , Tx , and Ty are the bend-

ing moments, twisting moments, and shear forces, respectively. q is a uniformly distributed

transverse load.

The strain-displacement equations:

x

kx =

x = w

y x x

x

ky = y w (3)

( ) y = y

k = x + y y

xy y x

in which = (kx , ky , kxy , x , y )T is strain vector, kx , ky and kxy are the curvatures, and x and y

are the transverse shear strains.

The constitutive equations:

= D (4)

Copyright 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng (2017)

DOI: 10.1002/nme

C. WANG ET AL.

D D 0 0 0

D D 0 0 0

1

D= 0 0 2

D 0 0 (5)

0 0 0 C 0

0 0 0 0 C

Et3 5

D= , C= Gt (6)

12(1 2 ) 6

in which D is the material matrix related to the Youngs modulus E, Poissons ratio , and plate

thickness t. G = E(2(1 + )) is the shear modulus.

Boundary conditions:

a. displacement (essential) boundary condition

u=u on Su (7)

ng = t on St (8)

in which ng is the matrix depending on the outward normal of the surface under consideration

such that n g constitutes the surface traction, and t is the prescribed boundary traction. Su and

St (Su St = V, Su St = 0) denote the portions of boundary on which displacement and

traction boundary conditions are prescribed respectively.

Inspired by the seminal work [48], the displacement function F firstly given by Hu [51] is used to

express the transverse deflection w and the rotations x , y :

D 2 F F

w=F F, x = , y = (9)

C x y

in which F should satisfy the following equation:

D2 2 F = q (10)

Substituting equation (9) into Equations (3) and (4) yields

( )

Mx 2F 2F

= D +

x2 y2

( 2 )

My F 2F

= D 2 + 2

x y

Mxy F

2

(11)

= D(1 )

xy

Tx = D (2 F)

x

Ty

= D (2 F)

y

It can be proved that Equation (11) satisfies the equilibrium Equation (2).

The displacement function F in Equation (9) can be divided into two parts

F = F0 + F (12)

0 *

in which F is the homogeneous solution of equation (10), and F the particular solution of

Equation (10).

D2 2 F 0 = 0 (13)

Copyright 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng (2017)

DOI: 10.1002/nme

QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

Table I. The first 11 fundamental analytical solutions for the homogeneous biharmonic equation and

resulting resultant stresses.

i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

DFi0 x2 xy y2 x3 x2 y xy2 y3

Mxi0 2 0 2 6x 2y 2x 6y

Myi0 2 0 2 6x 2y 2x 6y

Mxyi0

0 1 0 0 2(1 )x 2(1 )y 0

0

Txi 0 0 0 6 0 2 0

Tyi0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

i 8 9 10 11

DFi0 x3 y xy3 x4 y4 6x2 y2 x4 y4

Myi0 6xy 6xy 12( y2 x2 ) 12(1 )(x2 y2 )

Mxyi0

3(1 )x 2

3(1 )y 2

0 24(1 )xy

Txi0 6y 6y 24x 0

Tyi0 6x 6x 24y 0

D2 2 F = q (14)

Actually, there are numerous polynomials that can satisfy homogeneous biharmonic equation (13),

and the derivation can be found in Reference [70]. The first 11 fundamental analytical solutions of

DFi0 (i = 1 11) and resulting stresses are listed in Table I, which will be used as the initial

assumed stress of QC elements.

For a uniformly distributed transverse load q, the particular solution F* in Equation (14) can be

determined as

q

F = (x4 + y4 ) (15)

48D

then the corresponding particular solutions of the resultant stresses can be expressed by using

Equation (11)

q 2

Mx 4q (x 2+ y2 )

2

My 4 (x + y )

= Mxy

T

= 0 (16)

x q

x

Ty

2

qy

2

3.1. The basic formulations of 4-node quadrilateral and 3-node triangular QC plate elements

Supposing that the displacement boundary conditions of the system are satisfied, then the energy

functional of Hellinger Reissner variational principle can be written as

( )

1

HR = T D1 + T D1 (LT u) qw dxdy tudS (17)

2 S

Copyright 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng (2017)

DOI: 10.1002/nme

C. WANG ET AL.

where L is the differential operator matrix associated with strain . u and t are the displacement

vector and the prescribed boundary traction force vector, respectively. According to the discussions

of Section 2, the initial assumed stresses of Reissner Mindlin plate elements can be divided into

two parts: the homogeneous solution part and particular solution part

= 0 + = Q + (18)

in which is the undetermined element stresses parameter vector of the homogeneous part, * is

the particular solution defined in Equation (16). The expression of matrix Q can be written as

0 0 0 0

Mx1 Mx2 Mx3 MxN

M0 0

My2 0

My3 0

MyN

0y1 0 0 0

Q = Mxy1 Mxy2 Mxy3 MxyN (19)

T0 0

Tx2 0

Tx3 0

TxN

Tx1

0 0 0 0

y1 Ty2 Ty3 TyN

where N is the number of the analytical solutions used in the finite element formulation. By using

the constitutive Equations (4), the strains can be denoted as

= D1 = D1 (Q + ) (20)

The matrix Q T is used as the weighted function to weaken the Equation (20)

(21)

= QT D1 Qdxdy + QT D1 dxdy

where represents the element domain. Then can be determined by carrying out the integrations:

= A1 (Cqe G) (22)

in which

A= QT D1 Qdxdy (23)

G= QT D1 dxdy (25)

( )T

qe = w1 x1 y1 wN xN yN (26)

where qe is element nodal displacement vector, N=4 for 4-node quadrilateral element and N=3 for

3-node triangular element.

Substituting Equation (22) into (18) yields

= 0 + = QA1 (Cqe G) + (27)

By the substitution of Equations (27) into (41), the energy functional can be rewritten as

1

HR = (QA1 (Cqe G) + )T D1 (QA1 (Cqe G) + )dxdy

2

+ (QA1 (Cqe G) + )T D1 (LT u) qeT udxdy tudS (28)

S

1 eT T 1 e 1 1

= q C A Cq GT A1 Cqe + Vqe + GT A1 G H tudS

2 2 2 S

Copyright 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng (2017)

DOI: 10.1002/nme

QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

in which

H= T D1 dxdy (30)

Making HR qe = 0, we obtain

Ke qe = Pe (31)

where Ke and Pe are, respectively, the element stiffness matrix and equivalent nodal forces

Ke = CT A1 C (32)

Pe = VT GA1 CT + fb (33)

It is noted that the integral term of matrices A and G defined in Equations (23) and (25) are

polynomials, which can be evaluated easily. Thus, the essential work is the evaluation of C and V

defined in Equations (24) and (29).

The crucial step in new formulation of QC method is the initial assumption of stresses. The terms of

initial stresses are a primary consideration, which must satisfy rank analysis. The number of neces-

sary terms (not adequate) to prevent numerical deficiency of the rank of element stiffness matrix is

given in following condition:

mng (34)

where m is the number of initial terms of assumed stresses, n and g are number of unknown element

nodal displacements and number of rigid body modes, respectively.

In this paper, two QC plate elements, 4-node quadrilateral and 3-node triangular elements, are

constructed based on the formulation in Section 3.1, as shown in Figure 1. N in Equation (19) is set

to be 11 for 4-node quadrilateral element and 7 for 3-node triangular element. The corresponding

stresses Mxi , Myi , Mxyi , Txi and Txi (i = 1 N) are given in Table I.

Copyright 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng (2017)

DOI: 10.1002/nme

C. WANG ET AL.

The Greens theorem is used here for strain integration, and take the first-order derivative x /x

as an example

x

dxdy = x nx dS

x S

x

xdxdy = x nx xdS dxdy (35)

x S x

x

ydxdy = x nx ydS

x S

We can proof that, if the initial assumed stresses in Equation (18) satisfy equilibrium equations

defined by Equation (2), no inner-field functions are needed for the strain integration. The detailed

derivation can be found in Appendices A and B.

For the boundary integrations, the following transformation equations are needed

( ) ( )( )

x nx ny s

= (36)

y ny nx n

where nx =cos( n,x ), ny =cos( n, y ), n is the outer normal direction of element boundary. Then the

tangential rotation angles and deflections are chosen as the Timoshenkos beam functions, and the

normal rotation angle is chosen as a linear function. For instance, along the 1-2 boundary

n = L1 n1 + L2 n2 (38)

(39)

+ (L2 + 1 L1 L2 (L2 L1 ))w2 + (L1 L2 + 1 L1 L2 (L1 L2 ))S1 2s2

DOI: 10.1002/nme

QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

1 t2

1 = 1 = (40)

1 + 121 5S12 (1 )

with L1 = 1 sS1 , L2 = sS1 . s is the coordinate along the boundary, and S1 is the 1-2 boundary

length. si , ni , and wi are the tangential slopes, normal slopes and deflections at the node i(i = 1, 2)

on the boundary. The boundary string-net functions are adopted for both 4-node quadrilateral and

3-node triangular QC plate elements.

Inspired by the seminal work [71], the energy functional of Hellinger Reissner variational principle

for the free vibration analysis can be written as

( ) u u

1

HR = T D1 + T D1 (LT u) dxdy . dxdy (41)

2 2 t t

Table II. Numerical results for constant stress/strain patch test (Figure 2).

Mesh x y w x y Mx My Mxy Tx Ty

0.04 0.02 0.00140 0.050 0.040 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

Mesh A 0.18 0.03 0.01935 0.195 0.120 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

convex 0.16 0.08 0.02240 0.200 0.160 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

0.08 0.08 0.00960 0.120 0.120 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

0.04 0.02 0.00140 0.050 0.040 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

Mesh B 0.20 0.04 0.02480 0.220 0.140 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

triangular 0.16 0.08 0.02240 0.200 0.160 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

0.12 0.06 0.01260 0.150 0.120 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

0.04 0.02 0.00140 0.050 0.040 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

Mesh C 0.18 0.03 0.01935 0.195 0.120 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

concave 0.16 0.08 0.02240 0.200 0.160 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

0.15 0.05 0.01625 0.175 0.125 0.011111 0.011111 0.00333 0.0 0.0

DOI: 10.1002/nme

C. WANG ET AL.

Making HR qe = 0, the discretized equation for free vibration analysis of Reissner Mindlin

plate can be given as

(K 2I M)dI = 0, I = 1, 2 , Nf (42)

where K is the global stiffness matrix assembled from element stiffness matrix Ke

defined by

equation (32), I and d I are the I-th natural frequency and vibration mode, respectively. M is the

global mass matrix assembled from element mass matrix Me defined by Equation (43)

where m is the matrix containing the mass density of the material and thickness t as

t 0 0

m = 0 t3 12 0 (44)

0 0 t3 12

Table III. Deflections and moments at point C for the Razzaques skew plate.

22 44 66 88 12 12 16 16

MITC4 [33, 74] 0.3856 0.6723 0.7357 0.7592 0.7765 0.7827

DKQ [39, 73] 0.6667 0.7696 0.7830 0.7877 0.7909

DKMQ [15] 0.6666 0.7695 0.7829 0.7876 0.7908

MiSP4 [26] 0.5120 0.7259 0.7781 0.7894

MiSP4+ [27] 0.7015 0.7690 0.7875 0.7925

RDKQM [39] 0.6667 0.7696 0.7830 0.7877 0.7909

AC-MQ4 [75] 0.7579 0.7905 0.7924 0.7930 0.7933 0.7934

MISC2 [74] 0.3741 0.6725 0.7377 0.7610 0.7776 0.7834

HSF-P4-11 [48] 0.7646 0.7890 0.7903 0.7908 0.7910 0.7911

QC-P4-11 0.7647 0.7890 0.7903 0.7908 0.7910 0.7911

DKMT [16] 0.7527 0.7742 0.7822 0.7881

RDKTM [40] 0.7527 0.7742 0.7822 0.7881

MiSP3 [26] 0.5663 0.7400 0.7805 0.7894

QC-P3-7 0.7190 0.7735 0.7831 0.7865 0.7889 0.7898

Reference [72] 0.7945

MITC4 [33, 74] 0.4688 0.8256 0.8976 0.9242 0.9439 0.9510

DKMQ [15] 0.9220 0.9600 0.9610 0.9610 0.9600

MiSP4 [26] 0.6066 0.8774 0.9423 0.9567

MiSP4+ [27] 0.7200 0.9085 0.9510 0.9575

AC-MQ4 [75] 1.0128 1.1071 1.0295 0.9994 0.9779 0.9702

MISC2 [74] 0.4688 0.8301 0.9005 0.9260 0.9448 0.9515

HSF-P4-11 [48] 0.9592 0.9811 0.9563 0.9616 0.9606 0.9603

QC-P4-11 0.9592 0.9811 0.9563 0.9615 0.9606 0.9603

QC-P3-7 0.8923 0.9506 0.9569 0.9588 0.9595 0.9597

Reference [72] 0.9589

DOI: 10.1002/nme

QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

As for free vibration analysis, 4-node serendipity shape function and 3-node area-coordinate function

are used to interpolate the displacement components w, x and y . Take w as an example

4

Ni wi , for 4 node quadrilateral element

i=1

w= 3 (45)

Li wi , for 3 node triangular element

i=1

Figure 4. Convergence test for central deflections and moments of Razzaques 60 skew plate.

DOI: 10.1002/nme

C. WANG ET AL.

Table IV. Results of deflections (w(qL4 1000D)) at the center of Morleys 30 skew plate with

different aspect ratios.

44 88 16 16 32 32 44 88 16 16 32 32

MITC4 [33, 39] 0.359 0.357 0.383 0.403 0.358 0.343 0.343 0.359

DKMQ [15] 0.757 0.504 0.441 0.423 0.760 0.507 0.443 0.425

DKQ [39, 73] 0.760 0.507 0.443 0.426 0.760 0.507 0.443 0.423

RDKQM [39] 0.757 0.504 0.441 0.423 0.760 0.507 0.443 0.424

HSF-P4-11 [48] 0.463 0.427 0.421 0.420 0.462 0.426 0.420 0.416

QC-P4-11 0.463 0.427 0.421 0.420 0.462 0.426 0.419 0.416

DKT [40, 76] 0.453 0.424 0.419 0.417 0.453 0.424 0.419 0.417

DKMT [16] 0.374 0.403 0.415 0.418 0.357 0.339 0.353 0.382

RDKTM [40] 0.454 0.425 0.421 0.419 0.453 0.424 0.419 0.417

QC-P3-7 0.454 0.423 0.419 0.418 0.453 0.422 0.417 0.415

Reference [78] 0.408 0.408

where Ni = 14 (1 + i )(1 + i ) is the shape function of the 4-node serendipity element, Li is 3-node

area-coordinate shape function.

4. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

So as to demonstrate the accuracy, validity, and applicability of the proposed QC elements for linear

static bending and free vibration analysis of Reissner Mindlin plates, several numerical examples

with different geometry and boundary conditions are investigated in this section. The results obtained

by present 4-node quadrilateral and 3-node triangular QC elements are verified by comparing with

other numerical and analytical solutions available in the literatures. The proposed 4-node quadrilat-

eral and 3-node triangular elements are denoted by QC-P4-11 and QC-P3-7, respectively. Unless

otherwise specified, the actual computations are carried out using dimensionless units.

4.1. Static analysis

4.1.1. Patch test. As the first example, the patch test is adopted here to examine the convergence of

QC elements. It is checked to ensure that the elements can reproduce a constant distribution of all

quantities for arbitrary meshes. The geometry and meshes for the patch test are depicted in Figure 2,

as well as nodal coordinates. Meshes A, B, and C are used for quadrilateral element, and mesh A

is also used for triangular element. The analytic displacement field for plate bending is given by the

following formula:

w = 1 (x2 + xy + y2 )

2

w 1

x = x = 2 (2x + y) (46)

y = w = 1 (2y + x)

y 2

And the corresponding exact moment solutions are

Mx = My = 0.011111, Mxy = 0.00333, Tx = T y = 0 (47)

The deflections and rotations of boundary nodes are fixed as the boundary conditions, and their values

of the inner nodes will be evaluated. The numerical results of the patch test are listed in Table II.

DOI: 10.1002/nme

QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

It can be observed that both the triangular and quadrilateral QC element can pass the patch test,

and the obtained displacement and stress results agree well with the exact solutions. Moreover, the

quadrilateral element exhibits better performance in both displacement and stress solutions even the

element shape degenerated into a concave quadrangle or triangular element.

4.1.2. Skew plate. In this section, two thin skew plates subjected to a uniform transverse load q = 1

are considered: Razzaques skew plate and Morleys skew plate. First, the Razzaques skew plate

with skew angle = 60 is considered. And the geometry and material parameters are depicted in

Figure 3. Uniform meshes N N with N = 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 are used, and two opposite edges are free,

whereas the other two edges are soft simply supported (SS1) (w = 0).

Numerical results of transversal deflection w and the bending moment My are tabulated in Table III

and compared with the analytic solution [72] and other available results obtained by quadrilateral

elements [15, 26, 27, 33, [39], 7375] and triangular elements [16, 26, 40, 76] in the published

references. It can be seen that both QC elements show remarkably excellent performance compared

with other elements. For a better view, Figure 4 shows the convergence test for central deflections

and moments of the Razzaques 60 skew thin plate of quadrilateral elements, in (a) and (b). As

Table V. Central deflections wc (qL4 100D) and moments for SS1 square plate.

Mesh density

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.40646 0.40622 0.40623 0.40623 0.40624 0.40624 0.4062

B-distorted 0.41250 0.40650 0.40628 0.40625 0.40624 0.40624

0.01 A-regular 0.40674 0.40647 0.40648 0.40650 0.40654 0.40674 0.4062

B-distorted 0.41296 0.40682 0.40659 0.40659 0.40664 0.40694

0.1 A-regular 0.43652 0.44668 0.45375 0.45702 0.45866 0.46049 0.4617

B-distorted 0.45502 0.45014 0.45482 0.45752 0.45896 0.46061

Mc (qL2 10)

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.47471 0.47883 0.47886 0.47886 0.47886 0.47886 0.4789

B-distorted 0.48860 0.48068 0.47943 0.47911 0.47899 0.47889

0.01 A-regular 0.47457 0.47870 0.47874 0.47877 0.47881 0.47904 0.4789

B-distorted 0.48827 0.48039 0.47924 0.47900 0.47899 0.47924

0.1 A-regular 0.46911 0.49335 0.50140 0.50483 0.50651 0.50837 0.5096

B-distorted 0.48810 0.49639 0.50240 0.50527 0.50677 0.50847

(b) QC-P3-7 wc (qL4 100D)

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.40317 0.40588 0.40611 0.40618 0.40620 0.40622 0.4062

B-distorted 0.40102 0.40503 0.40572 0.40596 0.40606 0.40617

0.01 A-regular 0.40337 0.40607 0.40632 0.40639 0.40643 0.40656 0.4062

B-distorted 0.40129 0.40527 0.40596 0.40621 0.40634 0.40664

0.1 A-regular 0.42208 0.43475 0.44385 0.44960 0.45313 0.45790 0.4617

B-distorted 0.43137 0.44070 0.44778 0.45228 0.45504 0.45876

Mc (qL2 10)

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.50082 0.48781 0.48373 0.48198 0.48105 0.47988 0.4789

B-distorted 0.49890 0.48647 0.48309 0.48155 0.48071 0.47969

0.01 A-regular 0.50084 0.48789 0.48382 0.48207 0.48115 0.48005 0.4789

B-distorted 0.49903 0.48656 0.48318 0.48166 0.48084 0.47993

0.1 A-regular 0.50219 0.49801 0.50058 0.50321 0.50502 0.50758 0.5096

B-distorted 0.51405 0.50133 0.50211 0.50407 0.50557 0.50778

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C. WANG ET AL.

can be observed from Figure 4, the results of present quadrilateral QC element are in very excellent

agreement with the exact solutions and are more accurate than those of other elements for both the

central deflections and moments.

As to the Morleys skew plate with skew angle = 30 depicted in Figure 5, all four edges of this

plate are soft simply supported (SS1). This problem is a more critical test for singularity appears in

the bending moment at the obtuse corner. Two span-thickness ratios (Lt = 1000 and Lt = 100) are

considered. Table IV presents the dimensionless results of central deflections obtained by the new QC

elements and other quadrilateral elements [15, 33, 39, 73] and triangular elements [16, 40, 76, 77].

For comparison, the solutions obtained by Morley [78] are also presented. It can be found that present

models exhibit good agreement with other elements with the same refinement meshes.

4.1.3. Square plates. In this example, a classical benchmark of square plate bending problem sub-

jected to a uniform load q = 1 is investigated. Two mesh types are used for this example, as shown in

Figure 6. Three different boundary condition cases are discussed: the clamped boundary condition

(w = 0, n = 0 and s = 0); the soft simply supported (SS1) boundary condition (w = 0); the hard

Table VI. Central deflections wc (qL4 100D) and moments for SS2 square plate.

Mesh density

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.40516 0.40617 0.40622 0.40623 0.40624 0.40624 0.4062

B-distorted 0.40200 0.40596 0.40618 0.40622 0.40623 0.40624

0.01 A-regular 0.40538 0.40638 0.40643 0.40644 0.40644 0.40644 0.4064

B-distorted 0.40226 0.40618 0.40639 0.40643 0.40643 0.40644

0.1 A-regular 0.42654 0.42659 0.42682 0.42697 0.42707 0.42719 0.4273

B-distorted 0.42477 0.42643 0.42667 0.42687 0.42699 0.42716

Mc (qL2 10)

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.47857 0.47884 0.47886 0.47886 0.47886 0.47886 0.4789

B-distorted 0.48653 0.48043 0.47939 0.47909 0.47898 0.47889

0.01 A-regular 0.47846 0.47870 0.47871 0.47872 0.47874 0.47877 0.4789

B-distorted 0.48606 0.48006 0.47912 0.47888 0.47882 0.47882

0.1 A-regular 0.47289 0.47663 0.47786 0.47831 0.47852 0.47873 0.4789

B-distorted 0.47489 0.47763 0.47823 0.47847 0.47860 0.47875

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.40257 0.40580 0.40609 0.40617 0.40620 0.40622 0.4062

B-distorted 0.39915 0.40488 0.40569 0.40595 0.40606 0.40617

0.01 A-regular 0.40277 0.40601 0.40630 0.40638 0.40640 0.40643 0.4064

B-distorted 0.39939 0.40510 0.40590 0.40615 0.40626 0.40637

0.1 A-regular 0.42081 0.42547 0.42629 0.42666 0.42686 0.42710 0.4273

B-distorted 0.42047 0.42516 0.42612 0.42655 0.42679 0.42708

Mc (qL2 10)

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.49975 0.48764 0.48369 0.48197 0.48105 0.47988 0.4789

B-distorted 0.49801 0.48634 0.48307 0.48154 0.48071 0.47968

0.01 A-regular 0.49978 0.4.8774 0.48380 0.48206 0.48113 0.47994 0.4789

B-distorted 0.49810 0.48641 0.48314 0.48161 0.48077 0.47970

0.1 A-regular 0.50083 0.48917 0.48440 0.48235 0.48127 0.47995 0.4789

B-distorted 0.50457 0.48728 0.48274 0.48111 0.48035 0.47950

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QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

simply supported (SS2) boundary condition (w = 0 and s = 0). The following material parameters

are used: Youngs modulus E = 10.92, Poissons ratio = 0.3, and the edge length and thickness

of the square plate are denoted by L and t, respectively. The dimensionless results of deflections and

moments at the center of the plate are presented in Tables V VII, which has considered the effects

of different thickness-to-length ratios tL. To verify the validity of the proposed elements, the exact

solutions [79] are also listed for comparison.

First, we can observe that the results of the new QC elements show an excellent convergence to

the exact solutions for different boundary conditions and thickness-to-length ratios even with very

rough refinement mesh (2 2), which demonstrates the proposed QC elements exhibit excellent

performance in the precision. Another observation is that the discrepancies between the results of

the present elements based on the regular meshes and distorted meshes are small and can be ignored.

This also certifies the new elements provide a reliable and robust means for the state bending analysis

of plates.

In next, the sensitivity test to the mesh distortion for quadrilateral element QC-P4-11 is con-

ducted, which was first studied in reference [80] by Weissman and Taylor. The following geometric

and material parameters are used: the edge length L = 10, the thickness t = 0.01, the Youngs mod-

ulus E = 10.92, and Poissons ratio = 0.3. As shown in Figure 7, a quarter of clamped square

plate is modeled by two types of distortion meshes. In the mesh A(symmetric), the central node of

the mesh is moved along the main diagonal of the plate. When the absolute value of the distortion

parameter reaches 1.25, one element of the mesh will degenerate into a triangle, and when the

Table VII. Central deflections wc (qL4 100D) and moments for clamped square plate.

Mesh density

tL Mesh type 22 44 66 88 10 10 16 16 Reference [79]

4

(a) QC-P4-11 wc (qL 100D)

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.12389 0.12601 0.12636 0.12646 0.12649 0.12652 0.1265

B-distorted 0.12378 0.12585 0.12630 0.12643 0.12648 0.12652

0.01 A-regular 0.12418 0.12630 0.12664 0.12673 0.12676 0.12678 0.1267

B-distorted 0.12407 0.12615 0.12658 0.12670 0.12675 0.12678

0.1 A-regular 0.15040 0.15066 0.15054 0.15050 0.15048 0.15047 0.1499

B-distorted 0.14991 0.15057 0.15049 0.15047 0.15047 0.15046

Mc (qL2 10)

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.22108 0.22844 0.22887 0.22897 0.22901 0.22904 0.2291

B-distorted 0.23176 0.22984 0.22927 0.22914 0.22909 0.22906

0.01 A-regular 0.22114 0.22842 0.22884 0.22894 0.22897 0.22902 0.2291

B-distorted 0.23160 0.22967 0.22915 0.22905 0.22904 0.22905

0.1 A-regular 0.22706 0.23098 0.23151 0.23173 0.23183 0.23194 0.231

B-distorted 0.22890 0.23176 0.23183 0.23191 0.23194 0.23198

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.10789 0.12204 0.12452 0.12540 0.12581 0.12625 0.1265

B-distorted 0.11619 0.12297 0.12481 0.12555 0.12590 0.12629

0.01 A-regular 0.10807 0.12228 0.12477 0.12565 0.12606 0.12650 0.1267

B-distorted 0.11644 0.12323 0.12508 0.12581 0.12616 0.12654

0.1 A-regular 0.12540 0.14405 0.14746 0.14872 0.14932 0.15000 0.1499

B-distorted 0.13859 0.14640 0.14842 0.14923 0.14964 0.15013

Mc (qL2 10)

1030 0.001 A-regular 0.22167 0.23020 0.22973 0.22958 0.22947 0.22929 0.2291

B-distorted 0.23308 0.23155 0.23017 0.22977 0.22956 0.22929

0.01 A-regular 0.22154 0.23024 0.22981 0.22966 0.22955 0.22936 0.2291

B-distorted 0.23302 0.23164 0.23026 0.22985 0.22963 0.22934

0.1 A-regular 0.21497 0.23130 0.23236 0.23245 0.23240 0.23225 0.231

B-distorted 0.22980 0.23349 0.23275 0.23246 0.23233 0.23216

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C. WANG ET AL.

Table VIII. Results of the central deflections wc (ql4 100D) for symmetric mesh distortion.

[80] [80] [80] [81] [73] [75] [33] [74]

1.75 0.1192

1.50 0.1214

1.25 0.1229

1.249 0.1381 0.2423 0.1105 0.1337 0.1694 0.1240 0.0973 0.1151 0.1229

1.00 0.1390 0.1935 0.1160 0.1369 0.1658 0.1269 0.1032 0.1164 0.1238

0.50 0.1247 0.1284 0.1209 0.1354 0.1543 0.1264 0.1133 0.1207 0.1245

0.00 0.1212 0.1212 0.1211 0.1295 0.1460 0.1245 0.1211 0.1266 0.1239

0.50 0.1347 0.1331 0.1165 0.1234 0.1418 0.1224 0.1245 0.1323 0.1227

1.00 0.1343 0.1647 0.1059 0.1192 0.1427 0.1183 0.1189 0.1331 0.1218

1.249 0.1262 0.1947 0.0975 0.1180 0.1398 0.1193 0.1087 0.1287 0.1218

1.25 0.1218

1.50 0.1221

1.75 0.1232

The reference solution of wc (ql4 100D) is 0.1265.

parameter exceeds 1.25, the element will degenerate into a concave quadrangle. Most elements

suffer from severe accuracy loss under these situations, and the calculation will even fail. However,

the proposed element QC-P4-11 performs well. Results of deflections at node C (the central point

of the plate) obtained by the proposed element QC-P4-11 as well as other methods [33, 73 75, 80,

81] are listed in Table VIII and plotted in Figure 8. In the mesh B (asymmetric), the central node is

moved parallel to the edge, and the results are given in Table IX and plotted in Figure 9.

It is clear that the proposed quadrilateral element QC-P4-11 gains the highest accuracy, and the

obtained results are better than those of other elements [33, 73 75, 80, 81] when compared with the

exact solutions. The central deflections variation with respect to distortion parameters is so small

that it can be neglected, which indicates the present element QC-P4-11 is insensitivity to mesh

distortions.

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QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

Figure 8. Central deflections for the sensitivity test to symmetric mesh distortion.

Table IX. Results of the central deflections wc (ql4 100D) for asymmetric mesh distortion.

[80] [80] [80] [81] [73] [75]

0.02 0.1166 0.1165 0.1196 0.1279 0.1458 0.1245 0.1239

0.04 0.1075 0.1074 0.1154 0.1234 0.1457 0.1244 0.1239

0.06 0.0998 0.0997 0.1091 0.1165 0.1456 0.1244 0.1238

0.08 0.0947 0.0946 0.1013 0.1081 0.1455 0.1244 0.1238

0.10 0.0915 0.0914 0.0927 0.0989 0.1455 0.1244 0.1238

0.15 0.0878 0.0877 0.0716 0.0761 0.1451 0.1244 0.1237

0.20 0.0868 0.0867 0.0542 0.0573 0.1448 0.1243 0.1237

0.30 0.0872 0.0871 0.0318 0.0333 0.1443 0.1242 0.1236

0.50 0.0907 0.0912 0.0135 0.0138 0.1435 0.1240 0.1234

0.80 0.0973 0.1009 0.0055 0.0054 0.1428 0.1230 0.1233

1.00 0.1010 0.1094 0.0035 0.0034 0.1426 0.1216 0.1233

1.50 0.1008 0.1390 0.0015 0.0014 0.1431 0.1158 0.1235

2.00 0.0766 0.1695 0.0008 0.0007 0.1449 0.1085 0.1236

2.49 0.0425 0.1967 0.0005 0.0005 0.1469 0.1011 0.1224

The reference solution of wc (ql4 100D) is 0.1265.

4.1.4. A more complex bending problem. To further demonstrate the convergence of the proposed

methods, a more complex bending problem with explicit analytical solution is performed. This exam-

ple has been tested by a number of methods [56, 8284]. The model problem consists in a clamped

square plate [0, 1]2 , subject to the distributed load

Et3

q(x, y) = (12y(y 1)(5x2 5x + 1)(2y2 (y 1)2 + x(x 1)(5y2 5y + 1))

12(1 2 ) (48)

+ 12x(x 1)(5y2 5y + 1)(2x2 (x 1)2 + y(y 1)(5x2 5x + 1))).

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C. WANG ET AL.

Figure 9. Central deflections for the sensitivity test to asymmetric mesh distortion.

Figure 10. Relative error of clamped square plates for different values of thickness.

x = y3 (y 1)3 x2 (x 1)2 (2x 1)

(49)

y = x3 (x 1)3 y2 (y 1)2 (2y 1)

1 3

w(x, y) = x (x 1)3 y3 (y 1)3

3

2t2 (50)

(y3 (y 1)3 x(x 1)(5x2 5x + 1)

5(1 )

+ x3 (x 1)3 y(y 1)(5y2 5y + 1)).

The error of a discrete solution is measured through the discrete relative rotation error E and the

discrete relative displacement error Ew , defined as [83]

(((x (Ni ) xh (Ni ))2 + (y (Ni ) yh (Ni ))2 )

Ni

E2 = (51)

(x2 (Ni ) + y2 (Ni ))

Ni

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QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

Figure 11. Quadrilateral and triangular meshes of symmetrical quadrants of a circular plate.

Table X. Central deflections and moments for a simply supported circular plate with a uniform load

(quadrilateral elements).

Rt = 2 Rt = 5 Rt = 50

3 12 48 3 12 48 3 12 48

Q4-R 2.646 3.071 3.217 32.450 38.787 40.912 30773 37052 39148

DKQ [39, 73] 2.439 2.522 2.542 38.118 39.409 39.720 38118 39408 39720

RDKQM [39] 3.083 3.217 3.251 39.664 41.093 41.470 38133 39423 39735

MITC4 [33, 39] 2.994 3.197 3.246 38.132 40.766 41.395 39430 39037 39634

QCS2 [66] 3.234 3.254 3.261 41.393 41.615 41.597 39723 39917 39851

QC-P4-11 3.270 3.263 3.262 42.454 41.797 41.644 40790 40088 39898

Reference 3.262 41.599 39831

(b) Central moment

Q4-R 4.193 4.916 5.094 4.193 4.935 5.095 4.193 5.004 5.151

DKQ [39, 73] 5.386 5.201 5.170 5.386 5.201 5.169 5.386 5.201 5.169

RDKQM [39] 5.444 5.243 5.177 5.402 5.229 5.176 5.386 5.201 5.170

MITC4 [33, 39] 4.818 5.097 5.140 4.783 5.098 5.139 4.729 5.124 5.137

QCS2 [66] 5.623 5.272 5.184 5.459 5.268 5.184 5.303 5.263 5.181

QC-P4-11 5.223 5.169 5.159 5.243 5.171 5.159 5.288 5.179 5.162

Reference 5.16 5.16 5.16

((w(Ni ) wh (Ni ))2 )

Ni

Ew2 = 2 (52)

(w (Ni ))

Ni

in which x (Ni ), y (Ni ) and w(Ni ) are exact solutions at Ni , xh (Ni ), yh (Ni ) and wh (Ni ) are solutions

of proposed elements at node (Ni ).

We analyze the convergence properties of the quadrilateral QC element QC-P4-11 by considering

different values of thickness, that is, t {102 , 103 , 105 }. For simplicity, the relative error of

triangular element QC-P3-7 is not reported here. Actually, the same property can be observed for

the triangular element.

Figure 10 shows the relative displacement error Ew and the relative rotation error E versus the

number of nodes per side, in (a) and (b). As can be seen in the figure, the present quadrilateral

element QC-P4-11 demonstrates the appropriate convergence rate for both vertical displacements

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C. WANG ET AL.

and rotations. Another observation is that the error graphs for different values of thickness appear

nearly superposed. This behavior testifies the proposed element is insensitive to the variation of

thickness, which also demonstrates that the proposed QC element is locking free and can be used

for both thick and thin plate problems.

4.1.5. Circular plates. In this section, a simply supported or clamped circular plate subjected to uni-

form transverse load q = 1 is analyzed to demonstrate more features of the present elements. By mak-

ing use of the symmetry, one quarter of the circular plate is modeled with three different mesh of 3, 12,

and 48 for quadrilateral element (6, 24. and 96 for triangular element), as depicted in Figure 11. The

Table XI. Central deflections and moments for a clamped circular plate with a uniform load (quadrilateral

elements).

Rt = 2.5 Rt = 5 Rt = 50

3 12 48 3 12 48 3 12 48

Q4-R 1.895 2.048 2.093 10.079 11.125 11.405 8402.7 9392.0 9641.1

DKQ [39, 73] 1.345 1.258 1.232 10.756 10.064 9.854 10756.1 10064.1 9854.2

RDKQM [39] 2.143 2.123 2.117 12.303 11.748 11.604 10770.9 10079.3 9869.5

MITC4 [33, 39] 1.996 2.084 2.108 10.755 11.421 11.529 9068.1 9693.3 9768.7

QCS2 [66] 2.199 2.142 2.120 12.469 11.857 11.620 10811.2 10159.2 9874.4

QC-P4-11 1.799 2.028 2.092 9.471 10.987 11.403 7806.6 9277.4 9657.6

Reference 2.114 11.551 9783.5

(b) Central moment

Q4-R 1.723 1.964 2.014 1.723 1.967 2.015 1.723 2.010 2.035

DKQ [39, 73] 2.543 2.149 2.063 2.543 2.149 2.063 2.543 2.149 2.063

RDKQM [39] 2.457 2.189 2.071 2.557 2.178 2.070 2.542 2.149 2.064

MITC4 [33, 39] 2.589 2.045 2.034 1.927 2.046 2.033 1.883 2.075 2.031

QCS2 [66] 2.531 2.178 2.067 2.445 2.174 2.067 2.312 2.163 2.063

QC-P4-11 1.795 1.965 2.014 1.812 1.967 2.014 1.856 1.975 2.017

Reference 2.03 2.03 2.03

Figure 12. Convergence of central deflections and moments of simply supported circular plate (Rt = 2). (a)

Convergence of central deflections. (b) Convergence of central moments.

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QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

radius of the plate is set to be R = 5. The Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio are assumed as E =

10.92, = 0.3, respectively. To investigate the influences of radius-to-thickness ratios on the central

deflections and moments of circular plate, four different values of radius-to-thickness ratios Rt =

2, 2.5, 5, 50 are considered. Numerical results of central deflections and moments of simply supported

and clamped circular plate obtained by the proposed QC elements are tabulated in Tables X XIII.

The results are compared with the exact solutions and other numerical results obtained by quadri-

lateral elements [33, 39, 66, 73] and triangular elements [40, 67, 76]. The convergence tests of

central deflections and moments of simply supported circular plate (Rt = 2) are given in Figure 12

(a) and (b).

It can be seen that the results of the proposed triangular and quadrilateral elements agree well

with those of other elements [33, 39, 40, 66, 67, 73, 76]. In addition, we can find that the radius-

Table XII. Central deflections and moments for a simply supported circular plate with a uniform

load(triangular elements).

Rt = 2 Rt = 5 Rt = 50

6 24 96 6 24 96 6 24 96

DKT [40, 76] 2.421 2.520 2.524 37.833 39.378 39.714 37832.7 39378.2 39714.1

RDKTM [40] 3.091 3.224 3.254 39.463 41.089 41.473 37848.5 39394.3 39730.2

QCS31 [67] 3.086 3.224 3.254 39.387 41.042 41.467 37771.3 39326.9 39716.2

QC-P3-7 3.282 3.273 3.266 42.536 41.838 41.656 40921.3 40124.4 39905.7

Reference 3.262 41.599 39831

(b) Central moment

DKT [40, 76] 5.259 5.203 5.205 5.259 5.203 5.182 5.259 5.203 5.182

RDKTM [40] 5.393 5.270 5.204 5.306 5.239 5.201 5.259 5.204 5.183

QCS31 [67] 5.431 5.312 5.210 5.332 5.275 5.220 5.279 5.221 5.183

QC-P3-7 5.231 5.205 5.174 5.218 5.193 5.171 5.258 5.207 5.171

Reference 5.16 5.16 5.16

Table XIII. Central deflections and moments for a clamped circular plate with a uniform load (triangular

elements).

Rt = 2.5 Rt = 5 Rt = 50

6 24 96 6 24 96 6 24 96

DKT [40, 76] 1.286 1.246 1.229 10.291 9.966 9.835 10290.7 9966.1 9835.5

RDKTM [40] 2.119 2.124 2.119 11.921 11.687 11.598 10306.5 9982.4 9851.7

QCS31 [67] 2.077 2.123 2.118 11.591 11.656 11.581 9972.5 9940.2 9827.3

QC-P3-7 1.816 2.043 2.097 9.558 11.032 11.416 7933.68 9314.2 9665.7

Reference 2.114 11.551 9783.5

(b) Central moment

DKT [40, 76] 2.397 2.147 2.074 2.397 2.147 2.074 2.397 2.147 2.074

RDKTM [40] 2.506 2.209 2.097 2.451 2.185 2.097 2.398 2.148 2.076

QCS31 [67] 2.514 2.250 2.101 2.440 2.219 2.098 2.386 2.165 2.075

QC-P3-7 1.794 2.001 2.029 1.788 1.990 2.026 1.827 2.003 2.026

Reference 2.03 2.03 2.03

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C. WANG ET AL.

Figure 13. Convergence study of fundamental frequency for fully clamped plate with different thickness-to-

length ratios tL. (a) tL = 0.005; (b) tL = 0.1).

Figure 14. The first six mode shapes for the fully clamped square plate (tL = 0.005).

to-thickness ratios have a great influence on the central deflections for both clamped and simply

supported boundary conditions, and a low radius-to-thickness ratio leads to a smaller central deflec-

tion value. In contrast, the radius-to-thickness ratios have a very small effect on the central moments

of clamped and simply supported circular plates.

In this section, we examine the efficiency and the applicability of the 4-node quadrilateral and 3-node

triangular QC elements in analyzing natural frequencies of free vibration of plates. The effects of var-

ious slenderness ratios, skew angles, and boundary conditions on the frequencies are also discussed.

Unless other stated, the following material parameters are used: Youngs modulus E = 2.0 1011 ,

Poissons ratio = 0.3, and the mass density = 8000. For the convenience, the boundaries of

DOI: 10.1002/nme

QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

thin square plate (tL = 0.005).

Meshing Methods 1 2 3 4 5 6

ES-DSG3 [77] 6.9741 10.1934 11.4756 13.0548 15.4035 15.9360

QC-P4-11 6.3273 9.4939 9.4939 12.0178 12.9286 12.9445

QC-P3-7 6.5146 9.9991 10.4806 12.9428 14.7752 15.0647

ES-DSG3 [77] 6.1982 9.0117 9.2894 11.5616 12.7950 13.0357

QC-P4-11 6.0945 8.8804 8.8804 11.0094 12.2499 12.2621

QC-P3-7 6.1282 8.9302 9.04649 11.1099 12.5623 12.6208

ES-DSG3 [77] 6.0355 8.6535 8.7081 10.6584 11.7430 11.7720

QC-P4-11 6.0220 8.6454 8.6454 10.5544 11.6723 11.6972

QC-P3-7 6.0300 8.6543 8.6830 10.5801 11.7316 11.7594

ES-DSG3 [77] 6.0158 8.6075 8.6353 10.5252 11.6032 11.6293

QC-P4-11 6.0106 8.6074 8.6074 10.4806 11.5753 11.6014

QC-P3-7 6.0148 8.6118 8.6269 10.4946 11.6053 11.6322

the plates are denoted as follows: completely free (F), fully clamped (C), and simply supported

(S) edges. For example, the symbol, CFSF, represents clamped, free, simply supported, and free

boundary condition along the four edges of a rectangular plate.

4.2.1. Square plates. First, the convergence of the present quadrilateral QC elements for the free

vibration analysis is testified by fully clamped square plates with two different thickness-to-length

ratios tL = 0.005 and tL = 0.1, which exists exact solution for this case. The plate is discretized by

four different uniform refine meshes with 4 4, 8 8, 16 16, and 22 22. For comparison, the non-

( )14

dimensional frequencies parameter = 2 L4 tD is used, in which D = Et3 (12(1 2 )) is

the flexural rigidity of the plate. Numerical results of the first six frequencies calculated by the pro-

DOI: 10.1002/nme

C. WANG ET AL.

Figure 16. The first three mode shapes for the parallelogram plate with CCCC and CFFF boundary conditions

(ta = 0.01).

14

CCCC =30

SSSS 35

=45

12 CFFF

Fundamental frequency

30

=60

10

25

8

20

6

15

4

10

2

5

0

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Figure 17. Effects of boundary condition and skew angles on the fundamental frequency of a parallelogram

plate. (a) Boundary condition effect; (b) skew angle effect.

Figure 18. The cantilever (CFF) triangular plates with various shape geometries.

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QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

thick square plate (tL = 0.1).

Meshing Methods 1 2 3 4 5 6

ES-DSG3 [77] 6.2662 8.7952 9.6625 10.9112 12.6101 13.1360

QC-P4-11 5.9642 8.6215 8.6215 10.5569 11.4361 11.4398

QC-P3-7 6.1388 8.8996 9.3054 11.1655 12.2653 12.5207

ES-DSG3 [77] 5.8068 8.0861 8.2701 9.8397 10.7600 10.8960

QC-P4-11 5.7775 8.1095 8.1095 9.72733 10.6662 10.7063

QC-P3-7 5.8176 8.1559 8.2598 9.86158 10.8496 10.9334

ES-DSG3 [77] 5.7250 7.9211 7.9627 9.4499 10.2631 10.3126

QC-P4-11 5.7223 7.9369 7.9369 9.42914 10.2635 10.3107

QC-P3-7 5.7338 7.9511 7.9766 9.46916 10.3138 10.3648

ES-DSG3 [77] 5.7141 7.8990 7.9206 9.3896 10.1935 10.2411

QC-P4-11 5.7133 7.9086 7.9086 9.38020 10.1968 10.2445

QC-P3-7 5.7196 7.9167 7.9301 9.40242 10.2244 10.2735

posed QC elements are presented in Tables XIV and XV. To validate the proposed formulation, the

exact solutions [85] and the numerical results obtained by smoothed finite element method with stabi-

lized discrete shear gap technique (DSG3, ES-DSG3) [77] are also listed for comparisons. Figure 13

also illustrates clearly the convergence of fundamental frequency for different thickness-to-length

ratios tL.

From Tables XIV and XV and Figure 13, it can be seen that the frequencies obtained by

the proposed QC elements show a very good convergence to the exact solution [85] with sub-

division of the mesh. And the present QC elements are more accurate than the DSG3 and the

ES-DSG3 elements [77], especially when an relatively coarse gridding is used. This holds both

for thin and thick plates, which demonstrate that the proposed 4-node quadrilateral and 3-node

triangular QC elements are free of shear locking problems when the plate thickness becomes

small. In addition, Figure 14 shows the first six mode shapes for the fully clamped (CCCC)

square plate with the thickness-to-length tL = 0.005. It is observed that the mode shapes

can express exactly the real physical modes of the square plate under fully clamped boundary

condition.

To investigate the influence of boundary condition on the frequencies of free vibration, five

different boundary conditions are considered: SSSF, SFSF, CCCF, CFCF, and CFSF. Table XVI

shows the first six non-dimensional frequencies of a thin square plate with thickness-to-length ratio

tL = 0.005, which is obtained by the proposed QC elements based on 22 22 uniform discretiza-

tions mesh. It can be observed, for different boundary conditions, that the results of the proposed

QC elements agree well with the exact solution [86]. Besides, we can find that the boundary con-

dition has a profound influence on the natural frequencies. The more fixed degrees of freedom,

the higher the vibrating frequency values when we compared the results for different boundary

conditions.

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C. WANG ET AL.

Table XVI. Six lowest non-dimensional frequency parameters = L2 tD of a thin

square plate (tL = 0.005) discretized by a uniform mesh 22 22and with various boundary

conditions (BC).

BC Methods 1 2 3 4 5 6

QC-P3-7 11.7096 27.8701 41.5289 59.6609 62.4710 91.9116

Reference [86] 11.6850 27.7560 41.1970 59.0660

QC-P3-7 9.65026 16.1735 36.8906 39.2502 47.1409 71.5165

Reference [86] 9.63100 16.1350 36.7260 38.9450

QC-P3-7 24.0148 40.2426 63.9358 77.6249 81.6666 118.8179

Reference [86] 24.0200 40.0390 63.4930 76.7610

CFCF QC-P4-11 22.2016 26.4529 43.7835 61.5852 67.6430 80.5955

QC-P3-7 22.2477 26.5265 43.8806 61.8481 67.9814 80.7502

Reference [86] 22.2720 26.5290 43.6640 64.4660

QC-P3-7 15.2351 20.6551 39.9504 49.9112 56.8558 78.1507

Reference [86] 15.2850 20.6730 39.8820 49.5000

Figure 19. Comparison of the first four frequencies of a thin triangular plate with different skew angles.

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QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

Table XVII. Dimensionless frequency parameters = (wa2 2 ) tD of a CFFF

parallelogram plate with different thickness-to-length (ab = 1).

ta Elements 1 2 3 4 5 6

QC-P3-7 0.3984 0.9552 2.5738 2.6360 4.2048 5.1661

DSG3 [74] 0.3988 0.9580 2.5996 2.6562 4.2551 5.2267

ES-DSG3 [74] 0.3976 0.9532 2.5785 2.6400 4.2209 5.1825

pb-2 Ritz [87] 0.398 0.954 2.564 2.627 4.189 5.131

QC-P3-7 0.3983 0.9547 2.5714 2.6342 4.2005 5.1504

QC-P3-7 0.3777 0.8196 1.9900 2.1730 3.1198 3.7800

DSG3 [74] 0.3785 0.8262 2.0109 2.1918 3.1631 3.8302

ES-DSG3 [74] 0.3772 0.8192 1.9933 2.1785 3.1296 3.7937

pb-2 Ritz [87] 0.377 0.817 1.981 2.166 3.104 3.760

Table XVIII. Comparison of the fundamental frequencies of parallelogram plate under different

boundary conditions (tb = 0.1).

ab = 1 ab = 5

45 5.6411 3.1796 0.4452 20.0622 9.8751 2.3241

60 4.1367 2.3215 0.3912 13.9561 6.7189 2.0376

QC-P3-7 30 9.3679 5.4992 0.5141 36.3645 19.0072 2.7606

45 5.6396 3.1846 0.4462 20.1689 9.9023 2.3811

60 4.1388 2.3281 0.3917 14.0212 6.7369 2.0566

4.2.2. Parallelogram plates. The free vibration of a cantilever rhombic (CFFF) plate with slen-

derness ratio ab = 1 is studied in this section, which considers the influence of three different

thickness-to-length ta = 0.001, 0.1, 0.2 on the natural frequencies. The geometry of the considered

plate with skew angle = 60 is sketched

in Figure 15. For comparison, the non-dimensional fre-

quencies parameter = (a2 2 ) tD is used. Numerical results of the first six non-dimensional

frequencies of the cantilever rhombic plate under mesh 22 22 are presented in Table XVII.

First, an excellent agreement between the results of the proposed QC elements (QC-P4-11 and

QC-P3-7) and the semi-analytical solutions using the pb-2 Ritz method [87] can be observed, which

indicates that the proposed QC elements are reliable and robust for the free vibration analysis plate.

When comparing the results of cantilever rhombic plate with different thickness-to-length ratios, we

can know that the natural frequencies decrease slightly with the increase of the thickness-to-length

ratio. Figure 16 shows the first three mode shapes for the fully clamped (CCCC) and cantilever

(CFFF parallelogram plate with the thickness-to-length ta = 0.01, where the figures on the left side

are the modes for CCCC boundary condition and those on the right side show the modes for CFFF

boundary condition.

So as to investigate the effects of the slenderness ratio, skew angle and boundary condition on the

natural frequency, a parallelogram plate with thickness-to-length ta = 0.001 is considered. In Table

DOI: 10.1002/nme

C. WANG ET AL.

( )

Table XIX. The first six dimensionless natural frequencies = L2 2 tD of thin

triangular plates with different skew angles (tL = 0.001).

CS-DSG3 [77] 0.6223 2.3417 3.2130 5.5353 7.5546 9.5093

0 Pb2-Ritz [89] 0.6250 2.3770 3.3100 5.6890 7.7430

ANS4 [88] 0.6240 2.3790 3.3170 5.7240 7.7940 10.2000

QC-P4-11 0.6242 2.3806 3.3158 5.7185 7.8113 1.0160

QC-P3-7 0.6245 2.3807 3.3192 5.7250 7.8084 1.0179

CS-DSG3 [77] 0.5824 2.1513 3.3332 5.1162 7.1483 9.4382

15 Pb2-Ritz [89] 0.5860 2.1820 3.4120 5.2790 7.2630

ANS4 [88] 0.5830 2.1810 3.4130 5.3030 7.2890 10.0950

QC-P4-11 0.5842 2.1836 3.4243 5.3015 7.3235 10.0839

QC-P3-7 0.5846 2.1839 3.4271 5.3073 7.3236 10.1049

CS-DSG3 [77] 0.5775 2.1438 3.5999 5.3124 7.0329 10.0153

30 Pb2-Ritz [89] 0.5780 2.178 3.6570 5.5180 7.1090

ANS4 [88] 0.5750 2.1740 3.6380 5.5340 7.1390 10.4770

QC-P4-11 0.5770 2.1772 3.6633 5.5402 7.1647 10.4951

QC-P3-7 0.5778 2.1779 3.6701 5.5523 7.1646 10.5068

CS-DSG3 [77] 0.5980 2.3111 4.0824 6.2188 7.5023 10.9670

45 Pb2-Ritz [89] 0.5930 2.3350 4.2220 6.4870 7.6090

ANS4 [88] 0.5880 2.3240 4.1260 6.3810 7.6140 11.2240

QC-P4-11 0.5928 2.3358 4.1641 6.4593 7.6462 11.2890

QC-P3-7 0.5943 2.3389 4.1680 6.4830 7.6482 11.2881

CS-DSG3 [77] 0.6363 2.6332 5.2717 7.5684 9.9321 13.3019

60 Pb2-Ritz [89] 0.6360 2.6180 5.5210 8.2540 10.395

ANS4 [88] 0.6130 2.5640 5.3530 7.4600 10.3060 12.9420

QC-P4-11 0.6237 2.6017 5.3948 7.6471 10.3686 13.1511

QC-P3-7 0.6261 2.6097 5.4030 7.6571 10.3826 13.1317

XVIII, the non-dimensional frequency parameters = (a2 2 ) tD are given for parallelogram

plate with two different slenderness ratios ab = 1, 5 and the skew angle from 30 to 60 , which also

considers three different boundary conditions: CCCC, SSSS, and CFFF. For a better view, Figure

17 shows the boundary condition and skew angles on the natural frequency, respectively, in (a) and

(b). For the Figure 17(a), the results with three different combinations of boundary condition are

presented for parallelogram plate with the skew angle = 60 . For Figure 17(b), the results are

presented for fully clamped parallelogram plate with three different skew angles = 30 , 45 , 60 .

It can be seen that a low skew angle leads to a larger growth rate of the frequencies for parallelogram

plates. Besides, the growth rate of the frequencies for clamped (CCCC) boundary is the largest than

that of the simply supported (SSSS) and cantilever (CFFF) parallelogram plates.

4.2.3. Triangular plates. In this section, the performance of the proposed QC elements (QC-P4-

11 and QC-P3-7) for free vibration analysis is tested by a cantilever (CFF) triangular plates with

DOI: 10.1002/nme

QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

( )

Table XX. The first six dimensionless natural frequencies = L2 2 tD of thick

triangular plates with different skew angles (tL = 0.2).

1 2 3 4 5 6

CS-DSG3 [77] 0.5820 1.8779 2.3706 3.8693 4.8877 5.6733

0 Pb2-Ritz [89] 0.5820 1.9000 2.4080 3.9360

ANS4 [88] 0.5820 1.9150 2.4280 3.9840 5.0180 5.9440

QC-P4-11 0.5825 1.9044 2.4115 3.9562 5.0157 5.8904

QC-P3-7 0.5831 1.9074 2.4220 3.9683 5.0298 5.9236

CS-DSG3 [77] 0.5441 1.7537 2.3499 3.5681 4.7392 5.3382

15 Pb2-Ritz [89] 0.5440 1.7710 2.3860 3.6280

ANS4 [88] 0.5450 1.7640 2.4200 3.6080 4.8200 5.4310

QC-P4-11 0.5445 1.7746 2.3942 3.6439 4.8423 5.5096

QC-P3-7 0.5452 1.7777 2.4030 3.6565 4.8565 5.5652

CS-DSG3 [77] 0.5341 1.7573 2.3918 3.5104 4.6891 5.2078

30 Pb2-Ritz [89] 0.5330 1.7720 2.4190 3.5650

ANS4 [88] 0.5320 1.7730 2.4370 3.5910 4.7650 5.3230

QC-P4-11 0.5332 1.7745 2.4277 3.5791 4.7604 5.2766

QC-P3-7 0.5344 1.7784 2.4425 3.5967 4.7835 5.3939

CS-DSG3 [77] 0.5427 1.8795 2.4780 3.6580 4.7406 5.2482

45 Pb2-Ritz [89] 0.5400 1.8850 2.4890 3.6740

ANS4 [88] 0.5410 1.8840 2.5180 3.7480 4.7400 5.2920

QC-P4-11 0.5394 1.8872 2.4957 3.6791 4.6143 5.1383

QC-P3-7 0.5418 1.8939 2.5261 3.7302 4.7937 5.3358

CS-DSG3 [77] 0.5655 2.0801 2.4891 4.0448 4.7230 5.9321

60 Pb2-Ritz [89] 0.5590 2.0590 2.3960 3.5900

ANS4[88] 0.5590 2.0950 2.4830 3.9100 4.5170 5.7630

QC-P4-11 0.5581 2.0570 2.3680 3.5418 4.2743 5.3743

QC-P3-7 0.5611 2.0676 2.4885 3.9668 4.5343 5.8041

various shape geometries; see Figure 18. The triangular plate is discretized into 848 quadrilateral

elements and 848*2 triangular elements. Two different thinkness-to-length ratios tL = 0.001, 0.2

and various skew angles = 0 , 15 , 30 , 45 , 60 are discussed. Numerical results of the natural

frequencies are presented in Tables XIX and XX. To testify the validity of the present QC elements,

the other available results obtained by smoothed finite element method with stabilized discrete shear

gap technique (ES-DSG3 and CS-DSG3) [74, 77], the assumed natural transverse shear strain ele-

ment (ANS4) [88], and the Pb-2 Ritz method [89] are also presented for comparison. For a better

view, the convergence of the first four frequencies is also illustrated in Figure 19.

From Tables XIX and XX and Figure 19, it can be observed that the results of the present QC

elements (QC-P4-11 and QC-P3-7) are found closer to those of the other models and bounded

by the solutions of the ES-DSG3 and CS-DSG3 elements, which show that the proposed QC ele-

DOI: 10.1002/nme

C. WANG ET AL.

Figure 20. Comparison of the first six frequencies of the thin and thick triangular plate with skew angle

= 30 , 60 .

ments (QC-P4-11 and QC-P3-7) work well for the free vibration of both thin and thick triangular

plates.

Figure 20 shows the first six dimensionless frequencies of a thin plate tL = 0.001 and a thick

plate tL = 0.2 with the skew angle = 30 , 60 obtained by different methods. When comparing

the results of the thin plate with skew angle = 30 , 60 , we can find that the growth rate of the

frequencies for the 60 thin plate is faster than that of the 30 thin plate. On the contrary, the skew

angle has little effect on the frequencies of thick plate.

5. CONCLUSIONS

Quasi-conforming analysis is an important and characteristic finite element method, and the basic

idea of the QC method is that the strain-displacement equations are weakened as well as the equi-

librium equations. In this paper, a new formulation of QC method is proposed. The formulation

starts from initial assumed stress of polynomial form, and the strain can be derived according to

the constitutive equations. Then the stress matrix is treated as the weighted function to weaken the

strain-displacement equations. Finally, the string-net functions are introduced to calculate strain inte-

gration. It can be proofed that if the initial assumed stresses satisfied the equilibrium equations, then

no inner-field functions are needed in the process of strain integration.

According to the new QC formulation, two QC elements QC-P4-11 and QC-P3-7 with only

three primitive DOFs at each node are proposed for the linear static and free vibration analysis of

Reissner Mindlin plates. Numerical examples with different geometry and boundary conditions,

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QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

including patch test, are performed and, whenever possible, compared with the analytical solution

and other available results in the published references. It can be seen that both the two QC elements

exhibit good agreement with other elements and are shear-locking free, very stable, insensitivity to

mesh distortions. No spurious zero energy modes are observed for the free vibration analysis for

both elements. In additions, the quadrilateral element performs well even when the element shape

degenerates into a triangular or concave quadrangle.

In the plate bending problem based on the Reissner Mindlin plate theory , the ith stress component

solutions of homogeneous equilibrium Equations (2) can be expressed as

( )

2 Fi0 2 Fi0

Mxi = D +

x2 y2

( )

M 2 Fi0 2 Fi0

= D +

yi x2 y2

2 Fi0 (A.1)

Mxyi = D(1 )

xy

2 0

Txi = D ( Fi )

x

Tyi

= D (2 Fi0 )

y

in which DFi0 is the ith polynomial analytical stress solution, then ith component of matrix C in

equation (24) can be expressed as

( )

x 2 Fi0 2 Fi0

Ci1 q = + dxdy

x x2 y2

( )

y 2 Fi0 2 Fi0

Ci2 q = 2 + dxdy

y x y2

( )

x y 2 Fi0 (A.3)

Ci3 q = + (1 ) dxdy

y x xy

( )

w 2 0

Ci4 q = x ( Fi )dxdy

x x

( )

w 2 0

Ci5 q = y ( Fi )dxdy

y y

DOI: 10.1002/nme

C. WANG ET AL.

( ) ( )

2 Fi0 2 Fi0 3 Fi0 3 Fi0

Ci1 q = + 2 x nx dS + x dxdy

S x2 y x3 xy2

( ) ( )

2 Fi0 2 Fi0 3 Fi0 3 Fi0

Ci2 q = 2 + y ny dS 2 + y dxdy

S x y2 x y y3

( )

2 Fi0 3 Fi0 3 Fi0 (A.4)

Ci3 q = (1 ) ( n + y nx )dS (1 ) x + y 2 dxdy

S xy x y xy2 x y

2 0 2 2 0 2 0

Ci4 q = ( Fi )wnx dS ( Fi )wdxdy ( Fi )x dxdy

S x x2 x

2 0 2 2 0 2 0

Ci4 q = ( Fi )wny dS ( Fi )wdxdy ( Fi )y dxdy

S y y2 y

Substituting Equations (A.4) into (A.2), and note that 2 2 Fi0 = 0, we can see that only the

string-net functions on the boundary of the element are needed in the process of strain integration.

Vq = V1 q + V2 q + V3 q + V4 q qwdxdy (B.1)

q 2 x

V1 q = (x + y2 ) dxdy

4 x

q y

V2 q = (x2 + y2 ) dxdy

4 y

q w( ) (B.2)

V3 q = x x dxdy

2 x

( )

q w

V4 q = y y dxdy

2 y

q 2 q

V1 q = (x + y2 )x nx dS x 2xdxdy

S 4 4

q q

V2 q = (x2 + y2 )y ny dS y 2ydxdy

S 4 4

(B.3)

q 1 q

V3 q = xwnx dS + q wdxdy + xx dxdy

S 2 2 2

q 1 q

V4 q = ywny dS + q wdxdy + y dxdy

S 2 2 2 y

Substituting Equations (B.3) into (B.1), we can see that all the area integrations are eliminated by

each other, and only the string-net functions on the boundary of the element are needed for evaluation

of matrix Vq in Equation (29).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The project was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities

(DUT16LK27) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 11472071).

DOI: 10.1002/nme

QUASI-CONFORMING ELEMENTS BASED ON REISSNER MINDLIN PLATE THEORY

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