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THEGEEKAYWORLDSCHOOL

RANIPET

A ProjectReport

On
PRESENCE OF SUGAR IN THE GIVEN SAMPLE OF
URINE

Submitted by

Dinesh Kumar Karunakaran


Grade XI
2016-2017

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BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report titled To detect the presence of sugar in the given
sample of urine is the bonafide work of Dinesh Kumar Karunakaran, who carried
out the research under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my
knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report.

SIGNATURE

Miss. Sushma.B

Biology Facilitator

TheGeeKayWorld School

Ranipet.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

Dr. Praseedha Sreekumar M.A,B.Ed,Ph.d Ms.Mujeeba M.Com, M.A.,


M.Phil, B.Ed,

The Principal, CBSE Co-ordinator

The GeeKay World School The GeeKay World School

Ranipet. Ranipet

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I first offer my thanks to the almighty who has given me the strength and good health
during the course of this project.

I express my profound gratefulness to my Principal Dr.Praseedha Sreekumar who has


been motivational and inspiring us always.

I also express my gratitude to my Coordinator Ms. Mujeeba who has been always
encouraging and supportive.

I am also thankful to Mr. Sajjath Ahmed, Physics Facilitator, for his continual support,
assistance and encouragement throughout the project. The project wouldnt have been a
reality without his support.

I also thank all my faculty members who were instrumental in the completion of this
project and would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who have been
motivational and supportive towards completing this project successfully.

(Dinesh Kumar Karunakaran)

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S.No. CONTENTS Page. No

1 OBJECTIVE
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2 THEROY
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3 RESULT TABLE
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4 BENEDICT TEST
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5 BENEDICT TESTs SNAPSHOT
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6 FELHING TEST
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7 FELHING TESTs SNAPSHOT
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8 CONCLUSION
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9 REFERENCE
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Objective

Our objective is to detect the presence of sugar in the given sample of urine, using given
test solutions .

1)Theory

A large volume of volatile and non-volatile waste products is produced by different


metabolic processes in the body. Urine is a liquid byproduct produced in animal and

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human bodies. It is produced in the kidneys through a process called urination and is
excreted through the urethra. Urination is the primary method of excreting water-soluble
chemicals from the body.

some characteristics of urine

Normal urine usually has a light yellow colour, due to the presence of a yellow pigment
called Urochrome. Average production of urine in adult humans is 2 liters per day,
depending upon various conditions. The pH of urine varies between 4.6-8 and the
specific gravity of urine varies between 1.010-1.40.

The constituents of urine

Normal Constituents of Urine

Actually, normal urine is a highly complex aqueous solution of organic and inorganic
substances. Urine consists of about 95-96% water. The most important nitrogenous
organic substances present in urine are urea, uric acid and creatine. The other organic
\substances are oxalic acid and lactic acid. The principle inorganic constituents of urine
are sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sulphates and phosphates.

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Abnormal Constituents of Urine

The abnormal constituents of urine are sugar (glucose), ketone bodies, blood, protein and
bile. Ordinarily, glucose (sugar) is absent in normal urine. But when the glucose level in
blood exceeds the renal threshold of glucose (160 180 mg /dl), glucose starts to appear
in urine. The presence of glucose in urine is called glucosuria and is usually an indication
of diabetes mellitus.

Generally the following two tests are used to test the presence of sugar in urine sample.

Benedicts Test
Fehlings Test

In Benedicts test, Benedicts solution is used as the reagent. Benedicts reagent is a


combination of sodium carbonate, sodium citrate and copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate
(CuSO4.5H2O). In Fehlings test, Fehlings solution-A and Fehlings solution-B are used
as the reagents. Fehlings solution-A is an aqueous solution of copper (II) sulphate,
having blue colour, while Fehlings solution-B is clear colourless aqueous solution of
sodium potassium tartrate.

On boiling the urine sample with the reagents, the copper (II) sulphate (CuSO4) present
in the Benedicts solution and Fehlings solution is reduced by the reducing agent,
glucose (sugar), to form a coloured precipitate of cuprous oxide.

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Depending upon the concentration of glucose, green, yellow and brick red precipitates of
cuprous oxide are formed. Below is the table showing the color sequence depending upon
the concentration of glucose level.

Colour of precipitate Percentage of sugar present

Blue sugar absent

Green 0.5 to 1%

Yellow 1 to 2 % sugar

Brick Red 2 % or more sugar

Benedict's Test

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Materials required:

Test tube,
test tube holder,
urine sample,
measuring cylinders,
Benedicts solution and
burner.

Procedure:

1. Take 2 ml urine sample in a measuring cylinder from the urine sample bottle.
2. Take a test tube and pour the urine sample in it.
3. Take 5 ml Benedicts reagent in a measuring cylinder.
4. Add Benedicts reagent to the test tube that contains urine sample.
5. Using a test tube holder, hold the test tube firmly and heat it for 2 minutes on the
burner.
6. Keep shaking the test tube while heating.
7. A yellow precipitate appears which indicates the presence of sugar in urine.
8. Depending upon the concentration of sugar in the urine, either green, yellow, or
brick red precipitates are formed.

BENEDICT TESTs SNAPSHOT

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Fehling's test

Materials required

Test tube,
test tube holder,
urine sample,

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measuring cylinders,
Fehlings solution A,
Fehlings solution B and
burner.

Procedure

1. Take 2 ml urine sample in a measuring cylinder from the urine sample bottle.
2. Take a test tube and pour the urine sample in it.
3. Take 2 ml Fehlings solution A in a measuring cylinder.
4. Add Fehlings solution A to the test tube that contains urine sample.
5. Take 2 ml Fehlings solution B in a measuring cylinder.
6. Add Fehlings solution B to the test tube that contains urine sample.
7. Using a test tube holder, hold the test tube firmly and heat it gently for 2 minutes
on the burner.
8. Keep shaking the test tube while heating.
9. A green precipitate appears which indicates the presence of traces of sugar in urine.
10.Depending upon the concentration of sugar in the urine, either green, yellow or
brick red precipitates are formed.

FELHING TESTs SNAPSHOT

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Conclusion

To understand the characteristics of urine.


To understand the normal and abnormal constituents of urine.
To understand the test to detect the presence of sugar in urine sample.

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