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Designation: C 51 99

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS


100 Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken, PA 19428
Reprinted from the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Copyright ASTM

Standard Terminology Relating to


Lime and Limestone (as used by the Industry)1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation C 51; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original
adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript
epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

INTRODUCTION

Where appropriate, the various terms defined below should be prefixed with one or other of the
adjectives high-calcium, magnesian, or dolomitic. (Examples: dolomitic quicklime; high-
calcium hydraulic hydrated lime; magnesian or dolomitic limestone.)
The composition of a limestone should be given in terms of a percentage of the carbonates present.
In limestone of interest to the lime industry, it is usually assumed that the material consists almost
entirely of carbonates. Where this assumption is not valid, the percentage of noncarbonate material
should be determined, and the composition expressed in terms of the carbonate material present.
This terminology is as commonly used by the industry. For specific application of lime or a
limestone product, see the appropriate ASTM specification.

agricultural limeeither ground quicklime or hydrated lime and physical characteristics and method of processing make
whose calcium and magnesium content is capable of neu- it suitable for one or more of the many and varied chemical
tralizing soil acidity. and industrial uses of the product.
agricultural limestoneground or pulverized limestone DISCUSSIONThe chemical forms of calcium oxide (CaO), calcium
whose calcium and magnesium content is capable of neu- hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesium hy-
tralizing soil acidity. droxide (Mg(OH)2) alone or in combination may be produced either
air-slaked limethe product containing various proportions primarily or as a by-product of materials other than limestone, for
of the oxides, hydroxides, and carbonates of calcium and example, Ca(OH)2 formed by acetylene generation from calcium
magnesium which results from the exposure of quicklime to carbide (CaC2), water treatment sludges, etc.
the air in sufficient quantity to show physical signs of dead burned dolomitedolomitic limestone that has been
hydration (difficult to determine visually in pulverized heated with or without additives to a temperature sufficiently
quicklime). high and for a long enough time to decompose the carbonate
alkaline earth solutions (AES)an aqueous solution of the structure so as to form calcium oxide and periclase in a
oxide or hydroxide of an element of group IIa in the periodic matrix that provides resistance to subsequent hydration and
table, such as calcium or magnesium. These solutions may recombination with carbon dioxide.
be strongly alkaline. See pH. dolomiticindicates the presence of 35 to 46 % magnesium
available lime indexthose constituents of a lime which enter carbonate (MgCO3) in the limestone from which the material
into a desired reaction under the conditions of a specific was formed.
method or process. dolomitic limestonesee limestone.
building or construction limea lime whose chemical and di-hydrated or double hydrated limedolomitic lime which
physical characteristics and method of processing make it has been hydrated under greater than atmospheric pressure
suitable for the ordinary or special construction uses of the and contains less than 8 % unhydrated oxides.
product. finishing hydrated limehydrated lime suitable for use in the
calcareousoriginating from predominately calcium carbon- finish coat of plaster.
ate or one of its derivative forms. finishing quicklimequicklime suitable (after slaking to a
calciathe chemical compound calcium oxide (CaO). lime putty) for use in the finish coat of plaster.
chemical limea quicklime or hydrated lime whose chemical fluxing limea term referring to quicklime used as an agent in
the manufacture of steel or glass.
fluxstonea term referring to limestone (high-calcium, mag-
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This terminology is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-7 on Lime nesian, or dolomitic) used as an agent in the manufacture of
and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C07.08 on Nomenclature.
Current edition approved June 10, 1999. Published July 1999. Originally iron and steel or glass.
published as C 51 22. Last previous edition C 51 98. high-calciumindicates the presence of 0 to 5 % magnesium

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carbonate (MgCO3) in the limestone from which the material magnesian limestonesee limestone.
was formed. masons hydrated limehydrated lime suitable for use for
high-calcium limestonesee limestone. masonary purposes.
hydrated limea dry powder obtained by treating quicklime masons quicklimequicklime suitable (after slaking to a lime
with water enough to satisfy its chemical affinity for water putty) for use for masonry purposes.
under the conditions of its hydration. It consists essentially milk of limea suspension of hydrated lime (or slaked
of calcium hydroxide or a mixture of calcium hydroxide and quicklime) in water in such proportions as to resemble milk
magnesium oxide or magnesium hydroxide, or both. in appearance.
DISCUSSIONThe chemical forms of calcium oxide (CaO), calcium DISCUSSIONThe chemical forms of calcium oxide (CaO), calciuim
hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesium hy- hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesium hy-
droxide (Mg(OH)2) alone or in combination may be produced either droxide (Mg(OH)2) alone or in combination may be produced either
primarily or as a by-product of materials other than limestone, for primarily or as a by-product of materials other than limestone, for
example, Ca(OH)2 formed by acetylene generation from calcium example, Ca(OH)2 formed by acetylene generation from calcium
carbide (CaC2), water treatment sludges, etc. carbide (CaC2), water treatment sludges, etc.

hydraulic hydrated limethe hydrated dry cementitious mono-hydrated limedolomitic lime which has been hy-
product obtained by calcining a limestone containing silica drated at atmospheric pressure and contains more than 8 %
and alumina to a temperature short of incipient fusion so as unhydrated oxides.
to form sufficient free lime (CaO) to permit hydration, and at pHthe negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration,
the same time, leaving unhydrated sufficient calcium sili- which can be greatly affected by temperature, particularly
cates to give a dry powder meeting hydraulic property under alkaline conditions. It is therefore important to mea-
requirements. sure alkaline earth solutions (AES) at a specific recom-
limea general term which includes the various chemical and mended temperature of 25C.
physical forms of quicklime, hydrated lime, and hydraulic quicklimea calcined limestone, the major part of which is
lime. It may be high-calcium, magnesian, or dolomitic. calcium oxide or calcium oxide in association with magne-
DISCUSSIONThe chemical forms of calcium oxide (CaO), calcium
sium oxide, capable of slaking with water.
hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesium hy- DISCUSSIONThe chemical forms of calcium oxide (CaO), calcium
droxide (Mg(OH)2) alone or in combination may be produced either hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesium hy-
primarily or as a by-product of materials other than limestone, for droxide (Mg(OH)2) alone or in combination may be produced either
example, Ca(OH)2 formed by acetylene generation from calcium primarily or as a by-product of materials other than limestone, for
carbide (CaC2), water treatment sludges, etc. example, Ca(OH)2 formed by acetylene generation from calcium
carbide (CaC2), water treatment sludges, etc.
lime mortara lime putty mixed with an aggregate, suitable
for masonry purposes. quicklime sizesthe different sizes depending upon the type
lime puttythe product obtained by slaking quicklime with of limestone, kind of kiln used, or treatment subsequent to
water according to the directions of the manufacturer or by calcining. The sizes commonly recognized are as follows:
mixing hydrated lime and water to a desired consistency. (1) large lump8 in. (203 mm) and smaller,
limestonean initially sedimentary rock consisting chiefly of (2) pebble or crushed212in. (64 mm) and smaller,
calcium carbonate or of the carbonates of calcium and (3) ground, screened or granular14 in. (6.4 mm) and
magnesium. Limestone may be of high calcium, magnesian, smaller, and
or dolomitic. (4) pulverizedsubstantially all passing a No. 20 (850-
(1) dolomitic limestonelimestone containing from 35 to m) sieve.
46 % magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). refractory limelime (usually of a dolomitic type) that has
(2) magnesium limestonea limestone containing from 5 been extremely hard burned so that it will possess little or no
to 35 % MgCO3. tendency for conversion of the oxides to hydroxides.
(3) high-calcium limestonea limestone containing from run-of-kiln quicklimequicklime as drawn or discharged
0 to 5 % MgCO3. from a kiln.
liming materiala general term which includes the various spray limea hydrated lime of such fineness that at least 95 %
chemical and physical forms of lime, limestone, mollusk of the particles will pass a No. 325 (45-m) sieve.
shells, marl, and slag whose calcium and magnesium com- white washa combination of hydrated lime (or slaked
pounds are capable of neutralizing acidity. quicklime), water, and other materials to be used as a
magnesiathe chemical compound magnesium oxide (MgO). paintlike coating.
magnesianindicates the presence of 5 to 35 % magnesium
carbonate (MgCO3) in the limestone from which the material
was formed.

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This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible
technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your
views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.