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Basic Concepts for

Assessing Impacts
&
Methodologies Involved
Dr. Muhammad Anwar Baig
Professor
IESE, NUST
H - 12,, Islamabad

[28-06-2010]
Review: Definition of EIA

Environmental
9 Impact Assessment is
A formal process for identifying:
likely effects of activities or Environment
E i t is
i
projects on the broadly interpreted:
ENVIRONMENT, and on physical, biological,
human health and welfare.
welfare and social.

means and measures to


In EIA, the term
mitigate & monitor these impacts is used
impacts instead of effects
of activities.
What is an
impact?
What is an impact?
p

The impact
p of an activity
y is
a deviation (a change) The baseline
from the baseline situation situation is the
that is caused by the existing
environmental
activity. situation or
condition in the

! To measure an impact, you


absence
b off the
th
activity.
must know what the
The baseline
baseline situation is.
is situation is a key
concept in EIA.
The baseline situation
Water Quantity, quality, reliability,
In characterizing the accessibility
b
baseline
li situation,
it ti
Soils Erosion, crop productivity,
many environmental fallow periods, salinity,
components
p MAY be nutrient concentrations
of interest Fauna Populations, habitat

The components of
Env Health Disease vectors, pathogens
interest are those that
are likely to be affected
Flora Composition and density of
by your activityor natural vegetation,
upon which your productivity, key species
activity depends for its
s ccess
success Special Key species
ecosystems
The baseline situation

The baseline situation is

ble
Water tab
not simply a snapshot.
snapshot
Describing the baseline
situation requires describing
both the normal variability in
environmental components &
current trends in these time
components.t This chart of
groundwater levels
shows both variability
and a trend over time
time.

Both are part of the


groundwater baseline
situation.
Types
yp of impacts
p & their attributes
Direct & indirect
The EIA process is impacts
concerned with
Short-term & long-
all types of impacts and term impacts
may describe them in a
Adverse & beneficial
number of ways
impacts
Cumulative impacts
Intensity
Direction
Spatial extent
Duration
But all impacts are
Frequency
Reversibility NOT treated
Probability equally
equally.
Specifically,
! It is ESSENTIAL in EIA
to focus on the most
significant impacts.

Dont waste effort & time


analyzing and discussing
impacts that are less
important.
What is an activity?
We are discussing the impacts of activities.
What are activities?

9 a desired
An activity is:

accomplishment or
output Accomplishing an activity
E.g.: a road, seedling requires a set of actions
production, or river
ACTIVITY: ACTIONS:
diversion to irrigate market access Survey, grading, culvert
land road construction compaction,
construction, compaction
rehabilitation etc. . .

Approject
j or program
p g may y
consist of many activities
The EIA process

Phase II:
Phase I:
Full EIA study
Initial inquiries
(if needed)

Understand
Understand Scope
proposed activities Evaluate baseline situation
Identify & choose alternatives
Screen Identify and characterize potential
Conduct
C d t preliminary
li i impacts of proposed activity and
assessment (if each alternative
needed) Develop mitigation and monitoring
Communicate and document
Our focus!
Phase 1 of the EIA Process
Understand Screen the Conduct a
Phase I Phase II
proposed activity Preliminary
activity Assessment
Based on the ACTIVITY IS SIGNIFICANT BEGIN
Why is the nature of the OF MODERATE A rapid, ADVERSE FULL
activity being activity what OR UNKNOWN simplified EIA IMPACTS EIA
proposed? level of RISK study using POSSIBLE STUDY
environmental simple tools SIGNIFICANT
What is being review is (e.g. the ADVERSE
proposed? indicated? USAID IEE) IMPACTS
VERY UNLIKELY

ACTIVITY IS LOW
RISK (Of its nature, STOP
very unlikely to have the EIA
significant adverse process
impacts)

ACTIVITY IS
HIGH RISK (Of its
nature, likely to have
significant adverse
impacts)
Phase 1 of the EIA process:
Screen the activity
Screen each
activity
screening
i classifies
l ifi the
th activity
ti it into
i t
Based on the
nature of the
a RISK CATEGORY:
activity, what VERY LOW RISK EIA process ends
level of
environmental VERY HIGH RISK Do full EIA study
analysis is
indicated? MODERATE OR Do preliminary
UNKNOWN RISK assessment

The outcome of the


screening process
determines the next step
in the EIA process
Phase 1 of the EIA process:
Screen the activity

! Each donor agency


and national EIA law
has its own set of
screeningg questions.
q

9 Screening is the topic


off an upcoming
i
module
Phase 1 of the EIA process:
The Preliminary Assessment
Conduct a
Preliminary
y
Assessment The purpose off a preliminary
Th li i
A rapid, assessment is to provide
simplified EIA documentation and analysis
y that:
study using
Allows the preparer to
simple tools
(e.g. the determine whether or not
USAID IEE)) significant adverse impacts are
lik l
likely
Allows the reviewer to agree or

!
disagree with the preparers
Screening determinations
determines whether Sets out mitigation and
the preliminary monitoring for adverse impacts
assessment is
necessary
Phase 1 of the EIA process:
The Preliminary Assessment
Typical Preliminary
Assessment outline

1. Background (Development For each activity it covers, a


objective, list of activities) preliminary assessment has 3
possible findings:
2. Description of the baseline The project is very unlikely
situation to have significant adverse
impacts. (EIA process ends)
3. Evaluation of potential
environmental impacts With specified mitigation
and monitoring, the project
4 Mitigation & monitoring
4. is unlikely to have
significant adverse impacts
5. Recommended Findings The project is likely to have
significant
g adverse impacts
p
(full EIA study is required)
What is mitigation?

Mitigation is.
is . .
9 The implementation of
measures designed
g to
reduce the undesirable
effects of a proposed
action on the
environment

Mitigation is the topic of


an upcoming module!
To arrive at findings:
Identify, Predict and Judge
Arriving at the FINDINGS in a preliminary
assessment requires 3 steps:
1
Identify potential Many resources describe the potential
impacts impacts of typical small-scale activities.
activities

2 Determine which potential impacts are likely


Predict potential
to become actual, and quantify these
impacts
impacts to the extent possible.

3 Judge
J d th the Determine whether the predicted impacts are
significance of indeed significant!
potential impacts THIS WILL OFTEN DEPEND ON HOW
EFFECTIVE THE PROPOSED MITIGATION
MEASURES ARE!
! We only proceed to
Phase II of the EIA process
if
Phase I indicates that
a FULL EIA STUDY
is required

Most small-scale activities do


not require a full EIA study!
Phase 2 of the EIA process:
The Full EIA study
A formal scoping process

The full
Th f ll EIA study
t d has
h ! precedes the study
p y to ID
issues to be addressed
very similar objectives Analysis of environmental
and structure to a
preliminary
! impacts is much more
detailed

assessment. Alternatives* must be

However, the full EIA


! formally defined. The
impacts of each
alternative must be
study differs in identified & evaluated,
important ways: and the results compared
compared.
Public participation is
*includes the project as usually required.
proposed the no-action
proposed, no action alternative
at least one other real alternative
! A professional
f i l EIA team
t
is usually required.
Phase 2 of the EIA process:
The Full EIA study
With a few additions, the Basic steps of the full
EIA study
basic outline of the
Scope

Commu
preliminary assessment is
the template for the steps Evaluate baseline
involved in a full EIA study: situation
s tuat o

unicate & Documen


Identify & choose
1. Background (Development alternatives
objective, list of activities)
Identify and characterize
2. Description of the baseline
potential impacts of
situation
proposed activity and
3. Evaluation of potential each alternative

nt through
environmental impacts
Compare alternatives
4. Mitigation & monitoring
Develop mitigation and
5. Recommended Findings
g monitoring

hout
Phase 2 of the EIA process:
The Full EIA study
y

9 In summary,
The full EIA study is a far
more significant effort than
the preliminary assessment
assessment.

It is reserved for activities for


which screening or the
preliminary assessment
shows that significant
impacts
p are likely.
y
Who is involved in EIA?

Public consultation is usually


S
Sponsor off the
th activity
ti it only REQUIRED for full EIA
(usually commissions/conducts the
EIA) studies.

Regulatory
Reg lator agencies/ However, it is good practice
However
Review authorities for preliminary assessments
because:
Broad-based ppublic
Communities Predicting impacts is
Civil society FACILITATED by broad-
Private Sector based public consultation;
Judging significance is very
difficult without it.
Transparency and
accessibility require
disclosure to stakeholders
Making EIA effective
To be an effective tool
for ESD,
ESD EIA must be: EIA is undertaken early enough
a integral part of the to affect project design
project
p j development
p Mitigation and monitoring
developed in the EIA process is
cycle.
implemented.

The full EIA study must


Honest
H t consider real alternatives
Impacts must be assessed
honestly
honestly.

Transparent & The EIA products must be clear


accessible and accessible to key actors.
How to Find List of Environmental Factors

AIR
PRECIPITATION
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

SURFACE OCEAN
LAND
WATER

GROUND
WATER
List of Environmental Factors

There is
Th i no single
i l approach h for
f developing
d l i a list
li t off
environmental factors. Four approaches have been
useful:
Using various agency guidelines
General knowledge anticipating impacts of
projects
Some kind of listed environmental parameters
Study impacts from other projects
Example: List of Parameters for Laying Gas
Pipeline

1. Land features and uses


i
i- Land
L d use agriculture,
i lt business,
b i industry,
i d t
recreation, residences, wildlife, road, airport etc.
ii- Topography, physiography and geology -
iii- Soils physical and chemical composition of soil
iv- Geological hazards earthquake, slumping,
landslide, subsidence, erosion
2. Species Ecosystems
i- Species general categories, wild life sp., found
in area,
area commercial and recreational significance
ii- Communities and associations dominant plant
& wildlife, population densities
iii Unique resources any unique ecosystem
Mangroves near sea coast, tiger, Chakor in Balochi
List of Parameters ..(cont.)

3. Socioeconomic Considerations
Economic development, with & without project,
population, residences, industries, business etc.
4
4. Air and Water Environment
1. Prevailing climate, quality of air, fog, smog
2. Hydrology and hydrography surface, groundwater,
fresh brackish
fresh, brackish, saline
saline, drainage
3. Air, noise and water quality and effect of activities
5. Unique Features including archeological ,
historical and scenic site & values
Potential Impacts can be Observed

During Planning and Design phase for


e.g.
Impact on land through speculation
Impact of uncertainty on economic &
social attributes of nearbyy areas
Impact on other planning and
provision of services
p
Acquisition and condemnation of
property for project, dislocation of
families
Potential Impacts can be Observed (cont..

Construction phase
Displacement of people
Noise during g construction tucks,, mechinary
y etc
Soil erosion and disturbance of natural drainage
Interference with water table
W
Water pollution
ll i
Air pollution
Damage to wildlife habitat
Commitment on resources cement, steel, wood
Safety hazards
Potential Impacts can be Observed
(cont..
(cont

Operation of a facility Direct Impacts


Noise
Air pollution
Water pollution
Socioeconomic
Aesthetic
Ecology effects on plant and animal ecology
Demand for energy resources
Potential Impacts can be Observed (Cont

Operation of a facility Indirect Impacts


Contiguous land use
Regional development patters
Demand for housing and public facilities Isbd.
Impacts on nearby nearby parks recreational area
Different economic and ethenic groups
Impact on life styles, increased mobility & others
Impact on improved facility of transportation like motorway
and new busses,
busses Daewoo
List of Environmental Factors

Generally four types:


Physical and Chemical
Characteristics
Bi l i l Conditions
Biological C diti
Cultural Factors
Ecological Relationships
I - Physical and Chemical Characteristics

Earth
Mineral, soils, unique physical features, land form
Water
Surface
Surface, ground
ground, ocean
ocean, quality
quality, recharge
recharge, temperature
temperature,
recharge, snow, ice, glaciers
Atmosphere
Climate
Cli t (micro,
( i macro),
) temperature,
t t quality
lit
Processes
Floods, erosion, solution, sorption, compaction, stability, air
movements
II - Biological
Flora
Trees
Shrubs
Grass
Crops
Aquatic plants
Endangered
E d d species
i
Barriers
Corridors
C id
II Biological ..
Fauna
Birds
Land animals including reptiles
Fish
Benthic organisms
Insects
Endangered
E d d species
i
Microfauna
Barriers
B i & corridors
id
III Social/Cultural Factors
A Land Use
Wilderness and open space
Wetlands
F
Forestry
t
Grazing
Agriculture
R id ti l
Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Mining and quarrying
III - Cultural Factors
B Recreation
Hunting
Fishing
Boating
Swimming
Camping and hiking
Picnicking
Resorts
III - Cultural Factors
C Aesthetics and Human Interests
Scenic views and Vistas
Wilderness qualities
Open space qualities
Landscape design
Unique physical features
Parks
P k and d reserves
Monuments
Rare
R andd unique
i species/ecosystem
i /
Historical or archeological sites
III - Cultural Factors
D Cultural Status
Cultural patterns (life
style)
Health and safety
Employment
Population density y
III - Cultural Factors
E Constructed facilities and Activities
Structures
Transportation network
Utility networks
Waste disposal
Barriers
corridors
IV Ecological
g Factors

Salinization of water resources


Eutrophication
Disease insect vectors
Food chains
Brush encrochment
Others
Methods of Impact Assessment

Purpose: one of several is that all environmental


factors are considered and included in the analysis.
Classification of methodology
gy for assessment is
based upon any of the following:

Identification
Prediction
Prediction
Evaluation
Evaluation
Methods of Impact Assessment
Identification:
description off existing environmental systems
Determination of components of the projects
Definition of the environment modified
Prediction
Identification of significant environmental changes
Forecasting
F ti the
th quantity
tit and/or
d/ spatial
ti l dimensions
di i
Estimation of probability that impact will occur

Evaluation
Determination of cost and benefits to user groups
Specification and comparison of the trade offs
between various alternatives
EIA METHODS

Ad-hoc
Checklist
Simple checklists
Descriptive
p checklists
Scaling checklists
Scaling Weighting checklists
Matrices
Interaction Matrices
Moor Impact Matrix
Stepped Matrix
Overlays
Networks
Advanced Cost - Benefit Cost Effectiveness Analysis
y
Modeling
Environmental Impact
p
Assessment (EIA)

EIA iis a process off identifying,


id tif i
predicting,
p g, evaluating,
g, and
mitigating the biophysical,
social and other relevant
social,
effects of development
proposals prior to major
decisions are taken and
commitments made.
Environmental Impact Assessment

A formalized process which attempts to identify


and predict the impacts of policies, legislative
proposals, programs, projects and operational
procedures on the biogeophysical and
socioeconomic environment including human
health and welfare
elfa e and,
and as s
such,
ch also inte
interprets
p ets
and communicates information about those
impacts and investigates and proposes means of
their management.
management
Objectives of EIA

To ensure that Environmental


considerations are explicitly
p y addressed
and incorporated into development
decisions.
To anticipate
i i and
d avoid,
id minimize
i i i or
offset significant effects of development.
To protect productivity and capacity of
natural systems and ecological processes
which maintain their functions.
To promote development that is
sustainable and optimizes resource use
andd management opportunities.i i
EIA: Basic Principles
1. Purposive 8. Adaptive
2. Rigorous 9. Participative
3 Practical
3. 10.
10
Interdisciplinary
4 Relevant
4. 11 Credible
11.
5. Cost-effective 12. Integrated
g
6. Efficient 13. Transparent
7. Focused 14. Systematic