You are on page 1of 160
loading referred to as Mechanical Working of Me 2, sheet metal forming et, are some ofthe processes, In these processes, the metal may be subjected to tensile, compressive, bending or sheur stresses which re used to bring about changes inthe shape. Met range in the process. feformed beyond the clastic and sumericals. ‘The description of each one ofthe processes has been covered with, Each topic has been covered ina simple to understand manner Wi luded atthe end of each chapter for the benefit of the student emphasis on fundamentals. Process text book for 3" semester students, 1g and Welding) writen by the same authors a VTUpreseribed is hoped tha this book also receives the same response and ‘encouragement by the students and the Faculty members. s who taught him the fundamentals of Mechanical his colleagues for their encouragement. He thanks the gathered {rom the industries has helped him in writing this book. The author gratefully acknowledges al the concerned, Readers are requested to send the feed back about the book for fi ‘The author thanks Mr. Madhu of Mls Data Links, Bangalore for prep printing ofthis book, ‘The author also thanks Mr, Nitin Shah & Mr, Srinivasa Rao of M/s Sapna Book House {heir keen interest shown in publishing this book. 9 their endurance and cooperation while preparing the ~ Author August 2010 Dr. K. Radhakrishna Contents eee Chapter 1 : General Principles of Metal Working process a m5ccess LO Basic Concepts L Manufactuing Process 12 13 14 Strain hardening phenomenon 15 Concept of cold work 1.6 Steps in Mechanical Working Process 17 Cast product and wrought product 18 Difference between Cast product & Wrought product 1.9 Difference between Hot working and cold working fons of metal working process Lubrication in Metal working ~ Effect of Mechanical working on the proy 1.14 Variables affecting Metal Forming Process of Metals Zone Geomery ere aI | ‘ | ee Ve | a suogsond) an uonanponuy oF 7 ——— | soultwposroueponpseten ze LL LIL ssadorg Suyjoy ¢ psardey) | dig a : 6s Aquonwuuoyaq = 177 ‘ suonson is psu pu sons ply ss woamog sUONRIRY OCT sojgang HO} ug vosais, swuouodwoo ping usossns pnpisog) LE ep OJeLAL PIR 62 a pon patiey uw sea}Iq NE % rmaonsniajosoucouL gtZ S01 ‘uyens aueyd ur pooy BurFu04 10} uorssaudyg STE w uwonenba signa Bunlog Lz. sor ur840j oueyd 2ur830j oip uado- duns Jo SuBiog pre Oo swueUeAU SsaNg —9I'Z +01 Surfens kmog ere o sossansdiouud pevorsuawcl anu, $12 ror sassaood waiayip u! uormuot0 ume jo uosuedWog Z1'¢ 5 ® aueyd su pue ssans seays umuunxeyy $17 ol BuRojuaoy maw 1¢ u ‘mpd odtound pur ssons jdioung ¢1°7Z or ‘ayons Bu12305 $4 poo} FuIfio} Jo uoNMUDA gre | oF IespayeIng jo aouesywuBis 217 oor Bul8i9) u SION UBISep aig GE & twaisés ssans espayo9g 117 cot auypew Buin, josousuanestyy ge ® exp) aanssaid anmSOIPCHY CZ 6 swaudinbsui@iog yg w Juioo Si! pue SSONS [ENG g2 GZ 6 2uiBi0j wad 9 {(sossans yerreuy, pus jerveig wrens aueyd pur ssons oueyd) 6 sed SurBi0g jug og oP uaura[2 ay uo Zunoe sossans Jo uoneuasuday gz 8 suommadg ZurB0g pg ‘*we]S,9400H pazytessue LZ 8 ‘Bur8104 40) pasn'Npo0} jo sadky, Cre a cy Suos uN TEE i us ssans mop jordaowoy 1'sz “ Surfing yuwg 10 2u2s04 onueyy 40 BuRog PUEH EE 9¢ diysuonyjay urns juonuaxLe;)— wens any ssans yeuonvEAvOD—ssaNS IML, 67 a og osadiy cg +e ‘idaouoo wens ona — ssans omy, yz “ suowndty 7 snap aqsonp 30} axmo uns sans 2 wo suoneuasqo amas Ez u AuGingjouone nm pEsoFEEPY Te x uoneuuojap fse> 30) usno wens ssons jowA, 2 a“ vorenpa ge \ te Seow eee ee x uoneunojap pu uens ‘sag oyuoonpemUy 92 91-94 SuySs0g + ¢ aydeqg ee SL Le sjdosuos ayers - ssang : z 1aydey, 44 Rolls ued forRoling 1% 45 Moral low pattern in Rolling ne 46 Difference between Hot & Cold Roling 47 43 49 410 aut 412 43 aa 415 416 417 Rollradivs 4.8 The Main parameters in Rolling 419 4.20 42i an 423 424 Rollingot str. 425 Manufacture of seamless pipe or tubes 426 Defects in Metal working Worked Problems Que 1S Chapter 5 : Extrusion 5.0 Introduction 79 5.1 Shapes that ean be extded 1» 52 1” 33 179 54. Typesofextrusion Directextrusion i) Indirect extrusion 5.5. Variables involved in extrusion process i) Typeot i) Exinsionratio jon Working temperature iv). Speed of deformation (Ram Speed) or plunger speed ¥). Frictional force 56 Some details on extrusion 87 58 jonship between variables in extrusion types of extrusion processes |), Impact Extrusion i) Hydrostatic extrision Extrusion of brittle materials iy) Tubeextrusion Closed cavity extrusion 59 Metal Fow pattern in extrusion 5.10 Defects in extruded products 5.11 Analysis for extrusion force Worked Problems Questions Chapter 6: Wire Drawing et 60 General 6.1 Drawing Ratio (DR) 62. Stepsinvolved in Wire drawing 63 Workdone in Homogeneous deformation 64 Work forenul 65 Maxim 3 wire drawing 6.6 Expression for possible reduction of area (one pass) in drawing 198 - 217 199 199 200 200 201 203 208 ue oz we a a ea wa ue uz svi we we oe ssaid SuLMoup U1 poo} OL IPL Kuadoud usr OF. ‘uoneynoqea Bupmasp aaissannns.10 BuNMEIP-2y 6, Suunnap ae:onry ‘woperado Sutse1per0aic 10 [evoRUaAUOD. ( Summespas.io duywesp daaq 9d uynesp og panmbat on0g LL Bommpermoy aA 9EL yuejasoons se woneiade Sug 1 Suysesg dog Bupuog uring ECL Supeoqiioy ceL Fmoveyney ee Souudsseays o€ , Bums 6c Buuuopyoong az ssoonid uni Jo Buwoss0qa0Y ZL amid jo Bupuog ausmig 97:4 Supuoquryorazunds 6c, Bupuag ssid CHL Bupeaqeaus cH Funeria poefionnays Lye. Fagus ero urvONE|RO}E SOI HCL um wa CL Bourays ze Suowa IL soo} Wound OTL jooraquorsmyp pea 6r fooywormays gre uo ave sways 0 ue woyenoueg rE one solo} fuming 91", ww uuays uo aountway jo DAN SL Wwe roays yo Fuays oussturypayy VFL ove eee id axppunodiwoy 7E1'. Be aporuis Ere od oor saig gr ut Tuuogwsoaeg ZL at sounsnojo seyeauy PL oe ‘somenafa ypund 2g gtd siz sfuyes 04d 6 siz ssavd v ut siiounsed ag 8, vw sossaid sad Jo UONROHISSEI CL a dd Sug MPH RUS 9 1 = ssaxd usuoneiadg Wz. ado OM [AA WEUS YL we {008 PRN AIS SIEUN CL Iz, Tray weys Jo sod, ZL te OW HYS TL ete away OL 967 - SIZ HOA TRIAL JAYS ¢ { sydeyD uz suonsand) siz soduexg payony pie sossonoud umteyp aga, 219 ue {aurysoo sys eoupu yo Suymesp soon 119 0c uyaeap anu! 2019 Burmesp 0} uolsaudsy OTS 902 ssans Sumnig §9. soe paads Funes 99 sae simepapiuneg 9 746 mm 741 28 748 219 7149 hydrauli forming 28 7.50 Electromagnetic forming 2m ss 2 ae Ss GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF » Index 37 Chapter: Powder Metallurgy 297-316 Te ele MeHaa ees 80 298 : 81 stages of powder metallurgy 208 82 PM technique 299 83 of PM 299 | 84 of components 289 | Contents 85 Is 300 | 8.6 Sequence of PM technique 301 “10 Basic Concepts; 1.1 Manufacturing Process ; 1.2 Classification of Manufacturing 861 waders 301 | Process ; 1.3 Clas f Metal working methods ; 1.4 Strain aa phenomenon ; 1.5 Concept of cold working ; 1.6 Steps in Mecha 303 rocesses ; 1.7 Cast product and wrought product; 1.8 Difference between Gast & oti deposition 300 p eh oogonia a Wrought product ; 1.9. Difference between Hot wo 303 1.10 Advantages and Limitations of metal working process; 1 303 | jonin Metal working; 1.18 Etfect of Mechanical working onthe 862 303 | 86.3 Compaction of powder 308 i efor nety; 1.17 Workabily of 853.1 Methods of Compaction 305 gg ee kala metals ; 1.18 Work gtam (WLO); 1.19 Residual stresses in Wrought product; Ques type. 864 313 865 3i4 is ) ore Ae ajo! SuoIsUaWIp UKs ‘aun quis odeys eouputyAo w Supyeus ut panjonuy sda ap pur feuereus eked OU St 1204s 21044 1 uorsuouup umoury so odeys > ‘onding) onpaxd so dans avodwen paysiuig — *snoueA 4 puw (Ssouprey “yu 2 uo pase) noo "uftoy pue sreurep) 22s (eoupun Ko) adeys amuyEp e se (duexa soy cwonoury pte saniadoxd sn0109 ‘2a ‘adeys 2quyop# my onposd y onpoud 24 S801 pauex uevodwo poystuH ayy or yee ‘ne 3A Jo wo|sseAu09 atp Buyxoxuy Uonesedo das 4g dovs v1 ss2o0ud SuuMIDe;MU HY sseoold BuymoeynueW tL ‘g0mn0s ‘@2u9 ewe Sujsn fq Kpuaueutad pauiof axe sonoid axou 30 oma sseoaud SumUHOG a4 uf ) $usBs0g 10 Bayou 40 Buns2 oy sda smoysaid wos) pauvergo rei aes ap tos JoLonts Jo yexouses sanjonut Bunanyooyy (E) -adeys w 2€uey> ay moge Fung 0} 2030} feusarx0 Jo asn sayous pue uo}staAUoD 94) 305 Sdo}s as0U 20 0a soagou ysdaxs snoNAaid ayn WOH PaurERgO 08 apis “a9 sag ‘Sioo}g ‘OBUt se yon sjenaHeu! wes Jo asm sayEW ssooard BumuLO| ;puo oy) pauinbas ag feu Surunyseus wos ‘dars uo wt ronpoud pauaauos un sjeuoyeu ay U01x0 yuEDU RUBS Au or Butsseonid ArepudDes saop yy uowerado dais fuss ut weuodwion au yo Sutdeys oafoaunsasseocud Bunaios aise ity (P) 3B WT Woa Waa ‘wsa + sassan0xd Sumeig 6 ‘Bojouyoay, Buopiog « Bunyom anstid seat mmaurags » | Amey ysoydxg won SOUS uo « sapnog © Juoiong‘sasana1d Bupron IV & Sufi « Suse « Buwor Buyms0g | Summnoy sea © Buydnorp jesouag - sossso01d BuMPEyNUEL > sono pion rn so soiioug ys0u29 9p Us Yooq sup passnasip ase sassaoad 94, ‘pO Uonrusrorap au, rau aq) wHO}ep oLeunssox (Cor ss sioirivo0 -sund'spuag‘sdno)szaigo panonioa says 0 sxueq Zonpoud oy, = Buoy eeu ways “a sodid ‘say ‘sng spouaonpond 0}, - Bunty Jo spor pu sing aonpoud of - uopsnanyg, “avavodwo> pads ‘toquiat joumonss pue siaays "ered “sqU sp poussej9 are yea Jo Bupjom reoqeyoou ay yeiaued wy rou ay Jo (S.A) wBuans prot, otp ue tears st yetew ayp wt paonpuy sassang “spoU yeoyuryouu se pou} st seuuews po|fosie09 ® wt lou 2tp Bulwsojap jo poyrew y“Peo| ayy se paxiom ‘ss90014 BUD ON pur samiedaid jeu {ssanoad BupfioM jeoHUEYDI]Y,, 20 SEP JO BUPHLOA, feoqweypayy,, se uous} uoreunojap ansrjd Jo Ssanoid SIA, “asayp Jo UONEUTg NICD e 40 PEO} ays "peo 2]}su0 “pr onssaidus0o Susn ino pause aq Ker uoMEUMOJap oNseIq “adeys or Ise seuooaq pu sasrainep osye uonewiojap 40; pasynbas A8rou 21p pure umop sauto9 wwod psi a4 Jo iGow ayp paseaiou S| jrew oy} Jo aanmesadwia ayy sy “auntexedwar yo uortounye st Kuradoxd IBY LSI YOU PRO] pIeLk umoUy w sey ferou y>HA “TBHOMEUI a4p JO Pro} PIPE ‘1p anoge s sia 30} pasmbas proj ay ywiaus 249 u sinoqUoS Aressanau ayy ange Bulsq O1pase St {wonsazosep onseyd) wonewiojap wourwuiod nage Rusa Jo Kem sty, “(oBues apse) ues nse puokaq ‘2010 jeuranxe 40 aauenjur Mn sapuR wHOyap Jo ainys ut BUEN OBrapun SpE {Ly sydeouovoiseg OL IW = #899014 Bumaeynueyy ‘The product has to conform to certain condition generally cal involve specifying the material of the product, its shape, size, co In this book different methods used for the conversion of met discussed. 1.2 Classification of Manufacturing Processes. Different types of Manufucturing processes are 1. Casting 2. Forging 3. Roling 4. Extrusion 5. WireDrawing ~ 6. Welding 7M 8, Powder Metallurgy 9. Shee! metal forming 10. Blow moll Manufacturing processes can be classified mainly as ng (all machining operations) et. cess which do not depend on other processes for ing, Powder Mes stie technology. ) Secondary Manufac fe : Hete the raw material obtained by other processes is further processed to get the final component. Ex: Forging, Extrusion, Machining, Joining ‘The other classification could be ') Chipless manufacturing route - Here no removal of the material takes place in shaping, Ea: Casting, Sheet Metal Forming, Joining, {Chip formation manufacturing route - Here chips are generated to shape the material. Ex: All laste rial is displaced and deformed to get the desired shape. Forging, Rol ‘working wire drawing ete, ares Modern Forming Route: {nthe modern forming methods explosive forming, electromagnetic forming, electro hyde forming fll under tis grou Insubsequent chapters different forming me 1.3 Classification of Metal working Methods loads are applied on the metal for deformation (Change in dimensions) as already bring about the necessary shape. Loads ean be applied wr levels. Based on the temperature ofthe metal dring deformation process formin; ae classified as a) Based on temperature ld forming oF Cold working ii) Hot forming or Hot working ‘Warm forming or Warm working To define the type of working based on temperature, a refere Re-Cryst ses of Hetat Working process growth resultingina change in the microstructure. Infact, the gr ructure becomes finer. is easy to work the metal above RCT, RCT is a function of the melting point of the metal. In ‘general the RCI fon the nature ofthe met lue is approximately 04-05 times the me RCT depends Hot working is defined asthe plastic deformation of metal carried out above RCT. (Cold working is defined as the pl ‘Warm working i the pl ‘temperatures. ie deformation of me! ic deformation of metal metal carried out below RCT carried out in between Hot and Cold working ble 1 Melting point of Typical metals and alloys Elements Symbot Melting Point Degree Celsiu Aluminum Al 659 Brass (85 Cu 15 Zn) Gus Zn ‘900-940 Bronze (90 Cu 10 Sn) Cus Sn 850-1000 Cast ron, C+ Si¥Mn+ Fe 1260) Chromium cr 15, Copper cu 1083 Gold Au 1063, Fe 1530) Po 327 Mg 670 ai 1452 Ag. 961 Cr+ Nie Mn+ 1363 Cr+Ni+Mn+C 1353 Cr+NitMn+C 142 Low Carbon Cr+Ni+Mn+C 1464 Tin Sa 232 Titanium Ti 1195 Tungsten Ww 3000) Zinc Zn 419 “o¥9 pag - 7 “puEq = x 2Ip 2 pue Ypund a4p UoOAIag ssaHIs FuIpUdg uoyew ax Yeiow ay adeys 01 puog ¥ UoAFs 2g 01 st ae4d 40 130s w Uy, ssons Suipuog “f 01 parafans Saw oan aC By 4 (o0a1d 10%) 1eg ssmoys az" Big “uorssaxdi0s ‘ouput st su. “ssanns anSsaudioo aouauadxe >on tp ‘sip ayy Jo 208s auton ayy ~pasn 1 aas0} Ind e ydaoxa ‘2noge ay 1 W Buynesg aun Sumoig am (a jg uorssaxdwoo denpur st stu, ssavoug uoysnaneg vet hg ipoud ou 7 uoRLod pauiour ay we 201d Yon auton s2auouadxo anaidyyow ou aureu0g Suiuado arp ayp yo N01 ro ano aoaydiow yp saysnd worst v0 aun y oe 3 ‘pasn s} puta auo ye fusuado oa os ‘urBranuooeaquoo mJ eoUpUE KO GAA ois worsny eg ‘worsmupyg (0 sans ‘nrssaiduioo roanper eououedso avoid som aug sasseo0ud Zupseup ail pee woIsnMg UT ‘ssoans aatssoadwoo yoaaypuy *Z 2atssandwioo Tastp 01 panalgns st oatdyi0%/qeou yp Peo} an Kidde 0 pasn axe saiq suoHsaup wonog pur do ipoq wou possoud sei 24, (09144100) ie] — fT seat surtion nes sorting rere yoy (4 ‘pauuojp st jusyew au pur pre pue z-] wou Ssans ayssaiduso> aouDLiodx 90nd YOM SUL, x9 BUT HOM Jo SSOUy-TYT = 1 sra120 01 siaqioy ain yo stawuaa are ‘9°09 tow aun Jo sereuerg = q peor ansseiduog Bumioy (0 tofssaxdutoa 29aup aouoyodya void om ain 2arf304 pu Buoy “ay sasszoaxd urea ‘unon sessats yo umeu 2p uo paseq pausseo aq wed sosseonud BunysoM jOHUEKDOyY ‘arssozdutoo pur ast puiquioo 20 Jeayg“Surpuag ay suay, “onyssoudinoa ag Kew uonewojep Bujsnao sassans Jo ad41 aU, "pomSse|o are spores Sunws0y 241 ABupoooy ‘Tew e4p ul sossans nogE BuUg sped} asa “Pasn ave spe Jo sada Tu=saYP “sip a04 "pasn 29 1 sey peo yeusonx 'sKojesteraUr ul aoeyd ay or woREANO;Op oNseId JO ‘uoneuts0y9p arsed sassanns yo addy, 1 ‘uopewiojep 404 pasn sassauys uo paseg (2 erp aip Jo Auzadosd sp 2sn “one Sunn ‘fueyo wwoueuued ovapun 03 ouarew o4p JO A . you ou 30 Auzadoad sup asn “oy BusBh0y ‘sIadyS UNA Jo Bunfor 2x] -SayS UN O1U! UrseNp 9q on feLATEW a Jo AaytgE ap Sty = KyNadoad INGEATEW, yerew 21p 30 Auadoud sau yo Sumesp 1g "S211 up O14 umesp 2g o}feNoTEU! aM Auradoad Ayynong, 9 9 2q 02 fea.eU! 330 Auge a raw ox yo Aodoud s pur Bunsed xq ~y1se9 pinby on plyos wou Banyo 0} jearens Jo 40 988 Jo aBuny aun yas sjeap reUpferaw ax Jo Ayadoud ayy st a 9q ued ssoooad Suramoesnucur 34} “feu ay) Jo I8U {ps9 ysxod 4 uppom eoyueypausarang “p30 3sNOWE tomposd oi, y ‘palaje a8 sures “aamonaas wresd ‘ounionns ponuao30 suonoap any esionpoxt ogy, “¢ WP! wO;IUN aney IMm L9NpOLd aL “E suonoautp auosoyjip ul, quos94gIp 228 sansadosg uniew ui aidosiosiue st yonpoud ou ‘auiyeu u domes] st ronposd au, peouryue ave santadorg ‘sonuadoxd oyna reuon2aiip 2xey ya ionposd 1y8nom ayy, °Z_ semadoxd usopun ancy pm ionpoud seo ay], 2 -uonesado ‘uonesodo Suyurypeus o8sopun Kew spiny 01 parafgas 99 Seu 3 -adeys oy ronpoud ase ayy, “dows au0 ur waUod0s 128 01 unyiom yeousysou 30 poy jeworx> _ a4pjo-deyspauinbox op 19 ora pros OL © euatew ayy Zunoafgns Kq paurergo s] “1 [BAW pinby Jo uorsonuo9.H9 £4 poUrENGOS| “1 ‘onpoud ayBN0I 4 onposd 1803) yonpoid yyBnowm pue yonpoid yse9 uaomyoq eoualoWi gL uppon eoueysau 0 anp papa 98 2a} IIL, « "molJ [B19U JO woRaLIp oun ui sanvadoxd sayS1y SMOYS FeUAIEUN ay, ¢ . srafe] jaw ap woenteg 1 Bun suosryour jo sousaad ou 1 ap aze yo SOUT MOY. MOUS Ta BUTEW gL & “uoranp sejnoqued B UI poyoions ae sums OWL & 2 onpond 01 Jo SopSUEIEIEND 10m oH Jo syeloug [e18U99 pawiojap st yew ei, adeys paxinbas ay 128 01 BuIYL0M junaafgns q peureigo wavodwos ayy 01 Sagas ionpod 1yZNOIN ss200ud 8u1za04 2uyajoaus uonriodo dais uo # wt paonpord st i prjos oy yeI2u pynby Jo uorss0xu09 Ka) fouoduwos 24p 0% staja1 yonpoad we) yonpold Bom pueyonpoidiseg—Z'b Froqueypauu 01 pIaU 2k annoy Suny Suimoys uoy9 Word ZBL sora. = = uy>1 fi once cons cerns pe 1 a oure /? ae Ne ee eee Sus6105 Guo My swooja —rpayoy—> siaig > seg —> son, Ma payou Pane sse001d¥owon 00" osexosz= sBunseg js poeuinje — yofy .pateop —SPIMOW eva’ aoeuing Wien ios pin SuNayy £7 Big ur myo oy Surmoyog an Aq pooysropun aq ued ssanoud aiaydusoo ayy ‘yeiaw yo uoneuoyop anse|d pajjosuo>.axoaut ssoooid Bunysom [eau 30 Bupo4 FeAUEYDO]A nofgo. 1y 8198 0140 syfFuo} Zuo} ut (6°9) uoHdag SsaxT jeounaWORs sHINBaH D198 01 possa204d | $400} waUEdwog jeuy ayn a Jo} 0a, waUadwio> ajerpounoru! 40 wouoduroo paystuyj ay) 98 o1sano4 BurIOg 10 aINO Bumjow unos soytre pamojjoy aq wea ssanosd ayy, sassan0xd SupqI0M atp Jo Aue YBaown Bury0Mm Jratueypou of prnafqns voy st yoru ioBur Jo Suryeun xa wos sues ssaD0ud BupyrO¥ a, 800014 Bupjiom reojUEyooN UI Sdag gt ‘ssopoid Bupjiom (eoweysou ur sdays SusuSisop ayy purus w! wiog 29 01 sp20U ‘ste peo} 21swer 22pun Suryi0% pjoo oF parsalgns oq ueD [eat tp tn exo Guoegnnyy gg 2 Manutacturing Process 1.9 _ Difference between Hot working and cold working Assume same grain structure (size) at the start Hot Working 1. The metal is subjected to mechanical 1 working above RCT. 2. Uniform fine/equiaxed grains are obtained. 2, 3. Properties are uniform in any direction, 3, 4, The component . 5. Bnergy required for deformation 5 6. Nostrain hardening takes placein the metal, 4 7 8 8. in nature, I be isotrop Large components can be hot worked easily. Surface oxidation occurs, scaling present and surface finish is poor. tbe 9. Pores are minimised and inclusions get 9: redistributed, 10. The cap working I. Needs extra equipment forheating of metal, 12, Handling of hot metals ifiule 2 he equipment for hot 10 Cold Working The metal is subjected to mechanical ‘working below RCT. Elongated columnar grains are obtained, Properties are higher in a particular than the other. ‘The component will be anisotropic in nature, nergy required for deformation is more. Strain hardening takes place Only small components can be cold worked, ‘Surface oxidation is less. Scale formation is less. Surface finish is good. Pores and inclusions cannot be taken care of toa great extent. ‘The capacity of the equipment required for Does not need such extra equipment Handling of metal is not very diffic 1.10 Advantages and Limitations of metal working process ‘Advantages Product with consistent high qu Defects such as porosity & diet Inclusions gets distributed ev Large tonnage can be eas The process can be eas! produced, ’ . ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ed mech Limitations 4 The product becomes highly anisotropic can be manufactured ies are very much mi se. throughout the product. Grains ae oriented in a particular direction and directional properties are obtained nature. 1% Jing ofthe wrought product except in the case of investment machinery for metal working process. Hence i high. tions are tobe exercised as hot metal and additional equipments are used, 1.11 Friction in Metal Working Frictional forces are developed between the work piece and the tool is very diffe measure in increasing the load required for deformation, The friction between the work piece and the tool give rise to shearing stresces along the contact surfaces a P= normal force f= friction force H= coeff. of friction wi ped (LD ‘The value of "Wis dependent on the nature of material, surface roughness, temperature de velocity Friction increases with an increase inthe relative motion In order to fiction, lubricants are used I {facilitate shaping the object with less dificulty tal working process a Lubricant wi 1.12. Lubrication in Metal Working For the successful operation of metal deformation, proper Lubrication is very important. A it should separate the contact surfaces. Ths will ensure uniform deformation of Unnecessary rubbing of surfaces are prevented or reduced tool velocities. It tacks from surfaces, It should be ind contaminants. I should be non-toxic, free of fire hazards and must be inexpensive. should easily spread and wet bi (a ewoyop Jo aunsvousw o woop) ‘paods umouy w 18 pao Bulag st eraus ayy se 24 U1 poonpur Sy ue YoIyAs 38 ones 94 St omy ureang (H ‘apse salu09aq [ei9Ul Jo uorTeunOaqa|Jos Sowtonsq M1 PasCasoU St [IU p Jo aumesoduta ayy se ‘jews waatd v 20) Kp ump URNS Sans ay WOH pod 2amgosaduny r38 wosy-sany fo uowmA TET re dwar wy ese2s0u, * pasearour aq 1M atau pus peo} jeuionxa 247 Jo aoun|jut ay) Japun yeLovews ap ut azeyd axe lium soBueyy “Creroduen st wonewiojap 2p 919} ~ (GAA) MONEMLOJEC INSEL aAISSIOKG ¢t 3 Kew sje Jo wonetssogoq ‘jeu yo Supjuo% jeoqeypous se pou st yew aut ‘v0 Suypeoy suy,Burproy jeusarxs ayp Kq mnoge ayBnoxg s erew w ss2003d UOREELIOJaP ayy SieeWJO UOREUUOJEC SL"L ‘armanuns wes asim09 uy s2isej wapsey wNENS surei8 ouig-wueuraxoun vone20}sip awepowuooce wea sure 2B] 2mm 18 aut 1 paredwoo 8 pauiojep Ajtsea aq ue sure sie0 ‘uonteuojep [eiow 2ouanyU! Oste axmaNs UID, I ss80003 6unumoeynuen a pp tantcturing Proce = ‘which takes into account the thickness and Length of deformation is used. This the yield pressure, During mechanical working process, there will be some poriion of will not be undergoing deformation and this portion is referred to as redundant 1 out successful deformation, the rato of pressure applied to the Yield Stress (3) in pure shear sues given by (M4) has oe inresed 4=, | Beformation engin | 72 © a8 Deformation Zone geometry is used forthe Purpose. Deformation zone geometry (A) & yield pressure are related, Yield pressure increases with A and redundant work As A increases the die pressure increases, UAV, iis es, greats the effect of ftom athe too work imei | Heavy ! | Forging | sion Pe K = YS in pure.shear (Ze) = Yield pressure ' i aa : poe (See Dependence of yield pressure on Deformation zone geomety for frtones pane strain condo, 4 Increase in (24 .) with is chiefly the esl of increasing edundant work 6 Die presureincreates wit ¢ Smaller the vale of great Internal racks develop as tes vatuesof a=, yrease in A value Genera Principles of Metal Working process ay fracture fracture is may be considered tobe a function of 1) Fracture resistance viz, ductility ofthe materi perature, strain rate, ishigh the material can be mectaically worked with ease. ion between the metal & the die used which influence deformation 10 a ction, The die geometry or workpiece geometry geometry can be easily obtained whereas complex improved as the tempature of working is decreases and vice versa. of metals. But upsetting of a cylindrical specimen rate conditions comes closest tothe standard acceptable one. ks in metal working process can be grouped as i) Cracks ata fie surface, as in a buige in upseting a ylinder & i rin edge eracking in 8 and compressive strains at Fracture, ighs this, renpisas paonpoud rey sd Jo uonsaup oy 01 asoddo 2q Mm (uoRERDIO}eP snoeuaSowoyut 0: anp) yerou aup w paonpur sossan aun29o sey uorew0}ap snoauaZowoyu “1224S ay Jo s01U99 ay IF SsaNs 5 pu aogins aun we ssans aasasduson yy wo ° sioq sang ous ala UL sulens 1g) __padovenap sessong vorod sowwag asouy pIsoy., SP 01 pasajes aut sassans asayy UOIp A Ul sas ‘Danoutas axe suo} jews ax pur pauierqo st eau ay wy adeys paxtsap aud Jo 3un440N [Po|UPYDAAL JO [Lew JO LoHEULO}Ap ayp Jo UoRa|EwOD ayy “FUP OM {0 uorajduioo ayy saye uous aya wy Sassans Jo aauasaid axn ov amp sronpoid 1yBno4m U] Sossens lenpIsey 6L"t- stone mur] mons ce" Seg ens anisseiduiog, ‘wrens oyeueL 62 sssoo1d supnion sit 40 eoiioung rrsue9 canoe ota oxo 99 eo Mederpoyeys2q ura yd sonst woneougn| smbat .p. s910WRIp Wo} .G, JeIeWHEIP Jo pray e UNoJ Of, 1 1g) ,q, s21euHeIp Jo pray w oy 198dn Uwompusojap ayp Aq ano panes yird axp wou powuwoiap as s\pnd wens ayy * paroafgns pue! wo paonyd are spu8 pue uoye au yy amd Jo pea autonse(d row Yo faux soynya pouwiaep 29 uno syped ureng ted ssan0ud tL, 1 aumoeay ann se pasn si drysuoneyau sty nsiong mur) Gmgoqoy 121 Bd Bumasdn, tens ausu9] rpuaeyd IN Ss02014 Bupmoeynueyn a tantra Proc - Residual stresses are only elastic stresses. The maximum value it ean reach is yield steng of the mate ‘Components with residual stresses can be stress relieved ata predetermined temperature, Even non uniform heating oF cooling can produce residual stresses inthe same way wes non Uniform plastic deformation. Residual stresses can be estimated by destructive tests. However, x-ray analysis can be used for the purpose. QUESTIONS General Principles of Mechanical Working Process 1.1 Define Mechanical working process 12 Withasimpl Jin mechanical working process 1.3 How are Mechanical working processes classified ? 14 Give thee n of Manufacturing process. LS Differentiate between cast product and wrought product. 1.6 What are the advantages and limitations of metal working process. 1.7 What parameters influence metal working process ? Explain briefly. between Hot working, Cold working and Warm working, 1.9 What is RCT? Clearly explain, 10 Explain the effect of friction in metal deformation ‘What are residual stresses in wrought product. inhardening phenomenon, 13 Explain the concept of cold working. fe between Ingot, Bloom, Billet, Slab, Plate & Sheet clearly. ‘metal working im clearly the effect of mechanical working on the properties of the metal lowchartex GoneralPrinciplas of Metal Working p 18 19 110 a) d Lu La ua La 1s Lie 17 Lis 99 is Objective type of Questions Answer according to each question wolves deformation of metal under external force beyond elastic range below elastic range. YesiNo Yes/No ‘TruelFalse andis used as ‘True/ False Yes/No Brittle metals canmot be mechanically worked RCT is a function of melking point of met ‘The five important mechanical working process are 1) 24 4) and 5) Identify the nature of stresses used for Rolling b) Forging ¢)_Extrsion Drawing e) Blanking )_Stretch forming ‘Strain hardening of metal shows more and more forthe extemal fod. By cold wor mechanical properties can be improved. ‘True / False Increase in Hage cold working increases hardness of metal ‘True / False Match the following Item ‘Typical CS. Dimensions a) Ingot i) 40x40mm by Blooms Width = 100mm t> 4m Width = 100, thickness 25 Width = 100, thickness < 4mm 150% 150 mm 250 250 mm 8) Sheets 200x200 mm 4) Plates d reuoew aug (9 ssej6 > euarew 2qnonp AIpLI. (q [eustew ajnonp éysigy (e 2 181g pry Ww Sv amupwinyy sie Jo uonerwasaidas oomydes? y SOAIND UIENS-SSANS oIDyIG z SSO WOH LT tani ate soxino urea ssans is Yiu paretoosse s0;9e) 344, uoyout Ke 404 "wo pond s1ssang *mojoq woat@ s12nano ures - sso Marajip sydesSozed Buyo}}05 ay) uy poxpmas 9q 01 spaau ut ‘ows1nad aq ot spaou a4 ures-ssans Jo aumeu 4) seo “ot9 Uoreuniogep onse/d Jo uoporpasd ay soy pasn 40 Sadi syeot yo diysuoyejay wrens s200ud B40 ns UOAIB OU), Xjpeonse|d raw 2p ‘sj Jo 3ur4z0m jeotueypou uj Boo rg st ‘Appanpadsay g UIs 2 pur g $09 2 “'o ‘o aye $255 Sutpuodsauios ayy pur ora BUS IP + 08001 + "P= fp yd ayn uo sate enue 20 (ewozuoy ons put sueid 24 wo 2014 puso 40 eosen suo ont passes oq ue> jp. a0) aul oOvaH ye _ocw _ pusas 6a OFF n wo = 2 Buoy 9 us'jp = = Buoqeg 80 ‘fp suomaup 2 pue x uoqe Pososr 99 uno fp usta “e+ op of roodsu a, 208} Mn Jo woRDUTBN 9p 819 I 2 pur “o swauodwoo ows sty uonses sso uaa & uo Bunoe sss aro, yeoeyp = jo vare ey) 01 jayosnd 2 = YP «a ‘$19 Jo Bare ay} 01 ja % nm ty = oe 92) uonoonp -«Bunpe-"o = YP : Pon wo~ 9 = POP soca sy Lp, a a yBnony Burssed soxe aouatojou ayn aq 2 pue C19] ‘p09 ures 249 sapisuca uresy seouof fo mouodweg yt 3g a x Manutacturing Process 2) Linear elastic - perfectly plastic material g) Linearly Fig, 2.5 Different stress-strain curves ic- Non linearly p 2.2 Typical Stress-Strain Curve for Easy Deformation important to know that efforts are to be made to make ly. The forming figures. illustrate the typical features a In mechanical working of met to undergo deformation e: -€ curve should have to achieve ths. Foreasy deformation ofthe material, the characteristic of stress-strain curve are given below. 1. Stress - strain curve should have lower yield point al to ‘The load required for deformation is directly props the yield point. Hence, if the yield point is high, higher load is as required and lower the yield point of the material, lower is the oad | //*? required for deformation. The material with Lower Y.P can be easily shaped. As shown in the Figure 2.6, curve 2 has the lower yield __ point as compared to (1). Hence, mat is easier to deform. € Heating ofthe material reduces yield pointand lowers thestess Fig. 2.6 0-€ Curve for level. Hence, itis easier to deform the heated material easy deformation 2, Stress - Strain Curve should have gentle slope ‘The stress strain curve should have lower gradient. It means the stifness of the material must be low. ‘As shown in Figure 2.7, material (1) has lower slope as compared to (2) and has less stiffness. Hence, material (1) is, easier to deform. Stress - strain curve, with, owe have gentle slope. Gentle slope needs lesser lower rate of loadi sradien E rateandhence Fig. 2.7 Slope of o-€ Curve 8 3. Stress-strain curve should have larger elongation behaviour —*O ‘A material with larger elongation will undergo more deformation without undergoing fracture, and it is extremely easy to shape the material. As shown inthe Figure 2.8. materi ger elongation as compared to material (2) H material (1) can be easily deformed, Pg, 2.8 0-€ Curve with larger elongation sess Stain Concepts Some materials undergo steain hardening which means higher toads are for deformation and more resistance is offered by the material. In the Figure 2.9 the strain hardening portion is represented by region 1-2. Ifthe slope of I-2 is high, strain herdeni is more andi becomes difficult to deform, By heating ican be softened and strain hardening is eliminated, Fig. 29.0-¢ showing strain hardening 2.3 Some observations on stress-strain curve for ductile metals Consider a ductile metal subjected to uniaxial loading and the stress-strain curve is plotted. 'o figure 2.10 it can be observed thatthe Hooke's Law is obeyed upto some yield stress 4 (o,). Beyond A the metal deforms plastically. The metal tends to strain harden inthis region (4B), Therefore higher stesses are required to bring about more strain in the met Beyond point ‘A° ion between stress and strain Elastic «+ Plas an amount = (9). Te ditference in stain the Figure ig. 2.10 Residual Stain ible elastic strain. A smal * * (€,~€) isthe recov smount ofthe the nature of metal and perature. This phenomenon is referred to us “anelastic behaviou If the material after loading to point B is unloaded the path traced out will be form B to C and it will not be linear as shown in the Figure 2, Now ifthe material is reloaded it wil follow the Linear Path CD and tends 1 bend as it approaches the original valve of stress corresponding to B, from which unloading has taken place. the stess strain curve becomes a continuous path CDE and point E will bea point ofthe stress o strain curve OAB. ic OABE, asi no unloading had taken place. r as “Hyster Fig. 2.11 Hystersisin 0-€ Curve phenomenon is referred 5? a 7 ony 74 ang andy, uno mous ononnanueg says muorwoaueg 912 “Se g : Sssaung reuonuasu03, Z pur cre fla segs swoys 12 By se) aofog uownoods ¢12 Bay © sidaoveg wens - ong ae ss mp u} soipan pur ps 1 jPUOAUAANOD - SsaNS UOHTUBAUOD amp UO! nba ast soit utes wos AA parronsiydos paau sanyea wrens onn pur ssans anat ~ Ssang Buyoaufug $e 01 pauayat os{e st wlpns yeuonUaAuoD - ssanIs yeu < 1 \i6u9|jeui0v0= bua} a6ne6 ide Suyeourua ayn Jo Kuo 10g reason Su Aton soxer fago ing “diysuon uaAuioo ay, ENS IMAL. ‘wets es] eave snouejueIsu! au Uet A PEO} feulanXe , ve 9 tanrnctring P2008 can be seen from the plots of o~ € for convention stress - conv strain Fig. 2.16 and True Suess - True Strain Fig, 2.17 curves that True ous increase. The True Stress + than cony stress values as the decrease in diameter Fig. 218 6,~ 6, and ©, € curves ‘2.5 True - Stress Conv. Stress - True strain conv, strain Relationship Conventional FSS, 0, Conventional ine, = from (2.13) and (2.15) we get Ay Ay ‘True Stress, 9, = Can be written as 9, YA, = o.from Qt) : 2. Thue stress, 6, = 0, 1+.) (2.18) ‘sess Srain Concepts ‘Tue strain, €, = Coben as = (4) i, +6.) from 2.16) «The stain, €, = In +e) +2.5.1 Concept of Flow Stress ‘The stress required for met can be easily obtained from the gives an idea about how the met Now consider the stress Plastic flow to the max load at which the metal begins to form neck (BC), BC teprese hardening region ‘Taking Log values of Te conv. aeurve a (2.19) in curve for a metal from above the Y.P ie, from the start of, Tea Fig, 219 Flow Curve be the slope of the line which represents hardening portion BC rain hardening coefficient gin. Let Log 6, be the intercept as shown inthe figure 2.19, ‘Then Loge = Loga,+ loge equation for = Log o, + Loge" = Logo, = slope of the curve =S or a =oe" alled as Flow Stress equation and the straight line is called the flow wen 3890 a3 M+" = "3 se uaa aq ue suournb ssans ~ wrens x5 309 AV bo eh 43a a %04"3%0 = “Ek oe h04% 3 8043 % "0+ "a0 4k (zd “A+ "Roe ‘suowonba urea ssans Zulo|fo} 24 2% ed ‘25u0 Kyponewry.eyy, ws124 3014 pUE Wns fo swiouOdwoD x18 Jo uoHoUny eau se passoidYe aq ‘Cour ssaus so styeuodwos iuepuadaput 4p fo yor uous S419 o€ 12 "Bhd ‘say 0} suonenbo a1 UHD 9UO SIDA BdIN PUL UIEAIS Jo se passaxhro-g feu ssais yo weuoduroo ones au, s,uostiod, 2 aa OST aqua 24 yo iB] 94) Sy ‘nynpow s,2unox se pay wo des ag=0 300 ‘faeuonodoud exeayot rruoprodoad so ssans yee ayt ey rsouD8 ut pouunssest 09 Suipeo| etxe}un ue wy Bape a pols pn) mers evoon penyeioueg 12 6 sydosueg weg ssa seinpnag Sao occ ag uo) ssans aww ‘sues Sunypou oyptutod sp pue woysuasepun «ra ‘2 8 0} pausajas fjjea0U s1 (9) WOM poo} ee aumoedy uaunigeds axa Kjarewinyn pe peoy ayy Susseans ‘ip puokag ‘podojanap uons souieas [euaiow amy ‘poseatout 1 ss20014 menu 0c Std aaina ’s e ) adoys ou, P woo Ages aS STA boy a4 sopsu09 oun sounds a 5 ,ogpueD iL, PEON POH a8 worag 18 an pe od 24 40 © a | uauutgads atp vo peo| 249 sy uompuog Aunaersul 9% oe ae the constants of given material Solving equations (2.27) a sx simultaneous equations one can get equations (2.28) and vice versa the six equations of (2.27) or (2.28) are knowns In the above equations there are 36 elastic constants involved, Stress Tensor Passing through a point in a body many ptanes may be drawn. The resultant forces acting on describe the suress completely one has to specify and algo the surface on which it acs. Hence stress is generally referred to as “Tensor” or “Stress Tensor” (On a body there will be 3 direct stresses and 6 shear stresses acting, these can be expressed by the tensor, ort, where i= x,y. 2andj=..). 2 writen as a t, (229) 28 Representation of stresses acting on the element 1) One Dimensional or 1D stress system y 6, i magnitude, direction, sense 9,=0,0°6, (224) Fig, 2.20 Uniaxial sress 1 ssrees- Strain Coneapte i) Biaxial Stress System | " poo ae a Yo, *o, — without shear sess Fig, 2.22 Biaxial stress o, 0 0 =|o 9, 0 ooo. ‘This type of stress is also referred to as “plane stress” system wherein the stresses in the third direction does not exist. Triaxial Stress System [o, t, 0 a-fee ‘= (2.26) Fig. 2.23 Triaxial tress Without shear stresses, aunnns 394 8 wt ua) tonba pur ware yenba 10 s900y ] 30 190 pouoy 24 feu auryd 40-2995 apayeIs0 Wy Bunun Surany yuouya papis ayia ws! wospayeis0 wy ‘sessauis {Pope 4si0 01 pate} AVANT VILDOvt? 30 9903 a4 HO Bude sesso jo waSKs au, waishg ssans [eAPeYe}IO LZ sans jo ams nreiscupiy aup yo wpusdapur st worsua) Jopun yer Us Bupyoau fo90) Jo Uo! "yr 0 3} 24) aye OU soOp aumssaud aNIsONpKY eM Bulaq UOSEaH au, "UOTEUBIOJAP 30 1091x9 241 Ir5o] aig mys. Jo Buyaesp daap 20 Buwesp a1 Up ‘sauigino pue 1onp sancudut smi pur sued K@unyqer2~_s9pod paw Zunseo wy Aigso1ad as0}9 01 pas st (ail) Bu1ssaug oneasos] 10H Se patos aumesadurar payexaja ve asnssaid synoytp asow ssaoaud uoreodoud came aap aye Kyesaua pur jauoosip 10 sauod pus dn asoyp sunssaid atesoupy aatssasdiwoD, uonomut yoru9 out ng voNeedosd yoru aout Kuo wea aunssaud anesorpKy 2ouay{ soyiaon way 2299nbs 30 dn 9 suv a1 *Ssauss8oys OU SuOXa ssans Jo WaUadWoD aHRASOspKY w DOLIg ‘woia1 paysou pro} v Jo uorrewoy ay Kg pon myiom Jo muy ayy saoueYua (sans anissauduioo) asnssaud 420 yinwisig 24 sieuorees sooepsona ose 8 1 youyn sassanond py YBiyy wor ED 19 Bunion ut aderueape 01 pasn og Kew ainssaud apesoupKH ‘vonpunoyop anse|d 2830] aanposd 03 “10 uyneup a ‘uoisnarxe se ons suonesedo Supjom prow Kuew us paznan s}amssaxd 2nMsOHP AL ‘uonewofap Husnp yeuerew o4p oF OBPuInp s¥9] onrALD (HH) AIMS aFBISONPAH SIH ppa!oayram si ssans Moy a4 aw aus aap 38 aj EuPFOEID so Aaessa00u anja jeans ayy mojag Sossans aysiu ayp soONpaL aunssoxd auRIsOApAy Ys rewodu 51 aunssaid anesoup{y aap yo apmuBew 24 “seseait 1sapky Jopup] sans aatssaudusod frsery st ye1ow ayy aunssaud anesoupAy jo aouasasd ayy oy ang ead 1 serous Jo Bupyiom jeorumyau ayy uy camssaud nmsaiphy jo aouanjur ay sepun s} sore sopun ZuNMIAS YSYy Y “UORDeIp Kus ue amssaad ‘nyssaiduuoo fends o1 parvafqns wowa|o ue uo sunssaud Jo axes aip st aunssoud omeisoupy, (sseag oneysospAp) ainssaid oneysoipAH OZ Prow a4 30 Kouapuar Zuryons9 aun seonpeaL ca srdeouog wens -ssons, ‘ssans ansoxpiy Aq paadey ng *ssans ayensoupAy go wapusdapurs serau so apSons play ayp Ip pan resqo Uaaq sey symou Jo Bupuom, onseyd us wendy © uonmauoyap ansaid sasmes san arays soqyoaut # sod asmea you s20p uP S989 anyon sya Kuo sasne) + ( ("o) ssang - somssag ssong + ajsorphyy = ssang yeoeig yoy, sonnsodaos sp pw ssa prs $0 “Sh _ wa be oe So Db Orbe o { i, uonisoduioo sy pue ssans lexeig 62 sossansjediound amv “0 =‘o 4 | 1 amass eae eae [? ale “0 9) 2% warskg sang wove 0g *o='9 2 'o} fo vo sassang pedioug 2ouay soubja Ted oud se 58 0 pouajas ave fjqeoiiewsoune aq sated 1s (ROU ayy UatA IUDUHa|2 a4 UO IUasaId JOU ANE SaSSANS Seay UDYAA ‘asad aq Keus sassaus oy Jo stuauodutos g ayy je 19afgo ue Uy aUIed ue yy sogsans 30 suouodos 9 uo 9g it} alaun ‘pazaprsuon axe sassanis says Krequatny[duroo uot WIAs SONS Qe 24) v1 Suavedwoo 6g ate 23244, HOY xiNOWL ap UL Ind 3g UPD squaKOduIO9 ssANS 240 ITY 380014 Bunaey ney | ar ‘1 pauiajas axe sounjd oy pur ,sassang jedouL ‘tn uo Bune sass sar *S, Manufacturing Process i “ ¢ y © #0 ioral to fo. 4 the octanadral 7 plane) | octahedral A 2 plone ex - . 3 Fig. 2.25 Octahedral Stress System ‘ABCs a octahedral plane. is the normal tothe plane. The nor toeach of the axes x, y and 2 ie, @, = 8,=8 = 54°44 c0s*8, + cos*@, + c0s*0, = 1 or3.cos?®, =1 1 nde 8,=c08 8, = 208 8.= 7 (2.30) this i equivalent to [111] plane in an FCC crystal Lattice Direction Cosines ‘The stess “0” acting on the octahedral plane can be considered as normal octahe 4, acting normal tothe plane and octahedral shear stres tating parallel ‘The normal octahedral stress is equal tothe hydrostatic component of the o,, = LAS og, ‘The octahedral shear stress, is given by w a ge. -0; a IF a isthe area ofthe octahedral plane ABC, then the areas Of ABF = BCP = ACF = “Fe ‘tess Strain Concepts Fig. 2.26 Octahedral Plane with stresses “6 The component of forces along x,y and z directions areas shown inthe figure. 2.26. For equilibrium condition resolving forces along 6, (n) we get. so tes (2) (ent (8) te cst cate we cost (B) hea( i) poole Now the resultant (0.4) ‘Again the res 2 onthe other three planes oy (aay any? coaay = (0,44) 4,4) ofc, = (og) (« 5) + #) Subsitting for LHS of 233) fom the RHS of 2.32) we get say (088) +68 = (0 4Y4(0 My (48 (2.32) (2.32) (2.3) (2:34) ‘usuay9 we wo une sossans jedround pur sound jnd}suusd ap py una 6s Ssan8s g@ 9103 sons odsoug pwn gee BE ‘Auo ayy soutid axe HOs7 2948 ‘av auasaad sogsans toys ou as 22001 Yoryn vo aud vst aueyd fed ou scans jrumou ot ‘aunjd uo 3u) aueld ted puessensrediound eb2 - ‘aoauy Kua uonsorsp 4 aqearnba paras 29 uPo Aun pupa ga “oruyo = “aor (ous ous! SHY 9outs) 198 94 Buena (rz) woy ('o-'o\MY = “9 yt ($2) wou (o-'oZ = “3 ro (ora ays 284d Soyer ueuodwon ayn jo army nag Saris Kiooyp K8:0U9 Uo suodsas st sera uy Buspprt sonposd youuea =" p= -—£__ =o, De ot ‘sans [eyo au Jo wwauoduon snasosphy o4p 02 jen st ssans yespayervo feutioN ay, 39 8 Bunppeat sais SuURays[BIPEYEIDO ap CUEIUD PID JO “fp ‘sodand uStsap 40 pasn aq ura souay ‘Payelaosse aie sessanis UO, “E sdeoueg wens - S888 seid) Suypjaré ptm pamooese are sound yespoysivo ay) uo Bunae 2 san ssans oumisoupAy swwasaudas “o sous arsig 00 pospayenrg £22 Fd (ea oo 07 + Yotoz+ foloc +f 2a am Suoramas pue (242) uonznbe wos "0 10) 3 svat v 0} fonbo st souvyd sA[oue aAoge 4) WOl4 sassans jespayeyog jo sourdylublS 212 wang 4 ‘ 88 antscturing Process (2.38) (2.39) Fig. 2.29 Biaxial Principal and Shear Stress Similsely one can find the above quantities for a3° stress system. 2.14 Maximum Shear Stress and its plane Consider a 2° stress system wi shear ess, there exi at 45° to ‘aplane.on which the value of she principal plane, The mag ean MPE = Maxisnum Principal Stress Element MSE = Maximum Shear Stress Element Fig, 2.30 Max Shear Stress and its plane ‘sess - Strain Coneapts 2.15 Three Dimensional Principal Stresses rough a unit cube of unit length, ‘normal to the plane principal stress acting along the normal ‘The normal makes equal in! Let be the direction axis For equilibrium of the body the forces acting on each of its faces must balance. ‘The component of c along each of the axes are S,S, and S, end S.=0,5,=0.0, and $=. (2.42 fA area of ABC then area OBC = Am, OCA = Al and OBA = Au Summing the sreses along x y und 2 di ons we get S.-o,l-t $,-a,m—t, S.-a, = ay Substituting for 5, 5, and 5, From (2.42) (2.43) we ger (eu 1 soanpas womenbe ayqno ou = "b= "s-="0 Bumnd fq ‘ov'ot'o=') 1 aonpar swueweaur ssans oq pue souyjdrediourd oxp uo sossans seoys noaup jedfoutid axa at aproul0o soxe syeuIps009 a4} Jo SUONDAuIP =m sip +'o4"on'0+"04'0= ‘ures a 2q nt 5,109 2a ‘uopmsapsuog Japun quod atp Apo 24H UasoyD Saxe Jo 2oHO4s ay) 94 JOABIEUA “aL “qua aq snus (34°) vomenb Jo 109 9 ip ediound ayy se uasoyo axe seve arputpice9 atp Jo suonoanp a4 vay ‘sessans edioutad ay! ae (L9'2) uonenbo 3 soa an pur uiod aye sassansydiouud 949 4 ffonbuun pouyop stud we sass Jo aes 4) 20015 squeqenuy ssans 2p ave ar'o~ "a3 "az +p “0 "9 = 1 orioior‘o'p=' + 'D+'o 20u9HH som Jo 95 atajp24p 01 Surpuodsaue> 2 0 pur 0 "0 sassans ayy Jo stson w pau 99 pron 7p 900 ayy ep 0x0 uD 2p UOUIL pjnom sessans yodiouud ay Suunuuarep 40} (gp'2) wonenbo ay uowyuaso4p uodq peY 20 pur Xo x0 soxe JO FS WOOL 820 puv 40 "XO Soxe aut Jo peas IUeLEAUE puey puE puddds 249 xe 7 pue“) KERNS {wesueD sf uorTIZa}0 fue 20} ssansyeusou Jo ung «sa ‘oto +'o=04404"9='04'0+'0=1) 13. sturuteauy sais, se pair ax 7 pu 0-32 'b-% ‘0-2. 24'0'0'0 ~v'0+'0'0+'0'o ‘o+'0+'o Fume gees, 8 peso fou Z. a fad op auusaop suoryoos an jo ane a us nrc grat {gs hava yu op Kansas an Gr eu a 1 Sxp- "a'o~s'p- “1's zs ‘000 = (sr) ra ay ous sr ow W- ss0001g Bopmseyueyy h ayeur ey siuauodusn ss ‘Buoy w por 2) worrenbs on soxo 2 pur squeueauy ssang 91% pur ‘o'0+'0'0+'0'0)+,0(o+'o+ {q want © us uorenb ayqn v st 99 241 JO UoHNRjOS au b-o)-"3- "| "140 1a}o4209 a4 Jo ju0 4 “0392 99 1ouU stvDIa4J209 £q pounigo 2qui i raul} € SY (Sp°Z) uonenby jo sua ut suon 18 am Burs Q 4 2 which is a quadratic equation for the 2° dimensional stress system, then the princips are given by ‘The stress tensor becomes 5, 0 OF o,=|9 o 0 0 0 6, 2.17 Solving Cubic equation A cubic equation of the form has three real roots aX*+ DX? + eX +d = O(wherea=1) Can be solved by using j) Standard Method i) Newton Raphson method and i) Graphical Method i) Standard Method Consider the equation NEO +Xed = 0 2 Substiute x = y-2 ¥ 3 then equation (i) becomes vapte L Gc-6) where oa) 1 = * —9be + 21 4 = 5 20-96 +270) 259) (2.60) ‘sess -Strain Concepts Now put cos and g the solution to the cubic equati can be expressed as = on(t)-8 WEE) 3 ob n=aon(’ via) 8 tin) andy, = goos[2+24r) 2 —) These ues of yan, Newton Raphson Method (NR Method) Here the assumed arbitrarily. I be a oot ofthe equation A! + BX?+ eX + d= 0 then a beter approximated root can be obtained by the iteration AX) F(X) Il represent the roots of the cubic equation X; say Hs) 1) 38 Xe = XY wo | y= xy anh LE] ‘Compare the values of the successive roots. If further iteration, Let us assume that x; and 1, are the suocessive roots Xi) and 2 i8 not significant. Then take x’, = X (say) as the first root wo (09) 224 = A -ig ssauis pak Suuwoys = ‘9 ‘p-='by='0"0 ='0 110) Isa, worsuey, (11 i ova— SSNS aT o='0='o% 19q WoIsks gy pur g€ Ul ABOU UOMO al Buplark soy sures 4p 9p s09 BUAILID SOSIW LOA (y Ssaus plolA alJsua, pue ssans pjalA sways uaamyaq diysuoNe|ey 02° SOUS PlOIh OSUOL ue SSONS plaiA sways UBaMjog dysUONBIoN 02°z ouron'o£ =" y Uszwoy Yo-2h E = 0 “ ideoueg wens esons (97) (agziayanree ajdunts ut "o> Jo enyea ayp way worsKs s8a4Is gg UL sn990 jm aime si ypras {.0-'0)3] e = 0 {i ‘0-'0\X] = "0 a wo— da(o- 918] = to [,(19-"9)+ (f0-9}+ (0-10) 2 (992) de s [{¢2-0)+ 40-0)+ Jo-"0)] 2 808 Py uononiba axoge ayy u Buamsqnsg = “oe =‘0 "= 'o vorsuay jerxoyun 20g (sod) [.(0-'o) + ('2—"0) + 60— T q woni8 s1 weiss ssans o¢ ut K@iau9 uono}iq, 30 a:suat erecqun £q uaas8 anjea pe a KBsaU9 uoMoIsip21p uay (wHoysks sans xojduiod B UL) SuiBOq BuIpfer¢ rep sme sip 24p vo paseg sr SILL, SOSIPN UO, £q pasodaud sem AZoM SIM BHAI Sasyy UOA sesso jediouud winanuny pue winuxeus ay 2ouRApe Ut OU oF Kressa02 (Gapisuoa ou st%0 “a -parspisueo ou st ssansjedioutsdsyrpauuayy ¢ aH pumas ajo $4 soya sens edu una po une jo nj au soup ay vaya sma usits sa atta done (P97) “0 = ‘o-'o. ete toe 298 am epoaun asp sad se (¢9°Z) pur (Z9°z) Hunenba i 8890014 Smog, gg so —— Manvtactring Process Comparing the above two equations, (2.70 and 2.71) we get (LS is same hence, equate RHS) ing (08) = 29} = 60} = 2 = Liss or20, = 778 = 11550, 29, = 11556, B) Tresca Criteria 4) Tension Test 6,=0, -¢,=0,=0 = 1-8, _ 5-0 Fm OQ EG 3°Stress 1” Stress B-5; _ cee Torsion Test equating RHS =o, & ¥ itl) When two principal stresses are equal Here principal stresses @, anda, = 6, are equal +6, and 6, = 6, ~in 3D stress system and 0, = g, in 1° stress system a) Von Mises Criteria 3°Stress 1Stress Fe De-on)] = [lo +(0-07 +(0-0,)] 2.72) (2.74) Stress - Stain Concapts gy G Substituting foro, = 6, 263 “2G fen (0-93) = 09 2.76) b) Treseas Here, 6, = 9, o,=0 3Stress1°Stress or(6, 6) = 6 7) Hence, both criteria show the same result, (2.76) and (2.77) 2.21 Deformation by sii ‘occurs by the sliding of blocks of crystals over one another ip planes. stop formed atomic structure Consider a metal crystal subjected to shear stress as show stress exceeds a critical p occurs. The di inder microscope storie density and t plane is the losest packed direction w cue Siun any pee“ sauepuneg wis iy ound 3u Teastao atp ssans seaqs Jo aouanyju aya sopun “ieded ayp 02 ‘Pnoqpuedied st auejd Buquusa ayy powsoyapun s aud Susur o4 jo Yo} a4 01 UorSay 4p ‘s[eiaut gH UL ouWOD s1 BusuUHK2 £q vorRewHO}Oq M290 01 ‘usa oj orrase}0 jgemonnyautbow of suei8 3430 Sed axows 0} 1 Siayo uo af] asia © 09 0 payUaHO st Asko 4p yo uOROd w ura ssa>aud v sp oaed ay Jo a Bujuumy Aq uonewojag Supjom Sueouue oF np 20 uowtwsoyep jeoruryoaus hq Spurew paonpoid aq fous sum ‘20uR te urn ssay yon axe swore yo 1uowaxous ayp Butuiea ut su aga 8] suonsod ow ay u2emiog AarausuUks Jo upd ‘vowuos 24 "Piskio uated ayp fo ew sty s0}qurosay(eshi9 ay Jo roueunks ® 1 2010} 2y1sU>) apf] (#224 a Tord Pu axa 2pHAIp AON m= s80901g Bupmagpveyy Ping Proce 23 ‘of stress ata point is given by 0, = 100 Mpa, =200 Mpa t, =250 Mj i * on =100 MPa = Now the principal stresses are given by oy, = 2200 4 00 =200)° + 40250" ‘ 2 72 150 £255 405 Mpa 0, =-105 Mpa 6 Now the thtee principal stress ©, = 405 Mpa (Max) fe o=0 9, = -105 Mpa 5) and. = = 255 Mpa 1) As per Von Mises Criteria © = F l@,-9"+(,-0,' +(6,-6, (-105 ~ 405) 1 = Fy (405-0) = (0-105) a = 0.707 (164025 + 11025 + 260100)! = 466.38 Mpa Since 6, i less than the YS of the material o, <0, ie., 466.38 Mpa < 475 Mpa t ot occur yielding wil n sess in Concepts 2) As per Treseas's Criteria of stress at a point ial is given by o, = 80 Mpa o, = 100 MPa +1, = G0 Mpa. Ifthe Y.S of the material is 150 MPa, determine whether yielding ofthe material ‘occur oF not according to Trescas or Von Mises Criteria = 150 MPa 1238 per VM or Trescas Criteria ? the principal stresses — Yo ences * I, = 100MPa = 90+ 6083 150.83 Mpa, 0, = 29.17 MPa and 6, =0 i) As per Tersca’s Criteria 9, _ 15083-0 fg = SEG = BORIS 5.42 Mpa - in SPaystem ~ in Psystem Hence yielding will occur ‘umd sous ur sts4yeun uoweu0y9p 404 paso ase spowRDUE TENA CTT pou ayp eid 92°7 saudXo uv anung «7? Jo sauoayy weds 777 nnOK Op RUM IZZ ag wosadoy o¢z ‘ yediauud pur { ssog0ud Bunpon jaw a sans papayeg Jo 20un jd iar ¢ sessons jeapoymiog ate WHA LIZ “yeu w vompuoo kgesuruIedeg 912 “ne 5. ayooH panyesou® werdeg 612 “ures aor) pur uns anys. aru, uaeang dysuoneyal ating HZ sierow ut sky ws oy eg 617 uommuuoyep £50940) 24189 3 ~0 Jo asm ayp ‘sons Joy soama wrens ssans was 4 Suppon peru u uo up mG 12 JO 209 STTEYA O17 spout uy wovawtouayd Futwopsoy wrensurmdyg 6 {, worewogap fsva so} ancy pynays ssao0id 2upp0m SI0F) HMA 9 n aye spoyour 19a YA CT ipuoo wens ound pure ssans aud auyag ZZ dg pur ues anay pur ssanng ana 2019 TZ Aipeap worn sideouo9 wens ssong SNOLLSANO ‘euaiUD yA 01 anp 3n290 yOu S90p BuIpjeiK aouaH myc Mm rd 100 = £ Oslx — = y we sidesuog wens sean ot # Ler0+ 9] ssn gl 1Q)---- g='D="0 ‘o='9 ed 7e'59 € (8051-0) + (0~Lr6e) + (Lr62-e8osi)] = + (o-'as ssans ag 10341 vA 01 aNp sn290 ,0u :poyaur 29490 Sulprayt soup, ai ae, al MSAD SE USK dW 0st =" “3! wd seser -0)+ 0-9] z£ =O waists gf ul SA loc 10r86) cox'0 = (e¥osi~0)+ (0-LY62). isis gu — -se00014 6uums;neey aeuisn PHONED INA J0d Se Contents 3.0 Intro jon ; G4 Advantages and limitation of Forging ; 32. Ap 8.3 Types of Forging ; 3.3.1 Hand Forging ; 3.8.2 Machine Forging ; 8.3.3 Types of Loads used in Forging ; 3.4 Forging Operations 5 General Forging types 8.6 Pressureinforging ; 3.7 Forging equipments - Cla ging machine ; 8.9 Die design factors in forging : 3.10. Variti load Vs Forging stroke; 3.11. Me I flow in forging ; 3.12 Comparison of grain nin diferent processes ; 3.13 Rotary forging ; 3.14 Forging of st open de forging; 9.15 Pressure & load calculation in open & closed ae foringby slab analysis ; 3.16 Defects in Forged Products ; 3.17 Residual stresses in Forged Products ; Worked Problems ; Questions eee Forging 7 3.0 Introduction ss of shaping the material by controlled deformation, by squeezing or Hammering of ‘between dies, ssing, manualy or using machines. ic flow of me temperan ‘4 Therate of deformation depends onthe applied external pressure. Ex: Forging hammer produces high rate of deformation compared toa hydraulic press, + Forging is used to produce components which need high strength, hardness & directional property. ex : Crank shaft, Connecting rod, Spanner ete, + Itmakes use of Malleability property ofthe metal, > Input Material (Shapes): Ingots, Blooms, Billess, Bars can be forged > Materials Forged - All types of steel, Al, Cu, Mg, Wrought Iron. take place under pressure at elevated temperature or at room 3.1. Advantages and Limitations of Forging > Advantages : Very high stren components, U strength, Fatigue Strength are Imparted to the form high density components are produced, Flaws are taken care off. Pores & Cracks get welded. Directional property is achieved. Ch, > Limitations: Initial cost of dies & machinery is high. Maintenance cost tis very difficult to forge complex shapes, 32 Applications > Components like connecting rod, crank shaft, IC engine tappet valves, Gear bi CChissels, Bolts, Clamps can be produced, Spanners, 3.3 Types of Forging 3.3.1. Hand Forging or Manual Forging or Smith Forging 1. The work piece is heated ina ishammered repeate due to hammer blows, 2. In order (0 carry forging is called a 3. Anvil acts as open die and the hammer surface as the othe the anvil is har ree or open hee lyto geta rough prod sing sledge hammer, other hand tools and e work piece undergoes deformation hand, several tools are used, A person who does hand If ofthe die. The top surfa yp surface ofthe ‘The work piece ssuon e€ fy Suor dn yo1g ae uy Fudwery dy sBuo, subse pone Bons 7 By many re By 2004 pueH 4 aren ‘a S0)q'saBems 24H 51001 snoLA Ka, end oxpour sy 901g eBeng sas Hand Hammers These are solid mas and are ‘A hammer consists ofa head of given shape fixed on to a wooden handle. They weigh anywhere between 0.9-1kg. The length of the (250 cm), These for shaping of ymponents. Ends of ‘The hammer heads are flat at ne end and the other end of the head ‘may have different shapes. Cross pein hammer Fig. 34 Hand Hammers Manufacturing Proves ‘Straight pein hammer Feeg9g lg ‘Sledge Hammer Fixed on toa long wooden wands and large amount of force can be work piece by swinging action. Fig. 3.5 shows the hammer. Sy Sledge hammer Straight pein Cross pein Fig. 3.5 Sledge Hammer AuySous 9 satoms puoH gE “Bd 7 MS 2 - sseus ff orpueH atoms wanes 2010) saunuey @8p015 4 ems wonog pue doy, sos Buds ji RS suns won0| 9104 ayprey ow sg soBemg pueH ep sos tawy a fas Sung 2 Bat (ope) (poo won0g sams cup) sno wonoy acad (oipiey) fife wouog, apunos sapars, Apusns 8p No Futsn Hund Jo pourayy L'¢ Sty UI ay In- sso001g 6uumisesnven, sieiop axp smoys 9°¢ Big BRE nutaturing Process = Fullers. ‘Are wedge shaped metal pieces used in conjunction to reduce the thickness ofthe workpiece asin drawing down operation. The bottom Fuller piece has a projection that can go into the havdie hole of the anvil. The hot work piece is held in a tong, The top fuller is placed on the workpiece and hammered using a sledge hammer. The workpiece thickness is reduced, by moving the workpiece long the fuller surfaces and hacmmering, the operation is contiuned. Fig. 3.9 shows Top fuller /\ Botom fle ‘To fit into hardie hole Work piece] Fig. 3.9 Use of Fallers Flatters ‘These are square flat, hardened surfaces provided with a handle, The workpiece which has tuneven surfaces from the previous operation is imparted flat surface, The flatter is positioned on top of the workpiece and hammered, using a sledge hammer. The arrangement is shown in Fig. 3.10 a Sledge Handle (rod/wire) / Flaners adits se cea Work Piece Fig. 3.10 Use of Faters Forging 85 3.3.2 Machine Forging Wotk piece is heated in a closed furnace at con using mechanical, power hammers or presses, Accurate components can be produced There are two types of machine forging ') Hammer forging - open die forging - usually flat surfaces are used to forge simple shapes only. Hammer forging (Flat die forging) - Work piece is subjected to deformation by using fat dies. Hammer is used to cause metal flow. Metal flow is controled by means of various tools like swage blocks. etc, tis also referred 10 as open die forging o flat de forging. ii) Die forging is also called as closed die forging. Used for producing different contour. I also called as closed die forging used for different contours Die forging or Drop forging or Stamping. - A closed die is used to deform the metal. The metal i forced to occupy the shape of the die by hammering. A drop hammer or a press is used. [tis also referred to as closed die forging. Weight of Hammer used I-3KN Drop ot Fal = 116M 3.3.3. Types of Load used for forging ‘The following two types of loads are used in general ) Press forging : Here gradual application of pressure is obtained through hydraulic media, ‘The metal flow is uniform 8nd occupy completely the die volume gradually, Operation is bheavy harmmer is dropped from a height of 1-1.5M, on toa hot workpiece kept on an anvil. The force ofthe blow varies from 10-3000 Newtons. Board drop hammer or steam or pneumatic press is used for the purpose 3.4 Forging Operations 1 are used to shape the met mainly with respect to hand forging also i) Drawing down operation Here the thickness of the workpiece is reduced and the length is First the workpiece is drawn or spread along the length dire {grooves on the surface using fullers & hammer ion by creating notches oF suopesado asouy fe smoys S1-¢ Fig aq st aoatd Hom 24p ZuoUIUEY parradas £q pur aumxy » uo Jet 10 jae we uo day st aaoqdion paseoy 24, fupuag (4 onmuodg Suitoas pre By uy aems wonog acard som, aes doy ypu aipats ‘pI'€ “Big UF uMOYS st uondas ssoxeseynauT9e aonposd or BUI Jo SCIP aH 2 aap pouredun st aoaidyuo% 2p a19H, Buseng (61 soBums Joas & 2uisn uonn9s ssous Spas simp SMous €1°¢ “Fld “padn ng Jo 98 & Buisn uonoe BuuaWUsEy 0 porsolans s1 aoaKd>oM aM 24 jo ssauyp 2 uo oyossdg Simyoung 216 “Sig er seu tpueyy Aide oy pasn st wonoe Fuyowun sn ano1ds0% 24 Ul parealo aL Sa enous Z1'¢ Big “peo A 19 vant jo yaund ® copmiedo unop Susoug Ie Bia sue ow Jouioy Buoy, aoardyony, woe, Suraoucy (0) 15 S14 Suuoneyy 2510 HOM os f wnat sau} S30) pasn spoyrous ayy smMOYS (Q 9 (© 11 “ig {Y aprul pe Ino pauaxo axe suor}oafoud ayy ‘sean Bursn UU, = ssa00ug Buymypeynveyy Manufacturing Process Bending on Eas Heated work Welded joint Heated a Force Fig. 3.16 Forge Welding Fig, 3.16 Cutting king a blind hole. The workpiece is heated and using a punch and hammer Fig. 3.17 shows the operation, F ¥ Punch be TLE won Blind 7 role Lie Fig. 3.17 Punching ;pauteigo st uopiod pajoq v pur asda s1 a90ud om ay) ‘uomod Sunsofoud ayp wsurede wre ayy Buini04 fq “pisino ‘Buncafoud st Jo wopod w Ayuo rey) yons dure e ut play s aDaidyz0% ai, “2001dy0m a4p 30 -azyaInep ayp Sou ¢ paaaxe you Sagp Yosdn 9q 01 pS a4) Uoyo pasn st EuMasdn adAi uadQ, Sumpasdn 246 2p ps0y9 gee Bi pu pi5a WZ oa oad Gt reer some er {--—- er J a0 Suosdn od ado 6re ig ouunoy 1 p22 pa [ \ 4 ug Peel ae ey or, a 001d oq dh wad sn uonezado Sumasdn ay) smoys Oz'¢ Big pur 6L'E “Big seunBig wonog 244, se aq 21 Burpjoy Ke pus a 28 nq e dozanap tym uonuod payeoy 244, umogs se JoMUEY © LA YoRIS| st uonzod pareay aug, 2014 327] © Wl ploy st pue pareay st anaidyjom 2ip Jo pua 2uo tay (9 6 aati ypamvadau st anaid yom aun pue Apis Buoy 8 Ut ploy s Suyiasdg fo spony sre Bd spu3 Om ZZ, (ZZ Sumesdp, (s4:8u2} B40} Kyu0) Kuo pauy (P lunuy pue s6u04 fe J E J roy = =) (8 Tssu0y, 4 q Buoy, \ om “samod yanueus usm) Sumasd jo spoyrous snouta sous gI-¢ Big -paseasous st uonDas ssosa aig pu paseassap sour IW -ss00014 Buympe}muayy | Manutacturing Process Closed type upsetting is used when the length to be upset exceeds 3 times the diameter ofthe ‘workpiece. Here the die consists of a hollow portion as shown in Fig.320. The work piece is held h that a known Teng! the workpiece. The work is squeezed ‘The product is taken out and used, 3.5 General Forging Types inside the hollow port Forging can be discussed under two main types. ') Open die forging ‘The work piece is held rigidly. Now a ram 1 hollow p the die surface and a head is formed. The ram is ton ofthe die is forced against Closed die forging F c J Top ¢ie c 1 + Work U7 piece Bottom die Starting bic 4) Open die forging F i Top Die Final Top Die b) Closed die forging Fig. 3.21 Shows the Basi Open die forging Here the heated workpiece is kept on the fa surfaces. Also called flat die forging. Fig, 3.21 (a) ide of the A lustrates this Product iples used in Forging ind hammered to produce flat, Fexgi9g| Closed die forging ty of metal is placed inthe re cavity. Any excess metal is squeezed out a8 fin or flashes, These are then trimmed out. Fig. 3.21 (b) shows this, 36 Pressure in forging The necessary pressure required for forging is obtained by 4 Impact pressure - by hammering 4+ Push pressure - by hydraulic pressure + acombination ofthe two 37 Forging Equipments “These are used for supplying the equired force onthe work surface. They ar classified as A) Forging hammers : here force is supplied by a falling weight or ram. The deformation results fom the dissipation of KE of the ram, They are energy restricted machines, B) Mechanical forging presses: here forceis supplied bythe ram operated by acrankleccenric ete, Tey are stoke restricted machines since the length ofthe stroke and the load avaiable A) Forging Hammers are of two types 1. Board hammer die and ram are raised by friction. Rolls grip the board. When the board is released, the ls under the influence of gravity o produce the blow energy. The bosrd is raised for another bow, in its next eycle 2. Power hammer Crank, cam or ecentric action is to impart the energy required for forging 3. Hydraulic presses ‘Are load restricted mat by the maximum load caps To successfully complete a forging operation 4 the machine load must exceed the required load at any point 4 the machine energy must exceed the energy required by the process forthe entire stoke, he ram, The ram is released from a height as their capability for carrying out re process, 4, Pneumatic Hammer sists of a Ram activated by compressed ar to derive the necessary compressive load, which is used for shaping the metal has a v fon the ypeouag “op soddn ayy sous wes id oq, umop pur dn ayeoosd}o0u ww yoy ns sopunjo pBuls w Jo ssisu0> aounueyy wears *s ko at “passaxdusoo 20914 3u08, oauUoD wes 2o1u09 ut awwoD Kaur prog rey © 0 poisouuco st wet a4 spWUEH paeog “9 souuoy uvars ¢2'¢ Bip eae ee cope apresoy ef ‘yp sad) —of weID-AD a wey, 128 uonanpas ap uo fe (340) Yun FUE w oy parou 9) pos Pos 8unoouvo> vox pazouuca jossoidwop) (y paxzew)sapunjko au Jo apis uss ayy, ung ayounouy ze 8 Go mew oH ae 1p 1907 (eu 0H Je —— arp odd, weaig tod 7240) uy (49) por Rusdemuoy, fa sossaidno>) sepuiik unas voisy = od Thal CZLLLE od 0d 39801 ouny wear amy sways ¢'¢ “lg nn Sunes wears spacu owns ayy, AM a9 od Janu a4 30 od sadn a naa Buoy ss pasaxca 1 pourrgos woneuosap jo yunowe porta! 2tn sma uo paseg uaop pub da s2n0ui uoisd ayy uossaxdwo> o posafies#) prow ap toy ap 2oddn ag epi SN Ey 9 Vays PLE SY “ap onOg ai Lo proof YO HP og np Buns unop sno es i 09 hy ap za apo1 panto» st wet ay, pes Busy ‘tov so somos ou psn st weg osu esp aod 9 panos puto anj0ap' ya Uo undys 98 toy $e se90014 6upmseynuey — Manutsetuing Process Roll Upper die Lower die Anvil Fig. 3.24 Board Hammer 7. Crank press Here the required amout cor f energy is released by the crank action, Fig 3.25 shows the crank ) Flywheel p ing rod (CR) press tha fly wheel (F), The crank is, connected to the connecting rod (CR) which in turn is connected the die. Power is obtained by me external source which ‘makes the shaft andthe flywhee! ion of the crank. This actuates the CR and the dies are closed in the down ward movemen CR, and the di Upper die upward movement of Forging ofthe work is obtained. Work —>f piece =] Lower Anvil 47 ‘Top stoke Bottom stroke | Fig. 325 Crank Press 8, Eccentric Forging Press of an ec trie the upper die to move down or move upwards. The workpiece kept in the die gets ‘compacted. Fig. 3.26 shows ec ‘Wooden boards —K Friction roll Lower di Fig. 3.27 Gravity Drop Hammer Fly whee! Ecconttic Connecting Rod 2 Ram Ram guides Die Work piece die Fig. 3.26 Bele drive Forged part Anvil cap Anvil 1 Z—— Press bod Bocentrie Forging Press 9. Gravity drop Hammer works on the principal of f derived by the contact of the wooden board. The power derived by the! rotates the ition the ram and the board, The ing the top most is released. Due to gravity is forged. Fig. 3.27 shows gravity drop hammer. 59a uodo a4p wus piny 2 se sjauadwoo snotrea 30 at | Om, s t subse ‘pasn s167'¢ Bg amp uantjap 20g "aoardys0n ay azaanbs id ureur aap uo Buse st ‘sanssaid ou pouod si 3uuing spreaidn pay AoIss1 9306 a eye 2x jo woistd 243 Jo wonog 24p wos pinyg ay neApy Busssed Kq uaespypL S| UIE ap muy i aud fymojs wes ayp pur spreaussop paysnd st uowsid aun xoputpAa eu 2p yBno: Buop ae ssazg 211Me4psH “OT seeneig 6upmoenugy,§ gy 1900 rc ting roses 3.8 Characteristics of a Forging Machine ‘The most important characteristic of any machine is The number of strokes/min - This determines t ‘+ The velocity under pressure (Vp) - Velocity ofthe machine the strain rate (which influences the flow stress). # The contact time (tp) under pressure lo ide under load. This determines the workpiece remain in ‘Table 3.1 Shows Typical values of velocity for different forging equpment Forging M/e Velocity range mvs Gravity drop hammer Teas Power drop haramer 30-9. HERE machines 60-240 Mechanical press 006-15 Hydraulic press 0.06 -03 3.9 Die design factors in forging The following factors are considered important. ') Shape and size ofthe component (Geometry) i) Meta being forged ii) Numbers of product required The following factors help design the die (Fig. 3.30) Flash : Is an extra space of thin cross section through which excess metal int pushed out. Its thinner than the thinnest section ofthe die # it acts as a safety value for excess met + it regulates the escape of the die. Only necessary minimum thickness is given to the flash, otherwise die wear/breakage takes place inthe die so th yf Forging the die halves close together the excess metal squirts out of the cavity a ‘metal called “flash” i Flash gutter : To prevent the formation of a very wide flash, a chamber known as flash ‘Butter is provided. Excess metal gets collected in this chamber. i) Draft angle: Is the taper given onthe vertical faces for easy withdrawaliremoval of work i a from the die. It varies from 7-10, iv) Fillet & Corner radius : Is provided for the easy flow of metal & to reduce excessive die wear. Fracture of metal is also prevented. It varish from 3-5 R. ¥) Die wear : An extra allowance of 1.6 - 2.4 mm is given on the die o account for the wear of de, Vi) Scaling : Oxidation of the die surface approximately 5%, Ibe present. Hence, some allowance is given i) Finish allowance : The component is to be machined. Hence, macti given. This will impart ood surface to the: ag allowance is onent, nd Top die —— brash gutter ‘i — bottom efit asus 3.5° de reer radius Fig. 3.30 Cross Section show all details ofa Porging die 2p SuSu0f ay mom fo moyy EE Hy 2G woneg CaCI 910 401 aiRj jo wonsaup apo enoxpuodzod are sou Moy 9 2 24 0 fy s8d owUaHO au HOY —@ (wo1uod won) a0 pad jo uonsaxp a oops sou moy - ££ Buu sous se ovary wouodoo au uy oy 4p Buoy ayy Buin 01 paregns 99 sun mow aNBA WIN Hg 8 HT MOMS se AqWoSsE ap v Bsn Buia} spIsVOD SujBi0y uw mols [eEW Le mowed on 9 Goa Sa04S 26 € "id on pa KS PN oo ‘810g 9819) 0} yougp 218 squs YB pu sqam UEYI Apia Sq aeyS ‘sunirado 7p wonton saeasou sp oie Aron st (4g 30 ( sours aBtoy oF ynouyp au0M axe “a19 ganysqu ay foud 10 su ‘8koy 01 fseo aie sadeys ‘sogeaiou! peo} et s0uoq] "MOY EIU fotp Soy) ysey un YBnow sod 2 zonpoid 67 nunoure pasinbat ayy Jo ssaaxe st a0aidayiow Jo ‘Aypatduoo rau ayn yum parity Buraq axe Sop aK, 1p wow0g ayy wy day aae4dy4om atp pum Toem09 apew pu papUadsap sey axp dor ys, ~ AV 201s SunBuof 0K poo Suref fo uosping 16 Shy yong Bubi0y i saaid yom dino roy a2 nis 128109 1 Bu6ieg —suboq sey aie 0g ¢ 2 cel peor Buibios erous a4p yale poi Ajarajdusos st Aurea oG4O ny ysey Sustersu pur ssouyonp ysey Suiseatap yu soswaIou ainsseid ButBiog 270.235 BujBo4 sq peo) Bujb104 jo uoneveA OLE 20 tn es200n4 Buumoeyue sek ABN 106 3.12 Comparison of grain orientation in different processes : yy) J | is Macuineo Flow lines are distributed a grains or eee close near the corners Random orientation Fig, 334 Orientation of grains 3.13. Rotary swaging ‘Swaging isa variation of impact forging wherein cepeated blows are imparted on to the job through shaped dies. In Rotary swaging the die set arranged radially gives blow to the mate about the horizontal axis 110 4a dies with contours corresponding tothe external da ofthe job and keep ‘Movement of the die blocks Joe Lo Fig. 335 Rotarty Forging lets can be carried out in this process. Long circular bars are produced attains its maximum valu “Ww between the ‘The thickness of the workpiece is s the stress field along y-direction is ne rk andthe dies is constant, ated to other dimensions, and the variation of 4 The presence of friction causes an inbalance of force on the element in the 1-4 ‘must be accomodated by a change in lateral stress 6, from one side of the element to ther, {Ram) Moving platen ‘unit length if y ype For the equilibrium of forees in the x-direct =, +do)h+oh-2edr = 0 ep < doh = +2 (ee) way, sr wou “gad 0=rK Yo = ¢ ancy am (z1°¢) wHog 22419 2tp Jo anua9 O49 or veoUr ‘1 om 20m a4) Jo MIpIM = q = 97 0} SurMNSGNS 7p "9 =x aNIUGD (ere) p10 04h Sepsou [ 1a an cre rook = (1%) (ee = %ul-ga) eee tee te aie ‘51309 SuamAsg0s (11°C) (6) HO 1 sty = ag =O 4 Ou} = 90 uy “Foyyemmay 2up rig 11 = (06 orem Zur 129 = 40 ae nn Sug vornbs woy pie 9="0 (oro p=xaanjins say woe Uuopes2aqu so auersu00 = 3 4 6o~ Omit a7 = eM ee aml * ap! uns ye Sf YP (eo sas ee diz a 8 aM (1°) 7B (9'E) Bt cos Soa ee aunssaud yeussou 24 01 paras sais Suuseoys ‘uonouy Buypys 30 met s,quojuon hq oo~ co 8 an 219% (pe) Suen 2 gun Buys you so0p 90 wo> (pe 'o-g sawooag (€0) wonenbo vain ‘o =o pue g ='p sossans yodioud axssouduioo sv 'o pu q Hurye, 0 f= % z scans pjauonsuay, = °© arya (co (605) 99 =% L = tp -'9 @ uompuoo wrens ave wo} euoq puk Sasi) Uo oH ten wp 901 ~ ane aN Ne 5408 tanutactuing races we can write increases, the resistance o deformation (compressive) increases rapidly 4 This is used to advantage in closed die forging where the deformation resistance of the flash must be very high so tht the pressure in the die wil be high enough to ensure complet filling of the die cavity. Fig. 3.37 shows the variation of Pando, over the length b=2a,0,=P— TT Ne | “Wade ba} Fig. 3.37 Stress distribution in lt die forging in plane train and sliding friction 4 Both stresses build up toa maximum atthe centre ofthe work piece. The centre line ofthe neutral surface. of stresses is referred to as “friction hill” when the ram moves downward, away from the neutral surface. ¢ The normal stress between the die and the work increases exponentially and reaches » maximum atthe centre. The maximum value of the pressure is P,, = of, e% (e=0 from 3.12) ¢ Theses: 9, follows as ilar pater Foraing 108 4 The magnitude of stess isa function of the coeff of friction and the % 4+ The force onthe die is the product ofthe width af the workpiece andthe area une the Pourve Parameters contributing for fi + width of the work piece «height of the work piece © coeff of friction * yield strength of the mat Friction Near the ends X, < x Place to allow forthe requ However, beyond. certain value of X. X20 5 X, there is no sliding between the workpiece and the die. Ths is due to increasing fi te35 which reaches a maximum value equal to the shear Yield Stength(.S) ofthe material and remains so in the rest ofthe zone X.< X'S a of the work sliding between the work piece and the Die surface should take ‘expansion of the workpiece. Fig 3.38. Fig. 3.38 Slab forging ing friction... t= yp Sticking friction ...1=0, shear YS of the material Hence, for X, $s @ for O ¥=xe (90) -— d (seo) ‘ted 17'E) Pur (pe"¢) way weo— Yo? ‘ous‘g ‘d=d “x=yw «eo Nga? "90 = d we ato = a 2oINH9 a4 Jo saw aye ace sowioaag (Qz'¢) vowenba + fy hays ow Toe 7 ore (rg) re — In Seaoeug Buumseucyy o+x =d ra cy 8 ate Baym oof ae of M1 wn apy oc 11? "or op 128 om (61'¢ pu ge) woss “buoooqvonenb uta nb aoa SA ansuay, = % vonpiossomy, Z'o = 7 99 itantactring Process 32) 633) Where P, = 20,,<°°% 62) When P, = 20,| [1+ int-]-*] from 3.33) aa a) 3.16 Defects in Forged Products |) Surface Cracks. - may occur when the work piece is at too low a temperature and ‘excessive load is applied ie., excessive working a too low temperature of the work piece, lsh when the thickness of the Flash is Kept too low as Cold shut ve cooling takes place or due to high oF to low radius in the die iv) Scale entrapment - when the workpiece ig overheated with lot of scales on the surface and descaling has not been done. before subjecting the work piece for ¥) Flakes small eracks at the centre of the large steel forged component. Flakes are associated with high hydrogen content 3.17 Residual stresses in Forged Components Residual stresses are the stresses remaining inthe forged component is complete. The resid stresses may be dve to inhomogeneous deformation or quenching components during heat treatment, especial not result in any cracks. However, during process there may be stresses induced inthe component, During heat treatmentiquenching distortion and residual stresses inthe work piece occurs, Large forged components are hence cooled solwly by covering with sand or ash raed components can also be automatically transfered to chamber wherein controlled cooling takes place and the temperature is brought down slowly over a period of time, Fe eta ce ee ere tee Worked Problems ickness 75 mim isto be forged to half the height between fat dies. What is the max forging load ? [f= 0.4 and the material YS is 40 KN/m ittakes 3 sec to produce the forging und the efficiency of working is 40%, What power is needed? d= 25 mm = 2b 2 we04 8,=0,=40 KNimm? : 12330 } Mang = 40% Max forging pressure with fiction i given by L15 40) 60 KNimm? ~ uu Max. forging Load (theoretical) = 73593.15 K Newion or 73.594 KN Power = WDisee = Fx Hstnes/ asrea ama, ‘ansaid RurSx0) soma ap mp wt yseId -9'E ste 904, ‘sades Yoxdusoo Zujonposd 10} posn ftseindod s} $ui8103 1p ud) “Se ashe /anay, pare uotsoas ss04 in Suiseasout pu yuo} ap Suluanoys sonjosu Sumasdn “YE ste may, row 4p Jo uonaas ss019 ayy soveaiou1 uorwiado umop SuIMRIG “EE asqea 9041, ‘pahioy Asta 99 wea vou} Se -ZE astea snag, [prow aip unsojap 0 ssous aysuer seziin ssaooud Bulag “TE opsenb yo 09 Supro220 sawsuy suopsond) fo ad% 24n90140 (6002 Aint - 9¥Af- LAY said 219m woHott OU! papaau aq pInom yey 5940 pautnbay st 900} waIx@ YON OH ny pa mo mune 295 "F850. sop my unm na o 40en a. 5H PH sqsio mona ¥ nae 09 amend Sa pa 9 PMA SCE Sedo poi semi! ma EC sepa eww a0 YH EE 4 ‘urduog aueyd ut peo} BuiBiog wine ap soy uoxssaudxa we antag Z2'¢ “Burfzog ut vonoqy Supjons pue uonouy SwapHs Keays ured 17'¢ ‘u8s0) u 1 ype pareoosse Suawunesed oe pu 1 wonoUs Urexg O2°¢ “Sui op uado m apow suonduunsse ayn 238 UM 61°C ‘ued poy pue und pouryoew ‘Bunseo m vonewauo uress prow atpazedwop gre ‘u/Buog ut moy elou ayp ure dxe 0 yoIayS awe MRLG LTE ‘yous BulBiog 01 2ovaryar py samen pro} Huifiog op oy SSNOSIC OTE “ynoys au nt op UrRH0} ut sovoursed uBisop amp oy wEKONA Ie “auygew Bur8s0g ® J sonsyoresey a a UAL PE sang omespH. (iA souruser doup Aunts (A ssaig UE) said ounu00g sue} preog. sae weaIg, Jp aydouyd Buryiom aqp ured pue yoroys woU MEAG ELE 4§ trios -Buppom si ‘sassand 6x9 pue sowusey oneuinag & Jo Yas Wau e mtg Ze esp pur soturey r9Mod weoreg amENUaIa,IG 1}°¢ 17 -Burfi04 ur pasn swaudinbo BuiBi0, warayp ay axe eyNA OE ‘suonerado 3uiBiog warp Weds Ge urBiog u posn speo} yo sadha ayy ase ey, gre ‘uiBuog o1p paso|9 pur Zurfuoy aip vado weamiog arnuaayia 1°¢ “urBiog proc pur BurBi0g 10H uoarI0q aERUAIBING 9'¢ { Burduog ouaepy pur SurRi04 puey waomeq aeHUEIEIG Cf cneydeg ¢ BurBhog yo sad ap are eyyy yg *Bur2i04 Aq paonpoad swouodwoo ay) 1817 Bu8104 Jo uoNEOHdEe ax SH] Eg ‘Buog Jo suonearuy pov seBeucape oy: ame urmeg ¢ Su8i0y 6ur6104, SNOLLSANO WENDT 85°88h = WwurN SY O8S8— = wy 196) XO EPILZ = tM “WA=PXI= aM — ,aIWINN 09="o sro=n NO oe'eptee = wu 91 =/y xo 2 =%o-.at = son, ‘ Nw 09*.02) 2 2%. & = aoiog tui 9p =y onan moyen ju 241 Uo parioxa HEL TN 59 ued yey uoaMiag possasdwoo $1 1y8I0y WU OE X RIP WL 52% tunwwxca a puy yr = ig WW 8] Jorygioge iq unIURUNTY uy Te! mayqoug MM076 = S25 N S28 T6616 = SNS LE- SD SE-EESEL = ese. Gupmqynugy, Manufacturing Process 3.7. The thickness of the flash is generally more than the smallest C.$ of the compone! ‘True! in forged components are the defects True represents peak pressure in Forging process. ‘True/ False ‘True / False for deformation. ‘True/ False ‘True / False 3.13, Flake defect in forged product is due to hydrogen gas in the metal ‘True / False Answers 3M False 32 False 33. False 34 Tre 35. False 36 Tue 37 False 3.8 False 39 Tre 3.10. True ee 311 Tre 3.12 Tue 3.13. True Contents 40 Introduction: 4.1 Steps in Rolling process ; 4.2 Flowchart for Rolling process ‘A used for Roling ; 4.5 Metat tow pattern & ing and Cold Rolling ; 4.7 Necessary ing; 4 8 Geometric Relationship in Roling ; 4.9 Variation of Friction + 4.11 Length of Deformation zone jus; 4.18 Main parameters 4.21 Theories (of Cold Rolling ; 4.22 Torque and Power in Cold Rolling ; 4.28 Power loss in bearings; 4.24 Roling of structural shapes; 4.25 Manufacture of seamless pipe ortubes ; 4.26 ypotueypaus paounyua ns poot ‘sauim on sq soy 01 steoys-sarnid u 2 ‘sadays yesmonus pu sadid "1eq WOO}, Put swOO}g OY sIOZUI L9ALOD 0 pasn s1 SUI}OR OH 4.94 moj9q mo pause st ZuyTOs pIOD PUE LY a40gR Ino pewiED $1 Bumioy 10H BupI0y prey 30. $8019 24) Uo poseg 10 199) psn yerou 24 Jo aan vvonoas att seq, 126 of svea/spou | sossed Guyjoy e625.¢ 1) Bujoy Gingg?” 54S —> 6918] steag —e 50 aieuey Sujou bes pejooo swoorg Buoy a6eis | 1 sido sobs | ur poy $S2001q Buyjjoy 40} eyo Mold zy ‘Bupseo ou] 10 1084] se 0} pastoyar s1 unswa pros ML & *Bunseo pyos ay mo ayR, # 1009 01 1 oIf2 pur Aino a4pfeious w ony aanyeseduzy yoasi00 ys low UIfOW paredaudjjaM UeD}> Nog» ‘oeumny 8 W elour wowow asedalg. 4 ‘2 uononpoud Zul Jo sp 24, rong sor ‘Sunny rod onde 2 Fa wonog 206} \ 03g; ot aor onoas sso fesinauood fu 2 Aa orp unwgge x wns “wHIQ9Y x ODE J0 YORE soH9 8 pu }eU [OE J LA] EAE rcduy oy moar eBusn 6 paug s youn 08 a4 1 Bufo wy ee es BURIS a ssaoo1g Bujou usdas 1p poonpoid 99 ueo syu9] Zuo] ur suoNDes 1) 7 | 29H] swuoUEdwIOD jeamMORUS “spos “IEG ‘sIeOYS “SqEIS ssov0ud Sumoy P=mdsy Tp “By Buveaq Veter de 001d wom Af wey unysoun 224814 24vy Zuypox yBnouyy psonposd swuauoduso; 109 204 Ut Ino paiED 2q ued 2291dys0M Jo BumOY ‘ssanasd aq) SareuIwOp Uonauy "UI ssanis entssaidwoo ut SuIonpu asordyom ay1 ezaanbs jm syfox SuNEIOY ssod st yanpoud jouy ‘249 Jo yonwo> 2s0j9 uoHanpoud sseu 01 jst sHayJo pur ss900ud BULON [PIDKH WCU a4 SI] ‘unisuon Surouraa aumnfon yi0) ayy Se ar0yk poreBuopD sya SUD] puE sasvaIDep LONE ss019 ayy. ‘|qvonseid pawojap st pur soai0y anyssaiduion 0} porsofgns st a021dqOm au, ‘tonpaud seo un uo Jose o1 pauayar Ajowou st Rujuado snug -pastnbas se 64 uanuip axe pur sSuuse0q uo oma yo Suyuado pateynas ySnowp uonauy Kq umesp s|anatdyiom ayy uononponul o'y ‘yoru 1 8890014 Bupmoenuepy§ Manufacturing Process wrrangements : The minim place is two anc the higher end is dict the set up ete. Ther 2 High rangement look like a planet movement += Tandem roll mill-when a continuous arrangement of ro ‘The term ‘mi ly used while referring to the type of rolling process. It signifies the sation involving the arrangement of rolls contributing for rolling and type ofr carried out. The term ‘high? signifies thatthe rolls are placed above the ground level ‘Typical cross section of different rolled products are shown for easy understanding. # Ingots 250 mm x 250 mm # Blooms 150 mm x 150 mm 4 Billets 80 mm x 80 mm. 4 Rods & Bars - 40 mm x 40 mm. ¢ Wires -2 mi Sm dia + . . + Slab - width 2 Twice the thickness approximately 160 mm x 80mm Pate - width > 60 mm and thickness > 4mm ‘Sheet - width > 60 mm and thickness < 4mm ‘Strip - width > 60 nm and thickness < 6mm “Types of Rolling - Based on the arrangements of the Rolls. +i) Two high mill Consists of two rolls work piece passes thro the gap from one end tothe other. One directional operation 0, ~ 0, = Rell centers ickness of work , = thickness of work at she outlet cemers Fig. 43 Two high mill Folin Process; ay By changing the direction of rotation ofthe rolls the rolling direction can be changed. Roll sp cun be varied by varying the center distance (C) between the roll, Mainly used for producing Blooms & Billets Three high mill (Looping mill) [In the above mill only one pass rolling is possible. In this mill three rolls are present with ‘hei centers in the same plane. Work piece is fed through one set of rolls and its thickness is reduced. The output ofthis is fed into the gaps of the other rll gap. Further reduction takes place, Rolling takes place in both direction by this simple arrangement. Lop Fig. 44 Three High Mit and 2= 1, and 3=% ands, is>t, Since the output of one is taken and fed into the second set of rolls, the work forms a loop as shown Hence its also named as looping ‘The mill has higher output Used for producing structural shapes like I-beam, channels, angles ete. Gap between Gap between Iii) Four high mill (Single backing mill) Has 4 rolls, 2 smaller colls which are the working rolls and 2 bigger called as buck up rolls. More rigid in con Is prevent Is behind small ion and higher reduction can be vartied out Geflection, ae apie 5 5 in soisryg 9p ig sas dren | Ayn oq sey p04 29 emg ee J urs anuges pu 2H ‘S03 dn yo2q oma Ka (0 ure ap 219 | 04 Bujoeg e1qnoq) jn saysnig (ny md Se By | { { I | yw Buoy Arejauelg (A sseooig Sumo n- ss90014 BusmoenueR (81 : 2 - work piece © or contoured surface very high igs. The center di ce between the axes of face called as camber to account for flatness maintenance sd through casting route or ig route 4.5 Metal face of the metal is deformed to the Roling Process, Fol work piece Felten n+ => out ind due co the rotation of ) ‘The roll gap can be varied by varying the center distance ofthe rolls 4.6 Difference between Hot & Cold Rolling > Surface finish is poor > Semifinished items like Bloo are produced > However, structu J 941 wo 19 axe sono03g, 10% pl09 305 .01-7=0 29 siaays 40 Bumjos soy 0% - $1 =0 sui0049 40 (xP) OF - p= ‘Buyjou 10g Jo aur ‘I Uy Jo anjea a4p Buyseasout 305 ‘1p wo ano 9q sn sonoas ‘nid Soyer Sutyo4 ON, o=oung= Hy gues Ht " er’ By woy—- gun= + uonowy joayfur= 6 aauof sognsey erp Bid (e)— Buyjorsoy on < > 10 pum <6un pua V, Volume rate of me constant per ut Ils, due to friction, starting at A, itis compressed vertically n of rolling. Is surface and the work piece. flow is constant ie. the volume ofthe metal passing through a poi Since there is no lateral spread bb = constant (assumed) Vtgb = Vet (44) ) Mela) Vis > Wj buts > 4 4s larly V, >V, ly V, > VS Vy 46) an Due to the variation inthe velocities of roll surface and work surface, there will be relative motion between them, i relative motion between the roll & the work pieve is referred to as slip. YnN Backward slip = “7 48) vow Forward slip = “7 (49) ‘The velocity of the work piece increases ste At one poi will be equal ly rom entrance tothe exit. the contact surface ofthe roll and work, the surface velocity ofthe roll the velocity of the work. ‘This point is referred to as “Neutral point” or “No slip point”, Volume Rate of deformation Volumeof work time taken for deformat ley (4.10) where b = width ofthe work (1-4) = thickness of metal deformed = Length of work T = time taken for deformation. zw) (or) Wey. so} Funmnsang wou YE—) = ns00 7 (rye eco {aff an Gt'p wottenbo ay Uy UIs 305 SuMINSAAS (0509-1) = DUS -MoUy am yosnp=¥ = OV ramn09jo30 yo uonoofoud yo yiu07 30 2402 donewsoyep jounsuoT="7 = OV pusy = “7 puso¥ = o¥ pus = OF ‘ovo.w wos ov era orn cry fry erp orp By anoge 04 wos auoz uojewuojep jo y5ue7_L'y ahs gus Yeats 7= 2809 | ate % WR - sy as youse-iense T= ase 2 (os00-1)20 " YE _ | <9 soo (pr'p) worrenbe aaoge ay) wos Ww sooo Jo 218 a} 2529200 0} BtHS 2q ISM *20U0H “dV, ani B30) NOU S10 S80} $1 89] 10 a10u 81y 3 Ye _| 2 ns00- =O OLy 2y woyy iyo! ayo stipe = ee ere ene aoe Bae | | | | an re YO _¥O Lng Sunoy 1 kxrm029 91 p14 OWA” WOH 1 21p 20uay ‘ayjou 248 ‘aug J0 ajBue 405 uoyssaidx3 Oly As'A Ayaojon g stiod we ‘sooid 30m ay) Jo wautonous ayp prea opus SIAL, "N01 g wos} uonsenp ays 298 nse Buinow S} 90910 wom 94) "AN 22RuNS UaaMIOg ="A ‘utes 24) au Jos pu 0m yo somAD0F98 24 AMHOd AY 2a OM 340% ax saysnA SI, Ac "N'0) ¥ WOU) Toe sao} orion 2yp aouay pur seyfos axp uEip 2amojs BulAow s} 99014 yom a4 WY eoE}NS YasmOg, CASAS'A som20)99, wg wa = 9 auyog Knug =v i ss2001¢ Supmoeynuey uoponme a2u0f wong “Sp BL Buyor us uonoYy Jo UONeMEA By a $8 tet Process oaae(eay} ay Now Exening (1-22) aun 21 tone — (4.22) Ar ar? ar Qe oes 4.12 Maximum Draft fe ae ~ OC bot 4, = JRBr from 423 OC = OB -BC trom geometry 08 = R = Ra, j Fig 417 Maximum Draft na = 425) ar Fis smat» canbe neglected equation 4.25 becomes Rai a0 = 26) tana = ) coef. offcton u ory? = a wed 428 Maximum dat au = ER but > tan a for rolling (4.29) ng thickness of the workpiece tha canbe rolled depends on Coef of fition Radius of the roll (R) Flow stess ofthe meta Inversely as elastic modulus ofthe roll (6) Ro, Limiting thickness is proportional to () ~ (630) 4 Larger diameter rolls and higher coef of etion allow heavy daft (or higher defoemstion is possi # tis possi greater draft if the work is pushed into the rolls 4 The work is accelerated prior to biting in order to make use of force of inertia, 4 Ifthe friction is too high the load becomes excessive ‘oral » 4.13 Roll separating forces uoqeunojap avojaqasnssand =" Luoneuoyep Jaye aunssaid = “d aioyys en wasp vous a4 Leon tmasanso% grargf = SR (ee) (61u0) |= "PH gprgscoy'g f = ML 2180 09 OFF tt finssaud yjor = a (duns yews) gp = zor 8 = cog romuo> jo 2}8ue = = GOV porooySau s} 2040) you geaaruy q paurego 99 wea sijar yy aresedas 0} BuIAN 20105 pur Bujou Suump a0ajd spom ag Jo peauds jesowy ou si ataup etp potunsse 81 20104 Buyesedas jJ0x jo uoReUIUUEIEG PL'y 0m ‘941 2wos10%0 0 pasinbau 2a10j siuasaidou vain papLUS cuosssaxdwoo snoouaGouiol aunyd ur (mau ai uuojap 02 pasinbas aa10y squasoudas gy sepun ea1y peo} Sunos o1 feuonuodoud st ag easno ayy Jopun vary ‘utod jexmau 2tp wiod 1381409 1 Jo peau sis}x9 aoRpans v yep BunseBns yulod yenmau a4p we paasasqo st yead dioys ON -yo step won pue yvodsauioo anyon "yew vsaypoau pur ¥pesd sour aunssaid jou soon Sumo uN [0 249 UEamI29 29405 aunssaed oy fo wonguasig 6rd saeu0o 39 978 yo ui6ua]<—— RAPT. amssaid you (ier ward 14 (or ea: (en “T4=¥ tpequo9 Jo ae aio «pu prsaosd ay 3HOM ay) JO 4, IpIA JOONPOAA = ¥ mq ew via = 4 unjou ays, “peop quan sd ammssaid you oyyoods uo, pom 29 Jou ay Jo 2oepINg eemaq vow IUOD = poo] Sunod = d peo} » reno St (99104 souersisau) opmuBeus asoya aaepns reraur ayn Kq pasoddo st si yerour a fo ssa sou a yotys 2a403 ay st peo] pauiajas ose ate soar0) Bunesadas jos 243, "20H0} Bupesedas jou ayy se Uyos 104 paropisuog you st y 21q18)/20u si 2x0} feuor>wy) Jo wavodwod fPORIDN aIp aDUIg sqjoa uo soo10g gry Bd 59010) enuaburrg > 10 Jos ap Jo uontsod axp avesedos 01 pus $2010} ay soasoy Surreiedas joy 2tp poe st (o UIs f+ S09 A) Jo.wns ayy, sscbaig GupmeiueL ve 1886 taratnctring Procens Entrance c= angle of bite 4.15 Roll Camber bending of Ibe set up given by equation 4.33, Forces along the roll length which try to separate the ro Roll separating force isthe summation ofthe vertical force components, Hence toreduce the deflection due tobe the rolls, the diameter ofthe oe kept ‘A more econo increase the rigidity. I way to reduce the deflection is to use backup rolls with larger radius to length. picce is more atthe centre than at width the ends. But with camber uniform thickness is Aoling Process Straight rolls will bend as shown in fig. 4.22 after deflection due to roll separating force ‘The surface of the work pieve will not be straight but gets convex surface, <> ee < Fig. 4.24 Camber rols after deflection experiencing roll separating force Considering the centre can be expressed as (434) F = Roll separating force L = Length of each roll sours s1 uonowy Jo 13209 se Bun pyoo ut peonpaxd aq ued yous ane JouUIA, < ({ poade Sunes +) poods Sufosayt 1 euospodond Asians} wou J0,5800) « anoge ® 70 [901 s0'0 wsampoq 81 Bu ey, paunsse $114 “uon.a¥y Jo yO wr UOHeLEA o4p amnseaUs OF jo 19NIUO9 Jo ase aM BU lod woy sara ue sooo} jevono4 ay) lox} sawoo peo} Suyfos Jo uoNDeN ase] < ey HOM 24) da0y 7p uononpas sarea18 aoapord uno s|jou dnyaeq hq pauoddns sos sorauseip (ews < ‘saspaioap worjuon Jo Dre yo w/8upy pur pro} Huson yoq sasvassap sayoUrEIp Lys age) aw BPP Ga =d % GPP dU) JoWwasd ayes w 7 sr toys ayp jo suejd axp Uy UoISUaI ¥9eg PuE IUOA Jo soUasaHd ay ‘aye ‘eng 2p aunzesaduray“{8unyjmout Ka paouan|gur se (egw axp Jo aouRIISeA UONEUNO}P BY, *E aootd;i0% op pu sos 94) Uoomiag YORDL "Z sa10urE1p 0 “1 sepoduy 218 sanaursd Suraoyfoy a4 ss990ud ButJ03 Uy jou uj siajowered jew ouL sty vopnos teva a Bua 205 post 2g su ampaood 04979 TOE BUSH 1y jo uo 51 got Peusojep v0 poses PEO BH = = (t= evarew os 4p 30), = 2 atau eer ss0ooug Guo en) cuoissaudxo O49 aq uaa st nyouniog 244, “pose 5} wymuso)yeonteues,Yoooyouty “I Jo anTeA ayp BNI! OL, smpoy now 9c td we ‘01 Y wos paseaxoUt yy sos ayn OM aap YUN FOeIHOD Jo aze ayn BuO} ‘pia sia 18 fay Buoy puog o2 pum SHON YL “T woe Jo sedis om a0epd Suny st Buy isuen aim parsouo8 speo| yBiy oup Befou 8 smpey [ld Lib prs au a am t paueaysan ae au a:4at*Sa0105 Bunesndas [Jos 0 amp SIX ond soy wou sos 249 yBnasnp a0a1d0% 341 01 euaneu jo ssans sways Moy ‘und ya ve 30g Jo ssauyoIN “und yxo pur aueid Aau9 uoaaiag aouesip = 7 3221) en— Fe EE 7 mss aunssaid 10H 9L'b nos 9 fo uonoarpea seb Bd 4 1p pro} Jo aunveu 9405 unoooe or sxoraey = Cy put 'y ‘249 Jo euaeusaxp Jo srynpou AupaRy = Hota jo eusqeu ag Jo srympous s uno, = J JO SDIO RY = ¥ Jaye € ROP $3 NOHO =F 1 8690044 mp <<< $$$ << << $e 96 rcturing Proce i 4 Deformation resistance of metal Higher dislocation density higheris the deformation resistance coarse grains lessen resistance for deformation & vice with the increases in working temperature the resistance to deformation decreases, ‘So also with increase in strain rate the resistance to deformation increases dl Tem 3) ig. 4.27 a) Effect of Temp om strength 2b) Effect of srain rate on rolling load 4 Strip tension » The presence of tension inthe plane of the sheet can reduce the rolling load. » Front tension can be controlled by the coiler where as back tension can be created by controlling the speed ofthe uncoier relative to the rol speed » Tension reduces wear ofthe ols, improves Natnss in the sheet, induces uniform thickness across the width of the sheet. > Tension is used to shift the neutral point towards the exi achieved when the exit velocity V, of the sheet is eq yew when forward slip S,= “= 0 the required condition is achieved. > Back tension is about twice effective in reducing the load as compared to froat tension. lane. Proper back tension is jwithout strip tension with front and back tension 2 Back tension only 3 - Front tension only g Entrance Exit Fig. 428 Variation of Roll Pressure > Both front & back tension euces the area under the curve, Slight shi towards the exit plane is observed the neutral point only bac tension the neutral pont moves towards the ied, the neural point eventually reac the roll ext. At the rolls are moving faster than the > only front tension is used the neutral point From Vor-Mises criterion in pane strain I move towards the roll entrance, 2 9-0-9, 439) p-o,) = aps where 6, = 6, = roll pressure (compress) (+ve) = p tension (-ve) the tension in the sheet =o, Roll pressure is directly proportional 4.19 Pressure Distribution in Rolling Ne Points Entrance Exit owape uo sas3.ys 26°6 Bhd wonosodo Sumoy Le Sey yun se uoyer 5 -kBuau9 wonuorip ayn -¢ Jo Buang Pla, amp “g loNeALOJEp onSE|2aIp “L "HEISUOD 51 JON a4 Jo Aa}20194 a9EJINS aN“ s ’ € z “aurjd ureusas suonsas yeoman aun) "wens aueyd se patapisuos aq ura Bu 1PIU09 Jo 218 24p uo Staiod + snoauafowoy s} uonewoyep ay 1<anssaid os an 90g puro a 8 paSoxou 5 wise io 4S EN p9pN|NOD 99 eo quod (9: Paonpassianssaid wrod ‘mos 2nsna ayn yp paonou (08 ay jo apis saya uo payjdde Bujaq .0 Jo uorsuay [Jou vsapIsuo3) : ¢ aang) 1wiod jennou au ‘4p 0 Burpuodsa1io9 soniu0n jo aur ay s1“Q"2se9 5} ayp wep 39]s09 s1N320 pure poonpa si aanssoud vad ap Suotsu fe Kq rep sovenpur siy aes 180 ue weaned soya amssaud 80 ;psonpaospe st aunssatd vad 248 purr oraun Jo 31824 3 asvaioap Noys anno ayp MON, “yo0g ay st 1f9 Se 1003 \dde st ,0 Jo worsuay jor wHp awnsse sme]: Z-aaing »souBiy 249 1 pautmgo aunssasd oad uy 0= "0 ="0 poydde axe suoisuan jos ON od jernau ayp yotyy 18 198IUOD Jo a1 UE ‘ap st 'g aueyd xe atp spuemor soseaisop Jar pu aud jrsinau oy Ye WiNWA}xet ‘soqonas pu toejuo Jo aue aq Buje sasvarous aunssaud ay) wth Uaes 2q we “uy v9 a4) Woy amnssoud jou jo uoNeUBA aip SOA SIA: | 20un-) ‘vojsuo [2 Jo UawaBueum aun Burmoys fy “Bly PUE 6z'y By UL Uaoys sydMAs a4 J9pIsHOD, “Fo $1 vorsua} sty, “uorsuar youg 20 Ind 984 Jo UN 01 anq sy} a4 Jo Aargo}an ayp wep S59] 24 ‘248 40 ono: Jo fajoojan ayy, "sde jou axp o} aoaid HYoM ayn BursHOFaL puR BUIRMON 29 ILM sapulsun sty, Tepuysun & uisn £q Jind premvyoeg or paoelqns 9g Aww 001d 0m ayy UMS 0 ay ur aynsan “y st uorsuar sig, 24) J0 Ap0Fan ayy UEY) a10U st 1109.94 f4490}94 ay, "s9aId LOM a4 01 Pay 11 Aq sajoo v Bursn Aq ind premsog 0} parsofqns aq Kew aaaidyoM ay, 'WonoW} Jo wwe}yja09 BuyseaxoUs yao sastaxoU aunssaud yead SIS ‘wor Lg, 0%) pae> Syeuson st yurod yesynou oyp e aunssasd ead ou, ‘Aysnonutnuos saseaisap Jaye arayp qurod penneu ayy 0 Azo aap wy Kjsnonunuon sasearous .d, unsaid jos ay, 14g tatactring Pre ‘The origin ofthe coordinate system XY is taken at the mid point ofthe line joining the centers 0, & Oy. 0, & 6, are the stresses acting on the ex ides ofthe work inthe Consider the forces acting on the element of length ‘di’ ‘p= pressure exerted by the rolls on the work the direction depends on the relative Considering the equilibrium ofthe forces acting on the element in the X-direeton. [Atany point of contact between the work piece and the roll surface the angle subtended = 8 “The stresses acting are the radial pressure p and tangential stress © = pp 440, Radial pressure p p.R.20.sin0 y 6 4 PR.d? cose pao P.R.d8.cost) ww.R8 up.F.8.cost) pore %, 1pR sin Nat up.R.dd.siod j1pRa@ sind upd cos0 Tangential Stress Fig. 433 Force analysis on the element ‘These stresses are resolved into horizontal and vertical components, 3 Face of the element, uniformly Also, 6, is assumed to be acting on the ve Fting Process us ‘The normal force on the face of the element = p. dr.1 = p.R.d8.1 ‘The horizontal component ofthis force along x-direction is p.RdO. sin @ (6,49, ).2(y +d) 14 0,2y.1 ~2p.R.dd sin 0 + 2 WpR.dB.cos 8 =0 Since @is always small we can take sin 8 > @ & cos 0» 1 1 (0,+40,) 0+ dy) ~0,9-+ p.Ra®. 8-2 ypR.ad =0 9,9 +0, .dy+ y.d0,+d0, dy-o,y + p.R.dB. 0-pRd) =0 Neglecting higher order terms we get. do, + 0,4) HpR.d8 + pRa8.6 = 0 This can be written as 4Q.0,)~pR(u-8) 0 =0 Rearranging the terms we obtain J 00.)-W-pk=0 For cold rolling the friction force is assumed to be small ‘The prinicipal stresses inthe element can be taken as ©,=6, 0,=~p (compressive) Since plane stess is considered, the third principal tress og = SSP 2 2 ce and €, =F [62 ~y(0, +05)] = 0 for plane strain Poissons ioy = 5 _ in plastic deformation oto, (0,+0,)=0 and o,= ora (an ~ (4.48) (449) ~ 4S) Bs Yous. sour yous 04 uy. W ° aw ty, we" (eouarajunnosis oye a/Bue 20141 ov = nav se pawnsse- gy aod yesmnany~ y jod nx9-g S juiod Kava y ou=gy=avay 92) 5 tag)+ (22% « (9%) o-( hats @) (3 ie 138 am ‘oz £4 no ynoutp Supa Sou \® os = ard (tg) + (22 \@ ssn oad (0) (4 iz ee sawooag (y6"4) vonenba 109 pournsse st «* soupoud 2, sesmarnurfossan oe a= Gisele[s(d or] © 24 ues am 20a} 309 2h sf 13 30 380) Sony) tes o=4d (21)-[«(4- or) 198 am (2p) pue (get) wo “0 Sunnurunig es “oz = d¥'9a1 fop = {d+"0) 10 ‘= ss80014 Buumoeusyy om ig for y from equation (4.57) into equation (4.56) we get "}A(1-52-)s rw 8 (%o,}=0 Iss meni "\a(z }s00=0. a 2 1 (Pho,) = mage) 20 8 fe where C = another constant Manufacturing Process - (458) (4.59) 14.60) on (Sp) (4.628 (463) oling Process From equation (4.52) p +0, = 20, thy Atte begining ofthe eng, equation 4.69 will become 146s) =i 6,.= drawing ses yeh pation 62) becomes Lo a ewision asrybecones f= ¢ {om (4.651) where fim fl 1466) G, = constunt Chefore te neutral point seach Hence C, on Forte region beyond the ne 2 Cy ew he = Ge (468) 469 cen ortynt my stuymaq yova saysd areurxoxdde un pareylo> oo st su S90] somo aos 99m azar you ayy suoddes vip Buyeag ap w wonaq oF ang, sBuneag ul sso] 4amod Ezy 60g mOJ2q Uantd se aUOp s1 UONEUISD SSO} 80] mod JO UOITEUAISD 198X9 2041S ‘Kuo [eeu Jo worrruoyop 405 pouinbas Jowod ayp s9n18 SUL Way = siojaw ut = 0 suoImeN UF = io prowot fo ouasnsooqy 26 $y 000109 NU ou wy = wy0d 10 0 Proud =988/ aia = Jame N (suv) sijor atp Jo vonso1 Jo paods an st V 41 uwn~ Pudy =a (1) 2 = OR 61 fenba sf auop 0 ai Pasjonus 01 10% ow axe axaKp aOUIS ‘uz 0} pnb 2119 Jo dauarqunsi9 ap ue sou d peo} Bu 2p fos doy 2p Jo woNmonas F304 “Zep amy axa w wn os uty 7 sapisu03 #8&$ prs sont oun ode = 'y onbioy, Suyou 104 0) 519 = Y (cen 2, wn mewn aa aeraa oi pasn LMP = T= y ones 2 03 941 Jo ssayuaa Jo ou uoysuay jou 9 01 pati 5} so%o (ee p (cep) “Hyd yeuynau apo Suspuodsauoa zy so anyea aya 298 wea ms (1p) pur (QL'p) UI Sutin SHY 94N BuHIENba AQ NON, evorsuaustp wou ay soy uossoidxa 2 (Zo) uowenbe w (69°) pur (49) SuonPRbo woyy"> pu “7 jo sanjen mp Bus i s38c014 Suumaejngen, 38 ta tnctring Proce (typical value lies inthe range 0,002 - 0.01) 1 = 3 %F (assuring rolls support on two bearings) d= diameter of bearing = angular speed, 4.24 Rolling of Structural Shapes tural shapes such as L,L.U. ete are produced by hot r Is ure used for the purpose. Red stands. The design of roll pass is extremely complex and lot of experience is required purpose. Contoured or Grooved rolls are used for the purpose, and shape is obtained, Grooves provide increased coeff. off ed in the following paragraphs with illustrations Structural shapes Structural shapes of various Cross Section are produced by using grooved 4) Types of Structural shapes produced are Beam Sect Channel Section T-Section ——_U- Section Grooved Rolls are used for the purpose Folin Process ma CLO 1 Beam Section bb: Grooved Rolls Fig. 4.33. Rolling of structural shapes Ne 80° Turn 90% 1 Fig 434 Rolling Sequence for Squares 15 Fig.443 Mannesman Rolling Mill Fig. 4.44 Pilger Roll Mill STEP -Iil > F pulling force Mandrel Fig. 445 Tube Drawing 342m seuio99q onpord aun pu sated 2x9 jo vOREAUO|20 spoT seqiey ‘ow 0141 onpoid axp Bupremdas sxpe39 aIpos0un saanpoue sd" se apisui urewras yon sayeas jo Budden 01 speary sa1od yeusonyy - BupHom 1eIaW UI s}o9}0q_gz"p “ssvo04d Styyossapun papnows yn o9mi fo seeE Spf Bb posnoiues, “9am fo Sunpoy (9) opp Seg oureigo st 90s Srp By ur umoys. ULL "woNDeS s8010 pasnper WF O1 sy Buyjax yBnowy passed Kien su Bayou "1 i epvew eae uewanoy vo 820014 Busou ssoo0ud yong ystd fo souonbos gp'p ty 10 5! Auneo—me Bursn apn moHloH 5113109 aoyoH 24 Ut 904 8 98 22mg eeu souerajuanasto a4) uo sulof ue ynoxny aqna v 0 siayan Sag ssajusEag, ‘8P'P-9P'P Bly ur souueW eRUONbos w UF UeAOus 8} ures ayy ‘01 paunouoo ei o snipes ut woponpes snonuinLo9 tpi Aoajsooons[azpucu © yum Buoy sos pamoruos usawraq de oxp Yash wap st 2114 ‘wolfoy au) vat, 1p © pue yound w Buisn aya 2 u ou w BumeasD ut sstsuo9 SsaD0Nd ay sse00id youeg ysng (q 1 ss9001g BuumseymeRy 102 anuactrng Process 1) Barrel Duet eto atthe edges, barrel action takes place. With heavy reductions, the centre tends to Outer surface expand laterally more than the outer surfaces to “eC = produce barelled edges. > ‘This is due to excess friction at the contact Suter suace (outer) surface than atthe center Fig. 4.49. ig. 4.49 Barelling Non ut ‘When the rolling conditions are such that only er surface of the work piece is deformed, The Ze ‘of slabs deformed into the shape shown infiguee. This 1¢ 10 Non uniform deformation due to var Fig. 4.50 Nor Fig. 4.1 Alligator Cracks iv) Others ¢ 1. Hydrogen cracks - Due to excess H, gas inthe metal and internal cracks appear through atthe cross section inclusions. fe t0 trapped metalic scale and other ies and hence change in properties ofthe metal. xy get inside the metal Roting Process, gg b) Defects in Rolling product : operational - thickness = the work across the width in sheet rolling occurs because the roll gup is not @ ind volume are constant and thickness is varying, the edges elongate more than (b) the center. Roll edge} edge "work feont (wledges elongate Y ‘more than the centre of the work wavy edge Edges are in compression center is tension Fig, 452 Waviness But the sheet isa continuous body, the strains readjust to maintain cont ‘Thus the center portion is in tension and the edges are in compression. (c) ‘The result is a wavy edge. (d) ity oe oreo apzriz = 001 x 228 = vonanpasy Rulon oH Poyrow yoy emp ss300xd ypoq Jo) vontanpas arusos0d ayn ugo'g6z = yw ogg = uimpg9¢¢ = 9€69~00¢ = ry) = uwoe gy = Povpons jr wos Su4j00 0H, unugzg =") -: —oo=sL vm 9) = wwe = oy powou | wos Zuq}02 10H, ‘guys ay Jo ssouyouyy jeu ay a1enoye9 *wo|goud axoge axp ers monger tumgg'e9 = 2jqissod ry uononpas xeyy (9s010) 009 = (9630 1009 = (695'9¢ 09 ~ 1) 009 = 19 oflS'9 = (990) T= 009 ‘ rizun 9) = gocgz soo Rent = 96% pens wos Zz ery wor Poway “ir tuuigy, = wow npatajaissod wns (000s) = “iy wUiz6'T = ononparojqssod ees (008) (800) = adi = BuyaupIeo, POWaH T $8{ sng Bato z 09 01 10430} 800 = 1 voy {9 Bu 104 30} wus OnE = —L = y gp79= nfm Ogg = /BUINI01 pjo>.104 4 =" ‘eq UaKID iS 0= Huy ‘SWaIGO1d PEXLOM ‘Suny uowpu0s aionas sapun (q) Suryoes9 apa 01 Surpeay ap sploy a8po ag) anew 22404 jeuon ou aq ang Jo}Ua9 uF IP Sosta.OUL YIBUD] ay syonia 8p 65 iy ‘np sinoae : Buyoes9 aBpe (a) In seso0ug Busey 2) s08po yo ujpunos w Buia yeuarew Buppen apy 5466 matting Proce Problem : 43 If the max. reduction in rolling of stab is from 25mm to 20mm, calcu friction, Take the rll diameter as SO0mm. Also find the length of proj jon of are of contact. Given: 4y=25mm.1,=20mm R=Amm K=?, Ly=2 2R=SC0mm bt = 25-205 5mm from cosa =1- 2R = 1-¥o0 L {00 je, cos 0 = 099 a = 0050.99) = 8.11 se angle of bite a = 8.11 we know = tn = tan (8.11) coef of friction e = 0.1425 Length of projection L, = RAP ofare of contact — = 350) 1, = 3535mm Problem : 44 Determine the angle of bite, length of projection and maxim rolling as well as in hot rolling forthe conditions given below. Raw material : 400mm thick slab Diameter ofthe roll: 00mm Coeff of fiction t = 0.06 for cold r = 044 for hot ro ’) We know we tan a= tony = tan! 0.06) = 3.434" reduction possible in cold c= angle of bite ii) Max. reduction 0), =aR (0.069 (400) 1.4mm for cold Roling Process = An), = (0.4)? (400) = 64mm for hot roll 8 Length of proeoon ol,= VR = J@00%Ta% ---in col ling = 24mm = {400 x64 ---inhot rotting = 166mm Problem = 45 coc of rton in cold olin is 0.08, determine the length of peton of ao contact ection pos sla afer rolling, iv) the velocity of the slab atthe exi pressure forthe fo eral spreed width ofthe slab = 80mm = b, Rat 800mm = R, Thickness of the stab = 400mm = ¢, velocity ofthe stab at entry = 200mm/sec = y, Rolling load = 14MN = P. ')/ Max. reduction possible = WR = (0.08) (800) = 512mm tion of arc of contact bp = JR R001 = 64mm, ickness ofthe slab after ro W f00= wm ogI'0¢ = © 019 a rs0= MINGLE (2) ag) 8e NxaM Namuy WINING not (vs'ee) axme xt 80L9% Treg) BY Y aos po og 1M. pasinbos 190g = 2uopyioM INNING O = ‘7 INNES ZL66bF = oat oer poeg * 0008019 xz = tae = "Ww anbuoy, NIKBOLD = a Nooongou9 = 809% 00" _ d so (sous) _ (0z-s2) 00g = qamnsqns uy ro us oy, a ost nouy 2m paynusou09 9g pounsse st peo =m hod Buyjou plo>.oy va woe = loo sv0= 20 S0= shot =5(0% eq) =wose =n ‘wggg = zloost = Z/a = a uy wupor=4 10910) ndWW 006 %9 Fu 11 pauinbas Jamod pur anbuo1 oy 20) wapy Ose = ainssard you oyrDads ayp ayey,Torau a au Burj00 plo9 305 SHO pur Bu} 104 30) 9 = Y 4H "WING © PAORPAL S| SSAUyD!IN ALL, widagg2 1 yoy "Hp waugog| ® usm poyou syn wiGZ pu opE wUUOOY Jods WMUIMIY ‘i OP: waqqoig eaIWPP ELZ 0 WIN ph Ele = {uaa aunssud on ay}90§ (n das ¢6s°202 = A : (ae'460)'4 ‘pues rwrasuoo suinsse SuyJos ut yeiow ayy Jo 2umnjon yweRSUED 10} NOUY aM Wx 241 8 ges 2tp JO AitaO;2A a4 (At ugg p6E = zs- 00% = 4 ‘oo = a's I sssc01g 6unmseynuey 291 $99 rtctring Process P from Pan P 30 = Ox 6708 P = 8749600N = 805 MN Torque M, = 2Pa = 28.058 x 0.03 =0.483 MNm Work done = 2% 2na x P = 4n (0.03) x 8058 =3.035 MN.m Power required W = (dna. p) N = 3085 «4.1677 = 12.648 MW Problem : 4.7 A200 mmx 5 mm steel sheets Calculate) the final thickness ofthe sheet ii) maximum possible red thi bite and the iv) location of the neutral plane. Take coeffici =01 |) Assume no widening of the sheet. The area has to be required by 25%. Since b = width is ‘constant = thickness is reduced ng 400 mm dia: thickness final thickness 1,5 075%, = 0953) Final thickness of sheet = 3.75 mm ~Roller Rolling Process, ay jt) maximum reduction possible in thickness t reortire = [2S _ [las __ fonezs crane ofbie = P29 - [25 _ [one = 0.0791 rad R ro 200 Sag 00791 7.308 x 0.0791) iv) Location of neutral plane ST7)= 14606. (300159 = 14.606 (0.52384) a, = 74651 cuore = [ocee's + (ecvo-yszil¢0 = (e1v0xsel OSth. 2) wey OSCR = wt} Lot oe [ah won Na tg amodgemoy en nf tal win 9'1 = 05 x (80'0) = yet = “ay ssounaryp wt uoHoNpad agyssod winUEYY (1) ebree= pes assur = OF f= YN a wes) T= B= gQV =on9 jo2i8ue () eu 820014 Suqou iso is 800 = wonouy 0,490 Fi wiz =" uwoce= 2 2s i= ose= gee gWN 022 = wHa}EU aN Jo SA, wage <4 wup =") von ‘utod yeamau jo wonrsod seyndue (i ssauyotyy Ut uononpas ajqissod wnuneyy (1 a9 Jo affue (1 puns "eaW OZe = dis axp Jo °K aBEIOAR au (won2A| Jo 4909) g0'0 = tui 503 Jeraureyp wr gpg Suysn wr z¢ 0 paqju s dias |2ois you UNM p Y Sr: waqgosg ‘upd fennau jo ajBue= GON perzeco pesacoro= OB xav6= 2806= (S910) [g z |= OAL [t69'. + (uL98z'0-)~ 01 Usoe+ (eo (a [ssu(ge)ora] tn s80001g Buumseynueyy Manufacturing Process wt? Eaart| Fo, ty ty sf [250 . | too 2 ((3 0000] ate) ae oe average yield ied analysis). Given D = 900 mm, R=450 mm reduction nes required = 25% of the metal thickness 25 = [=x 40 = 10 mm isthe final thickness requ Ftp 40 = 10 mms the Final thickness reg ied, = 40-10=30mm b= 750mm 15 Fotng Process Yield suength ofthe metal, = 150 MPa 1p = magnitude of pressure required for rolling i) Maximum reduction’), = WR Possible = (037 (450) = 405mm ing load Pisgivenby P= pbi,= pb. Ur = 150%750 J@50%30 = 13071.375 KN ) Re QUESTIONS Re 4.1 With asimple skeich explain olling process. 4.2. What items can be manufactured by rolling process ? 4.3 What steps are being followed in Rolling process ? Explain, 44 With the help of. 45 Give the class 46 Give the typical cross s 47 Based on the number of sketches. 438 Write a note on Rolls used for tion of Rolling process, Briefly explain each one of them, Is used forsolling show the different 4.10 Differentiate between hot rolling a 4.11 Derive the necessary minimum co lane of entry, plane of lagging and leading zones point on the ell from entcy for angle of bite and explain how it varies w.ct the radius of the roll. n for the length of deformation zone (length of are of cont 4.16 Derive an expres 4.17 Derive an expres ‘possnosip st ssonoid ‘$8 IN TAADMOH “THOU aHHOD 54 uoIsnaxe J0j pasn jeuareW e's ‘p09 sued papniyxo jo uoneonddy 2's pessoa fo 98t0y T'S iy popnass 99 109 97 ADVIIVEMO0n paonpoud ag uno sadoys pave 19s 88019 seyn#as jRa|AUIOA Ke} yo soqm papnayxe aq ues ein sedeus 15 no9s 1°Z uononponuy 0's ou vote shieuy WS 83nd *swa|goid PawOM LOHSNAXA Joyed moi4 BIO 6's: UoL sionpoud par ax9 U1 8199}8q 01'9+ Uossr sepwog uasmieg dusuoneay 1g! uostup jo seep ew g' ! 2010} 20 Jo peeds (r‘aumesedwi Buowons (e vojsnuna jo ed “uorsnaxa was psu jo sBdKur y's : uorsruIxe 10; pas 5} epnunxa Jo uoweorddy z's * pepnupro oq ueo jeu) sadeus 4's ‘ uononpanuy 0° 7 ‘s]uayuogy i) Direct extrusion Manufacturing Process - It [o-Plnger Hot biter (rat cylinder ig. 5.1 Director Forward Extrusion LLL Hollow Cylince ; Plunger Hor Bi —— Product .=Dia of the cyngor Hot placed in the forces it through the die, Hot fition. The Fig, 5.1 Shows the arrangement, 1 of movernent of ct extrusion Consists of a cylinder closed at one end with a hollow plunger. Hot eylinder und plunger is plunger. Fis the force applied on the xtusion we {As the plunger moves forward, the metal is forced through the die and moves opposite ta the rection of movement ofthe plunger. felowerand the 2) Extrusion Ratio (ER) 3) Working Temperature 4) Speed of deformation (Ram Speed) 3 1, Type of Extrusion yve between the die and container w: Extrusion process can be Director Indirect mentioned already. Fig. 5.3 shows the variation jon of ram speed on pressure (EP) is the ratio of applied force acting per unit area of the cylinder. ep=4/,. P= Applied fore A =area of the eylnder= aren fb nside the eylinder, Ram speed or plunger speed or Deformation speed is the speed at which the plunger is moving against the bi ‘of plunger movement, I can be seen that there is rap rise in pressure during i ‘compression of the Indivect Ram speed Fig, 5.3 Variation of extrusion pressure & Rem speed oduuy {094 1 wonalg 20104 feUONIA °s vou saonpoud paods wes 941 Suse. 12U ay) Jo uoneMIOyep Jo paads se owes a4 $1 jy a4) anu0y 01 posn st Jopuyjk>24p w! wey wos Jo pals ay Susuado ayp tp ymax paadg soBunid 10 (poadg wey) uoneunojag Jo paads “y Ppnurxa {sea oq uo 2au04 Pur Jos SowH0eq jeIouL 1eanoyop sosva1ou! uossnayy9 Jo aumgeuaduay aap sy yoy woyoofog 6°s Sty ‘uy, s2seaisep yrr2ut 24 Jo 20uRN summapdng 54 ere 941 0 Avonseyd jquuns aptaoid jy yor aumezadwo wnutuna 2x9 asm 1 smoaBewUEApE: ‘aptaaud 'sun220 joo) put oip Jo uiwayos “s]o01 pur [eau Jo uoH ‘rmesaduia Suiseatous yi aourrssr onrwsioyap 20 ssans moy wi oseazgap ay fo afewweape 2Yr1 01 OP s fIaU Jo UOISRIT¥D OH einjeredwias Buppom “¢. reuse ago 4 wea = ‘o ya wo~ [ror% sors} = 9 (oud ssid utsanay BuBH0% PIED ea vos ronpoid ip Jo $'9 30 wae = oy vita 24870 $9 700010 = oy wo ayy = 420i) W reqs eae rang (od) aunssaad uoysnanxa ye ay) ma rs By = yg ons uojsnaneg euod= 3 f—~sebuna ‘24 Jo won2as ssor9 Jo pant a4) 01 rapun}Ad lp Jo todas ssox9 Jo Name aif Jo one ap St YA, (ta) oney uoIsnaxg °% pirasip up 2yaus au pur ase uses Burseay tem sepu}6> aun pure 13 sseo0ig Buymgeyngeyy ay 9 ay) a1OJOIOUE 4) u99ANI9q WONOU AANEIAL OU St aI8KR WOISKAxS WANPUE UL + 9 araputecturing Process - ‘The presence of friction is due to the contact surfaces ofthe die and the re increases the pressure required for deformation, Excess friction may obstract ie cracks, Hence, lubrication is done at the contac is of extrusion Extrusion ean be vertical type or horizontal type. 3-20 Mn (30020007) Extruded shapes : 5 ~ 200 mm dia ros, tubes, ‘pto 800 mm inside di All polygonal shapes, Ram speed : 20 ~ 40 Mian, Extrusion ato: 40:1 10400 | [for hot extrusion of ses! and Aluminium vespectively} ‘Operating pressure : $000 = 20 Nim al: High alloy steel 5 to 8 mm wall thickness. rect extrusion - vertical or horizontal type Die used : Flat faced die le = 90" Flat faced die Fig, 5.6 Extrusion dies 5.7 Relationship between variables in extrusion Inthe fo ‘The process ratio are elated ables, Extrusion pressure, speed of extrusion, billet temper ‘ough a single graph as shown in the Fig. 5 ’) Speed of extrusion extrusion 5 High pressure Max sion catio Low pressure Extrusion Ram and more for law speeds of ram (ER2). li) Extrusion pressure For the same ER ~ high extrusion pressure needs low bil High pressure ~ Low pressure ~ Billet moves slower, loss of temperature occurs and hence need temperature. becomes too silf to be extruded, mele ‘on extrusion n can be obtained by the intersection of the curves P —For high speed - Low pressure Q-For low speed - High pressure facts ~55) = area of area of product K = extrusion constant depends on f deformation & stress. let Jn, inhomoge panow Sjjerxe-09 ag uno jarpueus pue JeBunyd 21, sqouomoyy aynig fo wos 6S“ ee oe reunid 01104 ¥ "pu fa oat voces uojsnayxe aqny (A! wa a a ona Sraurmacte eee ee arenes N an ‘ apuyéy —-—Yoquiego aunssaud wo} ay) 01 uo paydde st aunssasd wre A sina sante pra os See iaeee Meera SP ‘onins asjnuue aun aup aun yt 2) Sy -Butuado a1p 24p 0 P Dr yoy ‘pany oyMeApy 24p 07 wo paxydde 3 1p uanyy “Prny o¥fserPAy yuEX payly S! pue uonod axp ayy sasnoy JoquY> IF unoys SP “aquiEyD asnssazd mo] Sv polfe9 uoniod ayp ayy mofoq JepuUI]Ko papuaixe uv jo sisisuo9 di yas ayy, “puny aH MEIpAy e Bussn papnanxe aq weD speU aU Woyew THUG JO UoIsMAyXg oysnspegy oosoap6y 8° Sey pposn are | : 902 30 ons uorsrunxa Yai winqURUNye 2yN pune Jo ones worsnanxe yar [228 PIN “P2sn St CaN 0/30N 2010) uoysnuyxe 10} s|skieuy 11's 93) ~-0rm209(222) anna (5 ax) 4.0 L'0+.Car+a) E ope'9~ sami ap ‘ aanssaid vorsnnxa ayy] soepns Kamoy cng 1 ays 2 0 Hone 20109 24 a A a wausay2 ay uo Bunk a) lusty 7p aa uaty axmesodwon ysipy | sojnoas: A7ysIy sey 2oepng “«Peoy aayssardin0.), ys Uon ‘one aap UOISHAKD ‘lua © uy ey 01 snoZoreue patopysuoo sue 30 oY ai asaya ~ Bg LONI sunt amndunny eee ‘uonow £poq pid # Se paxapisuod st (eLayeW Jo MOY aUN B12YAK “A — + Ks ere eee rau Rese Sune Tena a Gb J0 9}8ue 2u09 g1e4 Kq poyewsixoudde 2q uo ouoz l 2 vonesedoud pou sadoiday, | uy saiod yeuss yo a5uasaia aoa ead s8pounjs 8! 29044 soym oY JOU OW 2124 2402 ——— sossuncy my sous 9009 #1 ° : poe Soonpuy ‘aumsodra ty tonpoxd aip ut padden ————»’ pusd | fr aap poaprxo sa 24nJ0 UNS | use MUA Jo sooHd EWS ods ur qi jo 2500 SUN Boge 2 STU) wOIAN ToRaAp TaN usu eo} pads Hey YBN CO cx ejoypuodiad oes) | syoesy seansueay ‘3 anssaid ‘avpins zeynsount Kia, ‘opps yinoy “t psvod wosen STAT Pa wont bus at A uauoae a 405 uoseay pe Santen uy 'sia499 40 sap aap “aqges BuwoHo) ap UY a sjonpoig papnaxa ul si99jeq_ L's ss2o0ud Sujoy uy waned way ou yo eH ov ousodd Sexe st raed oy a gu PORN Ae gop 0 aA sso a4 MAUGN PHOS po won ouyy maxim 210}99 se 2980|9 awi09 pue passoiduloo 198 spus8 yeUaZUOY oULL “paanpar si pUEG 7p e00 ar Aouopuaratp pue uot] Jo aouasud ay 1 anp paonpals} von Jo aprnue ayy, i“ uoReouani WIM (q ss uoisnnea n= seeo0ig BupnioeytueN, —————— oss 18 a eoting Process It from Von Mises criteria, ¢, ~ 0, = 0, % 6, (5.8) Do, +2{-0,-0,41. cot a~9, 1. cot a] dD =0 da, -2{o,(1-+ 1. c0t) + 0,4. cota] dD =0 2D [oullucora)+6,,neora] ~ D as, 2ap [Bp, sa] 7 YE Benet 1 18 In (Bo, + (1 +B)9,)=2 In D+ C (constant) Solution is given by Bo, +0,(1+B) = CD* aExit o,=0, D=Da o+6,(1+8) = CD™ = ge Bull +8) ayy Aq uaa? snyy s1"s uononpar wmuurrew ayy ‘('0 =*"o) 0 on nba a ose yy 0 ‘enous a ms pus 29% ap.ny UES Joi a4 19) ‘peo « ‘0 {21 jo Buuapiey rons asonas a} wana 30d oq Yor 0g a uneup aio aun) aston a pty st 246 Jo Suracag Suymeap uy (ssed auo) eaxe yo uononpai ajqissog wnuixeW 69° 30 2999) $A 3 coe Suyserg ax (rg) (or 1 se00014 Suprise ono rnomin 2! yp ='o T W/, = 'o sans Sumnig * ay eee wah pm ap oie ae eaves oye ums yusuos woy 4” hq +t Supnidas yay fmt pa ove ds a) cao t= 7 wit vel om uoueunojap snsed u'y')= "Vy = A aug ‘uonouy Jo souasqe atp uy 4 egos mos 7 o=4 4 A a ap ayy wr ata aun BuULIOG UF CEA UH ‘Swnjon yun sed wonewLojap snoaueowoy 404 YH) MOU OM ING pg amtating races 6.6 Expression for true strain and fraction reduction deformation isthe constant volume relationship. lationship, the sum of total strains in any three mutually perpendicular direction i zero, €,te,4e,=0 resses and strains predominate in 6.18) then the axial compressive True stain (6.19) (6.20) " u ing compressive strains is reversed so that compressive stresses and strains are [n metal working, the convent ed 2s postive, but volume is constant Aj, from (621) g lL Wire Drawing: approach _—~| Regions in the die Zone t ~~ (623) casing —~ Bearing Surtace (79) 6 ee 3 amRap sx om sa 0 URL 4 soa ost sans Susnig 4 peg cei 99 Fi.04 (79) ad 0 poeta, v) “aiaissod “Key 3 3 ampsnpe! ; poe i nang say eae vornpa ojo ait ='y we buyin wwonesado ‘uyweap u aedopund 20u Soop 10m yUepunpoy asaud st :on iwepUNped pu aUOd!EKo 39 Oey won asnnag anaoy yeonavoaqn 241 ung 2H0Us Yom st BubmEIP 205 pasmnbes 2040} yeMIDE-H, ssons Bumeia 89 (00¢) 0001 (orz) 008 sz900 ost (081) 009 (ost) 00s sero we {so ose (06 006 osc seo one) wre (ca) sseag pue wos, | muy 9;9UUEp aN Cunu/py) wry paads Buysesa "9 2108, np ar pande Suny fo onan, 9°9"Bg : ua paeds sumer ‘Suemeup yo poods op soy asym ay Uy ‘soarfop Jo spospuny oy Sasi aunieaduy Su 21p 9 UF LONDH OY anp pareiouad way axp Xq SyuteUE ‘um Usp £i9A #40) Uy gg OL aIeUHOAPJaBLP| JO) WIAD WO peods Buymeia 9'9 24) Jo uosseage siuonaig o1p 241 sanvay atm ay se Ay Jeua4 eq, auo7 xa padeys jag y~ 7 207, ‘anid soy Uononpar ON “Ip ay jo"Imo sewoo 1 se jonpoud yp sapin8 - sanjuns Buea ~uomrado ayp 01 Ages ppe or 2402 yeorspuy|ko woYs ayBENs y ~ ¢ auoz, ‘04d SoyP Jo}aweIp UF UowaNpas jemIae -jom Jo {awa yioouss 40g “ur BuNYLOM Jwo1UED YW ~:Z 9u0Z joa stp uf ~ fur yovaxddy tn se0001g Bynmpeynveyg ge 208 + 6.10 Expression for drawing force in wire drawing Cylindrical rod drawing with a conical die (a, 4, 6, are const —— ’ wot VW pe Wie Drawing of. Rod WC PT SN produce Fig. 67 Wire Drawing Wire Drawing ag Foren Considering force components acting inthe ax jon ofthe small element in the working zone. ion. 4 Due to change in longitudinal S38 (6, #00) 4 (D+ dD? ~0, 7 O° 4 Due to die pressure on the circumference 4 Due to frictional force atthe circumference, ‘Under steady con: ion these must bein foe es + no. loose = Forefoot) nave (x08 Jone «0 Neglecting product of dD.do, de dD" we get (0,+9) 5 (0+ db} 4, 4.9,2D4D+40* do, + P.nD.dx.tano.+ UP.nDalx = 0 by Zp, 26,aD4 Ddo,+4Pattana uP a =0 20,.dD + Dado, +2P.lD+2uP cota.dD = 0 Rearranging D.do, +20, + P(l+cot)]40 = 0 (6.26) or Dida, +20, + P+ uP.cota] dd =0 g ® Considering Radial Forces for eq opnbade+ P (no ) cxa-no (x0 | na=0 cose cose, + nDdr, Pr PUP. tan = 0 (aor (aro) (or) (6r9)—~ (sel Ag a (ego) skort > (or9)-— ise) ue 1 Ky29R4 = Aa ‘Ad = d Susp oj pasos omog py""a = g r01 fume ee ta-v-u goa = ay souioseg (9¢°9) wong - (20 aoe (2) ape 2) 2a aa). (Bons =u are Jo uononpar ay) 0 suo) uy "o- = (9+ 1)"0~'og (ee9) pur (g¢°9) wo uynerg un e9) fd = (a+ 1)"0-0 ‘a= a 0="0='0 ‘au aye ssansjourpra vo oust asoyn rap Bossy (EE) G2 = (9 +1)"0~"09 {fq von st orssaidxa sup Jo won njog wes +guz= [ig+1)"-‘oalur ¢ paresBaqut aq ue (2¢°9) wonnbs “swuersuon ase pur gat suru &q a, _ [a+1)"9- ‘og wo 2, . We a a9 we op 0= 97 a+ 1)"°~"99)~"oq o=ap(@'o-'0-g"0+"0+'0}z+'0q 0= alg + 1) (0-0) +'0}z+'aq g=mwonw1 O=aP lad+d +'917+'9ra (97:9) pur (1¢°9) wos eo “on gs'o cor "0 = W)~"0 (eo "9 ='o-'o ter = ('0~'o}e uossuasprkenan 205 128 am (37'9) wos} ('0-"9}e uo WA Wong ype sinooo pyout 4 ‘5 ssauis onmasoupy usta, aurquion ssn jerreyun w 0) opeatmbo S| WaISKS SSOHIS UL“: 102 = ('0-'0)+ ('0~*0}+ (%0-'0) tenba aie sassans yedrouusd omy, (s¢'9)— d-='9 ‘o='5 ‘p='o ‘up sossons(ediautid oq pur (roupuryéo st ssons Jo axes ay, (100=0 weit 910‘ 9=H :x9) parsaysiau aq urd + Jeuws 198 19 env yous st pu pews st a souls tH) d= = "0 wo 1 sea0014 Bypmee;nueiy oe For strip drawing the equation (6.40) can be used but o, is used in place of 6, a where o, = > 6-5 (643) Drawing stress, ¢,, = Pressure inthe die at entry P, (6.44) When .= 0 then Bis uso equal 100 from equation (6.26) D.do, +2 [a, + P reduces to Dido, +2 (6, + P)] dD =0 from yield erteria 0, + P = 0, substituting we get Dad o, +20,dD=0 constant we ext Wire Drawing: = +2 In D+ constant equation (6.49) becomes a +: Drawing stress ¢, ~, is given by Se i ( el AnA, aoe dent ofthe die angle A (0, conte tele reduction in stip drawing Plane strain 6, i use leat, 0.0, (%) 213 (6.49) (650) (651) (6.52) woo = g = At saz se unin 3q ue Suummup = “o a1ayn =ba-n-y 2222 soans 8 Ip i T= =, Me 75 Lonenbo 2 puget ononpa unm Jo umnuuveyy 10.0 = W “2 2}8ue ap 1was jo a1p © Bea pos nwa Y Buyanap usd Jd o}4s0d uononpes nutes By 19: maysoug SUH2Iq04d PayION Suyworg papinyy Biqoy 119 S14 ‘iql smoy 1] Aiz0jea aumes aug yi Sutnows Hn yiog “3qr2 atp yun a1p a ySROuIR UAE st agM aig yo yISUD} PULUL) pos psey BuO] Y ~I "pO nur ue Zurara}‘o1p a4 seau pareao} st Bnd poxy y Buymeig Bnig paxig + Sunyins 29m 99 Bg 0105 yng uy) 30u1g s¥9qm a4, 39 ap aun yBaaayy passed Ajay Bupyurg aqny irgo a4 suorsuowp nos) 221s 4981 sossaooad 2:04 if uy veep [aIpUOYA “E rap Bid Bupwig +1 ‘onoeud ut pasn aim ssaooxd utseyp agm Jo sadfiats09 aay ‘JS}ourep Jaeuis 40 ssauyoup (fem Jou Jo Soqn aonpoid 01 puy au se aq ain u sensadoud jeoqueypou JayB%y aanpoud oj pur ystut aaeans euorsuowip asojo Aa0n Be ‘sessacoig Buymeig aqny z1'9 - #8 sF00004 Bupezeynayy ee a ® 1 +0001 (2.246) 103715 ‘Maximum Reduction or ~ 63% = 0.6285 (1+ Bye = (1.0225) = 2.692 anutecturing Process «| a = semi die angle n D, = diaatinlet = 14001, cot24 B = 0.0028 1 L 3B Goa" 45 Wire Drawing a QUESTIONS Wire Drawing re drawing process. in wire drawing process, the maximum reduction in area that is possible in drawing for one pass X sketch ofa drawing die and show al the zones and other details on id show acyl 66 Derive an expression in drawing die [Peives. a al (22 na i 8 n involved. ng stress assuming there is no frict led jy LY) Db I= 6.8 Explain clearly how tubes are produced in drawing process. 6.9 What are the different methods available for tube drawing ? Explain Objective type of Questions Answer according to each question 6 es push force whereas direct extrusion utilizes pull force. rue / False 62 the ratio of work piece diameter to final dia ofthe wire. ‘True 63 wing is hot working process. True/ False 64 ‘areater than Smm, True/ False 65 Higher drawing speeds are requited for True/ False 6.6 Drawing stress increases with strain ‘True/ False Yes/No 64 False 65 True ‘suoqseng ! swergo1d pewons Buruuo) onoUBEWONOETS OF syuosaid uy” . Smo} opneipty oncela y's: Bumuoy ensordxa 2: sse004d Suu) snoveR 40} uoeuuojep jo e821 AYoO}aR Ly! paeU -(4H13H) BUNNO} aye ABLOUD LOM BL 50190 SL 1864 KyegeMNOS yp, !weIBEID yy BUUUOY EY'2 210 2y°L ! ssoid Guymeip U1 peo] EOL 49'z ‘ juaUOdWICD UNBIB JO ‘dau jeoueunoyt oF: Summesp anssocons so BuMesnot 6¢" Buumerp asieno4 (i Sumeip 1240 (1 uoneredo Buea deog ef'L ! Summeig wl paxinbes aDI04 2612 { Bumesp v1 Mol (eaM 9e'L | SuIMEIP 40) yUEIa Jo ZIG —GE'Z ! UoHeiodo Sumesp jesovey ye'z Buymeag doog : Bupueq uoians C62 | BuIpued KOH ze'L Suwo} you 14 : Suds ous o6'2 GuMUIdS 62's ! Sumo} YIONS 2:2 poe ua aac Suuwoy saga 12'2 red jo Bupueg onseig 92°2! Bupueg w yea BULdS Sez Teen ccusioccaiiic) Suuvo} ew Us voNe;oqED 20104 yz‘ BuO UO o|BUE JeAYS Jo Key Ez ed WEOUS ZZ'L ! Bunuela 422 ! e010} yoUNd O22 O01 ey UO ISMN PL 64" 100] BOLIEGUS BI" Voneseuay £1°L voNeIND}ED- e010, BuRIND B}"z BUeEYS vO souere0}9 0948 SIL :uoEEdD + 1p onsseiBord (ny op woneuquion, arvig usay, “¢ 29 se J91e 1d aouamadde sono rang woay pazmueaqes °Z Rojo Sad (q Guueoys jo wistueYooyy(e H4Z ‘ip punodwog (y sep aiduuis J001 Ssa%q €1'2 ! Buuvo, w's80104 ZI'Z !2oURsBAPOJEIMBUY 44°z | eoubIe8IO 21g Young O12 ! Buel ssaig G2! ssid e UI SioloWeEd Ise BL | sossaid jo uoneoy!ssei9 J'Z ! uoneoyddy Guo Play Baus 92 | ssa001d Suro jay U suogesedg 672 ! suonezedo yom ay IeeUS #2 !9HOM TeIEWIOeUS BUM £2 “HOW e0US Jo SedKy. Zz tejeIN YOBUS JO LONNYED 1°Z!TeIEUED OZ ; ‘S1U@]U0D ‘ap jo 10 “enamoy “sanaeid wt faats suvaw yeow rays yp poorsiapur jesus OL biz on ero 1004s Manufacturing Process 2°. 5, Stainless steel sheet {Is pure copper sheet, Reddish brown in colour. Extremely Used in applications where efficient 6, Sheet Copper Atealuminiumalloy sheets. Have high strength to weight ratio. Extensively used in ll engineering and house hold upp a 7.3 What is Sheet Metal Work ? ‘onsists of punch and Die combination as Machine, with a press forthe application of the ther sheared or deformed to a given shape. Many items such as box, dish, re produced by this method. nch and the die and force is the movable tool. Itforves the sheet metal against the die opening, Punching, piercing, blanking, drawing can be wchieved. Ii the convex 00 qq tlko refered to as the Male portion fe Die £ Isthe fixed tol in genera. will ave the desired pr with the punch. Its the concave red to as the female portion. Both as male and female members of ir the set up, Je Pig. 7.1 Die- Punch Swe ett Woh | ‘They (Punch and Die) must to the Least extent. Hardened steel/Alloy ste ‘The punch is attached to a slide. The slide ‘moves ina guide way. The die is located ut the bottom and the sheet can be placed the die opening. The die s firmly mounted onthe ground. the top near 7.4 Sheet Metal Work Operations ‘Sheet Metal Work Can be divided as 1. Shearing or cutting operation 2, Forming operations involving shaping the metal without cutting Shearing Operat ing, Trimming, Shearing, Shaving, ied out. Forming Operations : Bending, Spinning, Swetching, Drawing. sens cer meee 7.5 Operations in a Press-Metal Working Process Metal working processes ean be classified imto 1. Shearing and 2. Non Shearing Operations ‘The same is expl 1. Shearing : The same is explained in the involving removal of mate cearried out on sheet metal. 1g the outside contour of a sheet. The contour could be ‘of any other geometrical shapes. The cut portion is the ‘a hole is discarded. Outside }) Blanking — + Consists of sq 1 the inside contours i shape. The sh ‘uonae 21 MeNpy 10 ron goaun sqpta £q wont st ssaid y ssoud © ur mo patie 81 yLo% Jeu 234s 21p 40 SOYA d posoquis| BS fo paduys ysiq A ‘sjouung, sue apm (on (i 1s aM Jo SuOISUOLUIP 40 Buyyprans £q sayna sways wy wou paanpoud axe sadeys 30 AieLieA v aap uoneoiddy Buruuo.s [e101 124s OL ~ “TL SS ei 24) Bur soaelosd Calan Ty NZ von 2alo1g ‘up 8 pur yound © ‘utsn qupjq.e ut 329/90 padoys di und 2m) 50 2pt uoissaidep ppasn aye und pur atp apis s24r0 ayy wo wossaudop ‘Tuypuodsaiso9 v yum 1994S # 40 apis uO Uo uoNJafoud Suneas senjonut = Aussoqua (P = vo er es adeus poundou i ma AY ‘2 purr yound v Buisn 2/2ue ue ow raoys ain BuIpUDA sony iado Ruqussoy st 0} pausayas osty ~ Se oo soBpa ayt Suoye 12ays a4 Jo su suoqiod yioous an 24 Bu0pe ssouysne ROU OT 8 01 apisino 10 ymrado Buta Soe Soon aq on eiow sseoxe" Bupjucig es soye souyy pune says 4p pl al =o saauid 018 8 ones ways ut Bunyound Kg sojo4 oydunjnws Supeaso Jo ssIsuo + 1 ss200%4 Guumonnueyy Iyews Jo Sumo Jo sisisuoy : i Jo sisisuo> = jou 82039 jo eaoutas JosIsIsu0D, + 1S ® Butuno Jo sisisuoy : Suypians (0 Suuurds (4 Supuag yyesadg Suueoys ON -Z PION (1H 2uneys Suyunnyag, (4 Bunways (4 uoneio}iag (At ze Manufacturing Process m8 frame fam ‘s 2° am Punch Works ye Pinch reno. Ti" ja I yo Base Fig, 74 Punch- Die assembly Fig. 75 Sold Block Fig. 7.6 Open Back Inclinable press (OBI) [1-150] —_—_ 77 Classification of Power Presses Presses are used for producing components by cold working of sheet i and other ductile materials, Classification is made according to 1. Source of Power - Mechanical press - Hydraulic presses GY Ram Punch 2. Method of aetation- Crank, Cam, Eocene, Rack and ‘Toggle Joint Press, Screw Press ete. Frame De 4. Number of sides . scuba paragraphs gives del bout diferent csifcton A. Z) seen A L. Generat “Wo! press. ex : Coining or pose : Designed for performing only a specified oper ig. 7.7 Adjstable bed press [1 Based on type of work Solid or Fixed bed Press inking press. Piercing press, Bending press etc. operations shown in section 7.5, with Coe ity a punch is attached on to a am. The punch moves cean be adjusted. His a rigid c ion. Fig. 7.5 shows 750017 Open back iso consists ofa solid C-t yo 4 "SrsJeANO OM 34 UBDA}aq PayDtepuRS SW 9UUI OU, sBunaq tues souuL 2g) 01 Peay gpg He YURID atu ayn cy pazs9u¥0D ssaud wop}ae 9190 ssaud uowoe 2jduys Jo sap aun smoys gg “Big ound un Jo ayous yavo 20} ouop 2q ued uoneiado uo KUO) pau $1 (219 ‘otunio) & 20 onarado Buuways & aq Arar 4 “uORPWIO}Ep paopjd.ag ua 901d yom au youd 241 morog paoeyd stip e pe ‘wsodpques9 Someyouw 0} porsauuo> sf ey “UNE BOMBA EYEE aseq PHBH Jo SISISUOD ssaid uopoe ssoud onze day oF L314 yueig wonog a 28¢@ $$$ prom rn iors 8 y \ uw un eal) tear yueign—/ ssoag nonon aus $2 Si young ‘fem 9ping om opin wey gouneg 10mog ay ‘SIMI SMOYS OTE UE GL RL “Bid “9 aputs afduAL pur opts Bjqnoq “apr aIBUIS ‘aoj9q uaat® one suoneuejdxg 99 sor fupt NOU UO PaLgSSE|D 29 Ww Sessa ‘sepyjs Jo 4aquinu uo pase AT ‘said Jo a4 sup smoys 1:1 Sty “BuPpoM a\qetsojH0d 104 soweredo 24 yu day aup 4 Yat UO pag amp 9s st Siu, “Ssaud 24p Jo 2seq ax 01 UO sais Jo surous £q ump 20 dn pa 219 2x0us oF uo}sENasd Ws! 2104121944 ssaud pag ajqeisnipy ee ape aq wea wowace stun sous 91g By 4q porsajfo2 aq ueo puv fqisna eaus ey) 2001d 0} sy wonTsod paurfou! at, 888 artactuing Prose the sheet in position and then the inner ram descends down with a through the die. The necessary deformation is obtained. First the outer ram h ‘90° lag and forces the shes Triple action press ¢ An inner cam, 4 Outer ram is offset by 90° with respect ‘ The sheet metal is kept on the die opening und the press is switched on, * First the outer slide moves downwards and the pressure pad on it holds the sheet pressed against the die surface, termediate side andthe inner slide offset by 90° are actuated 1 The inner slide is actuated by the bottom crank drive. # The inner # This res + Fig. 710shows termediate rams and outer rams form the parts ofthe press. nner ram and intermediate rams, # Meanwhile the ide moves up and the intermediate slide moves downwards. ie sheet getting deformed to the desired contour. le action press for a drawing operation. ‘Since three slides come into action for completing the operation itis referred to as triple action press 'V Based on the method of actuating the ram Different types of actuating the ram a re Crank, cam, eccentric, Rack and pinion, Knuckle joint, Toggle joint, Serew press ete. 4) Crank Press Drive consists of crank connected 10 co the ram slides inside a guide way. The rain mo rotates ubout a center which is in line tothe ram and ‘The crank th the axis of sliding of ram. Normally used for longer Here w rack is connected to the ram. A pinion located by its side and located engages the rack, The pinion is rotated by a motor. As and when the pinion rotates the rack i ‘actuated. The upward or downward movernent ofthe rack or the ram depends on the rotation ofthe pinion, Fig. 7.12 shows this, Et sheet Metal Work Psion Ram reel Movement 4 Vase Fig, 7.1 Crank drive press used for longer strokes ig. 712 Rack and Pinion Movement ofthe slide is more ‘uniform and is mu ‘compared to crank ype of mechanism is used where a long stroke is required crank drive ¢) Eccentric drive used. The arm (eccentric) with respect to the center of provided to derive the maximum pressure during the downward motion ofthe arm, Fig. 7.13 shows this arrangment, 4d) Cam drive sng ani ey preg som snp, ‘woua@ueu ag sresy! 91. “Bg us ip doy aoud pom ay uo possoxdu st peo} snuy(“¥e Fussoquauulen 04 past 2aaH“axo1s 2430 wong ain wonow aoys us) pauINgO st we a} Jo Wawanou HOYS [AON spe Umpp Soxou wos ap pu feopsaA awoasy ¢ PEE Z SUT YUE JO Yonysod trYoztIoy fog Su. pin8 ayy ur unop pu da soxow wey tHe 24s 02 pas 01 parouvoa axe ¢ purZ SUF UIOf ows UAL ¢ pu z Sur ov poraauuon st yur] | 2p same HSI: UID aN UaK pUE SY "BENS WOAUP ax ‘Aq uomup sryuessy rs ap Jo wowoxou 240 1X0 9 WoL Kee Pa} ST YONI Es BULA #0 paigouuon st yueID “wes 4 aremW OF pasn St WUBWOZUENE Yui WoWAdUELE sw Up aaup rap apyonuy (F urs ap fo wawaAow puesuep Bunp pauogap st osjo uns aug nu oxy 2 apse yom 241 hem opin? a ‘oy naias 9 SoyPU Je voNML Jo uonaaup 2yp uo Buipuodaq ‘pouusesToud su SaICwWaYE MAID PUE AAD SBHEI0d JeUS OAL ayy, ‘porempe st osfe ma19s a4 pur sTHIO jaay AY OUR SABLE IE PoroMIde st faye UortoUy a4) way pus sy eWaSuEA a4) sMOYS SIL “Big "YEUS aap B O} parsadtiOD st YH [pou ono ® yam tiu0D ut souls pue aoxyans ayp vo 2nepINS LOUDLY swy J2ayaKKy ay, hom ‘pin ayy ur sexo yotyn wre # 01 paaunion st 80198 a, AIquIOsse Inu Pox aYA OF 99190UUOI 1 wan u saids ayp pue 9398 8 02 paloouUOD st jsaym Ky JOZIO, w juDWeB URE SA Uy ‘aaup ayn uonatag (2 88 on iss pana m9 Ere Bi uswanony 2319 aug joanvey seyons saves Pas yews ; 921g 0810 Bunwal a mous nated & Bump pouieago st sau siqy, oHO® wie> OL iP aU, "9sipatp saBeRua pue ayeios osye wea ayi sareios yes Buraup ax vou pur sy ‘uouow yeonsan axew eo wey ‘em spin ayy UE POIRRO| St YOIYA Wes oI ‘PUL Big ‘2aup axuo909 01 ued jfamp y em apind au I sse0014 Busmoeynuey ove sounayy doug £06 i sioug ta on8804 82 Seg 1 L 9 so wong Ceol som fom oping, erp) =e Z) nh 40 SpABAUALO BAOU OF LHR 24) sau ulsiueyour yuy] aig samen m paureago aq una aunssaid Aaesse0a0 ‘wes 2X -wes ay) 01 paroau¥oD WM UE Yor 9 puE ¢ SUI AMR OF 109.0 pu ¢ ful] ayy UIEBY “gyL “Big uF UMOYS Se Pu E°z "Yu I0q f vor paldaULOD st ‘ue (YO) pou Bus seuv09 wei poroouUDD St YuRID ay "YeNSe Uo S=reIOS YURIDP aLaHL ssoud 24up 38304 (4 1 OM AYE “AIP WoHIEG 2008 pide yal premULwop saxout ip afeuasip sojjou ayy spunsuauye uoos -yBtOy " pojind si pos wonowy aq aywos szojou ways |BuaUa8 Uy parenine st po! 3 aq aear9 s9}}01 Tuga OMY, "9509 pile ip wlonog "1p dor ayy pur ures ayp Burke spo 2eayp mye! apomuy 916 “Bt 1294p woud - ssa2014 Suumoejnuey aap pay wopesg se Bhd ‘hem opin5, i oy mg eau Ay fs Jo wauiesoyy 9g tanutacturing Proce Hydrauilc press <9 entry ane ‘of Hyarauic Fer entry and of Hydrautic Fig. 7.19 Hydraulic Press 1) Hydraulic Press Infig. 7.19409 as shown for the entry and exit of hydraulic fluid at high pressure. A pision is lo wer. The piston is connected to the connecting rod (C! tura moves ina guide way. Consider the piston in the top pos pressure enters the top opening and forces the pusher! out ofthe top valve. The cycle continues. The workpiece is subjected to squeezing action in this press. y Set Metal Work, ag ‘VI Based on power 1. Mechanical Presses : Press tools are actuated by a motor through transmission such as crank, cam, eccentric, Rack pinion Serew type, Toggle Type. [Already discussed in ion 7.7 2. Hydraulic Presses : Press tools are assembly pressurizes the fluid inthe. section 7.7 ( Presses are used for producing components from cold working of sheet metal. The sheet ‘metal may be made of mild stel or other ductile materials (ferrous/non ferrous). Presses can also bbe used for forging and extrusion operations. A pressis is able to apply without undue strain. [tis customary to select ‘press rated 50-100% higher than the force required for an operation to keep deflections small, A press working shop will havea press, shear and other special machines (like steam hammers, sheet stamping, sheet straightening machines etc.) fen by hydraulic pressure. liner to the required value inder and piston ready discussed in 7.8 Basic Parameters ina press ‘The different parameters used to specify a press and for selection are 1. The force devetoped in Newtons (capacity) 2. The working stroke or stroke length in mm, 3. The speed of the working stoke. 4, The number of strokes of the slide per minute 5. The bed size (dimensions/weight) motor rating ete 6. The source of power. 7.9 Press ratings Some details regarding rating of different types of presses are given below. For the same load rating, hydraulic press gives the best energy pr blo. ‘Type Load Rating (KN) Available energy per blow (KJ) Drop haramer 12250 16 Friction Screw Press 1250 30 Crank Press 12250 200 Hydrauli Press T3250 2500 Suuof ua so2104 g2° “Sg s22H0MSsselsuoy apaid yom aunuo ayy, Hound iwoD - (q) uonsog dg, sua, - (8) woneg woRog ‘210 9418s 200} 42pm st 204d pom aire ai 3015 a8u> aout i 11 Suom ay Jo Joke] OKO xp se seas 201 anfssenduiog a rm artp spom 2302940 do pu yound ao} U8, Buyuuog uy saoi0g 24-2 ‘sodind ayy jean apes st a4p a Jo won don ety, ‘ps O41 ap axp pur pasnas aq (wea atp at smi, anjen reurSt.0 aap or 8g YsnaIg st wo}suaLNIP24p‘20ezans dov axa Jjo SuIpuLe q MON “woisuauip si S9s00] pu Ino WOM si98 aoejms axp ayp ‘suoHezado [e1a405 Jay sounavoy somSuy 204 “Hy sents ye vo won wotzn scum i rue wusre=pueh 12P 241 SMOWS Z7'L “i ‘2o0Id Lom aM JO IUBDSap Ksea soansua aIp 94) J0 Uonsod sejnfuv ay, ‘21 aun wo aoweseo seynaueapinosd oy onoeid fons st axp ay of pourure ‘oma8 yoe|q awanasd pe Yound oyp wate Buoy Aysea axp axp YBnoup ssed o1 yUE;q aouesealg JejnBuy pL soy UH OE (Ot + @) 94 11 o4p ayp Jo wy id 24p Jo tip ayy, 21p 247 Uo Lol aq pjnoys ouerNa|> pure a21s EXD UDA $1 Farousp 2prsuy ‘poumnbar st 9[o4 payund ayy yaa 904s op aUD HY sous - Buysundjmyund og 125 Bi. om pur a. 2g qt ound £1uQ raRxa aq soueseaig = 2 LL 9104 poypund aypjo vig = g 199 I atp 21p Jo wp o1p paw wo waaid 2g pinoys aounmafo ‘azis 19ex— uaKLs 1 aid no 1n9 aNoyy 2tn Jo vip ayy, ‘yound ayn luteus ag Asn wip prsiNg -yeroReWL pastnbas 219 = Burqunng so ogc “hy (e-a) 24 tt yo St 21Q)-Yo21I09 pu souerwal) = 9 weld au jorig = @ ‘HERD Om SMOYS TZ'L ue Gc'g ‘ig ssouyjony retzeew ayn Jo 9501-2 wou Kea how ssouyorta yeuarEuro4p Uo spuodep uond® 29 01 souesto ou, “paurTureW aq 01 sey soueIajo 123109 axosato4 “Yee aDefd ayer joW feu uonewsio}2q “uoneworep 20 parinbes st peo| alow aauaq “assed ath Jo uontansiego sox pue dB 249 ySnoxg oY 01 spust jeyoroW aiow ‘Ssna¥9 UF st aOURIEDIO OM Jf {Sty sotoaaq peo jeux 01 souesisoy asearout jm pouinbor poor “voneuiojap inoge ung 01 ynoqytp soutooag x puv poronnsqo st oy (eave uy) jus 00) St aouEseaj9 P 18 pu yound ou Jo Kaayduuad a Buoyed © Buneaxo Kq auop 29 ued sys Patepewodoe oq 0) sey soy TELOIOUI YuoM 2k) “LOM ssaid SuLiNp ‘uonLIO}ap ansetd Sutin] ,aoueaealD,, ap Seo pouoje 8 papiaoid sup de ai oy ferew Jodoud ainsva on Yaund pus pata uoomea popraond st de8 zejnuure ows Som ssud oj posnf|quiosse ound ape aoueseel9 young 210 O1'L FR cee 82014 Bu 2. Manufacturing Process i 7.13 Press Tool Itrefers to the tools with their arrangement used in press working. Guide Pin, Bed, Strip ete. forms a press tool AA Press tool is used for quantity production of sh and are suitable for mass preduction oF batch pro ‘metal parts. Such tools ae standi jon of pressed components Press tool dies can be classified into four categories. 1. Simple die - Carries out one operation per stroke, 2. Compound die - 3. Combination dic and | Multi operation dies -carsies out more than one operation per stoke. 4, Progressive die 7.13.1 Simple dies These are designed to perform only one operation at atime or one operation/stroke, ‘cutting die which only cuts the mat king, Pieri forming die: for changing the shape wit the mate etc. Fig. 7.24 shows this. 7.13.2 Compound die ‘Two or more cutting operations are performed simaltaneously ina single stroke, Refer Fig, 7.25, Punch (1) pierces the sheet through the die (1) Simaltaneously punch (2) blanks the sheet through the die (2) The final component is a blank with a punched hole. ‘Two similar opera ry be 2» Notching etc., or It may be a ex: Bending, Drawing, C, ns are carried out simultaneously in this die, atthe same station. Fig. 7.24 Simple die Sheet Metal Work ‘Two sets of punch and die assembly For each stroke ofthe ram both sets of punch (1) and die (1) and punch (2) and die (2) carries out operation fn the workpiece Combination ‘a punched hole 22... blank is formed Fig, 7.25 Compound Die 7.13.3 Combination die Here both cutting and for shown the arrangement. Fist the outer punch (ow the Inner punch (2) moves downwards and cat at the bottom of operation through Useful for mass production of components. The two operations are carried out atthe same station, ae Pinch shee Sheet ig operations are carried out in a single stroke. In fig. 7.26 is rough the di ‘The blank raving spuaosap yound ayy se 49819 Jo ‘veui09 youn pu 2yp a4 18 Joys Jo Bujeays Jo ws}UEYoOW epL-Z xp aussouiong Let Thy yoayg_S young @uoung a app ana,Boxg 9 oy seat seus. (2) wows 1 por ut ame suonesado om pue sayesado (2) pue poyound aipon y (2) amp ap ene 19 (2) yound on odsas ips Poroalqns sys 249 055 alp onisseiboud pete ue @ wound 2007 820014 Suumejnueyy ore Shact teal Work ple behind giving clearance on the punch and die. Sheari Fig. 729 shows th rope whon leans proper ele cls wil be ocean edges wll be ines (a) to) | Fig. 728- Shearing of Shet (e! 7 mation which continues tute takes place - 0 m die foward the punch -and wher Mot secondary fracture also takes place in betwe ‘will not be proper. Fig. 7.28 (ad) shows the deals Pench =~ Notch wot nl Proper - oie! Clearance Improper ee (@) Piercing Clearance Fig, 229 fect of uting. ig, 730 Ieatraton showing varius euting operations E07 ‘Moy maw ssaox9 AAC } S}9819 2 ue Moy [ew SS3Dxa S1aiayy at SSa9K° UN ‘tous Suureays 10 parnbau peor ayy, S01 a4 pur aazuad ayp ve YBOUH JOU 840} peo} paxbar aya KfuC -paL 1s 3a ox pur 2ays ou jo auto aye aot syoe49 Onn au Ua 72048 ay) una yu}od 2p 2, anuz0 a ye unsrayo ip ut We wou pur aieBedaid powios SRB OPEN AL. ‘eol Hea PaIA 9 SPe8oK9 pa|ddepeO pul eaUOD sox ope} eays ap {Prtuoo a pause 2q 8 syoE39 “FuROY o paralgns st eraur Bays Ua, soues2919 ss09%3 wonsaforg opera 204 al ‘s8pe.am sen rahe vonsofnd amy pouty samy yas Kay ona aoetd ox ou um smoey 1nsai e sy saute 's Po 30 fonuenb a1oy“snsaL aoe4aNs YBaOy Ina00 “moU IRBIN BuureUs 1} papas poy Ssug ‘erOUAL [ote 210 “uonlopsone’y souewap ssaox9 (9 Buexe919 1Uaroqynsul- 5 11 a8ourep Ae sina YAH 200 fee jo noy wp uoN ‘pawue 8 pur nol ouuna i souesaP ows O04 ‘uoneuue}9p 40} peO7 stow sp20Nsafpo ySnee soonpoid aoueswa]9 wuarsyynsuy (q seas por oq ioous i a woex9 - 9 a6p0 powoys C7 5 aod wou Aitenba aoejd s2xe1 eays yo Sumnnc Aurzeays 105 pauinbous} peo} 1=1109 24 NO *BaKs ap jo sa20 toa pu poeBadouds perg aun jo dain 2 Yoo au aoueavaly sadosg (@ ‘ewio dare or aysoddo Bunrows sapeyg omy Kq ous jo womeawados ap Suv04s wo vous fo malta re ng aoueawapa ssaoxg (9 souer2919, op aomeeaty sadoag (e eouereag af BeMeuoneg Bp peveayg "og tani st Suueays uo aouestaps Jo 129}, 30 uonounydxo paeap a4 Bupeays uo aouereaio Jo oay3 G17 SSUBOUS UO OoUBIPAIO Jo 198} SLL ee? I Se02014 Buumoynueyy 286 ptantactuing roi tt ‘The crack/fracture propagates through the metal re is complete. Separation occurs Clearance generally varies between 2 and 10% of the meta thickness ‘Thicker metal needs larger clearance. Soft ductile materials - undergo extensive plastic deformation before fracture can take place Hence more clearance needs to be given Britte/Less ductile materials - can withstand only small amounts of plastic deformation, without edge cracking. Hence clearance should be small Duetility of the material decides the depth to which the punch/blade should penetrate 10 effect shearing, 7.16 Cutting Force Using die and punch ex : shear ‘The Force'F with simaltaseous c is given by kat Cutting (> shear sues ofthe material, Nim? force thickness ofthe material, mm ing ofthe work piece over entice periphery or contour (Newton) perimeter or length of the cut out periphery. mm With shears (blades) F = 0.5 (72) where @ = angle between the shear blades (2-5°) Maximum cutting force F. = Lact 73) Effect of shear angle Maximum cutting force is required when the shear angle of the punch is zero, However, this force remains on the pune! suddenly drops to 2ero causing fracture. But when the shear angle is equal tothe sheet thickness" the force on the punch pra has moved about % thickness ofthe sheet and increases and reaches an average value “F,,", when the punch hus advanced + the sheet thickness sh the same, (74) set etl Work, 2a t punch displacement Fig, 732 Punch toad Vs punch displacement J, = fraction of penetration Energy = Ft - (7.6) downward movement, it need ture of the work distance which is necessary to be place is called "penetration" thickness of the work. The per 1094 249 uo snag pe Bh CEN sons hws © oO ‘24 0 Kzaydiuod seino aul wo J0 sapis wog uo papinaud st uo! 1 "snal] pud 241 IONE O| sase21001 ‘uonaaup yyy uy snap ese] 24p ound 24) Jo 2p 240 uo wore Jo Zuspinoud oan Jooy aur uo ISMsyL PUA BLL ‘ound 941 U0 GNI up WO UaAI) Burosig 40 Sunoung ap agi vo van) {pnd wo vont Supueig 2s BOUL waned souava{ pur sway TL ITE, yew peysund 24p asaya ‘vonesado Buryound ‘20nj yound a4 uo peysuy 258) aIp a4) wo papraoid s|1eays Sose Yons Up -sofpo pouyour yim sung aveanooeur Uy ynsas LA eyayeu paysund ay star womsodo usyueg uy ‘ound ay) uo uoai8 aways saquiny psn 511 ve 44 = yrs oun Y= v0 1 i uayye sPays 11h 88 0m ror 0s ypoqs aio ssauyoAp = austoy aug = ave avays 0 voneuyut = @ ovays fosmid ect Bd 7g LZ g ana ja k> spo gens ug sues ps pour swoys pu og sa yreeur payound ay Youn gn oF Han 945 oN uo ap a jound aap Jo 208) 24p ov azaype if poysund ulaq st yoy youovew ou, ‘stu Jo a1eo Soyer 01 Uani8 29 war sou} “Auoedeo ssad ayn spa9oxe pasinbar peo} ay) uaip aip 40 yound ayy uo uotTeutfout ou a1DK 210K 3] ‘Aysnoaueyneurs yuswour Kue we pasinbar proj ‘38 8258) aup pur young Bron sessed weays at, ‘p9dnp: jour ue ani 1p U9 a4 J9A0 aUop :08 Joy or oodsu ye wo Joo] 8 o1 seOUS BLL ison 0 we0™) FAIS woqDD seco" SOW SOT~ © WSIO>) [291g vOgIED MOT 4860. SOT fy wou, (8 %09)F 90" TW 40d soteai8 ag jy) uonenoued 24s yew OS HEAL ‘amoeay osteo of ‘Aynssooau st ysund ayp 40 uonrenauad apy A104 “yo Suiog st jesoreu prey pur Buos1s © LOLA 277 x0 = 2010) Buu, uot Ino ayy ssaad oy LPH = J 90303 Bunn Lo jo unwpew e mnbe ‘youdde st y sseuyanip aeaorad sty, yo 8 9 pavapisuod N9d9|88 404 200,01 joade {9g wesa9 & Kq aneid 30m 24) Oru spuaasep youn ayp se req! apeus uonLeAsasgo [e1aued & = s589014 Bypnyse nue — | ire 200 Manufecturing Process 1 7.20 Punch force During sheet metal work force for punching has to be taken up by the punch. The punch has t0 withstand compressive force without defo ‘Assuming a circular hole being punched, ‘The allowable compressive Load on the punch, the punch can withstand is given by 1 sowabe comp ses onthe puneh diameter ofthe hoe being punched ‘The sheets geting sheared The lood required for shearing the sheet is given by Foe ndst, (7.13) |x stowabie sear srengh ofthe sheet thickness ofthe sheet Perimeter ofthe hole (shearing area) Condition For shearing ofthe hole BOR Ey je, F4?.0¢ > adit, ‘minimum diameter that can be sheared d= 438, 14) sheet metal Fig, 7.35 Punching IFF, < F, nohole can be shared ‘Sheet Metal Work 21 his operation, Layout ofthe blank is very important to minimize wastage. Improper layout results in the generation of high scrap. [LEeed Feed je fees UU iPr |g pfeety | OO™ 0.00 ae Fig. 7.36 Blank Layout Feed or Lead of he die Fig, 2.7 Blank Layout b = gap between the edges of two successive blanks. 1 = stip thickness ‘min, gap between the edge ofthe blank and sie ofthe strip emperical formula wo “sr ose no}aq wan st ss2o01d Sumo) raw awaIoyIp 205 Bupe|noqe9 404 ewI0g Buywso} jejow uj uoneind}eo 90104 ZL 9p) 3909 uo 28a ays IM youd FL By a aru ways = § I ss52014 Buus = 62 Nianuteturing Process bent work re tadius of bend SS Sy Fig, 745 Bending in a Press since permanent deformation is involved o,= 0, (UTS) (ultimate tensite tess If icton is considered the bending load Compression Fig, 746 Spring back in bending Smee Maat Wer = desired angle = spread angle + @should be made smaller: Spring back # lesa dimensional chang inthe final component resaling afer the forming tool/ pressure has been released 4+ Ieresuls from the changes in strain produced by elastic recovery, 4 Ieis due tothe reduced strain, * Ils magnitude depends an the propesties and state ofthe material work and bending radius, # The elastic recovery (5; lower the E greater th # For a given m dimensions of | thickness, shape of the be greater the higher the Yield Strength (¥ 5), The the spring back increases with the ratio between the lateral sickness. Spring back will be more if ¥.$ is higher and the rat ee 7.26 Plastic bending of plate ness () is pester, Fig. 7.47 Spring back concents co (er) (en = gra e ‘or = soy T a ey t sores (io spf —="0 op « fs 1° [peeve ona ‘y eee T oru~ ey = ‘hy aumeaana jo smpes rea aun &@ posnea /g aBueyo sen ae (se 42 Mo 1 7 9 $a eee wen 93 om Zunmnsqng, «v~ 9 tres fenpisoy + wo ceo aorniuou (07) -—~ a) Hu ne Ye rn “gr ey Ly wong % @ 2s soomm Me > some 2 1s) 3 = > ylg eo > > womb supiag) = He & aoe Wea" . Bupaguy '9= fur ue y2naxy yoeq studs ad ay posto si poo ound ayt uy eo ews opun moqe 2d ejnBusna lens Jo Butpung sopeue tog po snips puny = 'y uog jo snipe on ‘ainjd ain jo ssouyoun = 7 eee ee ‘This means that the relative amount of spring back may be reduced by using a smaller forming 6, radius o thick plates or material having alow ied stain = S 8,~ gives the amount of forming angle to produce a final bend of a specified amount. 7.27 Rubber Forming or Guerin Process Upper platen Rubber pad Blank Form block i 1 ( (i= Retsner Press bed Fig. 748 Rubber Forming A form block is rigidly fixed to the press bed, which has the contour ofthe component. A thick rubber bianket is placed in 2 retainer box on the upper platen ofthe press. Fig. 748 shows the arrangement, ink is placed on the form block and the rubber pad rubber blanket transmits a nearly uniform hydrostatic pressure ag extensively in the aireraft industry. reed down on the sheet. The the sheet. Process is used 7.28 Stretch forming Fig. 7.49 Stretch Forming Process Shee eta Wah a ced by the ram. The sheet I. Grips are applied & the ly to Final shape. Fig. 7.49 shows the sheet blank Die block clamp sine woo! Tnovement of tool ttt sve e Fig. 750 Spinning Here thin sheets of metal are shaped by forcing it agains a die block. Die block has the shape ‘of the component. The di block is rotated at high speed. Cylindrical shaped objects are produced by this method. the head stock ofa lathe using a mandrel, Sheet is held against the die using a clamp. tool held against moved forward asthe die block is rotated and contact is ed between the tool & the sheet stretch forming is extensively used in aircraft industry, Ieuses only a die his Cup shaped objects can be produced For maximum ste ihe metal should be tough, must have fine grained structure,and have large spread between ¥S and UTS. wed, aoeyd soye1 Suyways 40 Surana 1 Yuey9 24120105 0 posn si yound y SSuumoey 40 Suunp BumpyUUAL algo padeys Goo 10 adeys moqjoy v owut yueig wey v BulTuyD Jo ssoo0ud v st uonesedo Buymerg pe"L (04 pur aoejd soya jeiaus Jo Moy anseig “kano atp 24 ‘Awuaueuuiadl “wag ftorydunons 204s 3 eyL Os yo “iy U| UALOYS Se Paysrans 39 189g SH AUS pardde 5 200 jt “Puag PaxInbar ain (at DOIG poxy w ISUIBRE YaNYo w UL Play st OM OM aay sso00ud Sppueg yon ps4 “Sg werua Buyoioas 021d Hom Buppuag e019 pox Burpueg yorans ge'2 ‘1M smoys E¢-L Sty va]! ajgesnfpe ay Zuruontsod fq pautego st Suxpuog Jo adeus pouty ‘Pasn ave Joj}1 ajqeisnfpe 2uo pur syjou uIPUL 40 poxy OMY "GORD 0} anp 30M a Joid pansnov soe pue aq 03 a94s 3 ss anow 940M atp soyeu syjou Urey “9Sodind sip 404 pasn are Jo joss aoay {9 oI ponano raaqs ayy axDUL 40 sraayS pug er Paxojdura st ssad«ud SIU, Supuog now es'4 Hig om 30 wouenow Sujpueg 110u Ze" Hon ery aH see 4d Bunmiof nou 25:0 Hd Ee onpoid sour “tpous 24 ut pouteigo 2g wo sinoIL09 Jo ‘aun y “squssod st yerou ays jo Zutws9} snonuuO uyunoy jos 204 pase 322 yo sorensnyp 26's Big yeiaw oy ur adeys pasts 247198 0 staqfou Poumoqos ox yBnosy) passed st ays [eI2M aYN 2394] Buywuos 110u Le"L nus: = two1ssaidx2 ay} 01 Suipuooae v 2anpau st yeu 9] Jo SSOU}IID a4, raw 24) wLOyep 0} 2194 pasn st qfos e adaoxo SuruUIds yp 1 sCyHUHS stay aonying undg sous = "1 ssourjo nour as0q =1 oj8ue au09 = 9 Buyuurds seeys og'2 ‘sueiep atp smoys 9g"L "Big “ssea0xd oun ut “aRuny YoU Saop yaays 2up Jo SSOUyN 2 ‘adhi pros so ad&i ajqisdeyjoo‘yereUs 30 pow Jo apeun 24 WED Y9019 aIP aU, ‘wond4sj 29np2s 0} posn uaesp atp jo ones 7 voy u qoworne pur "sasvo joys ‘Sqmug se Yons sajoME siaays el) Buideys 104 pasn ssano:d SursoN [eoU! ayp st Burm daaq, Buymeig deag ge". “up dng, rruaiew jo ssouyouyy euarew 4 Jo sin 910 = xoudde (o19 ousteu uonoey ‘uo spuadap) uowonpar mtsp jo 320) —y [i-2+%]'o1pu = y 2010y Suuaeig, onouj suoo1a40 01 weIsuoa = 3 asayN wen 41%) -ovpu = ™y quan s1 uonany 1s 20303 Buaeup “vow ayp au0jataqy, ij auroar9K0 0} 3an2ead fens wy paurnbax st 2940j PAIxD aWLOS BAIHOHL sevvoninmmens —()-2) oi ‘pes ty Buymeap 40} poanbeu so104 267 oi soy nts cu) —~ ip soweooa Zurmeap som Sursarouy uo sa08 ones. HON. seu eo Poup-q)u = ‘op {10M 249 uo 32104 antssasduio9 = woneg 249 We a5H04 aISUOy, {sins00 rays ayp fo HuuPar oN) owes 24) 2q [IM SpmuUBeUL s54p “dno a1p Jo ZueIp ayes 40g “ssas ‘anssarduioo aouatiodasjyem agp pu sans aj[suo1 aovayodxa yound ayp jo wonog a4) 1210045 Suymesp ut a0104 667 -S1 Aq ssauyoryI UE SwONB ssaNd Ip YEN eIWoo uy sautoo yor ays. 94 yOaRpazadd : (p) on0d warayp 3e aoejd soxe MOL peiows Wonaun s08j:NS yound a4p OF fayesed syrem FeomUaA, = ( saimnp sof mew £86 1 rage pedeus ong ©] 502-01 Ka sour u uononpassse@tepun pu2q Wood = (Z) © 2ouyins 21 Yo 2uop st Bupyom on “saxon a uy aBuEyD amay 20 afueyp oN “yound ayy Jo wonog = (1)uoreg Suymesp ur moy [ery 9E"L eeu (er0-a)pp+ pf = a aanwaano aug Surepisuoy, (CL) 99439 aUOD BuyoaqBou-—- WPH+ LP = @ blo veut et eas dno Jo vase aoejing = yue(g Jo vase aoqjing ‘imeaino BunoojSou owes ay st ised wexp oy) pue Yue}q 24) Jo SsaUyDIKL,: uoNduuNssy ‘smpes 10109 wonog = |= 8860014 Bumeyruey, a 210 ) Conventional Redrawing Blank Manufacturing Process: fF -Punch holder cup J from | stage VA | ie by Cus holder stage Fig. 7.56 Conventional Reda cup from ll stage ‘Shoo Metal Work, gy i) Conventional or Direct redrawing operation Fig.7.56 Shows the steps involved in conventional redrawing or direct re dr process. ing ge- ‘The blank is drawn into a shallow cup of diameter ‘D' and height “H". A punch of larger diameter D forees the blank into the de to plastically deform it into a shallow cup. with @ height of H. Stage - shallow cup from the I stage is held ina separate die with aholder and a punch of diameter ‘a is forced through ie deformation will take place and a slightly deep cup is formied with d= dia of cup & = height of the cup. I Stage - The deep drawn cup formed from the II stage is held in the die assembly and is drawn through the die opening. A punch of diameter d, is sed for the purpose. ‘The final cup size obtained will have a dimension of d,=dia of cup, h, = height of 2 required size ii) Reverse drawing Fig 7.57 Shows the steps involved in reverse drawing, TStage ~ A shallow cup is drawn as in conve height = H, nal drawing with a cup dia = D and I1Stage- The shallow cup is held reverse on the holder and a blank holder is located on the ccup.Now a punch of diameter ‘i forced through the shallow cup, Through the die opening, a cup of required diameter = d and height = h is obtained, ‘There can be more stages involved in the process, based on the cup dimensions. In reverse drawing the materials is subjected to reversal of stresses di as the cup is reversed in each stage, unlike in he conventional drawing, successive drawing soar uou wfyeyseds9 yuonbay sour s| Adonosue sip Buryiow as9%a8 oF 1afqns 1804S Uf sone pu BuyBt0y ut we ‘Bupjion Jo uonaauipo4p w soseyd puooes pur wOOsIp jeinsanns jo quaWwWUTHe pouiajaid oy O1 anp Sf Bunoqy jeoweyoayy (11 sKinay hq pareurunya 2q wea Adonosiue axydeiBoyersi) anp sda weap dap peda “yuonbayy you st Adasnosiu stp "Supjiom arenas 01 parsafgns siaays jonosjur 01 anp S101 pasedwoo se uanx9 yea © o» poroaye st [ouoTEAL ay Jo Si 94, dun 81 Kdonnostue yo ads si, tuo}snfOU “SPIOA sv Yons sop W 2)Bu1s ¥ Jo Kdonostue sayseoxdde wonewioy9p 239496 01 parsafgns faut aidostosiue AyBiy s onewiojap asanas hq paonposd 1 ypigm sures? ayp Jo vonewoyio pauajaid ayy wou synsar Kdonosiur apydesSoypeIs439 (1 jayour !donostue uy ayer axdoros} “Kdoxosiwe ys a yo Butmesp 0} 2G] Ayodoig euorey OF cada zoxdn nam OY ‘wonDnpaat JOON, ‘ones Gi ‘ones Q/HH WaLay}P 40) uoHINpAL JO"ON : L214, pas W204 aye uiuapinq ayp anayas 0 uop 29 ueo Suyeauue arepawayul‘styp awODIeNo op “uMUp s) jeLATEN ‘yawn A1on2 peanpul st Suiuapiey uo} "wroytun urewan OU Op SSOUNYIK) fem Pu LOO wuz won ress Uononpar 8~§ — ACIP wb nonpaL HSI ~ 1 ~ SLA wononpas 9562 — IZ ~ MEIP ¥z: See eee ieee ane ep wa — a eo core 2 = opstuneg ‘ones Buyweup se passaxdxa s] wonronpa: “aopjd sow wononpas jo 1unowre awos afers yoea ty oaissaufoud wineap st dnd Suymespar se 01 patsojan st sty, oom auo we Ue Jo4res SoHeAs Ut aUOp st Buta (Onur a1p © UL Wasp 94 07 Sey TRIOLH aeYS 2yF HOY ou GEL Jo ssanoud ay) w2yy ‘ones fy s24yBiy Bu uoyeinojeg Bumeig enjsseoong 40 Buymed Supanapoy assoany 15-0 “Bd dana paunbas . + op én won Al = opr sopjoy "UeIg P young! Buymespoy osi0noy (11 -se9201g Supmseynuey, mm. Manutacturing Process i 7.41 Total load in Drawing Press (739) 4 Load required to overcome the de walls approximately 10.20% drawing load 1 —— blank holding Load = 5 P, > 40) aan Amountof W.D h 7.42, Drawability without causing any cracks. That is how much of deep drawn object can be produced with ease. It isa function of type of & thickness of materi Drawability is measured as a ratio of ik diameter to the diameter of the cup drawn, Itis measured in terms of Limiting Draw Ratio (LDR). Diaof blank Disof Cup ty. LDR = wer the LDR higher is the Drawal 7.43 Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) ‘Sheet Meta Work | %6Major Failure region fs Of im le, region ta 20 40 60 — % Minor Strain€, ‘The sheet metal for which failure isto be monitored is marked with grid of cirles produced by electrochemical marking ‘The sheet is subjected to deformation, The circles are distorted to ellipses ‘The major and minor axes represent the two principle directions inthe stamping ‘The strain in these two directions is measured by the % age change in the lengths of major and minor axes. These two strains on the surface are then compared with Keeler Good Strain f a above the curve represents ie, Those below the curve repre 2oujd seer uonewojop pide ‘puodas # yo vow pasn 5) S2uou jo Swunoute 980m] IH UL pod atmo uB)y sxlanxa ase sq pat] 94Ey SPOun ba Jo 1809 24 u YAH 40 wowudojenap ayy UE 2onpoud osenb 94, P29N panjoaus Bujooi pur au Zulusio}youonanton 2104) SPOUD sapepinsyeaguan ai uo suonnafoud upxaun v1 Bupynsas sna9g "worrewsO}ep wos! uo, “Edonyosiue nyse aqrers4x9 01 ang SuyeIp {gq poonpur Adonosiue or np sea sio9jap 2894, ono pasnzey. sit plony or ueseqn asp) peo| yound asea1oap 10 smpe woHog puE ws paumiseag (A roqnaueésun uy sau yoors au jo wouraaeydseyy ssn s8uvy san0ys OPAL, sep { | ad reat (i ‘anyen a spaaoxa peo} youn tapua|s sv pasopisuon aq uno aoys oxy Ut aUHO|D YR “Sessa nso w sv 7204s 24) Jo BuypyaNG WON} Si|MSe1 SAPALIA ang, ‘Suwon asm ‘ows won pue aunssaudsopjoy yueIq Jo Yontw Oo4, «dno atp Jo jem 24 01 puatxo Kew st, Jopjou jueIa aroun] wosta ‘gs stonpoud Sunseap doop ur ueR oF aun aun uo apn sapquum a@ueyy ( nooo yarn sioayep “wwenoduat 1p 1onposd ay) uo swadde s}>ajap Joo Kue UI Sy (6uymesg dag) Guywos jeIeW U! S}99}9q SPL joead jemoe ut ancnyoe no be uuany you PLL “WLS ONIdd ND NASHOI ‘2441 Buyunoy (eau ro9ys ut sind20 yoryas ssad0ud Bur say dng wosyous os By wus 22 89 eq joors wu oz aL Auqeuuos pL sa) 9008 upmoeynueyy igs High energy results in high pressure being generated, Source of energy could be detonation of explosives, power energy. ete, 4 Since energy is released by special techniques. the method is also referred to as non- conventional forming method. In conventional forming there wi In HERF conver Aischarge are used, ‘The rate of energy release is of very high order. Kinetic energy i utilized to impatt the energy is released ata very rapid rate of approximately, 10+ see, Whercas in conventional methods 10 10"! ~ 10° see. sparks or electromagnetic bbe moving parts. In HERE. no energy derived from che ial energy a 7.47 Velocity Range of Deformation for varying Forming Systems Type “Forming aster Valoctty Fange Forming ) Conve | — Brake press 151-03) Hydraulic press 30.5-45.08 (0.1 ~0.15) Rubber press 30.5-150.25 (0.1 -0.50) Mechanical press 300.5-12020 (1.0 - 40) 2) Others forming |} _Pneitmatic- Mecha 300.5-120200 (10 - 400) SEA Low explosive 15025-1502500 (50 - 500) Resse os 15025-1502500 (50 ~ 500) \\\ High Explosive 30050-240400 (100 - 800) \\Bteetrohydrauti 30050-240400 (100 - 80 \Electromagnetic 30050-240400 (100 ~ 800) ‘Typical Deformation Velocities for different process Process: Deformation velocity MVS. * Ten 7 4% Hydraulic press 0.025 10 0.35, @ Mechanical press O15 10 15 © Tube drawing 005 10 05 Deep drawing 0.05 0 1.0 4 Hammer forgi 25 10 10.0 ¢ Explosive forming 30 10 200 Sheet Met! Work Forming Presses Impact Speed Crank pr Serew pre ic press ess Drop hammer Power hammer igh spe ed machine 0.03 1003S 0.03 10 15's 0.03 10 15S 31045 MIS 45109 MS 61024 MIS. gy available in forming syste ig 7.48 Explosive Forming h energy or high vel Shock waves ae setup in Explosive Forming ‘weep ap SOUS 2014 Bey OIE 9I, Bujwuoy oNespAYyosoa|yA GL pau uy ane 2045 E10U58 01 Po Amaof masoydeg 19:6 Sa wey aren wauodwog, uy winnoen Neg of Sean noup 4, anal 10 “(ond aouas up) venqey uowny yp wos aed Kea sev ur 0 pau 99 1 Sse901g somedo /s19940m, pautes SpaaN ‘yngowe S10 papusy 2g 01 spaou soasordxg ‘soypom sowsodo ay) 0} snaiaBuep 29 Mey Sty 40859901 3819 yfty st younsonuy mo] Kps0o Ks st ss29014 (uu) arsoydxo ain wo ua 1p Jo uta) 2ouERP Yo PENS = sri = ch jo 181m nal. 105 082 INL #23 006" jowad 40} 00g = uotsoqdxo 0.2441 2 wo spuadap Anyeuonsodoud yo weisuaD = 9 (wormay) 24 we 210m int 004s uuuyy “omnssod yeag = wousuoo yNoge Jo seinsseid 07 -poonposd fst 2q URD ,wuyNYIEE oxdn J saINssa%§ wo~ AMIN oe = d aio) ayy Buisn q parenyess ag wo aunssoud wad aun ‘eIpaus ay) Se J9TE WRIA ‘pasn siopmod 2aisojd9 ou ‘@uaua s0%07] 04 “pasn ast epmod ung “2 “uo yound on “postfoou St 995)001-0) 40 21m wrens oBaroNw Uy (cost 2-1) “spuooast,Us 20 spuosasoroi uyia® paurErgo st mnoIwo> uanl® a4p ur ap ayo sie a4p 01 Uo YUDIG a4 BMIO4 JaYEA a4 YBMOAYP panUISMEN saAEMyDOUS a, wonenp uoys £194 & ur sone axp yBnaat sj aaind aunssaud Jo onat yous iIsuaILr BI Y Jonuo> stow v yBnoayy parcuorep st 19pmod anisordxa ous Ip ay ute ayp go Sune parejoosse pur volssaidwos aneqripe plone exp ayy wy wnnodA ay, {(pasn st iy witu Q6¢ Iseapi Jo winnoeA) parHMOeAe st aIp ox UL AIW ones Suyurequon uel Joye W ut pastauy st AIqutasse arojdisod exp days 0g 01 201d Hos: 24) 0 221s pur ssouyouyy aur UO spuodop pasn ag ob axrsojdxe yo adi pu 1unowsr 24 ueIIp yo pues (Soy umouy eae yue|q axp axoge papuadsns s1 Lapmod aajsopdxo UAE at, Sune uj won sod wt podwey> pue Buruodo ayp 241 s940 paoe|d si queyg UaAI# tL ‘dund woneaw 0 parouve> st yp a9 Jo uoIod wondg =, -uavoduoo ata Jo aumnas ain Burany stp panos v J sis}su091] sep ayn SmOYS 19-814 pasoye you are psn jouawus mea 94 jroeseyo [worZun|ye1oWy“oUOD 2q uFo Suyaeap daoq jou 94S “JwUDIEUL a1p SuIdeys 20 pas s1aIP 94R JO 6490 KIO “pouraur sitp Aq pauioy 2q ue sazord 10m 9817 ‘ipau ay) st pasn st em 40.119 lua postojat 51 {Bs2u9 Jo stunowre 28.2} ‘pareuorap st oxisoydye Jo wnowe jeeus e UeYAN sseaong Suunyseynuayy jerop da qos. ‘adeys paxisop ay) 01 yeas ayp wuojap o1 pasn sr sty, "eypaLE 1 saanat aunssoid J soaea Yooys seanpoud pasvajan sn) KBIouD 24, “PUODASOIOIU 2p 998 tating Process capacitor bank, i, .. Charging KOLOOOY Oe container Fig, 7.62 Blecrohydraulie forming ‘Two electrodes are held above the sheet, The electrodes are connected to the charging circuit through capacitor banks and a switch as shown ‘As and when the switch is put on, an are is High energy shock wave is produced in the water. This in turn transmits the energy to the blank and the blank gets deformed. energy is converted to mechanical energy in a liquid medium, ‘A potential difference of $0,000 volts pina gap of 25mm l Energy generated (Joules) = CV" ~~ (7.43) V = Voltage in volts C = Capacitance in farads 7.50 Electromagnetic Forming energy is converted to ma ‘The magnetic field pr of high order which in turn is used to to the current pussed Set up details Acollapsible mandrel ‘Shest total Work Capacitor bank 1 Bddy current Shape of sheet before x Coil current RRO ES Shape of the die Mandel (acting as die) ig, 7.63 Electromagnetic forming work piece on tothe man (14s auss which is = 345MPa (50,000 PSI) (08) (62) (ose) re = “vigu = ™y 2210} Bung =a ed og= uw ¢2=2! ¢0=") wu 9sz=¢ suas aI 8 ='22¥e, WEI aun yound oy pastnbas tau oy aIIRO|ED ¢ 9 1 oHTENaWed jo voN}e3y 1 *Potinbas aunssoid aBeroae ayp st eya% ¢ pasinbos 2010) Sumnno 24) ‘eags 0102 (pla 12945 YOIUN WIM gz B wO4 LHL (gz J0 yu} puns R 2 moygouy pouound 9 a aou on "y > “3 ‘me < oy (0) poe (1) woy ‘asd ‘0njd aye 01 Buyyound sox amtup 29 01 sey afoy ou, *: 9104] 1p yound 0) aaI8s0d rou 814)" > y sous N Tees'ecoust xox 2 0002 sse00ig Gupryseyneeyy 298 amateur Process Cutting force F.,, = nDr, = 3.14 (250) (2.5) (80) = 15700 Nor 157 KN Average fore F, = Eat = 1ST a7 ty vay Energy required = Ft = 471, = H17.7SKNmm or 17.73kI Problem : 73 A blanking die is required to handle blanks of 150mm dia on 3mm thick M.S. sheet. Blanking. takes place in 0.25 sec. Find the power required for driving motor. Take shear strength of the sheet = 400MPa, Given data: D= 150mm ;1= 3 mm; time =0.25sec ; +,= 400MPa ; Power =? Shear (F,) force = nDtst, F=3 Work Done, WD 50) 3 x 400 = 565200 N Force x distance (thickness) 565200 x 3 = 1695600.Nmm 1695.6 Joules WD/ see Power required = P. 16956 025, 6782.4 walts P = 6.7824 kW Problem : 7.4 Estimate the blanking force requited to cut a blank of regular hexagonal shape of side 2Sem from a metal sheet of 1.25em thickness, The ar strength of the material is 540 MPa, Determine the work done ifthe percent penetration is 20% of the material thickness, Given d: Side of hexagon : 25cm ‘Thickness of sheet = 1.25em Ultimate shear strength = 540MPa Number of sides = 6 WD =? % penetration = 20 25 Perimeter = 6% ir, = 1.5m ‘Sheet Metal Wore, ————— i 125 thickness = 795 =0.0125m 20 4 penetration = 20 or fraction penetration = 775 = Y% Blanking force, F,,, = Perimeter x thickness x t Blanking force F_,, = 1.5 x 0.0125 x 540 x 1000 = 101750kN F, “oye Ed Work done = F,,, x distance traversed = 20350 x 0.0125 = 254.375KN.m Problem :7.5 Calculate the values of g,b and draw the blank layout for the component shown in the Figure (A) gap between sheet edge and blank is given by formula 2400156 = 240015(H+2s) since W=H +2g g = 2+0015H + 00308 0.970g = 2+0015 9) = 2135 &b=1 = 2mmsince 153208 =[YAU ig. (B) Layout forthe given component winbas ayy MEP y£ 24) UE UoKIMpAA pz BuAsOOKD Kq 2QUDHL aye Aes 69° EC = MEUP % AIP. Dp pr HP UF peureigo ave sus yx 21 tegou = s0se ise9c 6 xg = oa wononpog a jemoy + suwigyse = Sa Iw9saso-saoos = io a ‘que ig? (cawooe =n8ey yaa Bare) (o9e)‘au+ a * = secorsis 209 pom 01 sey au0 (4g yy) suoIsuaUup a arto} Op 4606 wep 9] 04 sn Np pA aU WoNNPaN ay, Puteiqo 10W s} azIs Jonxe ai, ‘uuuy 162 = 24824 pur UIUIQge"E¢ st soroWEIp ayp Mexp pag axpsOYE Ye UBS 9g UD mug T6z = “ye ‘vst = 'y ing ‘weesol - ow tuze = sezorsis ’ oou'es) + = (96Le8) = + O6LES) ‘vqus ab ay ay -nnip pug saye wary wuigg.'es = ‘a TLEVOI x 1S89C~ 19894 = “y x1S894 — 19894 = BEvODSIS = 001 tg = O01 tg aig q¢ _nerp pig 2yR2}2weIG BOE mEIp pAg (At uw cepet = “ye anciseo4+ause9p ® = secorsis 09 aa rr 0005 oyety = ying By ‘waus igh ay x -seap puz saye nary wutsg'9¢ = ‘dno Jo vig 0x Se0'8z1 ~ so-RzT = Ol Lig-ige % Ol igiigs wre ‘a ‘weap pug soye saraureig, luontonpas sop wep pug (Ht unugy96 = 'y ‘dno yo rytoy 4 ‘v(ss0'sc1) «+ saosen * = sevorsis seorsci='a sues oe Wat ia £ = 'y mesp asy oye cary tmmisgo'gzt = 'g dno Jo vig. SOX L960 LI'98¢ = or Ol xa-a os eap as| sage wig, ‘vononpas 2596 - atsp 3] (4 WUUIBEZ“OFSTS = Mur 960) © = aK = yauelgjovary umzr9sz = @ dng pounbey (oor)(ca)e+ si = fq uont8 store yung (1 “cup tse Jo yfiag Su) 2utuo}2q EAP Yo 30) VOTIONPas AOE PU AO “aos auunssy “(BuljeaULE moUpIA) Swespal Jo Joquun ap aeynaqe yeiau ays WON} PRU aq oF St dno yBiet uaLUNgE X BrP MAMI? y IM sre00%4 Burien 95 waqqoag ee — Drawing fore if, = 400MPa for raving the cup taker = 2mm F = ndt.o, (%- = 11303 0900 (2222-1) = n175.03 2) 400 (38 = 2276212373 = 227.63KN Problem: 27 AA Shell of 80mm dia and height 250mm isto be drawa from a sheet, Cal Graws required if there are no annealing heat treat Take C= 0.6, 0, = 300MPa, = 2.5mm. te the number of in between. Calculate the drawing force, Diaof blank D = Ji yaan 4f80* +4(80)(250) 293.9 mm. D Area of the blank A 7 29397 = 67840 mm? Ist draw 50% reduetion on the blank diameter 30 Dia. alter I draw D, = D-Dx =, =2939-293.9 x D, = 147mm Area after Ist draw = = pp anDh = 7 OF + RDI, 67840 4 CAT? + 2(147) b, = 110.2 mm H draw 40% reduction Diameter after the 2nd draw D, = D,-D, ao 7" 100 Sect Wet! Work Ey = 7-147 x04 D, = 8.2mm ‘Area after 2nd draw 4,= 20h +n swe = 474, orc = © 829 +n (82h 4h, = 228mm draw is necessary to bring the cup diameter to 80mm = D, now h, =? tobe calculated A Lp xD, swe, = A,=4 67880 7 (Oy +n080) A, ssf, = 24996mm ~ 250 mm ‘ow 8 Reduction to be used to get this dimension in the 3rd draw is D, = D,-D,xR . x 80 = 882-882x Yop R= 93% Hence use 938% reduction forthe las draw Drawing force F = dio (94-C) = 31425 200 (722-06 = 5793.88N F = S.94KN Problem : 7.8 ‘Acup of 50 min, dia. 200 mm his drawn from a sheet of 3mm thick. Find the numberof ‘raws, Take 50%, 40%, 20% for each dra, Find the drawing fore required if ¢, = 300MPa Blank diameter D = We +4ah = [arcane = {50° +4{50)(200) D = 206.2.mm “Suuays) waa so 240 yoo urejdxo pue suonerado Bun ‘sOUSIOYS TOU UIE 1904S Jo BUOYS 40 ‘Krvalo way Jo 240 yows UM|dr EPOUESSEIO SOAP ABP NOH LL 1dxa ¢ ,J00) ssa1g, Aq pustopun nok op YAK OTL (@uywmsp) Fupanoy ye.ows 1994s us Hue so040j Jo a1mpeU O4 “Asbo poou si ssaid a1nespH (xt ssaid anu 2/8%0y, ssoud sounuseyy douq ssaad uf apyonuy, (4 ssaid an 1g (a ssaid onup oumuasog, (xt ssaid anup we ( ld BEY. ssaid ques (1 unis wou e yon ured TL ‘aundiy eau e yu ssaud pg ajqnisnfpe ureidxa I'L, aundiy wou v yun ssaud a}qouypou! yoog uado wields GL ne areoypuy gparrssepo sossaud oys 1B MOH, BL (210 ae0us “9509 "soup ‘ypund "ures ‘apyis)ssasd jeiow 1204s e Jo syierep xp mays Ysrays ajduns AOA EIA LL ‘uoneiado jeiaw iaays yoea ureydo saypioys oqdus WA 9'L oda ova Jepun suonsiodo wuasayspotp are rym wrejdxg poutsse)> uormeado yom ssad St NOH SL wonesado sy utejdia Kjquisse yound-ayp Jo yoiays ajduuis ® yA woe {0m ‘uaq) Jo 2u0 yoee weydxa pur jelau ays Jo sadey souatoys ide 1 nip ¢, paanpox ssaud 9n4 Buywuoy jeyow 04S SNOLLSANO ese 20m ey 9545 (suosoru ¢-)a0uei euonstsg) ~Guera jo ssouyor) ~ (dno 3 fl wag sana {mee snog-(hojoep ty) = and eae 1p Bay) = 1p Sumesp ayy0%G a ‘ip pue yound uy aqueealg NU F6r'86P = (. os ~ 5) oe x ex 05 x2 = (>>- 2) (0-%)°omu = 4 2ouoy futmeug uw ggz = *y (os) 2+ (0s) © = oueee Waus iad y z tu og = Ip dao au po prmoys mep IIE uuu g-9st = “y *s ‘yiow ix + dos) ® = seeee v='y = y sous tyique iat = do unesp ovary vu 9g19= lx peor reor= mvp pur saye vig op 260P 82 HT www 744 = 'y cona+creon ® = susce tor) a+ ip Jo way ont z wu reot= 2 eg 9¢-z90e =a 2p wt says nig 05 %05 #301 ctu gzece= (e990) 2 = y sueia ovary serra Suumpomuey a 206 Manutacturing Process - i 7.22 Discuss the effect of shear angle on punch pressure. 7.23 Explain clearly the term "Shear to a tool”. 7.24 Discuss End Thrust on the tool 7.25 What is the minimum condition for punching a hole in a sheet. 7.26 For blanking a given shape, estimate the parameters for optimum blank layout (assume any shape of your choice), 7.27 Discuss the effect of shear angle on cut 7.28 Derive an expression for the bending force 7.29 Explain “Spring back" in bendi 7.30 Explain clearly with neat sketches i) Rubber forming Stretch forming ) Spinning. iv) Shear spinning wR vi) Roll bending vii) Stretch bending. 7.31 Explain "Deep drawing” operation 7.32 Derive an expression for the blank diameter in drawing a cup shaped object. 7.33 Explain how metal flows in drawing operations.in a cup shaped object. "1.34 Derive an expression for drawing force in deep drawing, 7.35 Explain deep drawing process 17.36 Differentiate between conventional redrawing and reverse redrawing, 7.37 Explain successive drawing clearly. 7.38 What is drawability and LDR, 7.39 Explain clearly forming limit diagram, 7.40 What is formability test? Describe "Erichsen cup tes 7.41 Discuss the different defects in Metal forming (Deep forming) 7.42 What is HERF? Explain the need 7.43 What are the different HERF methods? Explain any one of them 7.44 Describe clearly i) Explosive forming ii) Electromagnetic forming ) Blectrohydraulic forming List che advantages and limitation of each one 7.45 A.25 mm square hold is to be cut in sheet metal of 0.75 is 2.86 x 105 KN/m. Caleulate the cutting force. in sheet bending. ick. The shear strength of the ‘Sheet Metal Work, as Objective type of Questions Answer according to each question Sheet metal is produced by ling process. il) Forging 7.2. Sheet metal work is carried out in a & assembly, 7.3. Punch isthe fixed tool and die is the moveable tool ‘Yes/No 74 Sheet metal work is mainly divided as __and operations. 7.5. Inpunching, the punched out portion i the useful item. Yes/No 7.6 Bending, Spinning and Stretching are referred to as _ operations. 7.7 Embossing will have projection with a corresponding depression in the sheet Yes/No 78 Press work is ahot working operation Yes/No. 7.9 In blanking allowance is given on to the punch Yes/No. 7.10 Angular cl ance is given on tothe die for easy removal ofthe work from the die, ‘True / False 7.11 Compound die performs two similar operations at atime. Yes/No. 7.12 Compound die performs two dissimilar operations at atime Yes/No. 7.13. ‘The angle of shear and the thickness of the work are interrelated. Yes/No. 7.14 Ifthe angle of shear on the punch is equal to the thickness ofthe work, then force required {or punching isthe highest. True / False 7.15 Spring back in sheet bending is lower, i the Elastic modulus of islower Yes/No. 7.16 Spring back is a phenomenon involving change in shape. ‘Yes/No. Stretch forming is used to get convex shaped objects Yes/No. 7.18 Blank diameter can be calculated by te formula i) D= Vath i) D=Veh iv) D=deddh 719 s progressively drawing a cup of large H/D ratio Yes/No. 7.20 During drawing operation the total surface area remains constant. Yes / No, 7.21 Erichsen Test will give the formability property of metal ‘True/ False 7.22. The peak pressure in explosive forming is given by i) P=cw"D P=cW! iii) P=CYWD iv) P=C 7.23. Presses used in sheet metal work can be classified as 7.24 Press ool isa phrase a press. press and press. assembly, operated by and used to ind suoysong : Buysiuly ¢ 918 Suvowis 1918 Buserd onesosy Ag (sy ‘Guprow Uogoetut Aa (py ‘vosrun Ag (ey ‘Outtus Aa (ev “yound e Bush (Ly ‘uopoedivo0 jo spoujayy (y :sepmiod JouoPeduog £98 sopwad ow BupUOIA z8'e ‘ spoyjew 2eug () ‘Aopy feomeyooyy (2 uoqeZLaAg jodep oN 19813 (9 'uoonpay (q jeziwory (@ ‘Svepnod (eIeH4 Jo UoHonpe1d 19 9 anbuypor na jo souanbas 9'@ SIE. 2.40, $8 ' Wd p uontoNddy 1 ! na 0 seBeuErpesIg © ! sonbuyoor a jo sweueg 2'¢ + ABsnjeiou opmod jo saBms Busse001g 48 !uoqoMpOUY O18 syuayuiog oney Buraeiq Sunmury 9¢-, Fuquay amy ABiwg vi SL aia pee ing $2 pA Pur yeorURYDOW Ez" W we any rh SA OTL 8A ONL am) sre PA LTE SA OVE mA STL ee ee oe sea re 8k ae on tre ON LOM OF ae a SA EL ON SL SA LL Buoy 94 ON SL yNo} =| Ama ARI = [a] eye] Bayus0} pe Soumoys oN €L PHN CL ov eens swosuy 1 uuoy papuedxe ur ya 9¢L AUBH StL -339001g Bupmoeynueyy gs 208 Manufacturing Process - mt 80 Introduction ‘+ Powder metallurgy (PM) isa process for fabricating metal parts from finely compacted metal powders 4+ Itisa solid state fabrication tectinique + Two or more metal powders are thoroughly blended and compacted to consolidate using, a die # The green compact is taken out of the die and sintered at very high temperature to get a hhardened mass of the metal having the desired configuration with enhanced strength and ‘other mechanical properties, Inthe following paragraphs details of powder metal ray processing is discussed. 8.1 Processing stages of powder metall ray 4 First, the primary material is physically powdered and divided into many small individual particles. 4 Two or more different metal powders ate mixed or blended together to form a homogeneous mixture 4 Next, the powder mixture is introduced into a mold cavity or a die and pressed to produce a weakly cohesive structure (Green Compact) to near dimensions of the object (ultimately t0 bbe manufactured), en Compact by applying pressure and high temperature, for a known time (A ing occurs. ‘The following paragraphs shows the details of steps in powder metallurgy t LL. Mixing of Metal powder - Metallic powders are mixed witha lubricant. The lubricant helps in imparting good flowabilty to the powder. 2. Compacting - The mixed powder is compacted in a mold or die 3. Sintering - The compacted metal powder is sintered at a high temperature in a furnace in a deoxidised atmosphere. 4, Sizing ~The sintered parts are again pressed ina mold/die to achieve high dimensional accuracy and high density. 5, Machining - Sm 6, Treatment - Parts are subj and other treatments like 0 7. Inspection - Fits que. Holes and other special feature are machined. ied to deburring and turn imprignation, etc. ly parts are inspected to have a check on the qual ing to remove any small proje of the parts 8.2 Benefits of PM technique ’ ation of mack ing. eran. Easy to maintain close dimensional A variety of metal powders can be used, Very good surface can be obtained. Jnly complex and intricate components car >e produced. Scrup losses can be reduced. Can be Dense coi ly adopted for mass production, yonents with enhanced mechanical properties can be produced. 8.3 Disadvantages of PM ‘Start-up costs may be high, relative to conventional processing (cost of production of powder 4 Strength and stiffness may be inferior to wrought lar composi ' ry may impair dorability ‘ ess may be low. 4 Some limitation on the shapes and features of the component All types of complex shapes cannot be produced). tors may face health problem due to fine powder contamination. | 8.4 Application of PM components loys and tungsten carbide. ’ ns approximately 15 kg. of PM pars ’ engine is composed of 700 - 2000 kg of PM parts 4 Gears. Cams, Sprockets, Cutting tool, pi necting rods and m: £00 3 shows the photographs of pasts. Fig. 8. Gears S190 4 urfoyre yeowegoopy PZUONINA uv sapmod yeu yo onpaad 24) 204 pasn f]]PULOU SpoUROU HL asn ssaoaud wouod ‘odoys ous, + wang + ‘moy 08 JCI & 430 2dKi 241 uo spuodap safomied aip jo vonnqunsip pue 221s “i psn our spunodwoo ayo pur ‘sa10 ‘soy «uniggg 28ums sojonued ayn jo 2218 a4p“sonbruysay Jo Azuma v Bussn £q peonpord a ‘Ssopmod jeyoyy Jo UOHONPOId 1'9°8 ‘Buquyo9 Suyuyro fqns &q no passe: (toy se yons suonwiado Bunysuyy ssoooud Sunysiuns 7p Aropuocog “94g 1uouodwoo auto reduion yBiy son 18 2uop s1 suauadus09 eo8 ‘Senmppe YUM stapmod feiaw Jo Zupusig -Z9'g Jepwod HOW JOUORINPALg “198 enbyuyoay Wd Jo eouanbas 9°g ‘nbraypo, ‘Bane 2p nog ha ape sud peru wortoaid Joy | aBesaAe UE UO sutPINOD 19 UIE Y & aonposd Kjisea 99 weo By 9¢ 01 SwuEsE aay we ram sued § ‘Reesnaoe [ruo!suawp pood axvy porpau sp Kq apeur sized 0 a rent tion [posn axe sadeys pue ssauouy‘sopes8 wasayip Jo siapmod KIIPWION + ‘yoru iY ‘eddop ‘uouy ave sjesus pasn fquoWIMOD SOW + -CBanqyeout Jopmod ui pasn aq uo syetsarew oj je}aw-uou puv 2yye}ou 30 samxsut 40 SKoqTe SHOU ang Hevep 40N10 SB sniuoduoy somung C9 iy In ss00014 Buumeinuey Atomizing chamber + The water spray/ait/gas is introduced into the metal stream just befor bottom, This tends to create turbulence. mizing chamber promot powder is formed due to breaking up ofthe stream in a tank kept below the chamber Fig. 8.4 gives the det Inert gas accu Bees po ee Nonrorati, tungst electrode Collection port Fig, 8.5 Rotating electrode Pet gy Fite other method a consumable electrode (Metal rod) is oad capidy ina helium, Bas chamber as shown in fig. 8.5. * The centrifugal force breaks up the molten ip ofthe electrode, producing particles, # Oppo: lectrode establishes an are which heats the metal electrode hi ng: Tiny droplets of meta is formed, The circulating gas sweeps rom the chamber. Reduction # Here the removal of oxygen from met monoxide as reducing agents is cx Very fine metallic oxides are reduced lie powders, ‘The metal powder dust produced are spongy & porous in natu, # They have uniform spherical or angular shapes. Electrolytic dey 4 Here Blectrolyt ‘on the cathode, * The powder thus produced will bein its purest form, Pulverization ‘method metals (brittle and less bit particles. ic oxides using gases such as Hydrogen & Catbon ut ‘method using an agueous solution is usd for fine depo of powders {0 produce small With steel or white cast iron balls, he metals are crushed, ow cylinder results in crushing of the metal due o impact of balls 8.6.2 Blending Metal Powders + Here powders: homogenous ii woustunun ayy saoys #8 jquiasse prordaiv swoys jg Big 3 21gn ayn ur unoys sn saunssaid Jo aura 4 “parondwo9 98 wapmod au"! Uo padidy st yound maxi J9pmod feu ay “pasn St Kyqulasse ap v pur yound w-99q4 oyodies 21g Young £9 “Sd 00 - OFL sapique pauouia3) ee oo Toq uF re) or OW oa Meow 7 oO on iw | DR OSE Ta f ht SIE= OE ag OL OOF wag Sia=0L ¥ ean ans Tea Sinking woRaBdWIOD oun rsagey yp # pu young w Susp, (e ossnasp 9 tm 2504 J0 Yea sydstesed Buymo|Oy ay UL ‘Bussaid oneasosy kq (@ Burpinou uonofuy Ke (P worse fq (9 Saou ka (@ sip pur yound » usp, (© Spovpaus 243 Jo auo Aue kqparzedwoo axe s1apmi0g uonseduios Jo spomoy 1'£°9"8 ($898 perro rope L ed s08.m] ayy ueamrog saonds 2y ‘tujon Kq ap pul aoeds au, “sojsiued ay usomiag S104) UOW) ates ayy axe sajouused ayp yo 2zis om 4] ao} Ying a4 1ap 241 ‘pasmasour st aunssoud Zungedwsoa ‘aunssaxd oup uo spuodap tordwoo vad ayy ‘aumssduia, PowAate wo pouro oq este Ueo ing “nmeadoy WoOs WF auOp AjeoUEs st Sulsaig + Tedwoo uaas8 se 0} passojai st sapnod passaid ayy ¢ “patiego 2q uo 1981409 aon o stop pasisep ay yim adeys pantnbos aut Furssaid ky ¢ edW\ 08-00 Pk nd ayy soy pasnaunssaid ay, "surous yeotueysoul 7 o1}Ip hy “ poteanae sassaud Rusn sap ut sedoys cum passaud are stopatod papuotg aun ars 4epmod jo uopseduoy ¢'o'g ‘sumxtun snousSowoy « 198 0} uoneanp seynanied e 40) paads umoUy e apeoy art papuaiq 2q 01 siapaiod ay, ‘pasn si }ou! wap Bu 3 Paimior pun SmOYS O° “ig wonmutusease> wanoud oy 409 J9pun Ino poLits aq snus Lopmod Jo Suni) & lunotugn se pasn ase plow amas 40 ayeseays a ‘lap ou sexoudiur pu sap ata jo Sumy sadosd ‘=pmod ou agp ai postu au snaugn ‘sonsusieseyD Moy a anos oy ¢ PpHOd WEN fo Supung /Suayy 98 hy sepmod maw ‘pauinbos Sr sonadord jeoweyrous 9 jopskyd axoudu 01 poxus ate stow warp 30 slapmod ‘WONNGHISP wHojun Sutany sjoRUe, Jo sis}sueo aim [eapt yy, ¢ Ime escent, ng Universal Press Powder b) Powder Rolling die lady of the Press Manufacturing Process - tt Upper pune Lower punch Fig, 88 Pressing or Compact ind is compacted into ac be carried out ©) Powder Extrusion Loose powder ~~ tical Rolling |Compacted powder ‘Compacted powder ting Fig. 89 Powder Power Metaurgy sar Loose powder Sintering Hot rl furnace _MOUsline osm art egWWOOOI 0 OOF Jo sasmssaig sayem Buf Aypensn zoquiey> ew AyjeaersoupAH pazumnssasd uoips1Kiguuasse aU, + nd 20 aueaanyseqqns Jo apm pynow ajay ut posed st apmod yeaw ayy (g19) Bussoud omEsOst pon, @ (ain) Buyssarg apes prog (1 -mo[oq possnosip s yoty sip uy Sadi omy ave aioyy, stteq mous Suryou 4 spscy padno Busn Bussaud oy eu 1 ssoo0ud aL + ‘iopmod J0 vousedisoa 04 pasn st uonesedo so aA stu Buyssarg opeisosy (9 wis Area woo siopmod peroedwioo ay) Jo Ausuap ayp 2oug 4 ‘Bur8i03 pue Bunjos se yons sassaooid aio so soquunu v Aq no pauses ag oste ues uonIedwOD ¢ ‘sivaoduioo a81nj 20) pakoyduse axe (NWOSP) sS200xd oHIMeUPKHY + ‘sontoedea saysiy 10) pasn are sossaxd ‘@Zouuo) [ews 10 pasn axe sossaid eueyaou adéy nt9999 40 YUE) 4 sued PAWN 008 OF unjuNMINRE Joy BAFYOL Woy sofuRA aunssaid uoNTedwIOD eULON ay. + siejep ewlog ee oe ‘Absrueron s9px0g Supooyy nopotuy erg i wyeus sson04—| ;poonposd s 90f90 padeys snonunuoo v pur ayp 249 jo Suruodo ayy ySnostp Jap ap usr ps SM “Patemioe st 2108 at pur sauteACOD a oxut papro} stops yeiayy“€1'8 Bld Ut emoys st Sseo0Hd 2UIp fu oud, squsuoduoo ay uty pur yiuaas soya op OUT “pasaryor aq ueo z9pwod joed oso Kina ‘adays uatayp Jo sajonied Buss Ka 4 uuonoedwoo Surnp podde aissosd wo spuadap ‘vedios uoas8 a4 Jo Aasuap ou, ¢ sea MOY INU pMOd ALL + no patare9 99 UBD BuISSOAd + aoeusny © ut paras jduoy Moy w uoKo © ut poweay ox sioeduioo wou ay, § rureivoo a _natos n Bunoore Kq poureigo‘aunssaid 0} anp uonoadwion seoSiepun aseMxIA papuaig aM, & “apg paseg xea v4 Jauukjod » yi popuoyg ax (wrig] >) siapmod yeiaus auy Kron, ¢ uypynou uopoafur yerou paieaosye sta, + Suypinoy wonDafuy s9pHod (P soo worsnansg crs ig suopisd yorau soy spouous uorsnaxe 10H, “aameuaduray parnaaye ve 40 axmeradutay woos w sd yo sng 0 au sapmod papnanxa opsmanea ps4 19 Bt FPO JoGunig Jopsod 2s0oy ua saureuoa vowunys ty Pees aa s2ure og, | sourewuog. Jopiod [eM In sse901g Bupnsoegty,§ ae 9390 tartar Process Metal rod Powder to be compacted _— Flexible Container — Plug — High pressure chamber Fig. 8.14 Schematic diagram of eold isostatic pressing as applied to forming a tube (Courtesy; Rendall -M. German, Powder Metallurgy Science, Princeton, NJ; Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1984.) ‘The powder is enclosed in a flexible container around a solid core rod. Pressure is uppl ‘sostatically to the assembly inside a high pressure chamber. The powder gets compacted {green compact is taken out and sintered, ii) Hot Isostatic Pressing wressed using i a metal powder 1 Pressure of 1OOMPa at 1000°C is used. 4 Here a container made of very high melting point metal is used. ‘© Am inert gas is used as the pressurizing media. The main advantage of HIP isis ability to produce compacts with essentially 100% density, ‘good metallurgical bonding among the particles with good mechanical properties, 4 HIP process is relatively expensive and is used for making super alloy compon aerospace industry. # is regularly used for the densification of WC cutting tools and PM tool steels. # HIPisalso used to close rosity and improve properties in superalloy and Ti for 4 It produces compacts of practically uniform geain structure and density irespective of shape. Fig. 8.15 shows the concept used. Powder Metluray a Compressive force heating coils High pressure chamber High Isostatic Pressing Fig. 815 Concept of HIP Secondary Evacuation pressing media stems i) Fabricate mold ii) Fill with powder iit) Secondary pressing ‘media and evacuate desk (0) Finished part Gas pressurization Autoclave chamber iv) Hot isostatie press 616 nol pues ores 0 dc PM Congo HP Fig. 8.16 shows the details of rn : e onueudp ay ‘2002 woyasd ip uy ¢ ‘imonasoso1 pue Bnoup jane sunday sy 4 aoeuiny Banos ay yRnony a ‘Pedwoo woos ay days Ruwais (eo1datv up mons 0 wosog-ouny dry 6g By ‘siuowofuesze 249 SiMOys 61g 8 Simos panour pu 149q ysour & uo paseyd eo wwonysodjowy ‘aanerSdaay fez joy 2402 Woyaud dn yes Buon peorday "OYE 29 01 spzou pus sSunsea uy se eBeyuys sao8io tuna PUN WWeuoduIoD ay) Faas Bu (009 uo ‘sonuodtoud saqvo pur. ee radon yy we SyeMON, 4 ‘iomwesed Buissooaud awn pus sopmod rerou xoiduwoo Aqysiy arr susruvysaus is 196dwo9 jou a4 Jo *dul00 249 Uo spuadap yp aimeu ul ‘Bly Aso . Supawis p98 ates ‘ABsmur0n iopnog 3 ig ap ayn 18 P3]009 viadap YoH4jgh “LIS Uf thoy se poUurEUseU axe ayaa aunvesadwiai pur axnssaig 19pMod sf AIquasse aqp pue yound v wxove ayp apEsuy ToxDeL YB Jove is dm 195 fH 40 ste Up SOUS LT'R "BL yeroduion pu aunssasd aij ‘861 ‘or sapsog ‘wnuiog He jopuny &s2p.n09 a2an0s said aneisost rn 101 Fe 7 Burse2yee 0 9 ved | 2 szopmod je ( soddoyy 300 SuneoH sp dng qui £08 Bid wey wouog [H99 uononpuy spugrita ou, | omssog |§ yung seondg \. aa raysef area wes doy Sr ae au ae aT | 39$ $$$ tenutacturing Process - ture developed during sintering determines the properties of the part. ‘powders is heated to a temperature above the reerystallisation temperature but below the melting point of the powder. 8.20 and Fig. 8.21 are shown the sequence of sintering process and how the bonding ccaried out, such that the final dimensional accuracy is achieved. For this, a variety of machining operations will be carted out, 315 Powder Metaurgy QUESTIONS Powder Metallurgy | What is powder Metallurgy ? Briefly explain 2. Draw a flowchat showing the various steps in PM techniques. |. What are the advantages & Limitations of PM. List some ofthe important applications of PM. components ‘What types of powder are used in the process ? List some of the commonly used powders, What are the different methods used for powder production? Explain briefly the characteristics of the powder. Explain the powder production by 4) Atomization eae 6) Pul ©) Mechanical alloying with neat figures wherever required. 9, What is blending of powder ? What i it ince ? How itis done? the need for compaction of powder. Give details compaction of powder by Using a punch and adie By Rolling ing the entire process of compaction, sintering ete 13. Explain CIP & FUP process cl 14, What is sintering? Why is it required? What isthe mechanism involved ? Objective type of Questions Answer according to each question al cy uses very rough metal powders True/ False 82 obtained by sintering process. ‘True / False 83 PM components need 0 be machined Yes/No 10x40) wey mov rausdinbs Bulsi0g sadKy furRiog sg"suonniodo SusBiog 642 Bonny anisoydg 42 Jooy, 319 Ho nay pug SCOve ‘2|8ue av9ys Jo 198 ‘pre "Buyseays uo anuraray> jo 193 ce fuissoquig {807 20104 Burserap au 40) wosssaudg ‘FI Buppon-yoayy Jo 199g, RL 'Lg'uoNNg, a 922 "Susu ray wy si9a}oq ez “angnetig Cee “1ee ‘OLe BumEspoy 690 *Buussp dog, 9g ‘worteodo Buyneag, 9¢¢ "zoueswayo yound agg eq Buwwag, 50g ‘seI2p a1p SuumeIg) ue orgies 0250) sc¢'ap eonegu 8£¢ =pppunoduoy 22 “td samo jou €ze Guo, 611 ss900ud Buy (09 ‘ssans anays ‘p'ssono.d Buumaegnunyy so uoneay}sse|>) 2 62 4Binuiayy 19pod Jo swjauag, seg 'ssaud 0 ur Stajoumred a1seg cee Supuag, sie Bue zp Ip 'ssans eres, xapuy aml 68 asp $8 astm / am, ON/SK 9518 / 24, | 3816 NA, asqeg / ana, Sunystuig pue Suvoqg‘uonsedaro, “Burpuoyg "uoreseda:d 29pm “oye siayonids ‘suit “#29 oun 88 ard £8 aunssaig 203805] 48H, oud v8 ON ¢8 OMA TR ested siansuy anbruyoon KBinyjou sopmod so posn sdats W241] +308 © @ aed jouonvoriday ssooaid uotsnip sonjonur sajansed yeu o ReyaIUIs -Buryas kq amo pou 9q wea epmod Jo uoudedwo ‘ats uml 9Q0} < st 2apmod aur atp Jo 921s 24, “40) spuens iH anbiuyooKRunjreu zopmod fq paonpoxd aq youre svoju pur S19 sso! squouodweo KBuneaun f9pw0d JO1809)