Area Between Curves - Calculus

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Area Between Curves - Calculus

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AVERAGE VALUE OF A FUNCTION

b

a

f ( x) dx produces a value (signed area) which may be positive, negative, or zero.

However, if you are asked to find an actual area, that area cannot be negative.

b

A f ( x ) g ( x ) dx if f ( x ) and g ( x ) are

a

g(x)

continuous and f ( x ) g ( x ) on [a, b].

b xa xb

For functions of x , A (top curve bottom curve) dx .

a

y

b

For functions of y , A (right curve left curve) dy .

a

y x 2 2, y x, x 0, and x 1.

Sometimes you have to find where two curves intersect to determine boundaries for

your region(s). These intersections will provide you with limits of integration for your

integral(s). You must show an equation set up, even when using a calculator to find the

intersections.

Example 2: (Functions of y) y

Find the area of the region bounded by x y 2 3 and y x 1.

x

y

x

Example 3: Set up integrals for the total area

of the regions located between the two curves

as shown. You may use a calculator.

f ( x) x3 x2 and g ( x) x2 4.1x

121

The average value of a function represents its average height.

f(x)

to x b in the figure at right which could x

represent the average height of f ( x) on [a, b] . x=a x=b

A= height

width

b

3. f ( x) dx b a height Now solve for the average height.

a

"area" of region

b

f avg

a

f ( x) dx or

1

b

f ( x) dx

ba a

ba

"width" of region

on the interval [0, 2] without using a calculator.

x

Example 5: Use your calculator to find the value of c in the interval [0, 2] where

f (c) the average value found in Example 4.

122

ASSIGNMENT 6-4

For Problems 1 and 2, set up integrals that could be used to find the areas of the shaded

regions. Do not integrate. Show the equation(s) used to find the limits of integration for

Problem 2 without using a calculator. y

2 f(x) x

f ( x) x 3 f(x) f ( x) x 2 4 x

1. g(x)

2.

g ( x) x 2 2 g ( x) x

(-1,1) (1,1)

1

A= 1

______

For Problems 3 and 4, show equations used to find the limits of integration, show integral

set ups for the areas of the shaded regions, and then find the areas. y

3. No calculator. y 4. Use a calculator.

x

f ( x) 3 f ( x) 2 x x 2

f(x)

g ( x) 4 x x2 g ( x) 3 x 1

x

For Problems 5 and 6, sketch regions bounded by the graphs of the given equations, show

equations used to find the limits of integration, show integral set ups, and find the areas.

5. Use a calculator. 6. No calculator. Hint: Write as

y 3t functions of y . (Isolate x )

1

y t2 x y2 3 y x

2

b. Explain why the area bounded between the curves cannot be written as a single

integral using -2 and 2 as limits of integration.

c. Use the symmetry of the graphs to write a single integral for the area.

For Problems 8-12, find the average value of each function on the given interval.

8. No calculator. 9. No calculator. 10. No calculator.

1

f ( x) x3 on [0, 2] g (t ) on [2,5] f ( y) 2 y y on [1, 4]

(t 1) 2

11. Use a calculator. 12. Use a calculator.

t 2 1

f (t ) on .4,3.2 h( x) .5x on 2,1

t 1

13. Find the exact x-value where the function in Problem 8 equals its average value.

14. Use a calculator to solve for c for the equation h(c) havg in Problem 12. Your

answer should be expressed to 3 or more decimal place accuracy.

123

y

15. Use a calculator to find the shaded area between the curves f(x)

f ( x) 2sin x and g ( x) 3cos x on [0, ] as shown

at right. Show an integral set up and express your final x

answer to 3 or more decimal place accuracy.

Make sure your calculator is in radian mode.

7

a. Evaluate

1

f ( x) dx . y

y = f(x)

b. Determine the average value of the

function on the interval [1, 7] .

c. Determine the answers to Parts a. and b. if x

the graph is shifted two units upward.

For Problems 17-18, sketch graphs and approximate the values of the intervals using

a. a Midpoint Riemann Sum. b. the Trapezoidal Rule

where n the number of equal subdivisions.

8 12

17. 0

x3 dx 18. 0

x dx

n4 n3

shown in the figure. Approximate the total square yd

yards of pasture area using pasture

fence

a. a Midpoint Riemann sum using five equal subdivisions.

b. the Trapezoidal Rule where n 10 . 500 yd fence

y 250 210 190 190 170 120 80 60 60 40 0

20. Two men in a search party begin walking from Search Headquarters at the same

time. One man walks North at a rate of 4 ft/sec, while the other man walks West

at a rate of 3 ft/sec. After both men have walked for one minute, find

a. the distance separating the two men.

b. the rate at which the distance between the two men is changing.

f x

21. Use the graph of f at right to sketch

y

a. a graph of f .

b. a graph of f which passes through x

the origin of the coordinate plane.

Use a separate coordinate plane for each

graph. 500 yd. fence

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