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f ( x) dx produces a value (signed area) which may be positive, negative, or zero.
However, if you are asked to find an actual area, that area cannot be negative.

Area of a Region Between Two Curves f(x)

A f ( x ) g ( x ) dx if f ( x ) and g ( x ) are
continuous and f ( x ) g ( x ) on [a, b].

b xa xb
For functions of x , A (top curve bottom curve) dx .
For functions of y , A (right curve left curve) dy .

Example 1: Find the area of the region bounded by

y x 2 2, y x, x 0, and x 1.

Sometimes you have to find where two curves intersect to determine boundaries for
your region(s). These intersections will provide you with limits of integration for your
integral(s). You must show an equation set up, even when using a calculator to find the
Example 2: (Functions of y) y
Find the area of the region bounded by x y 2 3 and y x 1.


Example 3: Set up integrals for the total area
of the regions located between the two curves
as shown. You may use a calculator.
f ( x) x3 x2 and g ( x) x2 4.1x


Discovering the Formula for the Average Value of a Function. y

The average value of a function represents its average height.

1. Draw a horizontal segment from x a

to x b in the figure at right which could x
represent the average height of f ( x) on [a, b] . x=a x=b

2. Find the area of the rectangle formed.

A= height


3. f ( x) dx b a height Now solve for the average height.

Average Value of a Function:

"area" of region

Average value of f ( x) on [a, b] f (c)

f avg
f ( x) dx or

f ( x) dx
ba a
"width" of region

f ( x) must be continuous on [a, b].

Example 4: Find the average value of f ( x) x3 x y

on the interval [0, 2] without using a calculator.


Example 5: Use your calculator to find the value of c in the interval [0, 2] where
f (c) the average value found in Example 4.


For Problems 1 and 2, set up integrals that could be used to find the areas of the shaded
regions. Do not integrate. Show the equation(s) used to find the limits of integration for
Problem 2 without using a calculator. y
2 f(x) x
f ( x) x 3 f(x) f ( x) x 2 4 x
1. g(x)
g ( x) x 2 2 g ( x) x
(-1,1) (1,1)

A= 1

For Problems 3 and 4, show equations used to find the limits of integration, show integral
set ups for the areas of the shaded regions, and then find the areas. y
3. No calculator. y 4. Use a calculator.
f ( x) 3 f ( x) 2 x x 2
g ( x) 4 x x2 g ( x) 3 x 1

For Problems 5 and 6, sketch regions bounded by the graphs of the given equations, show
equations used to find the limits of integration, show integral set ups, and find the areas.
5. Use a calculator. 6. No calculator. Hint: Write as
y 3t functions of y . (Isolate x )
y t2 x y2 3 y x

7. a. Sketch graphs of y 4 x and y x3 in one coordinate plane.

b. Explain why the area bounded between the curves cannot be written as a single
integral using -2 and 2 as limits of integration.
c. Use the symmetry of the graphs to write a single integral for the area.

For Problems 8-12, find the average value of each function on the given interval.
8. No calculator. 9. No calculator. 10. No calculator.
f ( x) x3 on [0, 2] g (t ) on [2,5] f ( y) 2 y y on [1, 4]
(t 1) 2
11. Use a calculator. 12. Use a calculator.
t 2 1
f (t ) on .4,3.2 h( x) .5x on 2,1
t 1
13. Find the exact x-value where the function in Problem 8 equals its average value.

14. Use a calculator to solve for c for the equation h(c) havg in Problem 12. Your
answer should be expressed to 3 or more decimal place accuracy.

15. Use a calculator to find the shaded area between the curves f(x)
f ( x) 2sin x and g ( x) 3cos x on [0, ] as shown
at right. Show an integral set up and express your final x
answer to 3 or more decimal place accuracy.
Make sure your calculator is in radian mode.

16. The graph of a function f is shown in the figure at right.

a. Evaluate
f ( x) dx . y
y = f(x)

b. Determine the average value of the

function on the interval [1, 7] .

c. Determine the answers to Parts a. and b. if x
the graph is shifted two units upward.

For Problems 17-18, sketch graphs and approximate the values of the intervals using
a. a Midpoint Riemann Sum. b. the Trapezoidal Rule
where n the number of equal subdivisions.
8 12
17. 0
x3 dx 18. 0
x dx
n4 n3

19. A pasture is bounded by a river and two fences as 250

shown in the figure. Approximate the total square yd
yards of pasture area using pasture
a. a Midpoint Riemann sum using five equal subdivisions.
b. the Trapezoidal Rule where n 10 . 500 yd fence

x 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

y 250 210 190 190 170 120 80 60 60 40 0

20. Two men in a search party begin walking from Search Headquarters at the same
time. One man walks North at a rate of 4 ft/sec, while the other man walks West
at a rate of 3 ft/sec. After both men have walked for one minute, find
a. the distance separating the two men.
b. the rate at which the distance between the two men is changing.

f x
21. Use the graph of f at right to sketch
a. a graph of f .

b. a graph of f which passes through x
the origin of the coordinate plane.

Use a separate coordinate plane for each

graph. 500 yd. fence