EPA Examination Details Since November 14, 1994, the EPA must certify refrigerant technicians.

Only cert ified technicians can purchase CFC and HCFC refrigerants. At this time you do no t need to be certified to purchase HFCs but you are required to recover HFCs. Ma instream is approved by the EPA as a certifying agency for Section 608 TYPE I, I I, III, and Universal Exams as well as Section 609 Motor Vehicle A/C Technician Exams. Mainstream also offers other training and certification exams including R -410A Service Techniques, Preventative Maintenance Certification, and Indoor Air Quality Certification. Information on these non-EPA training and certification programs is also available on the www.epatest.com website. The Type I exam consists of 25 Core questions and 25 specific Type I questions f or a total of 50 multiple choice questions. Mainstream does not make-up the ques tions, the questions have been prepared by the EPA. Technicians can take the certification exams as many times as necessary (passing grade for the open-book exam is 84% in both sections, that is, 21 of 25 correct in each section). For technicians using this Type I Open-Book format the core q uestions must be repeated in a proctored environment if other certifications (su ch as Type II, Type III, or Universal) are later desired. Technicians receiving a passing grade on the Type I (small appliance) examinatio n are certified to recover refrigerant during the maintenance, service, or repai r of refrigerators and freezers designed for home use, room air conditioners (in cluding window air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners), package d terminal heat pumps, dehumidifiers, under-the-counter ice makers, vending mach ines, and drinking water coolers which are fully manufactured, charged, and herm etically sealed in a factory with five pounds or less of refrigerant. Only Type I or Universal certified technicians can recover refrigerant from these units. W ith Type I certification you will be allowed to purchase refrigeration in any si ze container except for CFC-12 which can only be purchased in containers of 20 p ounds or more. If you wish to purchase CFC-12 in containers holding less than 20 pounds of refr igerant, such as one pound cans, or to purchase refrigerant from automobile whol esalers then Section 609 Motor Vehicle certification is required. Only Section 6 09 Certified Motor Vehicle A/C (MVAC) technicians can purchase CFC-12 in contain ers of 20 pounds or less. Furthermore, automotive wholesalers will typically onl y honor 609 MVAC certification cards. The Section 609 Motor Vehicle Certificatio n exam is a 25 question open book exam, also available from Mainstream on the in ternet (www.epatest.com) Any technician with an Open Book Type I certification must retake the Core Secti on of the exam in a proctored environment (closed-book) if they are seeking addi tional certifications such as Type II, Type III or Universal. Refrigerant Purchase Restrictions

Allowed to Purchase* Certification Type CFCs HCFCs HFCs

None No No Yes 608 Type I 20+ lb container 20+ lb container Yes 608 Type II 20+ lb container 20+ lb container Yes 608 Type III 20+ lb container 20+ lb container Yes 608 Universal1 20+ lb container 20+ lb container Yes 609 MVAC Yes2 Yes2 Yes2 1Universal certification is simply possessing a Type I, Type II, and Type III ce rtification 2Container can be any size but must be purchased from an automotive supply house , which typically will only sell R-12, R-134a, and replacement blends for R-12 * Individual Wholesaler's rules may be more restrictive than the EPA requirement s. Contact your local supply house for more information. Serviceable Systems

Systems/Appliances Certification Type Small1 High/Very High Pressure2 Low Pressure3 Motor Vehicle None No No No No 608 Type I Yes No No No 608 Type II No Yes No No 608 Type III No No Yes No 608 Universal4 Yes Yes Yes

No 609 MVAC No No No Yes 1Small Appliances (packaged terminal air conditioners) containing 5 lbs or less of refrigerant 2High-pressure and very high-pressure appliances including split systems and all other non-automotive systems not covered under the category of unitary small appliance or low pressur e appliance. 3Low-pressure appliances such as chillers 4Universal certification is simply possessing a Type I, Type II, and Type III ce rtification Refrigerant Recovery

Permitted to Recover* Certification Type CFCs* HCFCs HFCs None NONE* NONE* NONE* 608 Type I Small Appliance Small Appliance Small Appliance 608 Type II High/Very High High/Very High

High/Very High 608 Type III Low Low Low 608 Universal1 All above All Above All Above 609 MVAC MVAC Only MVAC Only MVAC Only 1Universal certification is simply possessing a Type I, Type II, and Type III ce rtification *All refrigerants are required to be recovered. Only certified technicians are p ermitted as per the table above.

Study Hints We recommend you read this entire manual first and then use the interactive test ing software on the CD to practice taking a simulated exam. When you can success fully pass the practice exams you are ready to sit for the actual open-book exam . If you are receiving failing scores on the practice exams, then I suggested yo u consider practicing more before talking the actual exam! To study for one part icular section of the exam, please refer to the following section-by section top ic review: The Core Section of the EPA Section 608 exam concentrates on the general knowled ge of all types of refrigeration systems. Questions in this section relate to to pics throughout the book. Carefully read each section and be sure to review the subsection titled "Review Notes" at the end of each section. Pay special attenti on to topics relating to EPA Regulations, especially the Clean Air Act, Montreal Protocol and shipping and safety requirements, the basics of refrigeration syst ems and techniques, all aspects of ozone depletion, replacement refrigerants and oils, the three R's: Recover, Reclaim and Recycle, and recovery, leak detection and dehydration techniques. The Type I Section of the EPA Section 608 exam concentrates on safety and recove ry requirements and techniques for unitary small appliances with five pounds or less of refrigerant. Carefully review the subsection titled "Review Notes" at th e end of each section.

TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE EPA EXAMINATION INFORMATION INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS SECTION I: Refrigerants Past, Present, and Future MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND TERMINOLOGY CFCs HCFCs HFCs THE REFRIGERANT DESIGNATION NUMBERING SYSTEM REPLACEMENT REFRIGERANTS DISPOSABLE REFRIGERANT CYLINDERS REFILLABLE CYLINDERS REFRIGERANT SAFETY REVIEW TOPICS SECTION II: The Basics of Ozone Depletion STRATOSPHERIC OZONE HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS GLOBAL NATURE OF THE PROBLEM REVIEW TOPICS SECTION III: Regulations OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION EARLY CONTROLS ON CFCs THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL CLEAN AIR ACT AND SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS REVIEW TOPICS SECTION IV: Refrigerant Conservation and Containment BASIC VAPOR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION PRINCIPLES REVIEW TOPICS SECTION V: Recovery, Recycling, and Reclamation REFRIGERANT PROCESSING OPTIONS REFRIGERANT SPECIFICATIONS REFRIGERANT RECOVERY METHODS RECOVERY/RECYCLING SYSTEMS SAFETY PRECAUTIONS REVIEW TOPICS SECTION VI: Proposed EPA Rule Changes PROPOSED EPA RULE CHANGES TECHNICIAN CERTIFICATION CONVERSION FACTORS

Table 1. Tank Color Coding for Common Refrigerants Table 2. Pressure/Temperature Saturation Relationship for Common Refrigerants Table 3. Pressure/Temperature Saturation Relationship for Replacement Refrigeran t Blends INTRODUCTION On November 14, 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implemented the Clean Air Act, which requires certification of personnel who work with refr igerants. Air conditioning and refrigeration personnel today are in a position o

f increasing responsibility, both to implement procedures resulting from refrige rant regulations and to provide answers to customers' questions and technical pr oblems. Safety continues to be a primary concern when using both new and familia r methods and equipment. Some users of this manual will also be aware of additional information that is n ot included here. The intent is to present a course concentrating on practical, basic information that is most needed, and that can be readily applied on the jo b with the most effective results. This manual is in a continual state of evolution and re-writing, partly because of changing EPA regulations and partly because of information feedback from tech nicians in the field. If you believe sections of this manual require improvement or that additional information should be added, please write to us and we will consider your suggestions for future editions. In the past, we have received ver y useful comments and suggestions from refrigeration technicians in the field, a nd to all those who have helped in the past, we owe a sincere debt of gratitude. Suggestions on the improvement of this course or any Mainstream product are alw ays welcome. For suggestions related to this course, please write to Robert P. S caringe, Ph.D., P.E., Refrigeration Certification Program, Mainstream Engineerin g Corporation, Pines Industrial Center, 200 Yellow Place, Rockledge, Florida 329 55 or e-mail your comments to rps@mainstream-engr.com. It is also suggested, that you read the last section titled Proposed New Changes , to get an idea of the direction the EPA is heading in terms of regulatory chan ges. DEFINITIONS Appliance: Any device that contains and uses a refrigerant and that is used for household or commercial purposes, including any air conditioner, refrigerator, c hiller, or freezer. EPA interprets this definition to include all air-conditioni ng and refrigeration equipment except units designed and used exclusively for mi litary purposes. Azeotrope: A blend of two or more components whose equilibrium vapor phase and l iquid phase compositions are the same at a given pressure. These refrigerants ar e given a 500 series ASHRAE designation and behave like a single refrigerant. Th ey can be charged as a liquid or vapor. CFC-12: dichlorodifluoromethane, (R-12). Class I Refrigerant: CFC refrigerants such as R-12. Class II Refrigerant: HCFC refrigerants such as R-22 and R-124. Compound: A substance formed by a union of two or more elements in a definite pr oportion by weight. Disposal: The process leading to and including any of the following: (1) The discharging, depositing, dumping, or placing of any discarded appliance into or on any land or water. (2) The disassembly of any appliance for discharging, depositing, dumping, or pl acing of its discarded component parts into or on any land or water. (3) The disassembly of any appliance for reuse of its component parts. Fractionation: The separation of a liquid mixture into separate parts by the pre

ferential evaporation of the more volatile component. Halocarbon: A halogenated hydrocarbon containing one or more of the three haloge ns: fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. Hydrogen may or may not be present. HCFC-22: chlorodifluoromethane, (R-22). HFC-134a: 1,1,1,2,-tetrafluoroethane, (R-134a).

High-Pressure Appliance: (prior to March 12, 2004, referred to by the EPA as hig her-pressure appliance) An appliance that uses a refrigerant with a liquid phase saturation pressure between 170 psia and 355 psia at 104°F. This definition inc ludes but is not limited to appliances using R-410A, R-22, R-401B, R-402A/B, R-4 04A, R-407A/B/C, R-408, R-409, R-411A/B, R-502 and R-507A. Hydrocarbon: A compound containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon. Hygroscopic: Affinity for water, so hygroscopic oils are oils that readily absor b moisture. Isomer: One of a group of substances having the same combination of elements but arranged spatially in different ways. Leak Rate: The rate at which an appliance is losing refrigerant, measured betwee n refrigerant charges or over 12 months, which ever is shorter. The leak rate is expressed in terms of the percentage of the appliance's full charge that would be lost over a 12-month period if the current rate of loss were to continue over that period. The rate is calculated using the following formula: (Refrigerant added / Total Charge) x (365 days/year/D) x 100% where D = the shorter of: # days since refrigerant last added or 365 days Low-Loss Fitting: Any device that is intended to establish a connection between hoses, appliances, or recovery/recycling machines, and that is designed to close automatically or to be closed manually when disconnected to minimize the releas e of refrigerant from hoses, appliances, and recovery or recycling machines. Low-Pressure Appliance: (definition unchanged by the EPA's March 12, 2004 rule c hange) An appliance that uses a refrigerant with a liquid phase saturation press ure below 45 psia at 104°F. Evacuation requirements for the low-pressure categor y apply to these appliances. This definition includes but is not limited to appl iances using R-11, R-113, and R-123. Major Maintenance: Maintenance, service, or repair that involves removal of the Service or Repair appliance compressor, condenser, evaporator, or auxiliary heat exchanger coil. Medium-Pressure Appliance: (prior to March 12, 2004, referred to by the EPA as h igh-pressure appliance) An appliance that uses a refrigerant with a liquid phase saturation pressure between 45 psia and 170 psia at 104°F. R-114 appliances are at the low-pressure end since the saturation pressure of R-114 at 104°F is slig htly above 45 psia. This definition includes but is not limited to appliances us ing R-12. R-114, R-124, R-134a, R-401C, R-406A and R-500. Mixture: A blend of two or more components that do not have a fixed proportion t o one another and that no matter how well blended, still retain a separate exist ence (oil and water for example). Motor Vehicle Air Conditioner (MVAC): Mechanical vapor compression refrigeration equipment used to cool the driver or passenger compartments of any motor vehicl

e. This definition is NOT intended to encompass the hermetically sealed refriger ation system used on motor vehicles for refrigerated cargo or the air conditioni ng systems on passenger buses. Section 609 certification is required for working on MVAC systems while either Section 608 Type II or Section 609 certification i s required for MVAC-like A/C systems (e.g. farm equipment and other non-roads ve hicles). Section 608 certification is required for working on hermetically seale d refrigeration systems used on motor vehicles for refrigerated cargo or the air conditioning systems on passenger buses. Due to the similarities between MVAC a nd MVAC-like appliances, EPA recommends that technicians servicing MVAC-like app liances consider certification under Section 609. Note that buses using CFC-12 o r HFC-134a to cool the driver are MVACs, however buses using HCFC-22 are not MVA Cs or MVAC-like appliances, but rather high-pressure equipment covered under Typ e II of the section 608 test. Therefore if you service service both the drivers AC system (MVAC) and the passenger AC system both a 609 MVAC and a 608 certifica tion are required. Likewise if your service the AC system for the cab of a truck (MVAC) as well as the refrigerated cargo container then again, you need both a 609 MVAC and a 608 certification. MVAC-Like Appliances: Mechanical vapor compression, open-drive compressor applia nces used to cool the driver's or passenger's compartment of a non-road vehicle, including agricultural and construction vehicles. This definition excludes appl iances using HCFC-22 refrigerant or their substitutes, such as R-410a or R-407. The regulations implementing Sections 609 and 608 treat MVACs and MVAC-like appl iances (and persons servicing them) slightly differently. A key difference is th at persons who service MVACs are subject to the Section 609 equipment and techni cian certification requirements only if they perform "service for consideration" , while persons who service MVAC-like appliances are subject to the equipment an d technician certification requirements set forth in the Section 608 and 609 reg ulations regardless of whether they are compensated for their work. Another difference is that persons servicing MVAC-like appliances have the optio n of becoming certified as Section 608 Type II technicians instead of becoming c ertified as Section 609 MVAC technicians under subpart B. Persons servicing MVAC s do not have this choice. They must be certified as Section 609 MVAC technician s if they perform the AC service for compensation. Non-Azeotropic Refrigerant: A synonym for zeotropic, the latter being preferred though less commonly used descriptor. Zeotropic: blends comprising multiple comp onents of different volatilities that, when used in refrigeration cycles, change volumetric composition and saturation temperatures (exhibit temperature glide) as they evaporate (boil) or condense at constant pressure. These refrigerants ar e given a 400 series ASHRAE designation. Normal Charge: The quantity of refrigerant within the appliance or appliance com ponent when the appliance is operating with a full charge of refrigerant. Opening an Appliance: Any service, maintenance, or repair on an appliance that c ould be reasonably expected to release refrigerant from the appliance to the atm osphere unless the refrigerant were previously recovered from the appliance. Person: Any individual or legal entity, including an individual corporation, par tnership, association, state, municipality, political subdivision of a state, In dian tribe, and any agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States and any officer, agent, or employee thereof. Process Stub: A length of tubing that provides access to the refrigerant inside a small appliance or room air conditioner that can be resealed at the conclusion of repair or service. PSIA: The absolute pressure in pounds per square inch, where 0 PSIA corresponds

to 29.9 inches of mercury vacuum and 14.7 PSIA corresponds to 0 PSIG (pounds per square inch gauge). PSIG: The gauge pressure in pounds per square inch, where 0 PSIG corresponds to atmospheric pressure (14.7 PSIA). A positive PSIG value indicates the pressure i n pounds per square inch above the ambient pressure. Reclamation: To reprocess refrigerant new product specifications, that is to at least the purity specified in the ARI Standard 700, Specifications for Fluorocar bon Refrigerants, and to verify this purity using the analytical test procedures described in the Standard. Recovery: To remove refrigerant in any condition from an appliance and to store it in an external container without necessarily testing or processing it in any way. Recovery Efficiency: The percentage of refrigerant in an appliance that is recov ered by recycling or recovery equipment. Recycling: To extract refrigerant from an appliance and to clean refrigerant for reuse without meeting all of the requirements for reclamation. In general, recy cled refrigerant is refrigerant that is cleaned using oil separation and single or multiple passes through devices such as replaceable-core filter driers, which reduce moisture, acidity, and particulate matter. Refrigerant: Any class I or class II substance used for heat transfer purposes, or any substance used as a substitute for such a class I or class II substance b y any user in a given end-use, except for the following substitutes in the follo wing end-uses: ammonia in commercial or industrial process refrigeration or in absorption units hydrocarbons in industrial process refrigeration (processing of hydrocarbons) chlorine in industrial process refrigeration (processing of chlorine and chlorin e compounds) carbon dioxide in any application nitrogen in any application water in any application Self-Contained Recovery: Recovery or recycling equipment that is capable of remo ving refrigerant from an appliance without the assistance of components containe d in the appliance. Small Appliance: Any of the following products that are fully manufactured, char ged, and hermetically sealed in a factory with five pounds or less of refrigeran t: refrigerators and freezers designed for home use, room air conditioners (incl uding window air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners), packaged terminal heat pumps, dehumidifiers, under-the-counter ice makers, vending machin es, and drinking water coolers. System Dependent Recovery Equipment: Recovery equipment that relies upon the com pressor in the appliance and/or the pressure of the refrigerant in the appliance . Substitute: Any chemical or product substitute, whether existing or new, that is used by any person as a replacement for a class I or II compound in a given end

-use. System-Dependent Recovery: Recovery equipment that requires the assistance of re covery components contained in an appliance to remove the refrigerant from the a ppliance. Technician: Any person who performs maintenance, service, or repair that could r easonably be expected to release refrigerant into the atmosphere, including but not limited to installers, contractor employees, in-house service personnel, and in some cases, owners. Technician also means any person disposing of appliances except for small appliances. Very High-Pressure Appliance: (definition unchanged by the EPA's March 12, 2004 rule change) Appliance An appliance that uses refrigerants with a critical temp erature below 104°F or with a liquid phase saturation pressure above 355 psia at 104°F. This category includes but is not limited to appliances using R-13, R-23 , R-503.

SECTION I: Refrigerants Past, Present, and Future

MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND TERMINOLOGY Except for ammonia and a few other substances, most refrigerants currently in us e are compounds containing carbon, fluorine, usually chlorine, and sometimes hyd rogen, bromine, or iodine. When a refrigerant is referred to as a "CFC", the ref rigerant contains Chlorine, Fluorine, and Carbon. When a refrigerant is referred to as a "HCFC", the refrigerant contains Hydrogen, Chlorine, Fluorine, and Carb on. When a refrigerant is referred to as a "HFC", the refrigerant contains Hydro gen, Fluorine, and Carbon. When bromine is present in place of all or part of th e chlorine, the capital letter "B" after the designation for the parent compound shows the presence of the bromine (Br), for example "R-13B1". Compounds contain ing bromine are sometimes referred to as "BFCs" if they contain Bromine, Fluorin e, and Carbon (no chlorine). That is, R-13B1 is also known as BFC-13B1. Similarl y a compound such as R-30B1, which contains Hydrogen, Bromine, Chlorine, Fluorin e, and Carbon, is sometimes referred to as a "HBCFC", so R-30B1 is HBCFC-30B1. CFCs The refrigerants heard about the most are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). As the name says, these refrigerants consist of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon, thus t he abbreviation "CFC". Since they contain no hydrogen, CFCs are chemically very stable, even when released into the atmosphere, but since they contain chlorine, CFCs are damaging to the ozone layer high above the Earth's surface. The ozone layer shields the Earth from excessive ultraviolet solar radiation. The combination of these two characteristics gives CFC refrigerants a high ozone -depletion potential (ODP), and has made these refrigerants the target of legisl ation that has reduced their availability and use. Thus, manufacture of CFC refr igerants was discontinued after December 31, 1995. R-12 is a CFC and often refer red to as CFC-12. HCFCs A second category of refrigerants which are currently available are the hydrochl oro-fluorocarbons (HCFCs). Although they contain chlorine which is damaging to t

he ozone layer, they also contain hydrogen which makes them chemically less stab le when they enter the atmosphere. These refrigerants decompose when released in the lower atmosphere so very little ever reaches the ozone layer. HCFCs, theref ore, have a lower ozone-depletion potential. HCFC-22 also know as R-22 has been in widespread use for many years. Most residential and small commercial air cond itioning systems use HCFC-22. HFCs Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants contain no chlorine at all. Although these refrigerants have an ozone-depletion potential of zero, they probably still cont ribute to the global warming problem. Two new HFC's that are replacing CFC-12 an d HCFC-22 are HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane CF3CH2F) and HFC-410A (HFC-32 &HFC-125). Mandatory recovery is required for all refrigerants (including HFC's) before opening or disposing of appliances, because of their potential to cause global warming. No "drop-in" substitute refrigerants are available for any equip ment category. THE REFRIGERANT DESIGNATION NUMBERING SYSTEM Because the chemical names of typical refrigerants are long and complex, DuPont developed a method of referring to refrigerants by number . The DuPont numbering system was released for general use in 1956 and has become an industry standard . A complete discussion of the number designation and safety classification of t he refrigerants is presented in ASHRAE Standard 34-1992. Briefly, the method of designating a refrigerant by number is as follows. (Note that the numbering system begins on the right.) First digit on the right = Number of fluorine atoms Second digit from the right = Number of hydrogen atoms plus one Third digit from the right = Number of carbon atoms minus one (not used when equal to zero) Fourth digit from the right = Number of unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds in the compound (not used when equal to zero) When bromine is present in place of all or part of the chlorine, the same number ing rules apply except that the capital letter "B" after the designation for the parent compound shows the presence of the bromine (Br). The number following th e letter "B" shows the number of Bromine atoms present. The lower-case letter that follows the refrigeration designation refers to the f orm of the molecule when different forms (isomers) are possible, with the most s ymmetrical form indicated by the number alone. As the form becomes more and more asymmetrical, the letters a, b, and c (lower case) are appended (for example, H FC-134a). If all of the carbon bonds are not occupied by fluorine or hydrogen atoms, the r emainder are attached to chlorine. Because the structure of a refrigerant, whether CFC, HCFC, or HFC, has become so important, it is often referred to in this way (for example, R-12 is CFC-12; R22 is HCFC-22; R-134a is HFC-134a.) Thus, their chemical structure and their rel ative ozone-depletion potential are highlighted. Example 1. CHClF2 Number of F atoms = 2

Number of H atoms + 1 = 2 Number of C atoms - 1 = 0 The refrigerant in Example 1 is designated HCFC-22. Since carbon has four bonds and the total of F and H = 3, there is one Cl atom. Example 2. CCl2FCClF2 Number of F atoms = 3 Number of H atoms + 1 = 1 Number of C atoms - 1 = 1 The refrigerant in Example 2 is designated CFC-113. Since two carbon atoms conne cted together have six bonds remaining and the total of F and H = 3, there are t hree Cl atoms present. Example 3. The Designation of Refrigeration Isomers Isomer Formula CFC-216 CF3CCl2CF3 CFC-216a CF2ClCF2CF2Cl CFC-216b CF2ClCFClCF3 CFC-216c CFCl2CF2CF3 REPLACEMENT REFRIGERANTS EPA concerns about depletion of the Earth's protective stratospheric ozone layer and the effect of CFC on this depletion have resulted in a halt in CFC producti on since December 31, 1995. According to the EPA, recent ozone depletion studies indicate that the current situation is far worse than originally thought. HCFC refrigerants such as R-22 are currently scheduled for phase-out by the year 2030 . However, this too will probably be accelerated before the year 2030 is actuall y reached. Azeotropes such as R-502 are, of course, also affected. As stated in the last section, mixtures or blends of refrigerants can exhibit a distinct boiling point or they can exhibit a boiling range. When a refrigerant m ixture exhibits a distinct boiling point, that is it behaves as a single "new" r efrigerant, it is designated as an azeotropic blend and is given a 500 series AS HRAE designation. When the refrigerant mixture has a boiling range it is referre d to as a non-azeotropic or zeotropic refrigerant and is given a 400 series ASHR AE designation. Key considerations for any new refrigerant are chemical stability in the system, toxicity, flammability, thermal characteristics, efficiency, ease of detection when searching for leaks, environmental effects, compatibility with system mater ials, compatibility with lubricants, and cost. In general, HCFC-123 is intended to replace CFC-11, and HFC-134a has replaced CFC-12 in most applications and HFC -410A is replacing HCFC-22 in many applications. HFCs such as R-134a do not lead to ozone depletion but do contribute to global arming due to the greenhouse effect. So refrigerant recovery and recycling are ere to stay regardless of the new refrigerants developed. Recycling also makes ense economically because of the cost of the new refrigerants and taxes on the ore traditional refrigerants. w h s m

Briefly, for the short term, heavy reliance will probably be placed on continued use of HCFC-22 until it is no longer allowed. As an HCFC, R-22 has only a small fraction of the ability of the CFC refrigerant to destroy stratospheric ozone. However, R-22 does contribute to global warming. Mandatory recovery is required for all refrigerants (including HFCs) before opening or disposing of appliances, because of their potential to cause global warming. Manufacturers are beginning to offer HFC-410A air conditioning and heat pump sys

tems as an alternative to HCFC-22 units. The EPA has established the phase out o f the HCFC-22 with no production or importing beginning in 2020. However, manufa cturers of air conditioning equipment must phase out the use of HCFC-22 in new e quipment by January 1, 2010. In general, existing R-22 systems will probably be converted to R-407C, however new air conditioning equipment is being designed to operate on R-410A. Both R-407C and R-410A are non-azeotropic HFC refrigerant bl ends. Non-azeotropic blends (400 series) means that they experience a temperatur e glide during evaporation and condensation. In contract, a pure refrigerant or an azeotropic (500 series) refrigerant blend has a single boiling point temperat ure at a given pressure. However, as discussed below R-410A is a near azeotropic refrigerant. No "drop-in" substitute refrigerants are available for any equipment category. T his means that some changes in a system's equipment or materials of construction are always necessary when converting the equipment to using a replacement refri gerant. An existing refrigerant cannot simply be removed from a system and repla ced with another. Usually the changes involve replacement of incompatible seals and changes in lubricant. Filter/dryers, compressors, and seals that are compati ble with CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs have been developed. DISPOSABLE REFRIGERANT CYLINDERS Size and Color Codes New virgin refrigerant for use by air conditioning and refrigeration service per sonnel are usually packaged in disposable containers. Disposables are manufactur ed in three sizes: 15-, 30-, and 50-pound capacities and should never be refille d. New disposable containers use a check valve and cannot be refilled. Refrigera nt manufacturers voluntarily color code cylinders for their chlorofluorocarbon p roducts. Table 1 lists the color-coding for common chlorofluorocarbon refrigeran ts; however, the shade of color may vary somewhat among manufacturers. Table 1. Tank Color Coding for Common Refrigerants CFC-11 orange CFC-12 white HCFC-22 green CFC-113 purple CFC-114 dark blue HFC-134a light blue CFC-500 yellow CFC-502 Orchid (purple) R-717(ammonia) Silver R-401A light purple R-401B yellow-brown R-401C blue-green R-402A light green-brown R-402B green-brown R-404A orange R-407C medium brown R-410A pink Regulations Disposable cylinders are manufactured to specifications established by the U.S. Department of Transportation (D.O.T). The D.O.T. has regulatory authority over a ll hazardous materials in commercial transportation. Hot-weather recovery operations can result in very high storage-tank pressures a

nd therefore disposable cylinders should never be refilled or used as a recovery tank. Rust, dents, and other damage can significantly reduce the burst pressure of disposable cylinders. Transportation of refilled D.O.T. 39 cylinders is illegal and subject to a penal ty of a fine up to $25,000 and five years imprisonment. The use of a refilled D. O.T. 39 cylinder also violates OSHA workplace regulations and may violate state laws. Safety Every cylinder is equipped with a safety-relief device that will vent pressure f rom the cylinder before it reaches the rupture point. Cylinders can become overpressurized for several reasons. However, the primary cause is overheating. When a cylinder ruptures, the pressure drop causes the liquid refrigerant to flash i nto vapor and sustains the explosive behavior of the rupture until all the liqui d is vaporized. The rupture of a refrigerant cylinder containing liquid refriger ant that flashes into vapor is far worse than the rupture of a compressed-air cy linder under the same pressure. If a refrigerant cylinder reaches a full-of-liquid (no vapor space) condition, t he internal pressure rises very rapidly under minor increases in temperature. If the safety valve is not able to vent this rapid increase in pressure, the cylin der will explode. Safety valves are very important. Never tamper with a cylinder safety device. Hazards of Reuse Disposable cylinders are manufactured from steel. Rust can eventually weaken the cylinder to the point where the cylinder wall can no longer contain the compres sed refrigerant. Consequently, cylinders must be stored and transported in dry e nvironments. Cylinders exhibiting extreme rust should be emptied of contents and properly discarded. Disposal Disposable cylinders should be emptied of all contents using a refrigerant recov ery device. Once emptied the cylinder's valve should be opened to allow air to e nter, and the cylinder should be punctured with the valve still open (rendered u seless). Used cylinders can be recycled with other scrap metal. Never leave used cylinders with any residual refrigerant either outdoors or at a job site. The i nternal pressure of a cylinder with one ounce of liquid refrigerant is exactly t he same as a full cylinder. An abandoned cylinder will eventually deteriorate an d can explode if the cylinder wall weakens. Never refill a disposable cylinder. REFILLABLE CYLINDERS Refillable cylinders, also referred to as "recovery cylinders" or "recovery tank s", are now available for the transportation of refrigerants used in the air con ditioning and refrigeration industry. These refillable cylinders are used for th e same refrigerants as the disposable cylinders. In addition to disposable and r eturnable cylinders, refillables also are regulated in their design, fabrication , and testing by the D.O.T. for use in transportation of refrigerants. Recovery cylinders are painted yellow in the shoulder area and 12 inches down th e side; the manufacturer paints the remainder of the cylinder body gray. D.O.T. Requirements Refillable cylinders satisfy the requirements of either 4BA or 4BW specification

s, Ref. 49 CFR 178.51 and 49 CFR 178.61, respectively. The 4BA cylinder is compr ised of two deep-drawn carbon-steel heads welded together with one girth seam; t he 4BW cylinder is comprised of two separate heads on opposite ends of a center cylindrical section. The 4BA cylinders are generally sized for refrigerant capacities of 50 lb. or le ss, with the most widely used sizes being 15-lb., 30-lb., 37-lb., and 50-lb., re spectively. The design pressure is typically 340 psig for the 15-lb. and 30-lb. unit, 302 psig for the 37-lb. unit, and 400 psig for the 50-lb. unit. Newer tank s which can accommodate R-410A must be rated for at least 400 psig. Recovery tan ks rated for 400 psig are available in 15, 30, and 50 pound sizes but not every recovery tank is rated for these higher pressures. Be careful, and read the name plate, only use recovery tanks rated for at least 400 psig with R-410A. WARNING: According to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Pressure Vess el Code, the pressure rating must be 285 psig or higher for R-407C and 400 psig or higher for R-410A. Do not use any storage or recovery tank with a maximum pre ssure rating less than 400 psig for R-410A. Recovery tanks for R-410A should be specified as DOT 4BA400 or 4BW400. Cylinder Re-testing The use of various refrigerants in cylinders that are exposed to the environment is reason for concern. Although the interior of these cylinders must be void of moisture, the exterior cannot avoid it. Thus, corrosion can and does occur, as well as damage due to mishandling. These are a few of the reasons why cylinders must be re-tested at five-year intervals. The valves should be examined regularly, especially the relief valve. Check to b e sure that nothing is obstructing the relief valve and that no visual deteriora tion or damage has occurred to the cylinder. If any damage is visible, empty the cylinder and have the tank repaired. NEVER use a cylinder with a faulty pressur e-relief valve or with obvious structural impairments. REFRIGERANT SAFETY ASHRAE Safety Classification of Refrigerants As stated earlier in this section, the ASHRAE standard on Refrigerant Number Des ignation also includes a Safety Classification of Refrigerants. Specific product safety information is always available from the manufacturer, and by law a Mate rial Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) must accompany the delivery of all chemicals. The newer ASHRAE 34a-1992 standard includes two alphanumeric characters. The capital letter (either A-Non-Toxic or B-Toxic) indicates the toxicity and the numeral ( 1-non-flammable, 2-slightly-flammable, 3-highly-flammable) denotes the flammabil ity. Health Hazards Skin or eye contact with fluorocarbon refrigerants can result in irritation and frostbite. Although the toxicity of traditional fluorocarbon refrigerants is low (due to their chemical stability), the possibility of injury or death always ex ists in unusual situations and if they are deliberately misused. The vapors are several times heavier than air. Good ventilation must be provided in areas where high concentration of the heavy vapors might accumulate and exclude oxygen. Inh alation of concentrated refrigerant vapor is dangerous and can be fatal. Exposur e to levels of fluorocarbons above the recommended exposure levels can result in loss of concentration and drowsiness. Cases of fatal cardiac arrhythmia have be en reported in humans that were accidentally exposed to high levels. The exposur e levels for some of the new replacement refrigerants may be lower than for thos

e with which you may be familiar. Less-stable compounds can break down more easi ly and can potentially form harmful substances within the body. Treat replacemen t refrigerants with care! First Aid If refrigerant vapor has been inhaled, remove the victim to fresh air. If the vi ctim is not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, g ive oxygen. Avoid stimulants. Do not give adrenaline (epinephrine) because this can complicate possible effects on the heart. Contact a physician. In the case of eye contact, flush eyes promptly with plenty of water for at leas t 15 minutes. Contact a physician. Flush exposed skin with warm water (not hot) or use other means to warm the skin slowly. Other Hazards Most halogenated compounds will decompose at high temperatures such as those ass ociated with gas flames or electric heaters. The chemicals that result under the se circumstances always include hydrofluoric acid. If the compound contains chlo rine, hydrochloric acid will also be formed, and if a source of water (or oxygen ) is present, a smaller amount of phosgene will be formed. Fortunately, the halo gen acids have a very sharp, stinging effect on the nose and can be detected by odor at concentrations below their toxic level. These acids serve as a warning t hat decomposition has occurred. If they are detected, the area should be evacuat ed until the air has been cleared of decomposition products. Some replacement re frigerants have lower exposure limits, so read the manufacturer's warnings caref ully and take the precautions seriously.

REVIEW TOPICS - Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants are so named because they contain the el ements Chlorine, Fluorine, and Carbon. - CFCs have the highest ozone depletion potential (ODP) and are the most harmful to stratospheric ozone. - Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants contain Hydrogen, Chlorine, Fluori ne, and Carbon. - Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants contain Hydrogen, Fluorine, and Carbon. R -134a, also known as HFC-134a, a chlorine-free refrigerant. - HFC refrigerants cause no harm to stratospheric ozone; they have a zero ODP. T hey do however contribute to global warming (like any refrigerant) and cannot be vented. - Oils that will be used with most HFC-134a refrigeration and HFC-410A air condi tioning applications are ester-based synthetic (POE) oils. - The synthetic lubricant presently used with ternary blends is alkylbenzene. - Ester-based synthetic oils cannot be mixed with other oils. - A non-azeotropic (or azeotrope) refrigerant blend, sometimes referred to simpl y as a blend refrigerant, has a range of boiling points or condensing points thr oughout the evaporator and condenser, respectively; the terms used to describe t his are "temperature glide" or "gliding-temperature."

- A compound pressure gauge for the low side of a refrigeration system measures pressure in psig and vacuum in inches of mercury. - Refrigerant will travel to a compressor's crankcase because of the difference between the oil and refrigerant's vapor pressure. - A binary blend is a two-part mixture and a ternary blend is a three-part mixtu re. - When transporting cylinders containing used refrigerant, the D.O.T. requires t hat you attach D.O.T. classification tags. - On a typical gauge manifold set, the high pressure gauge is color coded red an d the low pressure gauge is color coded blue. - The high pressure gauge on a service manifold set has a continuous scale, usua lly calibrated to read from 0 to 500 psig. This does not mean the gauge set is a ctually rated for use up to 500 psia. Typical ratings on older gauge sets and/or hoses is only 340 psig. When using R-410A you must use a gauge set rated for at least 800 psig (with a 4,000 psig burst pressure on the manifold and the hoses) . - Containers designated "refillable" by DOT must be used to transport recovered pressurized refrigerant to meet safety requirements.

SECTION II: Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Stratospheric Ozone Ozone is a gas, slightly bluish in color, with a pungent odor. It consists of th ree atoms of oxygen in each molecule. The oxygen we breathe contains two atoms i n each molecule. Chemically, oxygen is O2, and ozone is O3. The "ozone layer" co nsists of ozone in the stratosphere, high above the Earth at an altitude of betw een 7 and 28 miles. It is formed by ultraviolet light (UV) from the sun acting o n oxygen molecules. The ozone layer absorbs and scatters ultraviolet light from the sun, thus preventing harmful amounts of ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth. For this reason, it is often referred to as the Ozone Shield or the Earth 's Protective Shield. Atmospheric Ozone Ozone is also found at times in the lower atmosphere where we breathe it. Here i t is caused by ultraviolet radiation from the sun acting on smog and air polluta nts on hot summer days. This situation should not be confused with the protectiv e ozone layer in the stratosphere. Ozone at ground level is a harmful pollutant; in the stratosphere it is a protective shield.

Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone In June 1974, Professor Sherwood Rowland and Dr. Mario Molina of the Department of Chemistry at the University of California at Irvine first proposed the theory that certain chlorine-containing compounds could pose a threat to the ozone lay er above the Earth. The Rowland-Molina theory states that CFCs would ultimately

cause damage to the ozone layer, which protects the Earth from harmful levels of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. What follows is a summary of the current th eory held by the EPA. Refrigerants that contain chlorine but not hydrogen are so stable that they do n ot break down in the lower atmosphere not even one hundred years or more after b eing released. These chemicals gradually float up to the stratosphere, where the chlorine or bromine reacts with ozone, causing it to change back to oxygen. The "Ozone Hole" is a thinning in the ozone layer over Antarctica and occurs dur ing the Antarctic spring season (autumn in the Northern Hemisphere). It occurs o ver the Antarctic continent due to its unique climate. Powerful winds encircle A ntarctica during its winter, isolating the continent from warmer winds that woul d otherwise migrate from lower latitudes on the Earth's surface, and the contine nt is in darkness during the winter. These two effects combine to produce the co ldest temperatures on Earth, colder than the Arctic. The stratosphere is normally too dry to form clouds, except at the bitterly cold temperatures reached during the Antarctic winter. At these frigid temperatures, clouds of ice and nitric acid, called "polar stratospheric clouds" (PSCs), form in the stratosphere over the continent of Antarctica. Chemical reactions take p lace on the surfaces of these clouds, converting chlorine and bromine from forms that do not react with ozone to other, less stable forms that readily break up in the presence of sunlight and destroy ozone. Both cold temperatures and sunlight are critical to the ozone depletion process. So in the spring, when the sun again rises and when the PSCs are still present, the Antarctic ozone hole is found. As the sun warms the region in the spring, t he clouds dissipate. This area is being carefully monitored for the degree to which the ozone thins b ecause it has been found to lead to ozone depletion in other parts of the world as well. Significantly reduced ozone levels were detected in 1985, and high chlo rine levels were found in 1986. Since that time, aircraft flights through the st ratospheric ozone layer and ground-based instruments have indicated that the ozo ne depletion problem may be more serious than initially thought. When ozone depletion occurs, more UV radiation penetrates to the Earth's surface . Moreover, because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of CFCs, it will take many decades for the ozone layer to return to past concentrations. As stated earlier , bromine-containing compounds, which are contained in typical Halon fire exting uishers, react the same way as chloride atoms in destroying the ozone. In the ye ars since the ozone-depletion theory was first proposed, substantial scientific research has supported the general concern that an increased concentration of ch lorine and bromine in the stratosphere poses substantial risks of ozone depletio n, which results in harm to both human health and the environment. The EPA state s that each chlorine atom has the ability to destroy 100,000 ozone molecules in the stratosphere. The CFC refrigerants and the halons have been assigned factors that represent th eir relative ability to destroy stratospheric ozone, called the Ozone Depletion Factor, or Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). This scale is based on CFC-11 having been assigned a factor of 1. CFC-12 has an ODP of 1, HCFC-22 has an ODP of 0.05 , and HFC-134a has an ODP of 0.Note that the bromine-containing halons have fact ors many times those of the CFC refrigerants. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS Since it shields the Earth from much of the damaging part of the Sun's radiation

, the ozone layer is a critical resource safeguarding life on this planet. Shoul d the ozone layer be depleted, more of the Sun's damaging rays would penetrate t o the Earth's surface. Some scientists have claimed that each 1% depletion of oz one increases exposure to damaging ultraviolet radiation by 1.5-2%. EPA's assess ment of the risks from ozone depletion focus on the following areas: Increase in skin cancers Suppression of the human immune response system Increase in cataracts Damage to crops Damage to aquatic organisms Increases in ground-level ozone Increased global warming

GLOBAL NATURE OF THE PROBLEM Stratospheric ozone protection is a global problem. CFCs and halons are used in many nations, and because of their long atmospheric lifetimes, they become widel y dispersed over time. As a result, the release of these chemicals in one countr y will adversely affect the stratosphere above other countries and therefore the health and welfare of their citizens. To protect the ozone layer from damage th at may be caused by CFCs and halons, an international solution is critical.

REVIEW TOPICS - Ozone in the stratosphere above the Earth consists of molecules containing 3 o xygen atoms (O3). - Chlorine and bromine in refrigerants cause stratospheric ozone depletion. - The EPA states that each chlorine atom has the ability to destroy 100,000 ozon e molecules in the stratosphere. - CFCs are chemically very stable; they do not dissolve or break-down in water ( so they are not removed by rain). Because of this chemical stability, CFCs are a ble to reach the stratosphere. - CFCs have the highest ozone depletion potential (ODP) and are the most harmful to stratospheric ozone. - R-134a, also known as HFC-134a, is a chlorine-free refrigerant. - HFC fluorocarbon refrigerants cause no harm to stratospheric ozone, and have a zero ODP. - The ozone layer protects the Earth from ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Sk in cancer, increased cataracts, and damage to crops are just some of the results of damage to the Earth's ozone layer. - Actual measurements of CFCs in air samples from the stratosphere are positive evidence that CFCs are in the stratosphere. - Chlorine in the stratosphere is believed to come primarily from CFCs rather th an from natural sources such as volcanoes. The rise in the amount of chlorine me

asured in the stratosphere over the past 20 years has been shown to match the ri se in CFCs over the same period. Samples of air taken from the stratosphere over erupting volcanoes show that volcanoes contribute only a small quantity of chlo rine to the stratosphere when compared to CFCs. - The existence of chlorine monoxide in the upper stratosphere indicates that th e ozone layer is being destroyed. - Capturing and eliminating the use of chlorofluorocarbons is being done in the United States to stop damage to the stratospheric ozone layer. - When addressing consumer complaints regarding additional service expense cause d by recovery efforts, the technician needs to explain to the customer that reco very is necessary to protect human health and the environment.

SECTION III: Regulations INTRODUCTION There is tremendous confusion in the refrigeration industry as to what the curre nt regulations are. This chapter will attempt to provide the background for the regulations and to summarize the regulations in the last section, "Clean Air Act and Subsequent Amendments." If you suspect further changes in the law call the EPA Information hot-line at 800-296-1996. The Montreal Protocol Regulations are not U.S. laws, but rather an agreement (Tr eaty) between nations to follow some rules. Each nation that agrees with the Mon treal Protocol (termed signatory nations) must pass its own laws to enforce the protocol ideals. U.S. laws that apply to refrigeration technicians in the United States are part of the U.S. Clean Air Act and subsequent revisions to the Clean Air Act. EPA proposed rulings are rules proposed by the EPA to enforce the Clea n Air Act. The EPA proposes the rules, and then, after public comment, refines t hese rules. Some people incorrectly assume that the proposed rulings are law; th ey are not. Many of the proposed rules have been modified after public input, in cluding input by equipment manufacturers and technical groups. The actual laws t hat must be followed concerning stratospheric ozone protection (including ventin g, recovery, recycling, equipment certification, technician certification, dispo sal, record keeping, and enforcement). EPA Final Rule Summaries are published in the Federal Register and posted on the EPA website. EARLY CONTROLS ON CFCs During the early 1970s, CFCs that were used as aerosol propellants constituted o ver 50% of total CFC consumption in the United States. Following concerns initia lly raised by the Rowland-Molina theory in 1974, the EPA and the Food and Drug A dministration in 1978 banned the use of CFCs as aerosol (spray can) propellants in all but a few essential (mostly medical) applications. Two new factors brough t CFCs back into public concern in 1986. One was the connection between CFCs and the theory of global warming, or the greenhouse effect. The other was new scien tific evidence that CFCs deplete stratospheric ozone and that a "hole" had devel oped in the ozone layer over Antarctica. THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL Recognizing the global nature of the problem, on September 16, 1987, in Montreal , Canada, 24 nations and the European Economic Community (EEC) signed the Montre al Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Most of the major CFC an d Halon producing and consuming nations signed this agreement. Other nations, in

cluding the then Soviet Union, indicated that, following further consultations a t home, they might possibly become signatories. On August 1, 1988, the U.S. EPA enacted the provisions of this agreement into regulations for the United States. CLEAN AIR ACT AND SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act were signed by former President Bush on November 15, 1990. The amendments establish a National Recycling and Emissions Reduction Program to regulate the use and disposal of substances, including CFCs and HCFCs, which are harmful to humans and the environment. Title VI of this pr ogram is titled Stratospheric Ozone Protection; Section 608 of Title VI contains the National Recycling and Emission Reduction Program. Title VII is titled Prov isions Relating to Enforcement. Final EPA regulations were published on May 14, 1993 and most recently revised with the EPA's March 12, 2004 rule change.. The objectives of this program are to reduce the use and emissions of abusive su bstances to the lowest achievable level and to maximize the recapture and recycl ing of such substances. In addition, the amendments establish new standards for safe disposal of these substances and new federally mandated certification proce dures for those engaged in servicing refrigeration systems. The EPA regulations also require that new refrigeration and air conditioning appliances are equipped with a servicing aperture, or similar device, to facilitate recapture of refrig erants during service and repair. The amendments also affect personnel repairing or servicing an appliance or indu strial process refrigeration. Under the statute, HVAC service personnel or any o ther individual may not "knowingly vent or otherwise knowingly release or dispos e of any substance used as a refrigerant in such appliance in a manner which per mits such substance to enter the environment." "De minimis" releases associated with good-faith attempts to recapture and recycle or safely dispose of any such substance shall not be subject to prohibition set forth in the preceding sentenc e. In other words, if you are attempting to minimize refrigerant losses, any min imal losses associated with recovery and recycling are allowed. This prohibition became effective July 1, 1992. The penalties and fines for violating the EPA pr ovisions can be severe. The EPA is authorized to seek various levels of legal re dress against any person who violates the above prohibitions. - The EPA is authorized to obtain an injunction against the offending parties prohibiting them from discharging refrigerants into the air. - The EPA may impose a $32,500-per-day penalty on the offender with the appro val of the U.S. District Court. In addition, the EPA may seek to have criminal p enalties and prison terms not exceeding five years assessed against any person w ho knowingly releases refrigerants into the atmosphere, and criminal fines and i mprisonment may be assessed against any person who makes a false material statem ent or representation in any report, notice, or application required by the EPA. - Criminal fines and penalties may also be assessed against any person who ne gligently or knowingly releases into the ambient air a hazardous air pollutant a nd who, as a result of the release, places another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury. In the case of an intentional discharge, the pri son term may be a maximum of 15 years. - Finally, to encourage others to report violations of the act, the EPA is au thorized to pay awards of up to $10,000 to any person who furnishes information that leads to a criminal conviction of another person for violation of the above prohibitions. Since November 14, 1994, all HVAC service personnel must be fully trained in rec ommended service and repair procedures and techniques applicable to appliances c

ontaining refrigerants. In addition, since July 1, 1992 XE "July 1, 1992" , all individuals (service personnel, equipment owners, etc.) should be using their be st efforts (good-faith procedures) to ensure that they do not permit inadvertent discharge of refrigerants into the atmosphere. A fine can be as much as $32,500 per day and per occurrence. Refrigerant Production Phase-out--The Current Law The restrictions on production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances und er the Clean Air Act and all its amendments essentially match those of the revis ed Montreal Protocol. The phase-out schedule for the most common refrigerants is detailed below. - Reduce CFCs from 1986 production levels by 1994 75% Reduction (Production 25% of 1986 levels) 1995 75% Reduction (Production 25% of 1986 levels) 1996 Total Phase Out (Zero Production) - Reduce HCFC from 1989 production levels by 1996 (allow 100% of 1989 ODP levels for HCFC + 3.1% of 1989 ODP levels for CFC) 2010 65% reduction (35% of 1996 level) 2015 90% reduction (10% of 1996 level) 2020 99.5% reduction (0.5% of 1996 level) 2030 Total Phase Out (Zero Production) - Hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFC) Phased Out by 1996 Prohibition on Venting Effective July 1, 1992, Section 608 of the Clean Air Act prohibits individuals f rom knowingly venting ozone-depleting compounds used as refrigerants into the at mosphere when maintaining, servicing, repairing, or disposing of air conditionin g or refrigeration equipment. Some types of releases are permitted under the pro hibition. - Technicians releasing "de minimis" quantities of refrigerant in the course of making good faith attempts to recapture and recycle or safely dispose of refrige rant are not subject to the prohibition. - Refrigerants emitted in the course of normal operation of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, as opposed to during the maintenance, servicing, repai r, or disposal of this equipment, are NOT subject to the prohibition. Thus, emis sions due to leaks and mechanical purging, which occur during normal operation o f equipment, are permitted under the prohibition. However, the EPA is requiring the repair of substantial leaks on systems that are normally charged with more t han 50 pounds of refrigerant (after June 14, 1993). Furthermore, substantial lea ks on systems that are normally charged with more than 50 pounds of refrigerant must be repaired within 30 days after discovery of the leak.* For the industrial process and commercial refrigeration sector, a 35% leakage ra te or more (35% loss of charge/year) on a system with a normal charge of more th an 50 pounds is defined as a substantial leak, while for all other refrigeration systems with a charge of 50 pounds or more, a substantial leak is defined as a leakage rate of 15% (15% loss of charge/year). * Note: There is a proposed rule change, See the section titled: "Proposed EPA R ule Changes" near the end of this manual. - Mixtures of nitrogen and R-22 (and only R-22-nitrogen mixtures) that are used

as holding charges or as leak test gases are not subject to the prohibition beca use in these cases, the ozone-depleting compound is not used as a refrigerant. H owever, a technician may not avoid recovering refrigerant by adding nitrogen to a charged system. Before nitrogen is added, the system MUST be evacuated to the required level. Otherwise, the refrigerant-nitrogen mixture will be considered a refrigerant, and its release will be a violation of EPA regulation and subject to fine. Similarly, pure CFCs or HCFCs released from any appliance, hardware, or device, is presumed to be a refrigerant, and their release will be a violation of EPA regulations and subject to fine. When changing refrigerant being used on a recovery or recycling device, the refrigerant in the recovery or recycling mac hine must be recovered and cannot be vented into the air. Then evacuate the unit . Typically, filters also have to be changed. - Mixtures of nitrogen and any other CFC or HCFC, except HCFC-22, are subject to the prohibition on venting. That means it is illegal to vent them into the atmo sphere. - Since November 15, 1995, HFCs and other refrigerants with a zero ozone depleti on factor (ODP) are also subject to the restriction on venting because they are "greenhouse gases," meaning they contribute to the global warming problem and mu st be recovered. All refrigerants must be recovered. - Small releases of refrigerant that results from purging hoses or from connecti ng or disconnecting hoses to charge or service appliances will not be considered violations of the prohibition on venting. However, recovery and recycling equip ment manufactured after November 15, 1993, must be equipped with low-loss fittin gs. Evacuation Requirements of Small Appliances Since July 13, 1993, technicians have been required to evacuate air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment to established vacuum levels. When using recycling and recovery equipment manufactured on or after November 15, 1993, 90% of the re frigerant from the small appliance must be recovered if the compressor on the ap pliance is operational, and 80% of the refrigerant must be recovered if the comp ressor is not operational. When using recycling and recovery equipment manufactu red before November 15, 1993, 80% of the refrigerant from the small appliance mu st be recovered.

Exceptions to Evacuation Requirements The EPA has established limited exceptions to its evacuation requirements for 1) repairs to leaky equipment and 2) repairs that are NOT major and that are not f ollowed by an evacuation of the equipment to the environment. NOTE: "Major" repairs are those involving removal of the compressor, condenser, evaporator, or auxiliary heat exchanger coil. 1. Repairs to Leaky Equipment If, due to leaks, evacuation to the levels required are not attainable or w ould substantially contaminate the refrigerant being recovered, persons opening the appliance must a) isolate leaking from non-leaking components wherever possible; b) evacuate non-leaking components to the levels required; and

c) evacuate the leaking components to the lowest level that can be attained without substantially contaminating the refrigerant. However, this level cannot exceed 0 psig. 2. If evacuation of the equipment to the environment is not to be performed when repairs are complete, and if the repair is NOT major, then the appliance must a) be evacuated to at least 0 psig before it is opened if it is a high- or very high pressure appliance; or b) be pressurized to 0 psig before it is opened if it is a low-pressure app liance. Methods that require subsequent purging (e.g., nitrogen) cannot be used. Key EPA Dates to Remember - January 1, 1992 - Mandatory use of certified recycling equipment when servicin g automotive (not commercial/residential/industrial) air conditioning. - July 1, 1992 - Prohibition against venting during refrigeration/air conditioni ng service, repair, and disposal. - June 14, 1993 - Owners of equipment containing more than 50 pounds of refriger ant with substantial leaks must have such leaks repaired within 30 days after di scovery. For the industrial process and commercial refrigeration sector, a 35% l eakage rate or more (35% loss of charge/year) is defined as a substantial leak, while for all other refrigeration systems with a charge of 50 pounds or more, a substantial leak is defined as a leakage rate of 15% (15% loss of charge/year). - July 13, 1993 - Safe Disposal Requirements go into effect. - July 13, 1993 - All persons opening appliances (except for small appliances an d motor vehicle A/C) for maintenance, service, or repair, and all persons dispos ing of appliances, except for small appliances, must have at least one piece of certified, self-contained recovery equipment available at their place of busines s. - August 12, 1993 - Owners of recycling and recovery equipment must have certifi ed to the EPA that they have acquired such equipment and are complying with the rule. - August 12, 1993 - Reclamation Requirements to ARI-700 went into effect. Refrig erant that transfers ownership must be certified to ARI-700 purity before it can be recharged into a system of another owner. Regardless of whether the refriger ant is sold or given to the second owner, it must be certified to ARI-700 purity . Refrigerant may be returned to the appliance from which it was recovered or to another appliance owned by the same person without being recycled or reclaimed. - November 15, 1993 - All manufactured appliances must be equipped with a servic e aperture or process stub. Appliances (except small appliances) manufactured af ter November 15, 1993, must be equipped with a service aperture. Small appliance s manufactured after November 15, 1993, can be equipped with either a process st ub or a service aperture. The major purpose of this requirement is to make it ea sier to recover refrigerant. A service aperture or process stub is used when add ing or removing refrigerant from the appliance. A process stub service port is a straight piece of tubing that is entered using a piercing access valve. - November 15, 1993 - All recycling and recovery equipment manufactured must be certified to ARI 740-1993. - November 15, 1993 - Low-Loss Fittings are required.

- November 14, 1994 - Mandatory Technician Certification. Refrigerant sales rest rictions in effect. - November 15, 1995 - Prohibition on venting any refrigerants, went into effect. This is due to the greenhouse global warming effect of vented refrigerants. - December 31, 1995 - CFC Production Ban went into effect. No production or impo rtation of new CFC's. All CFC's must come from recovery, recycling, and reclamat ion. - January 29, 1998 - Persons servicing MVAC-like appliances have the option of b ecoming certified as Section 608 Type II technicians instead of becoming certifi ed as Section 609 MVAC technicians under subpart B. Persons servicing MVACs do n ot have this choice. They must be certified as Section 609 MVAC technicians if they perform the AC service for compensation.

Record Keeping Requirements Technicians must keep a copy of their proof of certification at their place of b usiness. Wholesalers who sell HCFC, CFC and HFC refrigerants must retain invoices that in dicate the name of the purchaser, date of the sale, and quantity of refrigerant purchased. Reclaimers must maintain records of the names and addresses of persons sending t hem material for reclamation and the quantity of material sent to them for recla mation. This information must be maintained on a transactional basis. Within 30 days after the end of the calendar year, reclaimers must report to the EPA the t otal quantity of material received by them for reclamation that year, the mass o f refrigerant reclaimed that year, and the mass of waste products generated that year. Reclamation Refrigerant recovered and/or recycled can be returned to the same system or othe r systems owned by the same person without restriction. However, since August 12 , 1993, the EPA requires that if the refrigerant changes ownership, it will have to be cleaned to the ARI-700 standard of purity AND be chemically analyzed to v erify that it meets this standard. This process is referred to as reclamation, a nd refrigerant meeting these conditions is referred to as being reclaimed. Several important points need to be made concerning this regulation. First, a refrigerant is considered "reclaimed" if and only if it is certified to meet the purity standards of ARI-700. In other words, if tests on the purity of the refrigerant show the refrigerant is clean (to ARI-700 standards), it is ref erred to as reclaimed, no matter what process if any, was used to clean it. Second, the refrigerant cannot be transferred from any appliance owned by one pe rson (person here means a person, corporation, partnership, or any other legal e ntity) to an appliance owned by a different person; it cannot be sold or given f ree to a second person. The refrigerant must be certified to meet the purity req uirements of ARI-700 before it can legally be put in a second owner's equipment (except recovery, recycling, and reclamation equipment). Some technicians have w rongly believed that refrigerant can be transferred into a different owner's equ ipment if it was not sold. This is not correct; refrigerant cannot be transferre

d to a new owner unless it is certified pure (to ARI-700). This rule does not ap ply to automotive applications; they have to meet SAE (Society of Automotive Eng ineers) purity standards. In other words, if tests on the purity of the refriger ant show the refrigerant is clean (to ARI- 700 standards), it is referred to as reclaimed, no matter what process, if any, was used to clean it. This rule does not apply to automotive applications; they have to meet SAE (Society of Automoti ve Engineers) purity standards. Equipment Certification The EPA has established a certification program for recovery and recycling equip ment. Under this program, the EPA requires that equipment manufactured on or aft er November 15, 1993, be tested by an EPA-approved testing organization to ensur e that it meets EPA requirements. All recovery equipment now manufactured is req uired to have a certification label showing that the unit is EPA approved. Recov ery equipment intended for use with small appliances must be tested under either ARI-740 or Appendix C of the EPA Final Rule (May 14, 1993). The agency is requi ring recovery efficiency standards that vary depending on the size and type of a ir-conditioning or refrigeration equipment being serviced, and since July 13, 19 93, technicians have been required to evacuate air-conditioning and refrigeratio n equipment to established vacuum levels. For small appliances, when using recyc ling and recovery equipment manufactured on or after November 15, 1993, 90% of t he refrigerant from the small appliance must be recovered if the compressor on t he appliance is operational, and 80% of the refrigerant must be recovered if the compressor is not operational. When using recycling and recovery equipment manu factured before November 15, 1993, 80% of the refrigerant from the small applian ce must be recovered. Technician Certification Since November 14, 1994, the EPA has required that all individuals handling refr igerants be certified. Four types of section 608 certification are available. On ly certified technicians can purchase refrigerants. Technicians receiving a passing grade on the EPA Type I (small appliance) examin ation are certified to recover refrigerant during the maintenance, service, or r epair of packaged terminal air conditioners with 5 pounds or less of refrigerant . Only Type I or Universal certified technicians can recover refrigerant from th ese units. Technicians receiving a passing grade on the Type II (medium-pressure, high-pres sure and very high pressure) examination are certified to recover refrigerant du ring the maintenance, service, or repair of medium, high and very high-pressure equipment (Medium-Pressure CFC-12, CFC-114, HFC-134a, CFC-500, High-Pressure HFC -410A, HCFC-22, CFC-502, Very-High Pressure CFC-13, CFC-503, as well as the othe r 400 Series Replacement Blends). Only Type II or Universal certified technician s can recover refrigerant from these units. Technicians receiving a passing grade on the Type III (low-pressure appliance) e xamination are certified to recover refrigerant during the maintenance, service, or repair of low-pressure equipment (CFC-11, HCFC-123). Only Type III or Univer sal certified technicians can recover refrigerant from these units. Technicians receiving a Universal Certification are certified to recover refrige rant during the maintenance, service, or repair of small appliances, medium, hig h and very high-pressure equipment, and low-pressure equipment. That is, they ar e certified to work on any type of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment except motor vehicle air conditioning. Type I, II, and III certification exams consist of 25 core questions and 25 spec

ific Type I, II, or III questions, for a total of 50 multiple choice questions f or each type of certification. The Universal certification exam consists of 25 C ore questions, 25 Type I questions, 25 Type II questions, and 25 Type III questi ons, for a total of 100 multiple-choice questions. For technicians using the Type I open-book formats only, the exam is open-book, but the passing grade is 84% instead of 72% and the core questions must be repea ted in a proctored environment if other certifications are required later. Currently the certification has no expiration date; however, if EPA regulations change after a technician becomes certified, the technician is responsible for c omplying with any changes in the law. Visit www.epatest.com for the latest updat es and changes in EPA regulations. Mainstream is approved by the U.S. EPA as a national certifying agency for secti on 608 Type I, II, III, and Universal and section 609 Motor Vehicle Air Conditio ning exams in all cities throughout the United States. Mainstream also offers Pr eventative Maintenance, R-410A, and Indoor Air Quality training. These open-book training and certification programs are available at our website www.epatest.co m. Reclaimer Contractor Certification Reclaimers are required to return refrigerant to the purity level specified in A RI Standard 700 and to verify this purity. The laboratory protocol set forth in the same standard must be used. In addition, reclaimers must release no more tha n 1.5% of refrigeration during the reclamation process and must dispose of waste s properly. Since August 12, 1993, reclaimers must certify to the Section 608 Re cycling Program Manager at EPA headquarters that they are complying with these r equirements and that the information given is true and correct. The certificatio n must also include the name and address of the reclaimer and a list of equipmen t used to reprocess and analyze the refrigerant (to ARI-700 standards). Safe Disposal Requirements Small Appliances that typically enter the waste stream with the charge intact (m otor vehicle air conditioners, household refrigerators and freezers, and room ai r conditioners) are subject to special safe-disposal requirements. Under these safe disposal requirements, the final person in the disposal chain ( e.g., a scrap metal recycler) is responsible for ensuring that the refrigerant i s recovered from the equipment before final disposal of the equipment. However, persons "upstream" could remove the refrigerant and provide documentation of its removal to the final person if this were more cost-effective. The equipment used to recover refrigerant from appliances prior to their final d isposal must meet the same evacuation performance standards as other recovery eq uipment, but this disposal-related equipment does not need to be tested by a lab oratory to verify it meets ARI 740 standards. This means that self-built equipme nt is allowed as long as it meets the evacuation requirements. For motor vehicle air conditioning and motor vehicle-like systems, the requirement is 102 mm (4") of mercury vacuum; and for small appliances, 90% of the refrigerant from the sm all appliance must be recovered if the compressor on the appliance is operationa l, and 80% of the refrigerant must be recovered if the compressor is not operati onal. Hazardous Waste Disposal Recycled or reclaimed refrigerants are not considered hazardous under federal la w. In addition, used oils contaminated with CFCs are not hazardous providing tha

t: nt); they are not mixed with other waste; they are subjected to recycling or reclamation (to remove trapped refrigera and they are not mixed with used oils from other sources.

Used oils that contain CFCs after the CFC reclamation procedure, however, are su bject to specification limits for used oil fuels if these oils are destined for burning. Individuals with questions regarding the proper handling of these mater ials should call the EPA's RCRA hotline at 800-424-9346 or 703-920-9810. CFC Refrigerant Tax The 1990 federal budget contained provisions for federal excise taxes on new pro duction, floor stocks, and imports of CFCs and halons. The taxes were effective January 1, 1990, and apply to CFCs 11, 12, 113, 114, and 115. The original excis e tax was amended in 1991 to include methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, an d other CFCs regulated by the amended Montreal Protocol and Title VI of the Clea n Air Act. The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 1931 of Public Law 102-486, re vised and further increased the excise tax (in effect since January 1, 1993). Th e government's intent is to provide additional financial incentives to increase recycling and to promote shifting-away from these substances. This excise tax is imposed when the CFC is sold or used by the manufacturer or importer. Recycled and reclaimed refrigerants are exempt from the tax. A floor tax also applies to anyone holding 400 lbs or more of the regulated CFCs. The tax payment must be deposited with Form 8109, Federal Tax Deposit Coupon, at an authorized depository or a Federal Reserve Bank. In addition, a return must be filed on Form 720, the Quarterly Federal Excise Tax Return with the Environme ntal Tax Form 6627 attached. Contact an accountant or the IRS for further detail s. Enforcement Since July 1, 1992 the EPA has been responding to tips reporting venting. Under the Clean Air Act and subsequent revisions, the EPA is now authorized to assess fines of up to $32,500 per day per violation for any violation of the Act. In ad dition, the EPA may pay an award, not to exceed $10,000, to any person who furni shes information or services that lead to a criminal conviction or a judicial or administrative civil penalty assessed as a result of a violation of the act. Th ese dollar amounts are maximum figures and are not necessarily the amount that w ill be assessed or paid in all cases. Some contractors are circulating advertisements about the Clean Air Act requirem ents that may be misleading. The EPA will report such misleading advertisements to the Federal Trade Commission. Further Information For information concerning regulations related to stratospheric ozone protection , please call the EPA Stratospheric Ozone Hotline: 800-296-1996 (10am-4pm easter n) or visit their web site: http://www.epa.gov/.

REVIEW TOPICS - Capturing and ultimately eliminating the use of chlorofluorocarbons is being d one in the United States to stop damage to the stratospheric ozone layer.

- State and local governments may establish laws that contain stricter regulatio ns than the Clean Air Act/EPA regulations. - July 1, 1992 - The Clean Air Act calls for the phase-out of CFC/HCFC productio n, prohibits CFC/HCFC venting, and requires the EPA to set standards for recover y, recycling, and reclamation of refrigerants. - Disposing of disposable cylinders is accomplished by assuring that all refrige rant is recovered, that the cylinders are rendered useless, and then recycling t he metal. - Before you dispose of any appliance containing a refrigerant, you must recover the refrigerant. - Violations of the Clean Air Act include falsifying or failing to keep records required by the EPA, the knowing release of refrigerant or refrigerant substitut es during the maintenance, service, repair, or disposal of appliances, and faili ng to reach required evacuation levels before opening or disposing of appliances . - Whenever possible to avoid unnecessary venting of refrigerant, systems should be leak checked with pressurized nitrogen before charging. - Service technicians who violate Clean Air Act provisions can be fined, lose th eir certification, and face federal charges and fines. - An award of up to $10,000 may be paid to any person supplying information that leads to a penalty against a technician who is intentionally venting refrigeran t. - Violation of the Clean Air Act, including the knowing release of refrigerant d uring the maintenance, service, repair, or disposal of appliances, can result in fines up to $32,500 per day per violation. This fine was originally $25,000, th en increased to $27,500 and with the most recent rule change increased to the cu rrent fine amount of $32,500. Some older paper exams might still use the $25,000 or $27,500 fine, you should choose the most correct answer. - As of December 31, 1995, CFCs can no longer be legally manufactured or importe d into the United States. Supplies of CFC refrigerant for equipment servicing ca n ONLY come from recovery, recycling, and reclamation. - Recovery of refrigerants is necessary to provide adequate refrigeration suppli es for service applications after the production bans, as well as to prevent ven ting to the atmosphere and the resulting ozone depletion. - Since July 1, 1992, to knowingly release CFC or HCFC refrigerants during the s ervice, maintenance, repair, or disposal of appliances is illegal. - November 15, 1995, the EPA determined that venting substitute refrigerants pos es a threat to the environment. Venting of substitutes for CFC and HCFC refriger ants, including HFC-134a, is now illegal. - Chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs) and halons are all controlled by the Montreal Protocol. - Under EPA regulations, reclaimed refrigerant must meet ARI-700 standards for p urity before it can be resold. - "Self-contained" (active) recovery devices can capture liquid and/or vapor ref rigerant without the assistance of components in the air conditioning or refrige

ration equipment. - "System-dependent" (passive) recovery devices are so named because they depend on components of the system; that is, they capture refrigerant with the assista nce of components in the air conditioning or refrigeration equipment they are em ptying. - All devices used for refrigerant recovery must meet EPA evacuation standards. - Equipment covered by the EPA regulations includes all air conditioning and ref rigeration equipment containing and using CFC, HCFC, and HFC refrigerants. - Electronic/ultrasonic testers are assumed by the EPA to be the most effective method for locating the general area of small leaks. - EPA regulations define a "small appliance" as one manufactured, charged, and h ermetically sealed at the factory and containing 5 pounds or less of refrigerant . - EPA rules require the capture of 80% of refrigerant from a small appliance sea led system with a non-operating compressor whether the technician is using a sys tem-dependant (passive) process or a self-contained (active) process. - It is permissible to use a passive recovery device to recover refrigerant from a domestic refrigerator or other small appliances. - When checking for non-condensables in a recovery cylinder, the technician shou ld allow the temperature of the cylinder to stabilize to room temperature before taking a pressure reading because comparisons to a pressure-temperature chart a re only valid if both the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant are stable and known. - All recovery devices manufactured before November 15, 1993, for use with small appliances must be capable of recovering 80% of the refrigerant whether or not the compressor is operational. - Small appliance recovery equipment manufactured after November 15, 1993, must be certified to be capable of recovering 90% of the refrigerant when the compres sor is operative or 80% when the compressor is inoperative. - Recovery equipment manufactured after November 15, 1993 that is used during ma intenance, service, or repair must be certified by an EPA-approved laboratory. - Since November 14, 1994, technicians servicing refrigeration hardware must be certified in refrigerant recovery. - Since November 14, 1994, the sale of CFC and HCFC refrigerants has been restri cted to technicians certified in refrigerant recovery. - At this time you don't need to be certified to purchase HFCs however you are r equired to recover HFCs. - Before beginning any type of refrigerant recovery procedure it is always neces sary to know the type of refrigerant that is in the system. - When servicing a small appliance for leak repair, it is not mandatory to repai r the leak, but do so whenever possible. - Since November 15, 1993, refrigerant recovery devices must be equipped with lo w-loss fittings, which are fittings that are used to connect the recovery device

to an appliance and which can be either manually closed or which closes automat ically when disconnected to prevent loss of refrigerant from hoses. - All appliances (except small appliances) manufactured after November 15, 1993, must be equipped with a service aperture. Small appliances manufactured after N ovember 15, 1993, must be equipped with a process stub. The major purpose of thi s requirement is to make it easier to recover refrigerant. The service aperture or process stub is used when adding or removing refrigerant from the appliance. For small appliances, this process-stub-type of service port is a straight piece of tubing that is entered using a piercing access valve. - Technicians receiving a passing grade on the Type I (small appliance) examinat ion are certified to recover refrigerant during the maintenance, service, or rep air of packaged A/C or refrigeration equipment with five pounds or less of refri gerant. Only Type I or Universal certified technicians can recover refrigerant f rom these units. Neither Type I or Universal certified technicians are certified to recover refrigerant from MVAC equipment. - Technicians receiving a Universal Certification are certified to recover refri gerant during the maintenance, service, or repair of small appliances, high-pres sure equipment, and low-pressure equipment. That is, they are certified to work on any type of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment except motor vehicle air conditioning. - EPA Section 608 Certified technicians (Type I, II, III or Universal) are certi fied to purchase refrigerant in any size container except for CFC-12, which may not be purchased in containers less that 20 pounds. Recently the EPA has changed their stance on barring 608 certified technicians from purchasing any refrigera nt in containers less than 20 pounds to barring 608 technicians from purchasing CFC-12 in containers less than 20 pounds. The exam questions used by Mainstream (and also used by all other testing companies) are supplied by the EPA, therefor e in some older EPA exams you may be asked a question regarding the smallest con tainer of refrigerants that can be sold to a 608 technician. Assume they are ref erring only to CFC-12. - EPA Section 609 Motor Vehicle A/C (MVAC) Certified technicians can buy refrige rant in any size container, however they can only purchase refrigerant that is u sed in MVAC systems. For example, HCFC-22 is not used in MVAC systems and theref ore cannot be purchased by 609 technicians. - Type I, II, and III certification exams consist of 25 Core questions and 25 sp ecific Type I, II, or III questions for a total of 50 multiple choice questions. - Universal certification exams consist of 25 Core questions, 25 Type I question s, 25 Type II questions, and 25 Type III for a total of 100 multiple-choice ques tions. - Technicians can take any of the certification exams as many times as necessary (passing grade per section is 72%, that is, 18 of 25 correct in each section). When retaking the exam, only the sections failed need to be repeated. If a techn ician taking a Universal Exam, fails to pass all sections, but passes the Core S ection and at least one other section, a certification card for the types passed will be issued. - Currently, the certification has no expiration date. However, if EPA regulatio ns change after a technician becomes certified, the technician is responsible fo r complying with any future changes in the law. - Accurate pressure reading of the refrigerant inside a recovery cylinder is nec essary to determine if excessive air or other non-condensables are in the cylind

er. - After recovering refrigerant from a sealed system, if nitrogen is used to pres surize or blow debris out of the system, the nitrogen can be vented because air is about 80% nitrogen. - When you check system pressures to determine the performance of a refrigerant, use equipment such as hand valves or self-sealing hoses to minimize any refrige rant release. - When filling a charging cylinder, the refrigerant that is vented off the top o f the cylinder must be recovered. - Appliances containing refrigerant can be evacuated to atmospheric pressure ins tead of sub-atmospheric pressures when leaks in the appliance make evacuation to the EPA-prescribed level unattainable because air would be drawn into the recov ery device from the surroundings. However, the appliances must always be evacuat ed to at least 0 psig. - System-dependent recovery equipment CANNOT be used when the appliance contains over 15 pounds of refrigerant. - When using a passive recovery device to recover refrigerant into a non-pressur ized container from a system with an inoperative compressor it may be necessary to heat the compressor and strike it with a rubber mallet. - When installing any type of access fitting onto a sealed system the fitting sh ould be leak tested before proceeding with recovery. - Only one access valves on the high side of the system are needed to evacuate t he refrigerant on a sealed system that has a completely restricted capillary tub e. - To avoid the removal of liquid when drawing vapor from a sealed refrigeration system using a self-contained (active) recovery device that cannot handle liquid refrigerant, you should draw vapor from the high-side service port.

SECTION IV: Refrigerant Services Practices Basic Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Principles It is not the intent of this lesson to teach basic refrigeration theory; however , a simple discussion of the basic cycle is useful for describing the effects of non-condensable gases, moisture, and contaminates on the refrigeration system. The most basic vapor-compression refrigeration system consists of four major com ponents: compressor, evaporator, condenser, and expansion device. Actual practic al hardware contains many other critical components for reliable, trouble-free o peration, such as a control system, high-pressure and low-pressure safety contro ls, liquid receiver, accumulator, oil separator, crankcase pressure regulator, e tc., but the four basic components are all that is needed to illustrate the poin t of this section. Refrigerant adsorbs energy (provides cooling) as it evaporates, that is, as it b oils and turns from liquid to vapor. For pure refrigerants, if the refrigerant e vaporates at a constant pressure, then evaporation occurs at a constant temperat ure while both liquid and vapor are present. Likewise, refrigerant rejects energ y (gives off heat) as it condenses from vapor to liquid. For pure refrigerants a

nd azeotropic mixtures, if the condensation occurs at a constant pressure, then the condensation will occur at a constant temperature until all the vapor has co ndensed to a liquid. Therefore, for evaporation or condensation, the temperature and pressure are related by the pressure/temperature saturation curve. Table 2 presents saturation temperature/pressure data for CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-22, HFC-1 34a, CFC-500, CFC-502, and CFC-503. Table 3 presents temperature/pressure data f or the new blends. NOTE: A point of confusion regarding pressure units appears to frequently occur. When discussing pressure in PSI (pounds per square inch), PSIG means pounds per square inch gauge and PSIA means pounds per square inch absolute. The two numbe rs differ by approximately 15 psi. A refrigeration gauge normally reads in units of PSIG, that is, in normal air it will read a pressure of zero. However an abs olute gauge would read a pressure of about 14.7 PSIA in this same location. In r efrigeration, we typically talk about pressure above ambient in terms of PSI (wi th the ambient being at zero PSI so it would be more correct to refer to the pre ssure in PSIG.) Likewise we normally use inches of mercury to discuss vacuum lev els with 29.9 being a complete vacuum (0 PSIA). Some of the new saturation chart s for refrigerants are using the absolute pressure instead of the combination of gauge pressure and vacuum in inches of mercury. To convert PSIA to PSIG simply subtract 14.7 (or round to 15) from the PSIA reading to get the PSIG reading. Fo r example 14.7 PSIA is 0.0 PSIG; normal atmospheric pressure, 164.7 PSIA can be referred to as 150 PSIG. As a simple rule of thumb to convert inches of mercury (the symbol for mercury is Hg) to PSIA, simply divide the value in inches of mer cury by 2 and subtract it from 15 to get the approximate PSIA reading. For examp le 5" Hg is about 12.5 PSIA (actually it is 12.2 PSIA), 10" Hg is about 10 PSIA (actually it is 9.8 PSIA), and finally 15" Hg is about 7.5 PSIA (actually it is 7.3 PSIA). If a technician has an unknown refrigerant in a recovery cylinder, and both liqu id and vapor are present in the recovery cylinder, the refrigerant type can be v erified by comparing the pressure and temperature with the saturation pressure/t emperatures curves for the various refrigerants. For example, suppose the unknow n refrigerant has a tank temperature of 80F and a tank pressure of 86 psig; refe rring to Table 2, the refrigerant in the tank is HFC-134a. Similarly, for the sa me tank temperature, the pressure would have to be 1.5 psig if the refrigerant w as CFC-11, 84 psig if the refrigerant was CFC-12, 144 psig if the refrigerant wa s HCFC-22, 102 psig if the refrigerant was CFC-500, and 161 psig if the refriger ant was CFC-502. This technique will only work if the unknown refrigerant is pur e and not contaminated with other refrigerants or non-condensable gases. If the refrigerant is known, but the measured pressure is above the saturation pressure (and both liquid and vapor are present in the tank), then the refrigerant is co ntaminated with either non-condensable gases or another refrigerant. If recovery of some vapor from the top of the tank removes or reduces this pressure discrep ancy, then the problem was non-condensable gas, which was removed by the recover y operation. Non-condensable gases will add to the refrigerant's partial pressur e resulting in an increased total system pressure for the mixture. Similarly, if the refrigerant is known, but the measured pressure is below the saturation pre ssure (and both liquid and vapor are present in the tank), then the refrigerant is contaminated with another refrigerant. If the pressure and temperature of the unknown refrigerant does not agree with any of the known refrigerants and recov ery of vapor from the recovery tank does not improve the problem, then the recov ery tank most likely contains two or more refrigerants mixed together, and this mixture cannot be recycled or reclaimed but must be destroyed at considerable ex pense (it must be incinerated by an EPA-approved waste processing facility). A brief discussion of the operating vapor-compression cycle is helpful to indica te other potential refrigeration problems in real systems. In the basic cycle, s lightly subcooled refrigerant leaves the condenser at high pressure and flows in to the liquid receiver if one is present. The refrigerant then enters the thrott

ling device (capillary tube, TXV, etc.) where the pressure is dropped. It then e nters the evaporator as a two-phase mixture (liquid and vapor) and evaporates or boils at low temperature, adsorbing heat. Slightly superheated refrigerant vapo r exits the evaporator and enters the suction line accumulator, if one is presen t (used to trap any transient liquid slugs). The refrigerant vapor then enters t he compressor where the pressure and temperature are increased as the compressor compresses the refrigerant vapor. The vapor leaving the compressor is superheat ed, and the compressor discharge is the hottest point in the cycle. This refrige rant is cooled and condensed in the condenser where heat is rejected, and the re frigerant is condensed to liquid. Refrigerant actually leaves the condenser slig htly subcooled (subcooled liquid) to assure condensation has been complete. Any non-condensable vapors in the system will be unable to condense in the condenser and will appear as gas bubbles in the condensed liquid stream. These non-conden sables may collect in the condenser and displace refrigerant from the condenser heat exchanger, thereby reducing the effective surface area of the condenser. Any water in the system will most likely freeze in the expansion valve because t his is the point where refrigerant is cooled by the evaporation occurring as a r esult of the sudden pressure drop, and the expansion device also represents the smallest passageway in the overall system. This is the reason why filter-driers are typically located just upstream of the expansion device. Table 2. Pressure/Temperature Saturation Relationship for Common Refrigerants  Pressure[psig] Temperature [°F] CFC-11 CFC-12 HCFC-22 HCFC-123 HFC-125 HFC-134a HFC-410A CFC-500 CFC-502 CFC-503 -20 27.0a 0.6 10.1 27.7a 20.0 3.7a 26.2 3.2 15.3 161.0 -15 26.5a 2.4 13.2 27.4a 24.1 0.0 31.0 5.4 18.8 177.0 -10 26.0a 4.5 16.5 26.9a 28.6 1.9 36.3 7.8 22.6 194.0 -5 24.5a 6.8 20.1 26.4a 33.4 4.1 42.0 10.4 26.7 212.0 0.0 27.70a 9.2 24.0 25.8a 39.6 6.3 48.4 13.3 31.1 230.0 10.0 23.1a 14.6 33.8 24.4a 50.4 11.6 62.4 19.7 41.0 271.8 20.0 21.1a 21.0 43.0 22.7a 64.0 18.0 78.7 27.2 52.5 318.5 30.0 18.6a 28.5 54.9 20.8a 79.6 25.6 97.4 36.0 65.6 370.6 40.0 15.6a 37.0 68.5 18.0a 97.4 34.5 118.8 46.0 80.5 428.2 50.0 12.0a 46.7 84.0 14.9a 117.6 44.9 143.2 57.5 97.4 491.7 60.0 7.8a 57.7 101.6 11.0a 140.4 56.9 170.7 70.6 116.4 561.0b 70.0 2.8a 70.2 121.4 6.6a 166.0 70.7 201.8 85.3 137.6 80.0 1.5 84.2 143.6 1.2a 192.6 86.4 236.5 101.9 161.2 90.0 4.9 99.8 168.4 2.5 226.4 104.2 275.4 120.5 187.4 100.0 8.8 117.2 195.9 6.1 261.7 124.3 318.5 141.1 216.2 a Indicates a vacuum in inches of mercury. b Critical point @ 67F. Table 3. Pressure/Temperature Saturation Relationship for Replacement Refrigeran t Blends

R-401A R-404A R-407C R-410A Temperature (F) Liquid Phase Pressure (psig) Vapor Phase Pressure (psig) Liquid Phase Pressure (psig) Vapor Phase Pressure (psig) Liquid Phase Pressure (psig) Vapor Phase Pressure (psig) Liquid Phase Pressure (psig) Vapor Phase Pressure (psig) -50 14* 18* 0 0 3* 11* 5 5 -40 8* 14* 5 4 3 5* 11 11 -30 2* 9* 10 10 8 2 18 18 -20 3 2* 17 16 14 6 26 26

-10 7 3 25 24 21 12 36 36 0 13 7 34 33 29 19 48 48 10 19 13 44 43 40 28 62 62 20 27 20 57 55 51 38 79 78 30 36 27 71 69 65 50 97 97 40 46 36 87 85 80 63 119 118 50 58 47 105 104 98

79 143 143 60 71 59 126 124 118 97 171 170 70 86 73 149 147 141 117 202 201 80 103 88 175 173 166 141 237 236 90 122 106 204 202 194 167 275 274 100 143 126 237 235 225 196 319 318 110 167 148 273 270 260 229 366 365 120 193 172

312 310 299 266 419 418 130 221 200 356 354 341 307 478 477 140 253 230 404 402 387 352 543 541 150 286 263 457 455 437 402 614 613 * Indicates a vacuum in inches of mercury. REVIEW TOPICS - Since December 31, 1995, CFCs can no longer be manufactured or imported into t he United States, and supplies of CFC refrigerant for equipment servicing can ON LY come from recovery, recycling, and reclamation. - After the production bans, recovery of refrigerants is necessary in order to p rovide adequate refrigeration supplies for service applications, as well as to p revent venting to the atmosphere and the resulting ozone depletion. - Since July 1, 1992, it has been illegal to knowingly release CFC or HCFC refri gerants during the service, maintenance, repair or disposal of appliances. - Since November 15, 1995, it has been illegal to vent substitutes for CFC and H CFC refrigerants. - The equipment covered by the EPA regulations includes all air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, as well as any other equipment containing and using re frigerants. - The component of a refrigeration system that changes a high-pressure vapor to a high-pressure liquid is the condenser. - The state of the refrigerant entering the compressor of a refrigeration system

is low-pressure superheated vapor. - The component that changes a low-pressure vapor to a high-pressure vapor is th e compressor. - Because the refrigerant flow is used for cooling in a hermetic compressor, the compressor must never be operated when the system is evacuated (or when there i s a dehydration vacuum in the system). Due to the absence of refrigerant, there will be no cooling; this leads to rapid motor burn out. - Oil foaming may occur in the compressor of a refrigeration system. - Remember always recover or recycle refrigerant, keep systems tight, and find a nd repair leaks. - Electronic and ultrasonic testers are assumed by the EPA as the most effective method for locating the general area of SMALL leaks. - After evacuation, a failure of the system to hold a vacuum indicates that a le ak exists in the system or that trapped refrigerant and/or water may be boiling off. If the internal pressure rises above ambient pressure, boil-off is occurrin g because a leak would not raise the pressure above ambient pressure. - When evacuating a system, the use of too large of a vacuum pump could cause tr apped water to freeze. - The system vacuum gauge should be connected as far as possible from the vacuum pump. - Vacuum lines (hoses) should be equal to or larger than the pump intake connect ion, and they should be as short as possible. - A system is not dehydrated until a vacuum gauge (not the inaccurate manifold l ow-pressure gauge) shows you have reached and HELD the required finished vacuum with the system isolated from the vacuum pump. - The final system vacuum level is measured with the system isolated and the vac uum pump turned off. - Always isolate the system and relieve the vacuum on the vacuum pump (by loosen ing the hose connections, for example) before turning the pump off. Otherwise va cuum pump oil may be drawn out of the vacuum pump and into the lines or system. - During dehydration of a refrigeration system, the refrigeration system can be heated to decrease dehydration time. - Whenever a technician is working with any unknown solvents, chemicals, or refr igerants, the technician should always review the material safety data sheets, w hich by law should be shipped by the manufacturer with these compounds. - Refrigerant vapors or mist in high concentrations should not be inhaled becaus e they have been demonstrated to cause heart irregularities or unconsciousness i n some people. Note warnings on the packaging. Refrigerants are heavier than air and can displace the air in a room, leaving no breathing air and leading to asp hyxia. In most refrigerant accidents where death occurs, the major cause is oxyg en deprivation. - When pressurizing a refrigeration system with nitrogen, always use a pressure regulator and never charge with liquid nitrogen (only charge with nitrogen vapor ).

- When corrosion build up is found within the body of a relief valve, the valve must be replaced, NOT repaired. - Never use oxygen or compressed air to leak-check hardware because some refrige rants, including R-410A, when mixed with air or oxygen, can explode. - Approved refrigerant recovery cylinders can be identified by yellow tops and g ray bodies. It is a good idea to paint a color-stripe around the cylinder to ind icate the type of recovered refrigerant contained inside and to utilize two reco very cylinders (one clean recycled, one dirty not recycled) for each refrigerant used by the technician. Reusable refrigerant containers that are under high pre ssure (above 15 psig at normal ambient temperature) must be hydrostatically test ed and date stamped every five years. - The MOST IMPORTANT reason NEVER to heat a refrigerant storage or recovery tank with an open flame is that the tank may explode and seriously injure people in the vicinity. - When servicing a small appliance for leak repair, it is not mandatory to repai r the leak but do so whenever possible. - You can determine safe pressure for leak testing a system from the low-side te st-pressure data-plate value. - Refrigerant recovery devices must be equipped with low-loss fittings, which ar e fittings that are used to connect the recovery device to an appliance and whic h can be manually closed or which close automatically when disconnected to preve nt loss of refrigerant from hoses. - All appliances must be equipped with a service aperture or other device that i s used when adding or removing refrigerant from the appliance. For small applian ces, this service port is typically a straight piece of tubing (process-stub) th at is entered using a piercing access valve. The major purpose of this requireme nt is to make it easier to recover refrigerant. - A standard vacuum pump can only be used as a recovery device in combination wi th a non-pressurized container. - After installing and opening a piercing access valve, if the system pressure i s 0 psig do not begin the recovery procedure because all the refrigerant has lea ked out, and the air and moisture in the system would contaminate the recovery t ank's refrigerant. - Sulfur dioxide, methyl chloride, and methyl formate, which are refrigerants us ed in some refrigerators built before 1950, should not be recovered with current recovery hardware. Likewise, ammonia, hydrogen, and water may be present in ref rigerators used in small appliances in campers or other recreational vehicles an d should not be recovered with current recovery devices. - Piercing-type valves are recommended for use only on copper and aluminum tubin g. Solderless piercing valves are not recommended, they leak over time. - According to the EPA, a refrigerant leak detector should be used daily to chec k for leaks on a recovery device. - Small amounts of refrigerant have no odor. When a pungent odor is detected dur ing a sealed system recovery and/or repair, a compressor burn-out has likely occ urred.

- AFTER recovering refrigerant from a sealed system (but never before recovering the refrigerant), if nitrogen is used to pressurize or blow debris out of the s ystem, the nitrogen can be vented because air is predominantly nitrogen. - When you check system pressures to determine the performance of a refrigerant, always use equipment such as hand valves or self-sealing hoses to minimize refr igerant release. - When filling a charging cylinder, refrigerant that is vented off the top of th e cylinder must be recovered. - At high temperatures (i.e., open flames, glowing metal surfaces, etc.), R-12 a nd R-22 can decompose to form hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. - If moisture remains in an operating refrigeration system, acid will form. - If a large leak of refrigerant occurs, such as from a filled cylinder in an en closed area, and no self-contained breathing apparatus is available, then the ar ea should be vacated and ventilated. - When first inspecting a hermetic system known to be leaking, you should look f or traces of oil because this is an excellent indication of leaks. - The rotating shaft seal on an open-type compressor is likely to leak if the un it is not used for several months. Operating the unit for a short period of time monthly will significantly reduce the leakage. - When a refrigerant leak check trace gas becomes absolutely necessary, only HCF C-22 refrigerant can be used as the trace gas. Never use any other refrigerant a s the trace gas. Use only a small quantity of the trace gas in combination with nitrogen to pressurize the system and inspect for leaks. Never use air or oxygen to pressurize the trace gas. - Remember, always recover or recycle refrigerant, keep systems tight, and find and repair leaks - The EPA suggests evacuation of a system as a method of dehydration. - Dehydrating a refrigeration system is done to remove water and water vapor. - While servicing an A/C system, if a technician discovers that a CFC refrigeran t was added to an HFC system, the technician should recover the mixed contaminat ed CFC/HFC refrigerant into a separate tank since this refrigerant cannot be reu sed and must be destroyed at an approved facility. (It is typically impossible o r much too expensive to reclaim.) - Long hoses between the unit and the recovery machine should not be used becaus e they cause excessive pressure drop, increased recovery time and increased emis sions. - There is no such thing as over-evacuation. - Turn on the defrost heater on a frost-free refrigerator to vaporize any trappe d liquid. This will speed the recovery process and ensure that all refrigerant h as been removed. - When using recovery cylinders and equipment with Schraeder valves, it is criti cal to inspect the Schraeder valve core for bends and breakage, cap the Schraede r ports to prevent accidental depression of the valve core and replace a damaged Schraeder valve core to prevent leakage.

- When a new system has been assembled and is ready for testing, the first thing that you should do is pressurize the system with an inert gas and leak check. - If a system is opened for servicing, the filter drier should always be replace d. - When evacuating a vapor compression system, the vacuum pump should be capable of pulling a vacuum of 500 microns (which is 0.5 mm of mercury). One mm of mercu ry = 0.039 inch of mercury = 1,000 micron. - Non-condensables in a refrigeration system result in a higher discharge pressu re. - Every refrigerating system and refrigerant cylinder must be protected by a pre ssure-relief device. Never connect a pressurized gas to a system without a press ure relieving device in either the downstream system or line. - Refrigerant is added to a centrifugal machine through the evaporator charging valve. - Technician certification should ensure that the technician knows how to handle refrigerant in a safe manner without exhausting it to the atmosphere. - A passive system-dependent recovery device captures the refrigerant in a nonpressurized container or recovery bag. A passive recovery device can be used on systems with operative or inoperative compressors.

SECTION V: Recovery, Recycling, and Reclamation REFRIGERANT PROCESSING OPTIONS Recover and Destroy In some instances, a refrigerant is so badly contaminated or mixed with other re frigerants that effective reclaiming of these refrigerants is impossible. Becaus e the stability of CFCs has made them difficult to destroy, this is an expensive option. Yet sometimes because of contamination with other chemicals, the reclam ation and separation of refrigerants from their contaminates is impossible. Once refrigerants are mixed, they can never be used again. The only option is to destroy the refrigerants, and the only method is incineration an expensive opti on. CFCs are difficult to destroy because of their inherent stability and the re lease of fluorine during the incineration process. The incineration process must be able to contain the released fluorine. Always send refrigerant to an authori zed treatment facility for destruction. Even waste oils containing high amounts of refrigerant can be harmful and destructive. Recover and Reuse Without Processing In many instances, the refrigerant in a system is still in good condition. This refrigerant can be removed from the system, and the repair or maintenance perfor med on the system and the refrigerant can be transferred back into the unit. For a small system, many technicians return recovered refrigerant back into a syste m without any processing or testing. Recover and Recycle When conditions of a system indicate that the refrigerant is deficient, the refr

igerant may need to be processed to remove contaminants. Recycling machines can remove non-condensable gases, oil, acid, and water and can typically purify a re frigerant to the purity levels of new refrigerants. However, these fluids are no t reclaimed unless they are tested and meet ARI-700 purity requirements. Recycli ng without purity testing works best in small operating appliances where the amo unt of refrigerant and the value of the equipment do not warrant a hundred-dolla r investment in refrigerant test data and ownership of the refrigerant is not ch anging. Refrigerant recovered and/or recycled can be returned to the same system or othe r systems owned by the same person without restriction. However, since August 12 , 1993, the EPA has required that if the refrigerant changes ownership, then the refrigerant has to be cleaned to the ARI-700 standard of purity AND chemically analyzed to verify that it meets this standard. This process is referred to as r eclamation (not recycling), and refrigerant meeting these conditions is referred to as being reclaimed. Recovered or recycled refrigerant cannot be transferred from an appliance owned by one person (person here means a person, corporation, partnership, or any othe r legal entity) to an appliance owned by a different person. That means, it cann ot be sold or given free to the second person. The refrigerant must be certified to meet the purity requirements of ARI-700 before it can legally be put in to a second owner's equipment (except for a transfer into a second owner's recovery, recycling, and reclamation equipment). Some technicians have wrongly believed t hat they could transfer the refrigerant into a different owner's equipment if it was not sold. This is incorrect;refrigerant cannot be transferred unless it is certified pure to ARI-700 Standards. This rule does not apply to automotive (MVA C and MVAC-like) applications; they have to meet SAE (Society of Automotive Engi neers) purity standards. Reclamation The EPA requires that if refrigerant changes ownership, then the refrigerant has to be cleaned to the ARI-700 standard of purity AND chemically analyzed to veri fy that it meets this standard. This process is referred to as reclamation, and refrigerant meeting these conditions is referred to as being reclaimed. First, a refrigerant is considered "reclaimed" if, and only if, it is certified to the purity standards of ARI-700. In other words, if tests on the purity of th e refrigerant show the refrigerant is clean (to ARI-700 standards), it is deemed reclaimed no matter what process, if any, was used to clean it. Refrigerant tha t is tested and meets ARI-700 purity standards meets the same purity standards a s virgin refrigerant, and can be used in any application where virgin refrigeran t is used without limiting manufacturers' warranties.

REFRIGERANT SPECIFICATIONS Mobile and stationary systems have different refrigerant specifications. The Soc iety of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has developed standards for the recycling of refrigerants (SAE J-1991) that can be returned to mobile air-conditioning system s. The Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) has developed the ARI700 standard for new or reclaimed refrigerants used in stationary equipment that will maintain the equipment warranties and ensure compliance with the manufactu rers' standards for air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. REFRIGERANT RECOVERY METHODS

Recovering refrigerant is the first step in preventive maintenance or repair of equipment. Simply put, recovery means transferring the system's refrigerant into a refillable refrigerant cylinder. Recovered refrigerant may require further pr ocessing before it can be returned to the system. Only commercially available re covery equipment that has been certified (by an independent laboratory test appr oved by the EPA) to meet ARI-740 performance standards should be used for recove ry or recycling. A variety of designs are currently available. Some remove refrigerant in vapor f orm (and condense it in the recovery machine), they are very slow. Others remove liquid and vapor but do not separate the system's oil from the refrigerant. Whe n the oil is not removed, the refrigerant cannot be reused reliably because the quantity of oil introduced into the refrigerant is unknown. Finally, the best re covery method removes both liquid and vapor, and separates the system's waste oi l. The fastest method to remove refrigerant from a system is to take it out in the liquid state. In the liquid state it occupies a smaller volume per pound of refr igerant. Large systems may have a liquid receiver where most of the charge is co llected. The slowest method of removing refrigerant is to remove it as a vapor. When reco vering refrigerant as a vapor, a recovery or recycling unit can remove the vapor faster if the hoses and valve ports are not restricted and if a greater pressur e difference can be created. The warmer the system, the warmer and more dense th e vapor, which allows the compressor in the recovery unit to transfer more refri gerant in a minute. As pressure in the system is reduced, the vapor becomes less dense, and the unit capacity is reduced. More time is required as the system's pressure drops. For example, when removing CFC-12 from a system, if saturated va por is removed at 70 psig, only 0.482 cubic feet of refrigerant vapor must be re moved to remove 1 lb. of refrigerant. When pressure in the system is reduced to 20 psig, 1.147 cubic feet of vapor must be removed to remove 1 lb. of refrigeran t. When the pressure is reduced to 0 psig refrigerant is still in the system, ho wever 2.54 cubic feet of refrigerant vapor must be removed to remove 1 lb. of re frigerant. The recovery/recycle unit slows down as the refrigerant pressure drop s because the compressor's volumetric pumping rate is a constant. Under ARI-740 performance standards, recovery and recycling units are evaluated for liquid and vapor recovery from a standard test stand. These recovery rates a re useful for comparison of individual units but do not exactly reflect the reco very rates attainable in actual practice because of different hose lengths, syst em temperatures, and internal system restrictions. Nevertheless, because of the greater density of liquid refrigerant, the liquid recovery rate is faster than t he vapor recovery rate. Typically, liquid refrigerant cannot be allowed to enter the compressor of a rec overy unit because compressor knocking and damage will occur. Different manufact urers use varying methods to prevent this from occurring. However, even on those systems that can accommodate direct liquid input into a recovery unit, faster r ecovery rates are usually obtained if a push-pull liquid recovery method is used . For small appliances, the total quantity of refrigerant is quite small (less t han 5 pounds) and the push-pull method is not recommended because the time to ch ange hoses (between push-pull and direct recovery) will exceed the time saved by the more efficient recovery. A push-pull recovery only removes liquid refrigera nt and must be followed by a direct vapor recovery to reach the required evacuat ion levels. A push-pull method of removing refrigerant is accomplished by connecting the liq uid line fitting on the system to a liquid line fitting on the recovery tank. Th e suction line of the recovery unit is connected to the vapor fitting on the rec

overy tank, and a connection is then made from the discharge (outlet) of the rec overy unit back to the system. When the unit is started, vapor is drawn out of t he recovery tank from the vapor port of the tank and condensed in the recovery u nit. A very small amount of liquid is then pushed back into the system where it flashes to a vapor to build pressure and push more liquid from the system and in to the recovery tank. A sight glass in the liquid line between the system and li quid-connection of the recovery tank is useful for monitoring the liquid recover y. When no more liquid is being recovered, the recovery unit is reconnected for direct vapor recovery. In spite of the fact that the push-pull recovery method i s faster, there is time associated with changing the hose connections between pu sh-pull liquid and direct vapor recovery. Mainstream recommends direct vapor rec overy if the system contains less than 2-3 lbs. of refrigerant and push-pull liq uid recovery is recommended for larger quantities. Check with your recovery equi pment manufacturer for recommendations concerning your specific unit. Remember, when the liquid is removed, it contains oil. In a push-pull configurat ion, this oil will be trapped in the recovery cylinder, whereas in direct liquid recovery, it will be trapped in the recovery unit's oil separator (assuming you r recovery unit has an oil separator). There is no requirement for a recovery or recycling machine to have an oil separator. Always follow the manufacturer's specific instructions while using their recover y, recycling, and any other equipment; they know the capabilities of their equip ment. When using tanks that do not have an internal liquid-level control, the op erator must monitor the weight of the external tank (using a refrigerant scale) and only fill this tank to 80% of its rated full-tank capacity. Overfilling a ta nk can cause the tank to rupture (as the tank heats during the day, the liquid c ontained in the tank has no room for expansion).

RECOVERY/RECYCLING SYSTEMS Two types of recycling equipment are currently being sold. The first is referred to as single pass and the other is multiple pass. Single pass recycling machine s typically process refrigerant only once through filter-driers. Multiple pass m achines recirculate the recovered refrigerant many times through filter-driers. Recirculation systems are, of course, more flexible and more effective because t he amount of filtering can be controlled by the operator, and can be based on th e results of moisture and acid tests, which are performed during recycling. Recirculating and recycling are not interchangeable terms. Recycling machines do not necessarily recirculate the refrigerant (see above definitions). Recycling is the process; recirculating is one mechanism of recycling. There has been far more scrutiny of the appropriate use of recycled refrigerant with the advent of recycling machines. A few guidelines are available to use when choosing recycling equipment and dete rmining when to use it. The general rule is that refrigerant can be recycled whe n removed from a system and returned to that same system or another system owned by the same person. The forward of ARI-700-88, Standard for Fluorocarbon Refrig erants, states, "This standard does not apply where refrigerant captured from a particular system is returned on site to the same system." (The EPA has eased th is requirement to be the same owner.) Any person using recycling equipment should address a variety of issues. First, decide if the refrigerant will be returned to the same system. If the system is being dismantled, for example, other factors must be considered. If the refrigerant is to be returned to the same system, the next issue is the c

ondition of the refrigerant. When oil is separated from the refrigerant, a vast majority of the contaminants are also removed. Most refrigerant recycling machin es use filter/dryers to remove any other moisture and acid as well as hard parti cles. Then, generally the refrigerant can be returned to the system. However, if the quantity of refrigerant contained in the system is significant the refriger ant should be tested for purity to ARI-700 standards by a testing laboratory. A real problem exists when a burnout occurs in a hermetic compressor. A burnout is caused by an electrical failure inside the compressor of a refrigeration syst em. This electrical failure can be due to a variety of reasons and contamination of the refrigerant in this situation can range from mild to severe. However, oi l is the real villain in a burnout. When dealing with a burnout, regardless of w hat kind of machine, use caution! The oil can be very acidic and toxic. Anyone w ho has been in contact with its distinctive odor, a classic symptom, can attest to that. The best approach is to keep the acid oil from ever reaching the recycl ing machine. Use a recovery or recycling system with initial oil separation to r emove the waste oil, or if your recovery machine does not separate the incoming oil, use a dual-valve recovery tank as an oil-separator on the inlet line to the recovery system. Waste oil should be drained from the recycling or recovery mac hine during the recovery operation. If any doubt exists as to the suitability of the refrigerant, do not return it t o the system. Recycle the questionable refrigerant and have its purity tested. A lways add new or reclaimed refrigerant if the amount of recycled refrigerant is not enough for correct system operation. Additional refrigerant will probably be needed every time the system has had a leak. Recycled refrigerant cannot be rep resented as new. No matter how clean the refrigerant or how sophisticated the re covery, recycling, or reclamation machine, the refrigerant must be tested and me et the purity standards of ARI-700 before it can be called reclaimed and sold or transferred (change ownership) into a refrigeration or air conditioning system of a different owner. Even if the refrigerant is not changing ownership, use of refrigerant that is no t certified to meet ARI-700 purity standards will invalidate the manufacturer's warranty. The refrigeration technician could be liable for damages arising out o f introducing impure refrigerant into a system. Have the refrigerant tested; don 't risk thousands of dollars in equipment and refrigerant costs to try to save o n a $200 test. Obviously, for a small system, testing does not make economic sen se and the technician must use good judgment. Technician experience is the best guide. Check for acid content with Mainstream's QwikCheck. Recovering Refrigerant from Appliances Recovering refrigerant from appliances may be an easier job than from larger sys tems because not as much refrigerant is involved. Small appliances contain less than five pounds of refrigerant and only 80% to 90% of the charge needs to be re moved from appliances (see Section III). Refrigerant bags are available for recovery of refrigerant from small appliances . These bags are plastic and will hold the charge of several refrigerators. The technician must have enough room in the service truck to haul the bag. When a ba g is full, it may be taken to the shop and the refrigerant transferred into a re cycling machine or into a reclaim cylinder. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 1. Always wear protective goggles when working with refrigerant. If liquid refri gerant gets in your eye, permanent blindness may result. 2. Do not allow refrigerant to come in contact with your skin. Refrigerant has a very low boiling point, which will cause frostbite.

3. All refrigerant handling, charging, and recycling operations should be perfor med in locations with adequate ventilation of at least four air changes per hour . Avoid prolonged breathing of the vapor. Prolonged inhalation of refrigerant is extremely dangerous; death can occur without warning. 4. Do not use a recovery unit in the vicinity of spilled or open containers of g asoline, thinners, or any other flammable liquid or vapor unless the equipment i s expressly designed (explosion proof designs) for such environments. Do not ope rate where flammable vapor is present. 5. Do not leave any recovery or recycling machine on and unsupervised. 6. Do not attempt to fill any vessels, containers, cylinders, charging equipment , or storage tanks that are not D.O.T.-approved and equipped with a safety-vent valve. Do not transfer refrigerant to non-refillable cylinders. 7. Do not fill any storage tank or vessel with refrigerant beyond 80% of its cap acity. 8. Do not disconnect or tamper with the electrical high-pressure, low-pressure, or liquid-level safety shut-off. Guidelines for Filling Cylinders - Disposable cylinders may be used for shipment of original refrigerant only. They are never permitted for any further use. - OSHA (U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration) requires that com pressed gas cylinders be used only by individuals who are trained in the proper handling and safe use of these cylinders. - Never mix one refrigerant (or gas) with another type of refrigerant. These mixtures may be very difficult to separate once they are mixed and consequently must be destroyed rather than reclaimed. - Use personal protective equipment, such as side-shield safety glasses, glov es, and safety shoes, when filling and handling cylinders. - Avoid skin contact with refrigerant. - Be aware that inhalation of high concentrations of refrigerant vapor is har mful and may cause heart irregularities, unconsciousness, or death. Because vapo r is heavier than air, avoid low areas without suitable ventilation. - Exercise caution when moving cylinders. Cylinder Inspection Prior to filling, a cylinder should be inspected for signs of damage, such as de nts or corrosion. Do not fill a damaged cylinder. A recovery cylinder should not be filled if the present date is more than five y ears past the test date that is stamped on the shoulder of the cylinder. The tes t date will look similar to the example below: A1 12 23 The designation in the example above indicates that the cylinder was re-tested i n December 1999 by re-tester number A123. If a cylinder is out of date, it must not be filled, promptly return it to the cylinder owner for re-testing by an app roved test laboratory. As stated earlier in this text, liquid refrigerant will e xpand as its temperature increases. If the cylinder is overfilled, thermal expan sion of the liquid could rupture the cylinder. After filling, verify that all cylinder valves are closed properly and capped to prevent leaks during subsequent handling and shipment. 99

Shipping Procedures The U.S. EPA does not characterize used refrigerants as hazardous waste. Most st ates share this view and, consequently, require no special procedures for used r efrigerant shipments. However, any individual state may require special shipping procedures based on its own waste classification of used refrigerants. Shippers should contact the appropriate state agency to determine whether special state shipping instructions apply. The following information is intended as a guide, b ut is not complete for shipping used refrigerants that are classified as a hazar dous waste. All used refrigerant containers must be properly labeled, not just the ones you are planning to ship, and this regulation includes the yellow and gray recovery tanks. Cylinders and drums should be labeled prior to filling. Never fill a cyli nder or drum that is not labeled for that material. Unlabeled containers in your truck could be dangerous and are illegal. In the event of an accident, most eme rgency personnel are instructed to avoid unidentified containers or cylinders, a nd to wait for a Hazardous Materials Response Team to arrive and identify the co ntents of the containers. This could cause unnecessary delays. REVIEW TOPICS - Disposing of disposable cylinders is accomplished by assuring that all refrige rant is recovered and that the cylinders are rendered useless (punctured), then recycle the metal. - Before you dispose of any appliance containing a refrigerant, you must recover the refrigerant. - Service technicians who violate Clean Air Act provisions can be fined, lose th eir certification, and face Federal charges. - Violation of the Clean Air Act, including the knowing release of refrigerant d uring the maintenance, service, repair, or disposal of appliances, can result in fines up to $32,500 per day per violation. - Recovery of refrigerants is necessary to provide adequate refrigeration suppli es for service applications after the production bans, as well as to prevent the venting to the atmosphere and the resulting ozone depletion. - Since July 1, 1992, to knowingly release CFC or HCFC refrigerants during the s ervice, maintenance, repair, or disposal of appliances has been illegal. - November 1995, the EPA determined that venting substitute refrigerants poses a threat to the environment. Venting of substitutes for CFC and HCFC refrigerants is illegal. - Under EPA regulations, reclaimed refrigerant must meet ARI 700 standards for p urity before it can be resold. - "System-dependent" recovery devices are so named because they depend on compon ents of the system. That is, they capture refrigerant with the assistance of com ponents in the air conditioning or refrigeration equipment they are emptying. - All devices used for refrigerant recovery must meet EPA standards. - The equipment covered by EPA regulations includes all air conditioning and ref rigeration equipment containing and using refrigerants.

- "Self-contained" recovery devices can capture liquid and/or vapor refrigerant without the assistance of components in the air conditioning or refrigeration eq uipment. - The proper charging method for blended (non-azeotropic) refrigerants (400 Seri es) is to use a remove the charge from the cylinder as a liquid. Typical blends (except R-410A) will leak from a system in uneven amounts due to the different v apor pressures of the components, and therefore they should not be topped off. H owever, while R-410A is a blend (thus the 400 series designation), it behaves as a near azeotropic refrigerant, and can be topped off, unlike other 400 series r efrigerants (R-410A should still be removed from the cylinder as a liquid.). - Hygroscopic means affinity for water, so hygroscopic oils are oils with a high affinity for water. - The center port on a three-port manifold is used for recovery, evacuation, and charging. - Remember, always recover or recycle refrigerant, keep systems tight, and find and repair leaks. - Recovered refrigerant can contain acids, oils and/or moisture. - According to the EPA, an oil sample should be taken whenever the unit has had a leak or a major component failure. - Recycling is defined as the cleaning of refrigerant for reuse by oil separatio n and single or multiple passes through moisture absorption devices. - Reclamation is defined as processing refrigerant to a level equal to new produ ct specifications as determined by chemical analysis (testing to ARI-700 standar ds). - Recovery is defined as transferring refrigerant in any condition from a system to a storage container without testing or purifying the refrigerant in any way. - When addressing consumer complaints regarding additional service expense due t o recovery efforts, the technician needs to explain to the customer that recover y is necessary to protect human health and the environment, that recovery is req uired by federal law, that all professional service personnel are duty-bound to follow the law and protect the environment, and that there are substantial fines of $32,500/occurrence/day for anyone venting refrigerant. - When recovering refrigerant, do not mix different refrigerants because the mix ture will be impossible to reclaim. In cases where refrigerant cannot be reclaim ed, it must be destroyed. Only one refrigerant type can be recovered into a cyli nder at a time. - A system is not dehydrated until a vacuum gauge shows that you have reached an d HELD the required finished vacuum. - During dehydration of a refrigeration system, the refrigeration system can be heated to decrease dehydration time. - The system vacuum level is measured with the system isolated. - After completing the transfer of liquid refrigerant between the recovery unit and the refrigeration system, be careful to avoid trapping liquid refrigerant be tween service valves of the refrigerant hose because pressure can build up in th

e line and burst the hose. - Whenever working with any unknown solvents, chemicals, or refrigerants, always review the material safety data sheets, which by law should be shipped by the m anufacturer with these compounds. - Refrigerant vapors or mist in high concentrations should not be inhaled becaus e they can cause heart irregularities or unconsciousness in some people. Note th e warnings on the packaging. Refrigerants are heavier than air and can displace the air in a room, leaving no breathing air in the room (leading to asphyxia). I n most refrigerant accidents where death occurs, the major cause is oxygen depri vation. - Approved refrigerant recovery cylinders can be identified by yellow tops and g ray bodies. It is a good idea to paint a color-stripe around the cylinder to ind icate the type of recovered refrigerant contained inside, and to utilize two rec overy cylinders (one clean recycled, one dirty not-recycled) for each refrigeran t handled by the technician. Reusable containers for refrigerants that are under high pressure (above 15 psig at normal ambient temperature) must be hydrostatic ally tested and date-stamped every five years. - All refrigerant tanks, including recovery tanks, should be labeled to show the ir contents. - A refillable refrigerant cylinder must not be filled above 80% (by weight) of its full capacity. - When transporting cylinders containing used refrigerant, D.O.T. requires D.O.T . classification tags be attached. - Refrigerant cylinders should be stored vertically during shipping. - Before transferring refrigerant to an empty cylinder, the cylinder should be e vacuated. - Small appliance recovery equipment manufactured on or after November 15, 1993, must be certified to be capable of recovering 80% of the refrigerant when the s ystem's compressor has failed, or achieving a 4-inch vacuum under the conditions of ARI 740-1993. - Small appliance recovery equipment manufactured on or after November 15, 1993, must be certified to be capable of recovering 90% of the refrigerant when the s ystem's compressor is operational, or achieving a 4-inch vacuum under the condit ions of ARI 740-1993. - Since, November 14, 1994, technicians servicing refrigeration hardware must be certified in refrigerant recovery. - Since November 14, 1994, the sale of CFC and HCFC refrigerants has been restri cted to technicians certified in refrigerant recovery. - The EPA may require technicians to demonstrate their ability to perform proper refrigerant recovery and recycling procedures. Failure to demonstrate proper pr ocedures may result in revocation of the technician's certification. - When servicing a small appliance for leak repair, it is not mandatory to repai r the leak but do so whenever possible. - Refrigerant recovery devices must be equipped with low-loss fittings that are used to connect the recovery device to an appliance and which can be manually cl

osed or which close automatically when disconnected to prevent loss of refrigera nt from hoses. - All appliances must be equipped with a service aperture or other device that i s used when adding or removing refrigerant from the appliance. For small applian ces, this service port typically is a straight piece of tubing that is entered u sing a piercing access valve. - An accurate pressure reading of the refrigerant inside a recovery cylinder is necessary to determine if excessive air or other non-condensables are in the cyl inder. - When a reclamation facility receives a tank of mixed refrigerant, it may refus e to process the refrigerant and return it at the owner's expense, or it may agr ee to destroy the refrigerant, but typically a substantial fee is charged. - A standard vacuum pump can only be used as a recovery device in combination wi th a non-pressurized container. - After installing and opening a piercing access valve, if the system pressure i s 0 psig, do not begin the recovery procedure because all of the refrigerant has leaked out, and air and moisture in the system will contaminate the recovery ta nk's refrigerant. - Because small amounts of refrigerant have no odor, when a pungent odor is dete cted during a sealed system recovery and/or repair, a compressor burn-out has li kely occurred. - After recovering refrigerant from a sealed system, if nitrogen is used to pres surize or blow debris out of the system, the nitrogen can be vented because air is predominantly nitrogen. - When you check system pressures to determine the performance of a refrigerant, use equipment such as hand valves or self-sealing hoses to minimize any refrige rant release. - When filling a charging cylinder, the refrigerant that is vented off the top o f the cylinder must be recovered. - D.O.T. Regulation 49 CFR requires the number of cylinders of each gas be recor ded on the shipping document for hazard class 2.2, Nonflammable Compressed Gases . - If a large leak of refrigerant occurs, such as from a filled cylinder in an en closed area and no self-contained breathing apparatus is available, the area sho uld be vacated and ventilated. - Recovering refrigerant from a system in the vapor phase will minimize the loss of oil from the system. - Most refrigerant and recycling machines require a regular oil and filter chang e. - Removal of the refrigerant charge from a system can be accomplished more quick ly by cooling the recovery tank by packing it in ice. - Recovery during low ambient temperatures will slow the recovery process becaus e the vapor pressure of the refrigerant and the refrigerant's density are lowere d as the temperature is lowered. Some technicians incorrectly believe the cooler temperatures will shorten recovery time because the recovery tank is cooler, bu

t this mpared cooler covery tank.

is not true. It is correct that a cooler recovery tank speeds recovery co to a warm recovery tank but if both the system and the recovery tank are then the disadvantage of the lower pressure on the suction side of the re compressor far outweigh the benefit of the lower pressure in the recovery For fastest recovery, we want a hot system and a cold recovery tank.

- In a system that utilizes a thermal expansion valve, the liquid receiver direc tly follows the condenser. - The accumulator directly follows the evaporator of a refrigeration system. - The gauge port can be closed by backseating a suction shutoff valve. - Before using a recovery unit to remove a charge, always check service valve po sitions, evacuate the recovery unit/receiver, and check the recovery unit oil le vel. - The state of refrigerant leaving the receiver of a refrigeration system is hig h pressure liquid. - The evaporator, suction line and accumulator are all parts of the low side of a refrigeration system. - Recycling or recovery equipment using a hermetic compressor has the potential to overheat when drawing deep vacuums because the compressor motor relies on the flow of refrigerant through the compressor for cooling. - When recovering R-134a, as well other refrigerants, special precautions must b e taken to avoid contamination of the R-134a with oil from the other refrigerant s. We recommend that a set of hoses, gauges, vacuum pump, recovery cylinders, re covery machine, and oil containers be dedicated for R-134a only. - After reaching the required recovery vacuum on an appliance, turn off the reco very device (isolate the system) and wait for a few minutes to see if the system pressure rises, indicating that there is either refrigerant in liquid form, ref rigerant trapped in the oil, or a leak in the system. - Appliances containing refrigerant can be evacuated to atmospheric pressure, in stead of sub-atmospheric pressures, when leaks in the appliance make evacuation to the EPA-prescribed level unattainable because air would be drawn into the rec overy device from its surroundings. - When evacuating a vapor compression system, the vacuum pump should be capable of pulling a vacuum of 500 microns. One mm of mercury = 0.039 inch of mercury = 1,000 micron. - Non-condensables in a refrigeration system result in a higher discharge pressu re. - Using a heater on a recovery vessel increases the head pressure and increases the speed of charging refrigerant from the recovery vessel back into the system during system charging. - Cooling the recovery vessel reduces the recovery vessel head pressure and incr eases the speed of refrigerant recovery from a system and into the recovery vess el. - If you have to leak check a unit that has lost a complete charge, the leak che ck gas that would cause the least damage to the environment would be dry nitroge n.

- Whenever dry nitrogen is used from a portable cylinder, always make sure that a relief valve is available downstream from the pressure regulator. - Factors that affect the speed of evacuation include the size of the equipment being evacuated, the ambient temperature and the amount of moisture in the syste m. - The capacity of the vacuum pump and its suction line size will determine the d ehydration time. - When using a vacuum pump, every effort should be made to reduce the pressure d rop between the vacuum pump and the system. Therefore the piping connection shou ld be as short as possible (using the largest diameter pipe that is practical). - An alcohol spray can be used to remove ice from sight glasses or viewing glass es. - All refrigerants must be recovered with equipment regulated by the EPA. - When using vapor recovery, the fill level of the recovery cylinder can be cont rolled by mechanical float devices, electronic shut-off devices or weight of the cylinder. - A refrigerant label should be placed on a refrigerant cylinder to be returned for reclaiming. - Ammonia, water and hydrogen may be present as components of refrigerants used in small appliances in campers or other recreational vehicles and should NOT be recovered with current EPA-approved recovery devices. - When a household refrigerator compressor does not run, it is recommended that low and high side access valves be installed to recover the refrigerant from the system. This will increase recovery speed and is necessary to achieve the requi red recovery efficiency. - Solderless-type piercing valves should not remain installed on refrigeration s ystems after completion of repairs because they tend to leak over time. - When using a system-dependent (passive) recovery process on operating compress ors, technicians should run the appliance's compressor and recover the refrigera nt from the high side. - An unopened recovery tank inlet valve or excessive air in the recovery tank ca n cause excessive pressure on the high side of a recovery device. - The motor winding of a hermetic refrigeration compressor can be damaged if it is energized when under a deep vacuum because there will be no refrigerant flow to cool the motor. - When refrigerant has been recovered from an air-conditioning system and held i n a refillable cylinder in order to make a repair, the refrigerant can be legall y charged back into the system. - A reciprocating compressor should never be energized when the discharge servic e valve is closed since an excessive pressure will develop, potentially damaging the compressor. - High head pressure indicates that there is either a lack of condenser cooling or non-condensables (such as air or nitrogen) in the system.

- Refrigeration and air-conditioning crankcase compressor heaters reduce the amo unt of refrigerant trapped in the lubricating oil. - A filter drier removes acid and moisture from the refrigerant. - Always use gloves and safety goggles when working with liquid refrigerant, avo id spilling liquid refrigerant on skin, and never siphon refrigerant by mouth. - According to the EPA regulations, flushing with liquid refrigerant to clean fi eld tubing is not an approved technique for system cleanup after a burnout. - During refrigerant recovery, when the system's compressor does not run, it is good practice to access both the low and high sides of the system to assure that refrigerant is not trapped in the system. For passive systems this becomes even more critical because the pressure differential in passive recovery is typicall y much smaller. For small systems with an operating compressor a single access v alve on the high side can be used. - According to ASHRAE Guideline 3-1996, if the pressure in a system rises from 1 mm Hg to a level above 2.5 mm during a standing vacuum test, the system should be checked for leaks. - While R-410A is a high pressure refrigerant, it can still be stored in the bac k of your service van as long as the temperature inside the vehicle does not exc eed 125F. This is the same guidance given for R-22 and other common refrigerants . - People who service or repair MVAC-like appliances (e.g. farm equipment and oth er non-roads vehicles) can choose to be certified by either the Section 609 prog ram or under Section 608 Type II. Due to the similarities between MVAC and MVAClike appliances, EPA recommends that technicians servicing MVAC-like appliances consider certification under Section 609. Note that buses using CFC-12 are MVACs , however buses using HCFC-22 are not MVACs or MVAC-like appliances, but rather high-pressure equipment covered under Type II of the Section 608 test. Therefore if you service busses with both HCFC-22 and CFC-12 refrigerant a Type II certif ication covers both.

SECTION VI: PROPOSED EPA RULE CHANGES Visit www.epatest.com for the latest updates and changes Technician Certification and Sales Restriction While HFCs and PFCs are not ozone-depleting substances, they have been identifie d as potent greenhouse gases with long atmospheric lifetimes and are part of the six gases included in the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol calls for the aggr egate emissions of the six gases to be reduced to an average of 5% below 1990 le vels in developed countries in the 2008-2012 timeframe. However, actual implemen tation of Technician Certification and Sales Restrictions on HFC and PFC are pen ding further cost and emissions reductions analysis. It is currently assumed tha t because of the significant cost savings associated with recovery of large quan tities of refrigerant safe handling practices of HFCs and PFCs will be performed voluntarily. However, sales restrictions and certifications specific to HFCs an d PFCs are still a future possibility if the United States fails to reach the em issions goals set by the Kyoto Protocol in the near future. Please remain inform ed by frequently checking www.epa.gov and the Frequently Asked Questions section of www.epatest.com.

Conversion Factors To Convert From PSIG To PSIA Add 14.7 to the PSIG reading. To Convert From PSIA To PSIG Subtract 14.7 to the PSIA reading. To Convert From Inches of Mercury To Millimeters of Mercury Absolute Multiply th e Inches of Mercury by 25.4 and Subtract the result from 760. To Convert From Millimeters of Mercury Absolute To In