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# Thick & Thin cylinders

• A pressure vessel is used for storing liquid or
Objectives:- under pressure. A pipe line through which
Introduction pressurized fluid flows is treated as pressure
Thin wall pressure vessel vessel. Normally pressure vessels are of
Stress in the Thin cylinders cylindrical or spherical shape.
Cylindrical pressure vessels • There are several examples of pressure vessels
Thick cylinders which are used for engineering purpose. They
Stress in the Thick cylinders include boilers, gas storage tanks, metal tires &
Development of Lame’s equation (1833) pipelines
Error in the Thin Cylinder Formula
Problem sheetPrepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq
(Lecturer, MECH KSK) 1 (Lecturer, MECH KSK) 2

Thin cylinders

• If the wall thickness of the cylinder is less
than 1/20th of the internal diameter ‘di’,the
variation of the tangential stresses through
the wall thickness is small & the radial
stresses may be neglected. The solution
can be then treated as statically
determinate & the vessel is said to be thin
pressure vessel. Thus a thin pressure
vessel is one whose thickness to inner
radius ratio is not greater than 1/10.
Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq
(Lecturer, MECH KSK) 3 (Lecturer, MECH KSK) 4

free internal or external surface. Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. (This stress will also vary in the radial direction & not with ‘Ѳ’ as in tangential • This assumption will mean that the strain stress case. MECH KSK) 5 (Lecturer. called hoop assumption that any section of thick or tangential stress. cylinder will remain plane before & after • 2) Radial stress which is stress similar to the pressure on the application of pressure. cylinder. His solution very logically assumed that a thick cylinder to consist of series of thin cylinders such that each exerts pressure on the other. pressure. Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. MECH KSK) 7 (Lecturer. not only the internal pressure. So the longitudinal stress will remain same /constant for any section of the thick cylinder. MECH KSK) 8 .) • 3) Longitudinal stress in the direction the axis of the along the axis or length remain constant. This stress is perpendicular to the plane of the • Thick cylinders also have the external paper. Thick Cylinders • The problem of determination of stresses in a thick cylinders was first attempted more than 160 years ago by a French mathematician Lame in 1833. MECH KSK) 6 • This will essentially focus attention on three stress • This will be associated with the components at any point these stress components are: • 1) Stress along the circumferential direction.

MECH KSK) 9 (Lecturer. Le. MECH KSK) 12 . • It is also assumed that the longitudinal stress is constant across the cylinder walls at points remote from the ends. -----. neglecting second-order small quantities. For small angles: Therefore. MECH KSK) 11 (Lecturer. MECH KSK) 10 Assuming now that plane sections remain plane.Lame’s Theory Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer.(B) Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. the longitudinal strain is constant across the wall of the cylinder.

• The above equations yield the radial and hoop stresses at any radius r in terms of constants A and B. MECH KSK) 16 . the external pressure being zero. MECH KSK) 13 (Lecturer. • The two known conditions of stress which enable the Lame constants A and B to be determined are: Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. MECH KSK) 14 Thick cylinder . subjected to an internal pressure P. For any pressure condition there will always be two known conditions of stress Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. MECH KSK) 15 (Lecturer.internal pressure only • Consider now the thick cylinder shown in Fig.

--.1] Substitute the values in Equation (D) σ h = pi { R1 2 + (R1+t) 2 } / { (R1+t) 2 – R1 2} \ similarly.2 % Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. put the Max. MECH KSK) 19 .(D) • As t = R2 – R1 As r = R1 •  R2 = R1 + t σ h = pi [ K2 + 1] / [ K2 . i.52pi -10pi / 10pi = 5. the limiting value for t = R1 / 10 or R1 / t = 10  σ h = pi {2(10) 2 + 2(10 ) + 1} / 2(10) + 1 = 10. error in the thin cylinder formula.e. MECH KSK) 17 (Lecturer. MECH KSK) 18 • To find the Max. Errors in the Thin Cylinder Formula: (C) At inner Radius when r = R1 & P = pi the Equation (c) becomes ------.  = pi {2(R1/t) 2 + 2(R1/t ) + 1} / 2(R1/t) + 1 For the Thin cylinders t < R1 / 10 σ r = -pi Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer.52 pi And from the Thin Cylinder Formula: σ h = pi R1 / t = 10pi As R1 / t = 10pi %age Error = 10.