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- Lecture 15
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**• A pressure vessel is used for storing liquid or
**

Objectives:- under pressure. A pipe line through which

Introduction pressurized fluid flows is treated as pressure

Thin wall pressure vessel vessel. Normally pressure vessels are of

Stress in the Thin cylinders cylindrical or spherical shape.

Cylindrical pressure vessels • There are several examples of pressure vessels

Thick cylinders which are used for engineering purpose. They

Stress in the Thick cylinders include boilers, gas storage tanks, metal tires &

Development of Lame’s equation (1833) pipelines

Error in the Thin Cylinder Formula

Problem sheetPrepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq

(Lecturer, MECH KSK) 1 (Lecturer, MECH KSK) 2

Thin cylinders

**• If the wall thickness of the cylinder is less
**

than 1/20th of the internal diameter ‘di’,the

variation of the tangential stresses through

the wall thickness is small & the radial

stresses may be neglected. The solution

can be then treated as statically

determinate & the vessel is said to be thin

pressure vessel. Thus a thin pressure

vessel is one whose thickness to inner

radius ratio is not greater than 1/10.

Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq

(Lecturer, MECH KSK) 3 (Lecturer, MECH KSK) 4

free internal or external surface. Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. (This stress will also vary in the radial direction & not with ‘Ѳ’ as in tangential • This assumption will mean that the strain stress case. MECH KSK) 5 (Lecturer. called hoop assumption that any section of thick or tangential stress. cylinder will remain plane before & after • 2) Radial stress which is stress similar to the pressure on the application of pressure. cylinder. His solution very logically assumed that a thick cylinder to consist of series of thin cylinders such that each exerts pressure on the other. pressure. Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. MECH KSK) 7 (Lecturer. not only the internal pressure. So the longitudinal stress will remain same /constant for any section of the thick cylinder. MECH KSK) 8 .) • 3) Longitudinal stress in the direction the axis of the along the axis or length remain constant. This stress is perpendicular to the plane of the • Thick cylinders also have the external paper. Thick Cylinders • The problem of determination of stresses in a thick cylinders was first attempted more than 160 years ago by a French mathematician Lame in 1833. MECH KSK) 6 • This will essentially focus attention on three stress • This will be associated with the components at any point these stress components are: • 1) Stress along the circumferential direction.

MECH KSK) 9 (Lecturer. Le. MECH KSK) 12 . • It is also assumed that the longitudinal stress is constant across the cylinder walls at points remote from the ends. -----. neglecting second-order small quantities. For small angles: Therefore. MECH KSK) 11 (Lecturer. MECH KSK) 10 Assuming now that plane sections remain plane.Lame’s Theory Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer.(B) Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. the longitudinal strain is constant across the wall of the cylinder.

• The above equations yield the radial and hoop stresses at any radius r in terms of constants A and B. MECH KSK) 16 . the external pressure being zero. MECH KSK) 13 (Lecturer. • The two known conditions of stress which enable the Lame constants A and B to be determined are: Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. MECH KSK) 14 Thick cylinder . subjected to an internal pressure P. For any pressure condition there will always be two known conditions of stress Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. MECH KSK) 15 (Lecturer.internal pressure only • Consider now the thick cylinder shown in Fig.

--.1] Substitute the values in Equation (D) σ h = pi { R1 2 + (R1+t) 2 } / { (R1+t) 2 – R1 2} \ similarly.2 % Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer. put the Max. MECH KSK) 19 .(D) • As t = R2 – R1 As r = R1 • R2 = R1 + t σ h = pi [ K2 + 1] / [ K2 . i.52pi -10pi / 10pi = 5. the limiting value for t = R1 / 10 or R1 / t = 10 σ h = pi {2(10) 2 + 2(10 ) + 1} / 2(10) + 1 = 10. error in the thin cylinder formula.e. MECH KSK) 17 (Lecturer. MECH KSK) 18 • To find the Max. Errors in the Thin Cylinder Formula: (C) At inner Radius when r = R1 & P = pi the Equation (c) becomes ------. = pi {2(R1/t) 2 + 2(R1/t ) + 1} / 2(R1/t) + 1 For the Thin cylinders t < R1 / 10 σ r = -pi Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq Prepared By: Muhammad Farooq (Lecturer.52 pi And from the Thin Cylinder Formula: σ h = pi R1 / t = 10pi As R1 / t = 10pi %age Error = 10.

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