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System Power and

Grounding

278561 Rev. A1
Refer to this publication for complete and accurate information that helps you better operate and service Metso
Automation equipment. Your comments and suggestions are welcome.
Metso Automation
1180 Church Road
Lansdale, PA 19446
Attention: Manager, Technical Publications

Copyright 2004 by Metso Automation MAX Controls, Inc.


Printed in the United States of America
All Rights Reserved

Metso Automation 278561


Contents
Preface ...............................................................................................................................................v

Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................................1
Introducing AC Power ......................................................................................................................1

Overview...................................................................................................................................................1
maxDNA Components............................................................................................................. 1
maxDNA Configurations .......................................................................................................................... 2
Optical-Electrical Interface ...................................................................................................... 3
Branch Circuit Breaker Protection ............................................................................................................ 3
Safety Ground ........................................................................................................................................... 4
Wire Size for AC Power ........................................................................................................................... 4

Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................................................1
maxSTATION Power Distribution ....................................................................................................1

Power Distribution Assembly ...................................................................................................................1


maxSTATION AC Power Wiring............................................................................................................. 2
Balancing AC Load................................................................................................................................... 2
Configuring maxSTATION Cabinet Peripherals...................................................................................... 3
maxSTATION Component Power Consumption ..................................................................................... 4

Chapter 3 ............................................................................................................................................1
Remote Processing Unit ..................................................................................................................1

Power Distribution ............................................................................................................................1

Remote Processing Unit Power Source.....................................................................................................1


Model APS0xx Power Supply Assembly ................................................................................................. 2
Chassis Mounting..................................................................................................................... 3
Installing the Model APS0xx Chassis...................................................................................... 3
Installing Model APS0xx Power Supply Chassis .................................................................... 3
Panel Mounting Model APS0xx Power Supply Chassis.......................................................... 3
Installing Model APS0xx Power Supply Modules .................................................................. 4
Configuring Input Crossover Patch........................................................................................................... 4
Using Redundant Model APS0xx Power Supplies ................................................................................... 5
Wiring Remote Processing Unit Cabinets................................................................................................. 6
Model APS0xx Terminal Assignments.................................................................................... 7
RPU Power Distribution for I/O Modules .............................................................................................. 10

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System Power and Grounding

Model APS0xx Maintenance ..................................................................................................................11


Model APS0xx Series Specifications......................................................................................................12

Chapter 4 ............................................................................................................................................ 1
Model APS2xx Series ....................................................................................................................... 1

Power Supplies ................................................................................................................................. 1

Mounting and Wiring ............................................................................................................................... 2

Chapter 5 ............................................................................................................................................ 1
System Grounding............................................................................................................................ 1

Overview .................................................................................................................................................. 1
Instrument Ground Bus (IGB) Test Assembly.........................................................................1
Reference Ground ....................................................................................................................2
maxSTATION Grounding ........................................................................................................................3
Cabinet Grounding ....................................................................................................................................3
Cabinet Ground Types .............................................................................................................4
Multiple Cabinet Grounding ....................................................................................................5
Electrical DPU Bus Grounding .................................................................................................................6
Optical-Electrical Interface Grounding .....................................................................................................6
OEI Power Wiring ...................................................................................................................6
Mechanical Protection...............................................................................................................................7
Good Housekeeping Considerations ........................................................................................7
Grounding Checks.....................................................................................................................................7
AC Power Supply Safety Ground Test ....................................................................................7
System Ground Resistance Test...............................................................................................7
System Grounding Troubleshooting Check List .......................................................................................8

Appendix A......................................................................................................................................... 1
Power and Grounding ...................................................................................................................... 1

Standards Drawing Set..................................................................................................................... 1

Overview .................................................................................................................................................. 1
Power and Grounding Standards...............................................................................................................1
Power and Grounding Conductor..............................................................................................................4
System Grounding for Large System with Multiple Independent Subsystems in Same Room ................7
System Grounding for Small System with Multiple Cabinet Groups in Same Room...............................8
System Grounding for Multiple Independent Subsystems in Different Remote Locations ......................9
Glossary...................................................................................................................................................10
Terms .....................................................................................................................................10
Acronyms ...............................................................................................................................12

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iv
Preface

Refer to this publication to learn how to install power supplies and to set up a
maxDNA Distributed Control System using proper wiring and grounding
practices.

The information presented in this publication applies to systems using the


maxDNA hardware.

Chapter 1 presents you with an overview of maxDNA hardware, specifically


power related hardware, and general ac wiring principles.

Chapter 2 discusses maxSTATION power distribution and ac power


requirements.

Chapter 3 discusses Remote Processing Unit (RPU) power distribution and


proper wiring. Refer to this chapter to learn how to install the Model
APS0xxPower Supply Assembly, which supplies RPU components with
+24V dc power.

Chapter 4 describes the Model APS2xx Transmitter Power Supply for


powering field transmitters or wetting field contacts.

Chapter 5 discusses proper grounding procedures for maxDNA System


components, including maxSTATIONs, RPU cabinets, and the Optical-
Electrical Interface.

Appendix A contains the standard drawing set, which includes recommended


power and grounding standards for the maxDNA Distributed Control
System.

For additional information about major maxDNA System components, refer


to the following Metso Automation publications:

Book Title Book Number

maxSTATION Installation 278576

Model IOP I/O


Installation and Preparation 278563

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v
Chapter 1

Introducing AC Power

Overview
To ensure a successful maxDNA equipment installation follow the guidelines
set down in this publication as well as all applicable local and national
electrical codes.

An electronic control system requires a reliable, high quality source of


Alternating Current (ac) power. Although it may be converted to other
voltage levels and types for use in maxSTATIONs and printed circuit boards,
it is the continued presence of ac power that guarantees that the system will
perform.

The ac power source should be well regulated and free from switching
transients and power surges. To provide constant control output, you may
need to install an uninterruptible power system (UPS). When evaluating UPS
power requirements, be sure to consider any future system expansions.

maxDNA Components

In a standard maxDNA system, ac power must be available for:

Each maxSTATION

Each Remote Processing Unit (RPU)

Each cord-connected peripheral device (printers and monitors)

Refer to Tables 2-1 and 3-5 for a listing of ac power requirements for
maxDNA components. Peripheral devices must be plugged into their own
separate sources.

Standard maxSTATION configurations include a Power Distribution


Assembly to accommodate ac wiring. Refer to Chapter 2, "maxSTATION
Power Distribution."

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System Power and Grounding

Remote Processing Unit cabinets use the Model APS Power Supply
Assembly to provide V dc power for Distributed Processing Units (DPUs)
and Input/Output Devices (I/Os). Refer to Chapter 3, "Remote Processing
Unit Power Distribution."

Optionally, a Model APS2xx Transmitter Power Supply may be supplied for


powering field transmitters and wetting field contacts. Transmitters and other
field devices should be wired to a separate power supply such as the Model
APS2xx Series. Never wire such devices to the standard Model APS0xx 24V
power supply. Such a practice could introduce widely fluctuating voltages
into your system and disrupt DPU and I/O module processing. To learn how
to install the Model APS Transmitter Power Supply, refer to Chapter 4,
"Model APS2xx Series Power Supplies."

Note: The negative (-) side of the Model APS1xx Power Supply must be
referenced to the system PSG if it is providing power for APSs or field
transmitters.

maxDNA Configurations
The full maxDNA system consists of:

One or more maxDNA maxSTATIONs. A maxSTATION may


consist of the following:
Engineer's Workstation.

Operator's Workstation.

One or more maxDNA Remote Processing Units containing


Distributed Processing Units (DPUs), DPU Bus Module, and
Input/Output devices (I/Os) for monitoring and controlling the actual
process, and Model APS +24 V dc power supply.
Normally, the RPU is mounted in a cabinet by itself and in a location
close to the processes it is monitoring and controlling.

maxNET, a redundant Ethernet network, which interconnects


maxSTATION clients and servers.

One or more maxDNA Optical-Electrical DPU Buses. These would


not be present in a system with an electrical only DPU Bus. An Optical-
Electrical DPU Bus may consist of the following parts:
One or more Model OEI022 Optical-Electrical Interfaces (OEIs)
using 200 micron fiber optic cable.

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Introducing AC Power

One or more Model OEI012 Optical-Electrical Interfaces using 100


micron fiber optic cable.
Optical-Electrical Interface

In a maxSTATION configuration, the OEI power supply U.S.-style three-


prong plug is inserted into the maxSTATION cabinet Power Distribution
Assembly. The two OEI power supplies should be plugged into different ac
sources.

If OEIs are placed in a RPU cabinet to extend the length of the electrical
DPU Bus, use the RPU +24 Volt source for the OEI power source.
Alternatively, you may use the Metso Automation Model APS2xx Series
Power Supply Assembly to provide OEI input voltage. Refer to Chapter 4.

Branch Circuit Breaker Protection


Each system component (maxSTATION or RPU) should be plugged or
wired to its own separate branch circuit to satisfy multiple source
requirements without degrading system reliability and performance.

maxDNA control hardware should not be on the same circuit with service
equipment that draws large or widely fluctuating loads. This would reduce
the safety factor due to unwanted interaction on shared circuits. Overall
system reliability would also be jeopardized, because if a breaker trips (due
to a non-maxDNA hardware failure), all control functions dependent on
power from that breaker would be lost. This condition could be costly and
hazardous.

The branch circuit breaker rating size should be based on the maximum load
the breaker will handle. Do not assume a large, arbitrary value. Follow all
applicable local codes and the National Electrical Code (NEC).
maxSTATIONs are equipped with a Power Distribution Assembly (Part No.
081575 or 081576, which contains its own circuit breakers instead of fuses.
These circuit breakers are not intended for use in place of service equipment
or branch circuit breakers. The branch circuit breakers should provide
selective coordination with the maxSTATION and RPU circuit breakers.

The branch circuit breaker must have an interrupting rating capable of


interrupting the available short circuit current and an instantaneous trip rating
that will withstand the effects of the inrush current without opening.

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System Power and Grounding

Safety Ground
A safety ground is used for all maxDNA hardware requiring ac power. This
ground must conform to all applicable local codes and the National Electrical
Code, and must be used wherever ac power is used. The line cord supplies
the ground for plug-connected maxDNA equipment, such as video monitors.
Do not use two-prong line cords or three-prong to two-prong adapters.
Unsatisfactory system performance as well as unsafe operating conditions
could result.

The wire used for the safety ground connection must be at least as large as
any wire used to bring ac power to the cabinet. Refer to Chapter 5 for more
information about grounding.

Wire Size for AC Power


Wire size is determined by load current (required ampacity), allowable
voltage drop, and the distance between the power source and the load.

The branch circuit conductors supplying one or more maxDNA devices shall
have an ampacity not less than 125% of the total connected load. [NEC,
1996, Article 645-5(a)]

The voltage drop on branch circuits serving one or more maxDNA devices
should not exceed 1% of the line voltage.

Refer to Appendix A, Table A-2, for sizing AC power branch circuit cables.
This table is derived from the required ampacity and allowable voltage drop
criteria.

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Chapter 2

maxSTATION
Power Distribution

Power Distribution Assembly


A maxSTATION configuration consists of a Power Distribution Assembly
along with associated monitors, and optional printers and copiers.

The maxSTATION Power Distribution Assembly features two independent


ac lines with transient protection and circuit breakers. It is recommended that
the two ac lines be from different sources, one or both of which may be
protected by an uninterruptible power system (UPS).

The Power Distribution Assembly that comes with a maxSTATION


configuration distributes power from these two sources to the maxSTATION
components inside the desk or cabinet.

Two assembly models may be supplied, Part No. 081575 (120V ac/15A) and
081576 (240V ac/10A). See the following figure. The front view shows the
locations of two breaker/rocker switches for ac line inputs one and two and
pilot lights for each line input. The rear view shows ac line inputs one and
two and locations for eight filtered receptacles.

Figure 2-1. maxSTATION Power Distribution Assembly

An input terminal strip is provided for each ac line input. Each line has four
U.S.-type outlets located at the rear of the assembly. These provide filtered
ac power.

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System Power and Grounding

maxSTATION AC Power Wiring


The maxSTATION may be packaged in one of three standard configurations:
Cabinet, Dual or Single Pedestal Desk.

The cabinet and dual pedestal desk can accommodate up to four processors,
power distribution, mounting. The single pedestal desk accommodates up to
two processors, power distribution, and mounting.

When the Power Distribution Assembly is supplied, the ac line input cables
are terminated on a terminal block in the maxSTATION cabinet or in the
single or dual pedestal desk. The Power Distribution Assembly inputs are
wired to this terminal block at the factory.

The Power Distribution Assembly is mounted in the following locations.

Cabinet The assembly is mounted inside the cabinet at the bottom, and
is accessible from the rear. All connections are made inside the
cabinet.
Dual Pedestal The assembly is mounted at the rear lower center section of the
Desk desk. Ac line in, circuit breakers and one line out for each line
are accessible externally. The remaining ac outlets are inside
the desk.
Single Pedestal The assembly is mounted to the rear lower section of the desk
Desk with access as described for the dual desk.

Power wiring is normally brought into the maxSTATION cabinet through the
bottom or optionally through the top by removing the top plate.

Power wiring is normally brought into the desk through openings at the rear
of each pedestal which are equipped with sliding strain relief plates. If the
desk is left on its wheels and not secured to the floor, cable service loops
should be provided and care taken when moving the maxSTATION to ensure
that connections, particularly power connections, are not broken.

Balancing AC Load
Inside a maxSTATION desk or cabinet, processors, using supplied U.S. type
power cords, are connected to the Power Distribution Assembly filtered
outlets. Normally, systems are shipped with these connections made and
cables routed and bundled. Exact location of the power connection for each
component is specific to each maxSTATION configuration.

Distribution of equipment on the two lines must consider system effects


should power be lost on one or the other line; for instance, a processor and its
peripherals should be powered from the same line.

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maxSTATION Power Distribution

The distribution of internal and external equipment must not exceed the
current rating of each line. The following is an example of typical power
distribution:

Devices Connected to Line 1 (UPS)

Engineers Monitor
maxSTATION
Operator maxSTATION Monitor (the monitors would be plugged into the
accessory circuit breaker protected six-outlet strip
which is connected to a terminal block box
supplied by Metso Automation.)
Devices Connected to Line 2
Operator maxSTATION Monitor (the monitor would be plugged into the
accessory circuit breaker protected six-outlet strip
which is connected to a terminal block box
supplied by Metso Automation)

In the above examples, the total current for line 1 would equal approximately
6.8 Amps for 120 V ac application. Line 2 would be approximately 3.4 Amps
nominal current consumption at 120 V ac. Refer to "maxSTATION
Component Power Consumption."

In some systems, the four, filtered ac outlets provided for each line may not
accommodate all equipment. For such instances, 6-outlet power strips are
provided. The desk has a female IEC connector external to the enclosure to
add a power strip for monitors, printers, and so forth. Approved flexible cord
and plug assemblies that must run over floor surfaces must be protected
against physical damage.

In all cases the total current limit of each line must not be exceeded. Refer to
"maxSTATION Component Power Consumption" for a list of operating
voltages and currents for each component part of a maxSTATION.

Configuring maxSTATION Cabinet Peripherals


maxSTATIONs provided in a cabinet configuration are supplied with
transmitters and receivers to extend the keyboard, video, and mouse/trackball
cables. Monitors and receivers shall be powered from the maxSTATION.
They shall not be plugged into the Power Distribution Assembly filtered
circuit outlets for processors. Power shall be connected to circuit breaker
protected plug strips via ungrounded terminal block boxes containing filtered
outputs. These complete assemblies are available through Metso Automation.
These boxes are powered through a terminal block mounted in the
maxSTATION.

Note: If the requirements for special plug assemblies are needed in non-U.S.

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System Power and Grounding

countries, Metso Automation can supply these.

Printers, color copies, and other optional accessories shall not be powered
from these circuits. A separate reliable source must be provided for these
items.

maxSTATION Component Power Consumption

Component Operating Operating Power


Volts Voltage Current
(Amps) (Watts)
MaxSTATION 120 V ac 2.1 250
240 V ac 1.05
(40A peak
inrush, half
cycle)
20-in. 120 V ac 1.3 140
monitor 240 V ac 0.65
(50A peak
inrush, half
cycle)
14-in. 120 V ac 0.67 70
monitor (50A peak
inrush, half
cycle)

Note: Refer to System Grounding Standards Summary, Notes 21 and 23, for
powering instructions for maxSTATION monitors and peripherals.

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Chapter 3

Remote Processing Unit


Power Distribution

Remote Processing Unit Power Source


The Model APS +24 V dc power supply assembly provides RPU
components with the required +24 Volt power source. The assembly converts
ac power inputs to +24 V dc, which in turn supplies power to the Model IOP
I/O rack, terminal boards, DPUs, Controller Files, Optical-Electrical
Interfaces, Manual Stations, and transmitters. If the +24 V dc supply is
disabled, control functions cease, and current outputs go to zero. When this
occurs, only Manual Stations and Output Drivers connected to live redundant
power will continue to operate. Refer to Publication 278569, Output Drivers,
Field Wiring, Preparation, and Adjustment.

The DPU Bus Module requires a source of ac power. Refer to "Powering the
DPU Bus Module."

Power supply products include, the Model APS0xx Series and the Model
APS2xx Series. The Model APS2xx Series, designed to provide contact
wetting and loop power, is covered in Chapter 4. The Model APS0xx and the
Model APS1xx are covered fully in this chapter.

Caution: The maxDNA +24 Vdc supply should never be used for external
relay contact wetting or for digital output load power. Use a separate supply,
such as a Metso Automation Model APS2xx Power Supply assembly, to
provide noise and interference protection for the maxDNA hardware.

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System Power and Grounding

Model APS0xx Power Supply Assembly


The Model APS0xx Series power supply assembly consists of a power
supply chassis containing up to six independent power supply modules. The
chassis, which may be mounted in a 19-inch rack or flush mounted on a
panel, has two independent, galvanically isolated, ac inputs which are
common to all six modules. The output of each module may be used
independently or may be wired to provide N+1 redundancy.

The APS0xx power supply assembly may contain either single or dual ac
input modules. Both types are hot-swap, user-replaceable units. The modules'
power input(s) are individually fused and filtered with both standard line
filters and metal oxide varistors (MOVs). The filters attenuate any high-
frequency common mode and normal mode noise present in the power
distribution system. The MOVs clamp high-voltage transients.

A block diagram of the dual ac input power supply module is shown in


Figure 3-1. The filter, rectifier, and power factor correction circuits convert
the input ac voltage to unregulated dc voltage. The switching regulator then
converts the unregulated dc voltage to the regulated dc output voltage.

Figure 3-1. Block diagram of Model APS0xx I/O Power Supply Module

The front panel of each I/O power supply module contains the following
indicators:

Input Power Voltage Indicator


The Input Power indicator is lighted when the associated input (Input A,
Input B) is above the lower input voltage threshold (85 V).

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Remote Processing Unit Power Distribution

Output Power Display


The 10-segment LED indicator bar displays the approximate output
current level percentage (0 to 100%).

Output Power Indicator


The dc output indicator is lighted when the I/O power supply module's
dc output is within tolerance. Out-of-tolerance conditions, loss of input
power or brown-out, and module failures turn off this indicator.

Chassis Mounting

Terminal boards for ac input and dc output connections are located on the left
side of the chassis backplane. Wiring access is provide through the top,
bottom, side, and rear of the chassis. Refer to Figures 3-3 and 3-4.

Mounting flanges can be attached to either the rear or the front of the chassis
allowing you to flush mount the chassis to a panel or mount it in a 19-inch
rack.

Installing the Model APS0xx Chassis


The power supply modules(s) and Model APS0xx chassis are installed
separately. Install the chassis first and then mount the power supply
modules(s) in the chassis. Refer to Figures 3-3 and 3-4.

Installing Model APS0xx Power Supply Chassis

To install the chassis in a standard 19-inch rack:


1. Position the chassis at the top of the cabinet.
2. Insert four nut retainers on each front mounting angle of the cabinet,
positioning them to correspond with the mounting slots on each side of
the power supply assembly panel.
3. Insert eight x 10/32 screws through the panel mounting slots into
the nut retainers and tighten securely.

Panel Mounting Model APS0xx Power Supply Chassis

To panel-mount the chassis:


1. Attach mounting flanges to rear of chassis (if they are not positioned
there already).
2. Position the chassis at the top of the cabinet.
3. Insert four nut retainers through back of panel, positioning them to
correspond with the mounting slots on each side of the power supply
assembly panel.
4. Insert eight x 10/32 screws through the panel mounting slots into
the nut retainers and tighten securely.

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System Power and Grounding

Installing Model APS0xx Power Supply Modules

To install the power supply modules:


1. Position each module against one of six module guides and slide the
modules into the chassis until they make contact with the chassis
backplane.
2. Tighten top and bottom screws on each module front panel to secure
modules to the chassis.

Configuring Input Crossover Patch


The chassis backplane may be configured to allow the module's primary ac
input to be swapped for slots 4 through 6. Refer to Figure 3-2.

Input Crossover Patch configured for no crossover;


source 1 and source 2 are connected to input A and
input B, respectively, for all modules slots. (default
position)

Input Crossover Patch configured to swap source 1


and source 2 for modules slots 4 through 6. Source 1
and source 2 are connected to input A and input B,
respectively, for slots 1 to 3. Source 1 and source 2
are connected to input B and input A, respectively,
for slots 4 to 6.

Figure 3-2. AC Input Crossover Patch

Figure 3-3. Model APS0xx Chassis Front View

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Remote Processing Unit Power Distribution

Figure 3-4. Model APS0xx Chassis Rear View

Using Redundant Model APS0xx Power Supplies


Because a continuous source of +24 Vdc, at minimum, is so critical, Metso
Automation highly recommends using redundant supplies. Model APS0xx
Series modules can share current when their outputs are connected in
parallel. This can be done external to the chassis or by using a shorting bar
that mounts directly to the output terminals on the chassis backplane. This
allows separate groups of modules from within a single chassis to have their
outputs configured as single, dual or N+1. The module uses a passive droop
method of current sharing and will share to within 25 percent of the rated
load.

To calculate the total number of +24 Vdc power supplies needed, with
redundancy included, use the following formula:

Number of Modules = (Total Current / 10 Amps) + 1

Round answers off to the nearest whole number. If the total current is 10 A,
only two power supply modules are needed.

Use the information contained in Table 3-4 to determine the total current
requirements for your configuration.

Note: These formulas refer to actual +24 Vdc power supply modules, and not
necessarily Model APS0xx Power Supply chassis racks. A Model APS0xx
Power Supply rack can contain up to 6 individual +24 Vdc modules.

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3-5
System Power and Grounding

These calculations assume the +24 Vdc supplies will be interconnected to


form a single power distribution system. If there is more than one power
distribution system, each system's redundancy requirements should be
calculated separately from the others.

For operations where a loss of power would result in unsafe conditions, use
an uninterruptible power system (UPS) to supply ac power to the +24 Vdc
supplies.

When redundant supplies are used, the output load is shared, so that if one
fails, the redundant supply will pick up the load immediately and
automatically. Should this occur, a warning lamp will light on the power
supply module front panel. This light indicates the failure of the module.
Metso Automation recommends periodic visual inspection of the cabinet
interior. A separate alarm system can also be arranged, using either a
maxDNA input or an external system. The APS0xx power supply chassis
contains two connectors (J14 and 15) which provide the following signals:

Input power failure: Active low status output. Indicates when the
input voltage is below 85 Vac. There is a separate signal for each input.

High-temperature warning alarm: Active low status output


indicates the module temperature exceeds 75C. The temperature is
sensed near the air inlet (bottom) of the module.

DC output fail: Active high status output indicates the dc output


voltage has gone out of regulation. The dc output fail threshold is greater
than 21.75 V, less than 28 V (0.25 Vdc).

All status signals are open collector and require external pull-up resistors.

One circuit breaker should not be used for more than one redundant unit of
maxDNA hardware. For example, it would be pointless to supply power to
redundant maxDNA 24 Vdc power supplies from one circuit breaker. Much
of the performance and reliability benefits of your redundant hardware would
be lost, since the loss of the single circuit breaker would remove power from
both power supplies.

Wiring Remote Processing Unit Cabinets


The ac power wiring is usually brought into Remote Processing Unit cabinets
through the bottom of the cabinet and routed up the left-hand side to the +24
V dc power supply. Field wiring is also brought in from the bottom of the
cabinet and routed up the left-hand side to the appropriate terminal boards.
Field wiring should be kept separate from ac wiring.

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Remote Processing Unit Power Distribution

Network Ethernet cabling to the DPU Bus Module is also brought into the
cabinet through the bottom. It should be routed up the right side, keeping it
separate from any high-level field wiring or ac power lines.

Refer to Publication 278562, Model 564 Field Wiring Practices, for general
wiring rules.

Model APS0xx Terminal Assignments

The Model APS0xx power supply chassis features the following terminals:

Table 3-1. Input Power Terminals:


TB1, TB2 (#8 screw terminals)
Terminal Source
No.
1 N B
2 L
3 N A
4 L

Table 3-2. Output Power Terminals:


TB3, TB4 (#6 screw terminals)

Terminal Module
No. Slot
1 6
2 5
3 4 + DC Output
4 3
5 2
6 1
7 1
8 2
9 3 DC Return
10 4
11 5
12 6

Note: Terminals 7-12 are connected together with a jumper strip on rear
terminal board TB4. This strip may be removed if separate returns are
required.

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System Power and Grounding

Table 3-3. Status Connectors: J14, J15*


Pin J14 J15 Output
Slot Signal Slot Signal
1
2 All Input A Fail Active Low
3 All Input B Fail Active Low
4 All High Active Low
temperature
warning
5
6 1 Power Fail Active High
7 4 Power Fail Active High
8 3 Power Fail 6 Power Fail Active High
9 2 Power Fail 5 Power Fail Active High
10
*Type: 10 pin shrouded header, double-row, 0.100 x 0.100 centers
Manufacturer: AMP, Part No. 102618-3
Mating Connector: AMP 87631-5

Note: Connector J13 is reserved for future use.

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Remote Processing Unit Power Distribution

Table 3-4. maxDNA RPU Power Requirements

Model No & Operating Running Power Approx.


Device Name Voltage Line Dissipation Heat
Current (Watts) Dissipation
(Amps) (Btu/h)
IOP Digital
Input Modules 24 Vdc 0.05 1.2 5
*IOP Digital 24 Vdc 0.25 6 21
Output Modules
OEI022 Optical
Electrical 24 Vdc 0.25 6 21
Interface (pair)
OEI012 Optical
Electrical 24 Vdc 0.25 6 21
Interface (pair)

PDP DPU 24 Vdc 1.2 29 99

IOP Output
Driver 24 Vdc 0.3 7 24

IOP Relay
Module 24 Vdc 0.25 6 21

Relay Panel 24 Vdc 1 24 82

MAS Auto/ 24 Vdc 0.1 2 7


Manual Station

IOP Pulse 24 Vdc 0.4 10 34

IOP AI 24 Vdc 0.25 6 21


(High Level,
TC/Mv, RTD)

IOP 8ch AO 24 Vdc 0.15 4 14

IOP 4ch PAT 24 Vdc 0.4 10 34

IOP B.U.Y. 24 Vdc 0.02 0.5 2


Cable Adapter
DPU Bus 120/240 Vac 2.1/1.05 250 853
Module
Fan Tray 24 Vdc 0.75 18 61
*Does not include dissipation due to load of customer equipment.

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System Power and Grounding

RPU Power Distribution for I/O Modules


The +24 Vdc power is distributed to other maxDNA components in the same
cabinet through two solid copper bus bars, +24 Vdc bus bar, and the Power
Supply Ground (PSG) bus bar. These bus bars are mounted on the right side
of Model IOP I/O cabinets. Bus bars are plated for protection from
unfavorable atmospheres and are usually connected to the +24 Vdc supply at
the top of the cabinet. Connect the positive side of the +24 Vdc supply to the
+24 Vdc bus bar, and connect the common of the supply to the Power Supply
Ground (PSG) bus bar. Make these connections with lugged 12 AWG wires
and #10 binding head steel screws (zinc or cadmium plated), Part Number
030162.

Once +24 Vdc is wired to the bus bars, power is supplied to the maxDNA
components through a hard-wired I/O jumper cable to each I/O support
frame.

When powering more than one cabinet from a single +24 Vdc supply,
connect the bus bars of both cabinets at the top. Information contained in
Appendix A, Figures A-1 through A-3, illustrates how to configure two or
more cabinets with one power supply.

Note: Bus bars may also be connected at the bottom of the cabinet instead of
the top. If you do this, the +24 Vdc power supply connections must also be
made at the bottom to avoid directing all the system supply current through
one set of bus bars.

Connections at the top for top-entry cabinets and at the bottom for bottom-
entry cabinets are recommended so that the #AWG conductor used to
connect the PSG bus to the central ground point does not have to be run the
full height of the cabinet where the connection is made.

In larger systems with multiple +24 Vdc redundant power supplies, the +24
Vdc bus bars of all cabinets should be interconnected as described in the
preceding paragraphs, forming a common power distribution system. If,
however, you desire isolation of some parts of the system, calculate the
number of +24 Vdc power supplies needed for each portion, as described in
this chapter under "Using Redundant Power Supplies."

Note: All devices on an Electrical DPU Bus spur must share the same PSG,
because the ground potential difference between any two stations cannot
exceed 2 Volts peak to peak (See Chapter 5, "Electrical DPU Bus
Grounding."

Caution: Do not run an electrical spur with the controller cabinet PSG bus bar
floating from ground.

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3-10
Remote Processing Unit Power Distribution

Wire sizes, between cabinets, are determined by distance and load current;
refer to Appendix A, Table A-4. However, to remedy noise problems, and for
mechanical considerations, use a minimum #4 AWG lugged wire between
cabinets for the + 24Vdc and PSG.

Model APS0xx Maintenance


Model APS0xx I/O power supply modules require no periodic maintenance
or calibration. There are no user-replaceable parts.

A failed I/O power supply module can be hot-replaced without disrupting


system operations. Main power wiring and I/O power cables (connected to
the chassis) are not disturbed during module replacement.

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3-11
System Power and Grounding

Model APS0xx Series Specifications

Input Voltage Range 85 to 264 Vac


Frequency Range 47 to 63 Hz
Inrush Current (120/260 Vac) 20/40A (peak) Cold,
35/65A (peak) Hot
Power Factor 0.95 min.
Efficiency 70%
Fusing (Internal to module) 6A, 250 V, 3AG Slow Blow
Output Voltage +24 Volts
Output Power 250W per module
Power Hold-up Time 20 msec, minimum
Operating Temperature
Natural Convection
Operating from no load to full load -20 to +50C
Operating at 75% of full load -20 to +70C
Forced Cooling (Operating) -20 to +70C at < 200 linear feet/minute
Storage Temperature -40 to 85 C
(-40 to 185 F)
Operating Humidity 0 to 95% relative humidity, non-condensing
Vibration
10 to 55 Hz: 0.15mm
Shock
Operating: 15 g, sine wave, 11 msec
Electromagnetic Interference
IEC 801 Part 2 Electrostatic Discharges Level 3: Contact discharge of 6 kV
IEC 801 Part 3 Radiated Electromagnetic Fields
IEC 801 Part 4 Transients and Bursts Level 3: 10 V/M, 27 MHz - 500 MHz
IEC 801 Part 5 Surge Immunity
ANSI/IEEE C37.90 - Surge Withstand Capability Level 4: 2 kV, 2.5 kHz for t = 60 sec
Level 3: 2 kV
2.5 kV damped 1 MHz sine wave
4 kV bidirectional impulse, 10 nsec rise time, fast transient
Safety Certified to DIN V VDE 0801 for Risk Class 5. Also
designed to meet UL 508 and CSA 22.2, No. 142-M1981
Module Dimensions
Height: 10.47 inches (266 mm)
Width: 2.38 inches (61 mm)
Depth: 12.5 inches (318 mm)
Chassis Dimensions
Height: 10.47 inches (266 mm)
Width: 19 inches (483 mm)
Depth: 13.5 inches (343 mm)
Module Weight 6.9 lbs (3.2 kg)
Chassis Weight 15 lbs
Status Logic Outputs Open collector, 40 Vdc maximum, 200 mA maximum,
external pull-up resistor required

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3-12
Chapter 4

Model APS2xx Series


Power Supplies

maxDNA Input/Output Modules (Model IOP) require external power for


wetting and interrogation voltage. Model APS2xx Series Wetting Power
Supplies provide external contact wetting and/or loop power for I/O Modules
and also provide protection from transient electrical noise and power surges.
The ac inputs and dc outputs, of each power supply, are protected against
surges by transient suppressors mounted on the DIN rail. Model APS2xx
Wetting Power Supplies are available as single or redundant units with a
variety of input, output, and capacity specifications.

Each power supply has a voltage divider circuit prior to the sharing diodes,
providing a 4 V dc output to the barrier strip as a means of monitoring the
output voltage of the power supply. The output of this circuit will drop to
zero at the PS 1 MON and PS 2 MON connections of the barrier strip if the
power supply fails. These circuits are easily monitored by a maxDNA Analog
Input Module to detect power supply failure.

Figure 4-1. Model APS2xx Power Supply Wiring Diagram

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4-1
System Power and Grounding

Table 4-1. Specifications and Model Numbers

Output Current Input/Output Voltage Model Number

Jumper Single Supply Redundant Supply

2.1 amp IN 115 V ac / 24 V dc APS 211 APS 221


(85-132 V ac, 47-63 Hz)

OUT 240 V ac / 24 V dc APS212 APS222


(170-264 V ac, 47-63 Hz)

2.0 amp (Universal Input) 115 V ac / 48 V dc APS231 APS241


(85-264 V ac, 47-440 Hz)

No Jumper Required 240 V ac / 48 V dc APS232 APS242


(85-264 V ac, 47-440 Hz)

4.2 amp (Universal Input) 115 V ac / 24 V dc APS251 APS261


(85-264 V ac, 47-440 Hz)

No Jumper Required 240 V ac / 24 V dc APS252 APS262


(85-264 V ac, 47-440 Hz)

Inrush Current, Running Current, Amps Approx. Power Approx. Dissipation


Amps Dissipation, Watts BTU/Hr.

2.1 amp/24 Vdc

115 V ac 20 1.4 22 75

240 V ac 40 0.7 22 75

2.1 amp/48 Vdc

115 V ac 45 2.4 43 150

240 V ac 90 1.4 43 150

4.2 amp/24 Vdc

115 V ac 45 2.4 43 150

240 V ac 90 1.4 43 150

Mounting and Wiring


All models are mounted on a standard 19-inch wide by 9.75-inch high rack
panel with interconnecting wiring completed to a DIN-rail style barrier
assembly. A pre-wired fused disconnect for each power supply module is
part of the barrier assembly

Caution: Not suitable for ungrounded neutral ac power systems.

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4-2
Model APS2xx Series Power Supplies

Mounting space and wiring terminals are also available for two Model
OEI022 or Model OEI012 Optical/Electrical Interface units.

User ac power wiring and dc output wiring is completed at the barrier


assembly; ac hot, neutral and ground connections and dc (+) and common
connections are labeled for each power supply installed. Each connection
accepts up to two 14 AWG insulated conductors, stripped, unterminated, and
untinned. The insulation should be stripped 5/16 inch (8 mm). Power for the
OEIs, if mounted, is also completed at the barrier assembly. It is
recommended that 24 Vdc system power and the output from a Model APS
211/212 Power Supply be used to provide redundant dc power for the OEIs.

Note: The negative side of the Model APS2xx Power Supply must be refer-
enced to the system PSG if it is providing power for OEIs or field
transmitters.

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System Power and Grounding

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4-4
Chapter 5

System Grounding

Overview
Proper system grounding is important in a number of ways. It provides a
common power supply return path so that all signals in the system have a
common reference. It also ensures a stable (quiet) reference for the analog
measurement circuits in the system and minimizes the effect of external
disturbances on the system because all system parts are at the same electrical
potential. By providing a return path, good grounding minimizes the effects
of the ac noise introduced into the system from external sources.

In general, the ground system should be established so that the power supply
return forms one part, the analog signal reference or shield ground forms
another part, and the cabinets or enclosures form a third part. These parts are
isolated from one another but connected together at one point to:

maintain a common potential among all parts of the system

provide a low impedance path to ground

minimize the effects of conductive "ground loops"

Ideally, if there is an electrical disturbance of some sort, all parts of the


system will be at the same relative potential insuring that the system
functions properly during and after the disturbance.

Instrument Ground Bus (IGB) Test Assembly

Larger systems with multiple cabinets require a structure that achieves the
benefits of an equal-potential ground plane over large frequency ranges by
providing many parallel paths among the various circuits attached to them.
This single point ground prevents unwanted "ground loops" by providing
only one conducting path between it and all external grounds.

The concept of radial connection to a designated central ground point is


illustrated in Appendix A, Figure A-1.

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5-1
System Power and Grounding

Continuity of the grounding system must be verified during and after


installation. Site related vibration may loosen connections. After installation,
ground resistance to reference ground must be measured and tested so that
proper corrective action may be taken should the measured value be
substantially higher than 1 Ohm. An Instrument Ground Bus (IGB) Test
Assembly is recommended for this purpose. The IGB Test Assembly is
normally used as the central grounding and testing point as illustrated in
Appendix A, Figures A-1 and A-2.

Caution: All connections to the IGB Test Assembly shall be secured and shall
not be removed or floated from ground while the maxDNA equipment is
energized.

Reference Ground

Reference ground, a term used throughout this chapter, is defined as earth


ground established by a ground rod or ground grid. A ground resistance of 1
Ohm or less referenced to this ground rod or grid is preferred. Ground grid is
a system of interconnected bare conductors arranged in a pattern over a
specified area and buried below the surface of the earth. For small systems, a
buried metallic water pipe can also be used for the reference ground, but
make sure it is really buried and not interrupted during plumbing repairs or
by nonmetallic portions.

The purpose of the reference ground, as the name implies, is to provide a


common reference for the maxDNA grounding system. The reference ground
is not building steel or the ac line safety (protective) ground. Reference
ground is the underground metallic portion of the plant grounding system,
which dissipates into the earth any current conducted to it. Read the caution
statement in this chapter under "Cabinet Grounding."

Caution: The minimum acceptable size grounding conductors should be #2/0


AWG. Refer to Appendix A, Table A-3. These must be insulated cables.

A ground resistance tester is useful for determining the acceptable resistance


from the point where you are interconnecting the maxDNA ground wires to
your ground grid. To make this measurement, maxDNA system ground wires
need not be connected. Caution is required.

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5-2
System Grounding

Caution: All system grounding connections to the reference ground must be


isolated from non-maxDNA equipment and Plant Lightning Protection
Subsystem. Down-wires from roof-mounted air terminals (lightning rods)
should not create a path to ground via maxDNA circuits. Lightning protection
down-wires to ground should be separated by at least 10 feet from maxDNA
power and communication circuits. This approach results in a means to reduce
dangerous side flashes.

maxSTATION Grounding
All supplied equipment is connected internally to the ac safety ground.
Internal ground studs are provided if connection to other equipment is
required. Proper grounding requires that there be less than 1V peak to peak
between the safety ground wire/chassis ground and the ac neutral wire.

The maxSTATION ground stud should be connected to the IGB Test


Assembly as shown in Appendix A, Figures A-1 and A-2.

If the maxSTATION is on an electrical DPU Bus spur or an electrical only


DPU Bus, it cannot have a ground potential greater than 2 V, peak to peak,
between itself and any other system component on that Electrical DPU Bus.
(Refer to "Electrical DPU Bus Grounding," later in this chapter).

If the maxSTATION is attached to an optical DPU Bus through its own OEI,
the ground stud may be connected to a local safety ground as shown in
Appendix A, Figure A-3.

If you must ground the maxSTATION to the PSG of the electrical spur, use a
minimum #4 AWG lugged wire (size depends on distance of maxSTATION
to the PSG). Refer to Appendix A, Table A-3.

With ground wiring completed, measure for compliance to the 2 V peak to


peak restriction of ground potential between common electrical DPU Bus
system components. Measure from a good ground (PSG bus or
maxSTATION ground stud) of each cabinet in the group to every other
cabinet in the same electrical DPU Bus group.

Cabinet Grounding
Refer to this section for a description of the four ground types in cabinets and
for a discussion of multiple cabinet grounding considerations.

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5-3
System Power and Grounding

Cabinet Ground Types

A maxDNA cabinet features four basic types of ground connection. Refer to


the following listing.

Cabinet Ground Two ground studs in each cabinet are used to connect
cabinets together and ultimately tie the cabinets to
reference ground. These connections act both as a shield
and a return path for transient suppression. Refer to
Appendix A, "Power and Grounding Standards," Notes 8
and 9, for installation instructions.

Note: Conduit, cable armor, and cable trays should be isolated from the
cabinet metalwork and from the PSG ground. A separate connection to
building steel should be provided for conduit, cable armor, and cable trays to
eliminate circulating currents in the metalwork.

Safety Ground The green protective ground lead, part of the ac power
wiring, is connected to the power supply chassis ground
(GND) terminal. This, in turn, is connected to the cabinet
ground through the power supply mounting screws. This
ground protects operators from possible short circuits. It
is not intended for transient suppression. Refer to
Appendix A, "Power and Grounding Standards," Note 9,
for installation instructions.

Power Supply This is the return path for the +24 Vdc supply. It is the
Ground (PSG) power supply common to all equipment mounted in a
given cabinet. The PSG bus bars should be intercon-
nected as shown in Appendix A, Figures A-1 through A-
3.

Shield Ground Some signals, such as thermocouples, require shielded


cable. All signal cables with cable shields (originating
from your equipment and entering a cabinet) must be
isolated from one another and must not make electrical
contact with cabinet metalwork.

Usually, the best way to accomplish this is to insulate the


shield (drain wires) with heat-shrink tubing. Cable shields
are grounded at the shield ground bus and must not be
grounded at any other point. The shield ground bus is
insulated from the cabinet and located as close to the
entry point of the incoming signal cables as possible. The
shield bus bars are then radially connected and have a
separate connection to reference ground.

Metso Automation 278561


5-4
System Grounding

Caution: Before applying power to any portion of a system, make sure the
PSG bus bar is connected to reference ground. If it is not grounded, it must be
temporarily tied to the cabinet metalwork which, in turn, should be connected
to the safety ground or building ground. Don't forget to remove the temporary
ground when the system grounding is completed.

Multiple Cabinet Grounding

In systems with multiple cabinets or cabinet groups, improper grounding can


be a source of problems that are subtle and difficult to locate. Cabinets or
cabinet groups that are located in the same room related by process or
subprocess, or cabinets that are part of the same electrical DPU Bus spur,
should be grounded as follows. Refer to Appendix A, Figure A-2.

Connect all cabinet steel of the group together using the weld studs
at cabinet bottoms. At one weld stud only, connect a wire to the
reference ground or IGB Test Assembly, if applicable. All ground wiring
must be insulated.

Daisy-chain all PSG bus bars in the cabinet group. Choose one point
of the daisy-chain, roughly at the physical center of the cabinet group,
and connect this point to reference ground, or IGB Test Assembly, if
applicable.

Connect the center point of all shield ground bus bars radially in the
cabinet group roughly at the physical center of the cabinet group, and
connect its center point to reference ground or IGB Test Assembly, if
applicable. The radial type connection is preferred over daisy chain to
eliminate potential differences between "ground points" which
potentially result in random spikes of magnitude great enough to cause
problems.
For multiple independent subsystems where multiple cabinet or cabinet
groups are distributed in different locations in the plant, the central
ground point may be directly located at the reference ground as
illustrated in Appendix A, Figure A-3.

If a maxSTATION is on the same electrical spur as a DPU, the


maxSTATION ground stud should be connected to the IGB Test
Assembly.

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5-5
System Power and Grounding

Electrical DPU Bus Grounding


The maxDNA system components and/or stations interconnected by an
electrical DPU Bus are grounded according to the preceding paragraphs.
However, it is important that the ground potential difference between any
two components and/or stations on the electrical DPU Bus not exceed 2 V,
peak to peak.

Additionally, you must not apply power to an electrical spur with the DPU
cabinet PSG bus bar floating from ground. If it is not grounded, connect it
temporarily to the cabinet metalwork until the final grounding is completed.

Optical-Electrical Interface Grounding


When Models OEI022 and OEI012 Optical-Electrical Interfaces (OEIs) are
mounted, the OEI case must be connected to a chassis ground. Terminal 5 on
the OEI terminal board must be connected to the cabinet ground stud using
18 AWG lugged wire.

If maxSTATIONs and controllers are located on the same electrical spur of a


DPU Bus, the ground stud in the maxSTATION must be connected to the
cabinet PSG network to maintain common ground potentials in all stations on
the electrical DPU Bus.

OEI Power Wiring

Each OEI comes with two leads, orange (+), and black (-). The orange lead is
connected to OEI terminal 1. The other end of the orange lead is connected to
the OEI power supply +24 V dc terminal. The black lead is connected to OEI
terminal 2. The other end of the black lead is connected to the minus side of
the OEI +24 Vdc power supply.

When the OEI is mounted in a RPU cabinet, the other end of the orange lead
is connected to the +24 Vdc bus bar. The other end of the black lead is
connected to the PSG bus bar. Metso Automation recommends using 3/8 x
8/32 binding head (nickel-plated brass) screws, (Part Number 304718). As an
alternative to using the RPU +24 Vdc power supply, a separate +24 Vdc
power supply (such as the Model APS2xx Series assembly) may be used. In
this event it is wired as described above.

Note: The negative (-) side of the OEI's power supply must be connected to
the PSG of the electrical spur.

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5-6
System Grounding

Mechanical Protection
The elements that compose a maxDNA ground system should be installed
with care to insure durability and overall reliability of the system. In
locations where an element of the system could be exposed to potential
damage, particularly if the element is exposed to weather or hazardous
industrial environments, steps should be taken to protect that element of the
system. This may call for protective housing or other appropriate protective
measures. Failure of an element may result in failure of the grounding
system. Mechanical considerations may set a practical minimum conductor
size for connections outside the cabinets.

Equipment grounding connectors and connections are often incapable of


conducting ground-fault current for the time required to clear the ground
fault without generating hazardous arcs or sustaining permanent thermal
damage. Therefore, connectors such as grounding lugs, clamps, bushings,
etc, should be properly selected and applied.

Good Housekeeping Considerations

At completion of construction, abandoned cables and construction materials


shall not be allowed to accumulate in the vicinity and inside the maxDNA
cabinets. Remove cables and components not identified for future use.

Grounding Checks
AC Power Supply Safety Ground Test

The following describes the test requirements for the standard ac power
supply safety ground for maxSTATIONs or RPU cabinets that are part of a
grounded neutral power distribution system:

AC neutral to Safety Ground < 1V RMS. (Typical = 0.7 to 0.8V


RMS)

maxSTATION Line Filter neutral to chassis GND < 1V RMS.

System Ground Resistance Test

In practice, the ground grid is installed early in the construction of the plant.
Prior to connecting the maxDNA grounding system to the ground grid, it is
recommended that you perform the following tests to ensure that the tested
resistance values are still within acceptable limits.

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5-7
System Power and Grounding

Ground Grid Resistance Test. This test should be performed preferably at a


point where the maxDNA grounding conductor is to be connected to the
ground grid. If tests show that the tested resistance value is above the
acceptable limit, steps should be taken to reduce the resistance either by
additional electrodes, or by using a ground-enhancement material. Only
when an acceptable resistance value is reached, can the maxDNA grounding
system be connected to the ground grid. Refer to the discussion under
"Reference Ground," earlier in this chapter.

It is recommended that the ANSI/IEEE Std. 81-1983, (Part I), IEEE Guide
for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth Surface
Potentials of a Ground System, be used as a guide in conducting the ground
grid resistance test. The result of this test must be provided to Metso
Automation for review.

It is also recommended that IEEE Std. 81.2-1991 (Part II), IEEE Guide for
Measurement of Impedance and Safety Characteristics of Large, Extended or
Interconnected Grounding Systems, be used as a guide in conducting the
ground resistance test. The result of this test must be provided to Metso
Automation for review.

The grounding conductors for the maxDNA system to the ground grid should
be in accordance with the information provided in Appendix A, "Power and
Grounding Standards." The minimum acceptable size grounding conductors
should be #2/0 AWG insulated cables.

The maxDNA System Ground Test. To ensure the integrity of the overall
maxDNA grounding system, a second test should be performed after
installation is completed to ensure that the maxDNA grounding system is
solidly connected to the ground grid. This test should cover major grounding
connections for the entire maxDNA grounding system, including connections
to the central ground point and the ground grid, to ensure that all physical
connections are made.

System Grounding Troubleshooting Check List


Refer to the following check list to troubleshoot common sources of
interference or unwanted noise external to maxDNA equipment after
installation:

Inadequate system grounding

Poor isolation between power supply ground, shield ground, and


safety ground

Undersized grounding conductors

Poor connection to reference ground or plant ground grid

Metso Automation 278561


5-8
System Grounding

Ground loops

System ground test resistance value above acceptable limit

Inadequate shielding methods

Signal wires not twisted

Lack of signal wire shield

Incorrect shield ground location

Shield grounded at more than one location

Poor insulation of signal wires or shield

Uninsulated drain wires contacting cabinet metalwork

Poor field wiring practices

Poor cable and wire termination methods

Lack of separation between low level and high power circuits

Use of unnecessary intermediate terminal blocks for shielded cables

Poor choice of wiring materials and hardware

Poor wiring installation and lack of attention to specific instructions

Lack of separation between low level ac and low level dc signal


cables

Metso Automation 278561


5-9
System Power and Grounding

Metso Automation 278561


5-10
Appendix A

Power and Grounding


Standards Drawing Set

Overview
This section contains the maxDNA Power and Grounding Standards Drawing
Set consisting of a glossary, notes, tables, and diagrams.

Refer to the following for Appendix A contents:

Power and Grounding Standards

Power and Grounding Conductor, Tables A-1 through A-5

System Grounding for Large System with Multiple Independent


Subsystems in Same Room Drawing, Figure A-1

System Grounding for Small System with Multiple Cabinet Groups


in Same Room Drawing, Figure A-2

System Grounding for Multiple Independent Subsystems in Different


Remote Locations Drawing, Figure A-3

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

Power and Grounding Standards


1. All grounding shall be installed in accordance with the National
Electrical Code (NEC) as adopted by the National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA-70), unless otherwise noted in this standard.
2. Grounding conductors shall be stranded (class C for better
flexibility) insulated copper cable with 600 volt insulation of size
specified See Table A-3, unless otherwise noted.
3. All ground connections shall be secured and shall not be removed or
floating from ground while equipment is energized.

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A-1
System Power and Grounding

4. The center point of each shield ground bus (SGB) shall be connected
radially with #10 awg (4.00 sq mm) insulated green wire to the main
shield ground bus (MSGB) located at the nearest physical center of the
cabinet group. See Figure A-1. MSGB is generally used for cabinet
groups of more than three.
5. All ground conductors and connections from the central ground point
of Metso Automation equipment to the reference ground shall be
separated from a non-Metso Automation equipment grounding system.
6. The Metso Automation system ground, including the conductor from
the IGB to the reference ground, shall be isolated from the building
ground and non-Metso Automation grounding system.
7. All non-current carrying conductive parts of any enclosures (chassis
ground) mounted inside the cabinet must be connected to the cabinet
ground using minimum #10 awg (4.00 sq. mm) insulated green wire. Use
minimum #18 awg (0.75 sq. mm) insulated green wire for workstation
cabinet or pedestal desk.
8. Bonding jumpers for cabinet ground shall be minimum. #4 awg
(16.00 sq.mm) insulated wire connected to the cabinet ground studs with
silicon-bronze alloy bolted lugs (part number 779677) with nuts, split or
Belleville type washers or approved equivalent.
9. Non-conductive coatings (such as paint, lacquer, and enamel) at all
of the connection points on cabinet shall be removed from contact
surfaces to ensure good electrical continuity. Apply a light film of
Penetrox a or kopr-shield paste (or equivalent) before connection is made.
10. The connections to the reference ground must be separated by at
least 10 feet from lightning protection down-wires.
11. All power supply and equipment interconnecting wiring and
installations shall be in accordance with the National Electrical Code
(NEC, article 645) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA
75, protection of electronic computer/data processing equipment).
12. Power source characteristics must be reviewed and analyzed to
ensure compatibility with the DCS hardware power requirements.
13. Power conditioners, UPS, noise and surge protection devices must be
installed where required, subject to customers' concurrence, to maintain
continuity of operation.
14. Cabinets which are electrically connected to one another through
electrical DPU bus and/or electrical Ethernet cabling, must be grounded to
one another with the appropriate wire size (see Table A-3, Recommended
Minimum Size Grounding Conductors Table). If the DPU Bus and/or
Ethernet connections are optical connections, the cabinets should be
connected locally to ground (see Chapter 5, "System Grounding").
15. Sizing and allowable lengths of main ac power supply cables, shall
be in accordance with Table A-2, "Recommended Sizes/Cable Lengths for
AC Power Branch Circuit Cables."

Metso Automation 278561


A-2
Power and Grounding Standards Drawing Set

16. Conduit, cable armor and cable trays shall be connected to building
steel and shall be isolated from the cabinet metalwork and from PSG
ground to eliminate circulating currents.
17. Each ac branch circuit breaker and its associated downstream ac and
dc circuit breakers/fuses shall provide selective coordination during
overcurrent and short-circuit conditions.
18. Redundant power supply shall be furnished where required such that
probable failure (or removal from service) of power source, wiring and
wiring devices will not affect continued operation of critical and safety-
related equipment/systems.
19. All wiring, interconnections, fuses, circuit breakers, prefabricated
cables and connectors should be properly labeled and should correspond
to identification on drawings and documentation.
20. Power circuits shall be shielded or physically separated from low-
level ac and low-level dc signal circuits. Redundant power circuits shall
be separated with acceptable barrier to ensure its integrity and reliability.
21. Monitors and receivers shall be powered from the workstation. They
shall not be plugged into the PDA filtered circuit outlets for processor.
Power shall be connected to circuit breaker protected plug strips via
ungrounded terminal block boxes containing a filtered output. These
complete assemblies are available through Metso Automation. These
boxes are powered through a terminal block mounted in the workstation.
The monitor frame is grounded through its line cord. No additional
ground connections are required (see note 23).
22. Jumpers for connecting +24 Vdc power supply and psg bus bars
from one cabinet to another shall use 6 min. #4 awg (16.00 sq. mm
insulated) wire and shall be connected to the bus bars using terminal lug
(part no. 081607) with heat shrink tubing (part no. 0820155) or approved
equivalent.
23. Approved flexible cord and plug strips used for connecting computer
monitors and receivers to the workstation power source shall not exceed
15 feet (4-57m) in length. If the length of run exceeds 15 feet special
wiring assemblies are available through Metso Automation (see note 21).

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System Power and Grounding

Power and Grounding Conductor

Table A-1. Ampacity Table for Miscellaneous AC/DC Power Circuits


Wire Size Impedance NEC Derated Maximum Amp-Ft Amp-
Ohms/1000 Ampacity NEC Load Note 6 Meter
AWG [Circ. Square
Ohms/305 (Amps) Ampacity Current Note 6
Mills] Millimeters
Meters Table 310- (Amps) (Amps)
Note -1 16 Note - 2 Note - 3 Note - 4
22[640] 0.344 16.9 9 6.39 6 150 45
20[1020] 0.491 11.9 12 8.52 8 200 60
18 [1620] 0.75 8.54 14 9.94 10 300 91
16 [2580] 1.50 5.35 18 12.78 12 450 137
14 [4110] 2.00 3.29 25 17.75 15 750 228
12 [6530] 3.20 2.07 30 21.3 20 1000 305
10 [10380] 4.00 1.3 40 28.4 30 1500 457
8 [16510] 6.00 0.82 55 39.05 40 3000 914
6 [26240] 10.00 0.52 75 53.25 50 4500 1371
4 [41740] 16.00 0.325 95 67.45 70 7500 2286

From NEC, Table 8, 75 C (167 F) impedance is multiplied by 1.01182 for


90 C (194 F) conductor temperature, R2 =R1 [1+ (T2-75)]
=R1[1+.00323 (90-75)] =R1[1.01182].

NEC ampacity is based on 30 C (86 F) ambient.

Derated ampacity is based on 90 C (194 F) conductor temperature and 60


C (140 F) ambient temperature. 30 C (86 F) ampacities are multiplied by
0.71 for 60 C (140 F) ambient.

Derated ampacity values rounded for maximum load current.

For more than three direct conductors in bundles, apply correction factors in
Table A-5, Correction Factors for Ampacity Values, for derated ampacity
values. For example for #18 AWG (0.75 sq. mm.), 90 C (194 F), 40/C
cable, 60 (140 C) ambient, derated ampacity = 14 x 0.71 x 0.5 = 5 amps.

To determine the maximum length for a run of a particular cable size, divide
the ampere-ft. (ampere-meter) value of the desired cable by the maximum
load current of the load. For example, a load with maximum load current of
10 amps can use 45 feet (13 meters) of #16 AWG (1.50 sq. mm.) cable. If
longer run is needed a #14 AWG (2.00 sq. mm.) is acceptable for 75 feet (22
meters), and so on.

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Power and Grounding Standards Drawing Set

Table A-2. Recommended Sizes/Cable Lengths for AC Power Branch


Circuit Cables

Cable Size Maximum Load Ampere-Ft Ampere-Meter


Current (Amps)
(AWG) Square Millimeters
Note - 2
14 2.00 15 750 228
12 3.20 20 1000 305
10 4.00 30 1500 457

Notes:

1. The limiting factor in sizing AC power branch circuit cable is based on


derated ampacity and voltage drop limitations.

2. Includes 125% allowance for continuous loading branch circuit.

3. To determine the maximum length for a run of a particular cable size,


divide the ampere-ft (ampere-meter) value of the desired cable size by
the maximum load current value. For example, for #14 AWG (2.00 sq.
mm.) with a maximum load current of 15 amp, the maximum length of
the cable run is 750 ampere-ft/15 amp (228 amp-meter/15 amp) or 50
feet (15 meters). If longer run is needed, a #12 AWG (3.20 sq. mm.) is
acceptable for 67 feet (20 meters) run. 1000/15 (305/15), and so on.

Table A-3. Recommended Minimum Size Grounding Conductors

Length of Run to
Minimum Conductor Size Central Ground Point or
Reference. Ground
(AWG) Square Millimeters
Feet (Meters)
4 16.00 Cabinet-to-Cabinet
2/0 70.00 199 & Below (60 &
Below)
3/0 75.00 200-399 (61-121)
4/0 95.00 400-599 (122-182)
250 KCM 120.00 600-799 (183-243)
300 KCM 150.00 800-1000 (244-305)

NOTES

1. The length of run to central ground point or reference ground shall be


direct and as short as possible.

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System Power and Grounding

Table A-4. Minimum Copper Wire Sizes for +24 Vdc Power Distribution
and PSG

Wire Size (AWG)


(AWG) Square Millimeters Ampere-Ft. Ampere-Meter
12 3.20 400 122
+24V DC Power 10 4.00 750 228
Supply
8 6.00 1100 335
6 10.00 1600 488

6 10.00 100 30
Power Supply 4 16.00 160 49
Ground (PSG)
2 35.00 250 76
1\0 50.00 400 122
2\0 70.00 505 154

NOTES

1. Standard size for connecting +24 Vdc power supply and PSG bus bars
from one cabinet to another cabinet shall be #4 AWG (16.00 sq. mm
insulated) for noise reduction and mechanical strength, as noted in Power
and Grounding Standards, Note 22.

Table A-5. Correction Factors for Ampacity Values

Number of Multiplying Factors


Conductors in
Bundles
2-3 1.0
4-5 0.8
6-15 0.7
15-30 0.5

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Power and Grounding Standards Drawing Set

System Grounding for Large System with Multiple Independent


Subsystems in Same Room

Figure A-1. System Grounding for Large System with Multiple Independent Subsystems in Same
Room

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System Power and Grounding

System Grounding for Small System with Multiple Cabinet Groups


in Same Room

Figure A-2. System Grounding for Small System with Multiple Cabinet Groups in Same Room

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A-8
Power and Grounding Standards Drawing Set

System Grounding for Multiple Independent Subsystems in


Different Remote Locations

Figure A-3. System Grounding for Multiple Independent Subsystems in Different Remote Locations

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System Power and Grounding

Glossary
Terms

Bonding The electrical interconnecting of conductive


parts; designed to maintain a common
electrical potential.

Distributed Processing Unit The Distributed Processing Unit (DPU)


performs primary data acquisition, control
and data processing functions for the
maxDNA Distributed Control System. The
DPU is a self-contained micro-processor-
based, rack-mounted unit, which occupies a
single slot in a Remote Processing Unit
cabinet. It is designed to operate with user-
defined combinations of maxDNA Model
IOP Input/Output Modules, and to
communicate with other devices, such as
Programmable Logic Controllers and
Remote Terminal Units.

DPU Bus The DPU Bus is the communications


network that supports communications
between Distributed Processing Units
(DPUs) and the DPU Bus Module (DBM).
The DBM contains Highway Direct
Interface (HDI, Part 080599) boards through
which it communicates on the electrical /
fiber optic highway with the process control
system.

The DPU bus can be implemented in three


ways, a fiber optic ring with redundant
electrical spurs, a "Wrap-back OEI"
network, or an "Electrical-only" network.

DPU Bus Module The DPU Bus module (DBM) is a rack-


mounted industrial PC that provides the
interface between the RPUs and the
maxSTATIONs. It can reside in the same
cabinet as the I/O modules and DPU.

The DBM contains a max HDI board to


allow it to connect to the DPU electrical
Bus. It forwards data obtained from the
DPUs to the maxSTATIONs through the
maxNET network and passes commands and

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Power and Grounding Standards Drawing Set

requests from the maxSTATIONs to the


DPUs.

Ground The conducting connection by which an


electrical circuit or equipment is connected
to the earth.

Ground Conductor A conductor or group of conductors in


intimate contact with the earth for the
purpose of providing a connection with the
ground.

Ground Loop A potentially detrimental loop formed when


two or more points in an electrical system
that are nominally at ground potential are
connected by a conducting path such that
either or both points are not at the same
ground potential.

Ground Radial A conductor connection by which separate


electrical circuits or equipment are
connected to earth at one point; sometimes
referred to as a star ground.

Ground Rod A rod driven into the ground for small non-
electric power system; may serve as the
reference ground if no plant power grid
exists.

maxDNA System consists of three components, the Remote


Processing Unit (RPU), the maxSTATION
and the maxNET network.

maxNET maxNET is the redundant Ethernet network


used for communications between
maxSTATIONs and RPUs. It consists of
two completely independent Ethernet
networks (identified as Network A and
Network B) to insure maximum availability
and fault tolerance. It is assumed that the
Network B is an independent "clone" of
Network A.

maxSTATION Provides the interface between operators,


engineers, other users and systems, and the
maxDNA Distributed Control System. Its
functions include providing a graphical user
interface to the process; creating and
maintaining configurations and process

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System Power and Grounding

control documentation; collection and


management of process and event history.

Remote Processing Unit The RPU is an equipment group that


provides the control, data acquisition, and
I/O processing functions for the DCS. The
equipment includes controllers, field I/O
interface modules, field terminations,
communications networks, and peripheral
equipment, such as, communications
interfaces, power supplies and cabinets.

Shielding The use of a conducting barrier between a


potentially disturbing noise source and
sensitive circuitry.

Star Ground A conductor connection by which separate


electrical circuits or equipment are
connected to earth at one point; sometimes
referred to as a ground radial.

Reference Ground The underground metallic portion of the


existing grounding system (ground grid)
which dissipates, into the earth, any current
conducted to it. A driven ground rod for
small non-electric power system may serve
as the reference ground if no plant ground
grid exists; must be referenced to the
incoming power supply.

Acronyms

AP Applications Processor (archaic); replaced by


Engineers Workstation; part of maxSTATION

DBM Distributed Processing Unit Bus Module

DCS Distributed Control System

DPU Distributed Processing Unit

EMI Electromagnetic Interference

ESI Electrostatic Interference

CG Cabinet Ground

GND Ground

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Power and Grounding Standards Drawing Set

GP Graphics Processor (archaic); replaced by Operators


Workstation; part of maxSTATION

IGB Instrument Ground Bus

I/O Input/Output

MOV Metal Oxide Varistor

MSGB Main Shield Ground Bus

NEC National Electrical Code

NFPA National Fire Protection Association

OEI Optical Electrical Interface

PDA Power Distribution Assembly

PSG Power Supply Ground

RPU Remote Processing Unit

RFI Radio Frequency Interference

RTP Real Time Processor (archaic); replaced by DPU


Bus Module (DBM)

SG Shield Ground

SGB Shield Ground Bus

TVSS Transient Voltage Surge Protection

UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply

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System Power and Grounding

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