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A

MINOR PROJECT REPORT


ON
Current control using relay
Submitted for partial fulfilment of award of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
By
Sumeet Singh (1414321103)
Prageet Srivastava (1414321066)
Tarun Singh (1414321105)
Rohit Maurya (1414321079)
Shubhendra Singh (1414321099)
Harsh Triphathi (1314321814)

Guided by: Snigdha Chaturvedi (assistant professor)


EN Department, IMS Engineering College

Dr. A.P.J. ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW


CERTIFICATE

This is to Certify that the project entitled current control using relay submitted by

SUMEET SINGH(1414321103),PRAGEET SRIVASTAVA(1414321066),TARUN

KUMAR SINGH(1414321105),ROHIT MAURYA(1414321079),SHUBENDRA

SINGH(1414321099),HARSH KUMAR TRIPATHI(1314321814) for the award of

Bachelor of Technology in Electrical & Electronics Engineering from Dr. A.P.J.

Abdul Kalam Technical University, is a bonafide work carried out by them under my

guidance & supervision.

Date:

(Snigdha chaturvedi)

Designation

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my profound sense of gratitude to my guide, SNIGDHA CHATURVEDI, Assistant


Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, for their systematic guidance and

valuable advices. Their encouragement and suggestions were of immense help to me throughout my

project work.

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Rishi Asthana, Professor & Head of the

Department of Electrical Engineering, IMS Engineering College, for his valuable advices and help

in completion of this project.

I would also like to thank all the faculty and staff members of Electrical and Electronics

Engineering Department, who extended full cooperation for completion of this project work.

I take this opportunity to thank all my friends who helped me through their patient

discussions and suggestion and for their help at various stages in completion of this project.

SUMEET SINGH(1414321103)

PRAGEET SRIVASTAVA(1414321066)

TARUN KR SINGH(1414321105)

ROHIT MAURYA(1414321079)

SHUBHENDRA SINGH(1414321099)

HARSH KR TRIPATHI(1314321814 )

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION 8

LIST OF TABLES . 12

LIST OF FIGURES .. 15

PROJECT OVERVIEW.. 9

1.1.2 MICROCONTROLLER AT89C51 10

2 COMPONENT USED.. 12

2.1 PIEZO BUZZER. 13

2.1.1 RELAY 13

2.1.2 LCD DISPLAY 13

2.2 CURRENT SENSOR... 14

2.3 TRANSFORMER15

2.3.1 MICROCONTROLLER AT89C51... 15

2.3.5 PIN SYMBOL I/O DESCRIPTION 18

2.5.2 TRANSISTORS 21

2.5.3 RESISTORS 22

2.5.4 LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE). 22

3 WORKING PRINCIPAL 23

3.1.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM 24

3.3.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 28

4.1 REFERANCES
ABSTRACT
The project Current detector cum controller is very much useful for controlling the load in any

industry. In this project we are measuring the current consumed by all the loads connected in a

house. If the load current exceed the set value of current the load will be disconnected immediately.

The heart of the project is microcontroller AT89S51 and current sensing transformer. The current

sensing transformer is used to sense the current consumed by load. The current sensed by the

current sensor is converted into voltage and feed to the ADC0804 for analog to digital conversion.

The digital equivalent of the current is read by microcontroller AT89S51 from the ADC0804. The

digital value of current is processed my microcontroller and displayed on LCD. We have provided a

16x2 LCD display for displaying the value of load current and set current. For changing the value

of set current there are two keys called UP/DOWN keys. The UP/DOWN Keys can be used to

increase or decrease the value of set current. One key is provided to reset the load supply after an

over current trip. Five different loads are connected for testing purpose. The load supply can be can

be switched ON/OFF through a relay controlled by microcontroller. We have used 5V regulated

supply for microcontroller AT89S51, ADC0804, LCD and 12V unregulated supply for relay circuit.

PROJECT DISCRIPTION

The project Current detector cum controller is very much useful for controlling the load in any

industry. In this project we are measuring the current consumed by all the loads connected in a

house. If the load current exceed the set value of current the load will be disconnected immediately.
The heart of the project is microcontroller AT89S51 and current sensing transformer. The current

sensing transformer is used to sense the current consumed by load. The current sensed by the

current sensor is converted into voltage and feed to the ADC0804 for analog to digital conversion.

The digital equivalent of the current is read by microcontroller AT89S51 from the ADC0804. The

digital value of current is processed my microcontroller and displayed on LCD. We have provided a

16x2 LCD display for displaying the value of load current and set current. For changing the value

of set current there are two keys called UP/DOWN keys. The UP/DOWN Keys can be used to

increase or decrease the value of set current. One key is provided to reset the load supply after an

over current trip. Five different loads are connected for testing purpose. The load supply can be can

be switched ON/OFF through a relay controlled by microcontroller. We have used 5V regulated

supply for microcontroller AT89S51, ADC0804, LCD and 12V unregulated supply for relay circuit
MICROCONTROLLER AT89C51

Architecture of 8051 family:-

Features

Compatible with MCS-51 Products

4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory

Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles

Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz

Three-Level Program Memory Lock

128 x 8-Bit Internal RAM

32 Programmable I/O Lines

Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters

Six Interrupt Sources

Programmable Serial Channel


Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes

Description

The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of

Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured

using Atmels high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry
standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be

reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a

versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful

microcomputer which provides a highly flexible and cost effective solution to many embedded

control applications. The AT89C51 provides the following standard features: 4K bytes of Flash, 128

bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a

full duplex serial port, and on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry.

In addition, the AT89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and

supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing

the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power down

Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the

next hardware reset.


Pin Description

VCC

Supply voltage.

GND

Ground.

Port 0

Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port each pin can sink eight TTL

inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0

may also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external
program and data memory. In this mode P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes

during Flash programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verification.

External pull-ups are required during program verification.

Port 1

Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can

sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal

pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will

source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives the low-order address

bytes during Flash programming and verification.

Port 2

Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can

sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins they are pulled high by the internal

pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will

source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during

fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-

bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting

1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI); Port 2 emits

the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and

some control signals during Flash programming and verification.

Port 3

Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can

sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal

pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will
source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special

features of the AT89C51 as listed below:

Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.

RST

Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the

device.

ALE/PROG

Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to

external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In

normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency, and may be used

for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each

access to external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR

location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.

Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the

microcontroller is in external execution mode.

PSEN

Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory.

Port Pin Alternate Functions

P3.0 RXD (serial input port)

P3.1 TXD (serial output port)

P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0)

P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1)


P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input)

P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input)

P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe)

P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe)

When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice

each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external

data memory.

EA/VPP

External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code

from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if

lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for

internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP)

during Flash programming, for parts that require 12-volt VPP.

XTAL1

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

XTAL2

Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

Oscillator Characteristics

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be

configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic
resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left

unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2.There are no requirements on the duty

cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a

divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must

be observed

CHAPTER 3

HARDWARE DISCRIPRION

Piezo buzzer is an electronic device commonly used to produce

sound. Light weight, simple construction and low price make it usable in various

applications like car/truck reversing indicator, computers, call bells etc. Piezo buzzer is

based on the inverse principle of piezo electricity discovered in 1880 by Jacques and
Pierre Curie. It is the phenomena of generating electricity when mechanical pressure is

applied to certain materials and the vice versa is also true. Such materials are called piezo

electric materials. Piezo electric materials are either naturally available or manmade.

Piezoceramic is class of manmade material, which poses piezo electric effect and is widely

used to make disc, the heart of piezo buzzer. When subjected to an alternating electric

field they stretch or compress, in accordance with the frequency of the signal thereby

producing sound.

RELAY

A relay is an electromagnetic switch operated by a relatively small electric current that can

turn on or off a much larger electric current. The heart of a relay is an electromagnet (a coil

of wire that becomes a temporary magnet when electricity flows through it). You can think

of a relay as a kind of electric lever: switch it on with a tiny current and it switches on

("leverages") another appliance using a much bigger current. Why is that useful? As the
name suggests, many sensors are incredibly sensitive pieces of electronic equipment and

produce only small electric currents. But often we need them to drive bigger pieces of

apparatus that use bigger currents. Relays bridge the gap, making it possible for small

currents to activate larger ones. That means relays can work either as switches (turning

things on and off) or as amplifiers (converting small currents into larger ones).

LCD DISPLAY
A liquid crystal display or LCD draws its definition from its name itself. It is combination of

two states of matter, the solid and the liquid. LCD uses a liquid crystal to produce a visible

image. Liquid crystal displays are super-thin technology display screen that are generally

used in laptop computer screen, TVs, cell phones and portable video games. LCDs

technologies allow displays to be much thinner when compared to cathode ray tube (CRT)

technology.

Liquid crystal display is composed of several layers which include two polarized panel

filters and electrodes. LCD technology is used for displaying the image in notebook or

some other electronic devices like mini computers. Light is projected from a lens on a layer

of liquid crystal. This combination of colored light with the grayscale image of the crystal

(formed as electric current flows through the crystal) forms the colored image. This image

is then displayed on the screen.


An LCD is either made up of an active matrix display grid or a passive display grid. Most of

the Smartphones with LCD display technology uses active matrix display, but some of the

older displays still make use of the passive display grid designs. Most of the electronic

devices mainly depend on liquid crystal display technology for their display. The liquid has

a unique advantage of having low power consumption than the LED or cathode ray tube.

Liquid crystal display screen works on the principle of blocking light rather than emitting

light. LCDs requires backlight as they do not emits light by them. We always use devices

which are made up of LCDs displays which are replacing the use of cathode ray tube.

Cathode ray tube draws more power compared to LCDs and are also heavier and bigger.

CHAPTER 4
WORKING PRINCIPLE

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF THE PROJECT

1 block diagram

(ii) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-


WORKING OF CIRCUIT:-

POWER SUPPLY:-

In the power supply section we use one step down transformer with two diode as a full wave

rectifier. Output of the rectifier is further converted into smooth dc with the help of the filter

capacitor. Output of the capacitor is further connected to the ic regulator to provide a stable voltage

to the microcontroller. Microcontroller requires a regulated 5 volt dc power supply for smooth

operation. Here we use ic 7805 as a positive regulator to provide a 5 volt dc power supply.
Rectifier and regulator

In this lab you will construct and analyze a full wave rectifier and a shunt voltage

regulator. All component types in the example circuit are available in OrCAD

Capture libraries for simulation.

I. Introduction

1.1 The Full Wave Rectifier

The first building block in the dc power supply is the full wave rectifier. The purpose of the full

wave rectifier (FWR) is to create a rectified ac output from a sinusoidal ac input signal. It does

this by using the nonlinear conductivity characteristics of diodes to direct the path of the current.

Figure 1. Common four-diode bridge configuration for the FWR

Diode Currents

Consider the current path in the diode bridge rectifier. In the positive half cycle

of Vin, diodes D4 and D3 will conduct. During the negative half cycle, diodes D2 and
D1 will conduct. As a result, the load will pass current in the same direction in each

half cycle of the input.

Design Concerns

Reverse current does not exceed the breakdown value

Power dissipation limit P = Vd Id is not exceeded

Diode Voltages

Forward Bias

If we consider a simple, piece-wise linear model for the diode IV curve, the diode forward

current is zero until Vbias >= Vthreshold, where Vthreshold is 0.6 V to 0.8 V. The current

increases abruptly as Vbias increases further. Due to this turn-on or threshold voltage

associated with the diode in forward bias, we should expect a 0.6 to 0.8 V voltage drop

across each forward biased diode in the rectifier bridge. In the case of the full wave rectifier

diode bridge, there are two forward biased diodes in series with the load in each half cycle

of the input signal.

The maximum output voltage (across load) will be Vin - 2 Vthreshold, or ~ Vin - 1.4 V.

Since some current does flow for voltage bias below Vthreshold and the current rise around is

Vthreshold is more gradual than the piece-wise model, the actual diode performance will

differ from the simple model.

Reverse Bias
In reverse bias (and neglecting reverse voltage breakdown), the current through the diode is

approximately the reverse saturation current, Io. The voltage across the load during reverse

bias will be Vout = Io Rload.

In specifying a diode for use in a circuit, you must take care that the limits for forward and

reverse voltage and current are not exceeded.

1.2 Filtered Full Wave Rectifier

The filtered full wave rectifier is created from the FWR by adding a capacitor across the

output.

Figure 2. Filtered full wave rectifier

The result of the addition of a capacitor is a smoothing of the FWR output. The

output is now a pulsating dc, with a peak to peak variation called ripple. The

magnitude of the ripple depends on the input voltage magnitude and frequency, the

filter capacitance, and the load resistance.

To describe the source of the voltage ripple, consider the performance of the filtered full wave

rectifier above. The input to the rectifier is a sinewave of frequency f. Let Vi be the full wave

rectified signal input to the filter stage of the rectifier and Vo be the output. Vi can be approximated

as the absolute value of the rectifier input, with frequency 2f.


Figure 3. Output (Vi) and input (Vo) of a filtered full wave rectifier

In the time period from T0 to T1, the diode D1 (or D3, depending on the phase of the signal)

is forward biased since Vi > VC1 (approximate the forward biased diode as a short circuit). The

capacitor C1 charges and the voltage across the load R increases. From T1 to T2, the diodes D1 and

D2 are reverse biased (open circuit) because Vcap > Vi, and the capacitor discharges through the

load R with a time constant of RC seconds.

The voltages between times T1 and T2 lie along a capacitor discharge curve. Along this line,

The peak to peak (pp) ripple is defined as the voltage difference between Vmax and Vmin.

If C is large, such that RC >> T2 - T1, we can approximate the exponential as . Then

Since T2 - T1 ~ T/2, where T is the period of the sine wave, then


Peak Current Levels

Diodes in the bridge conduct only in the time period from T0 to T1. The diode current must

replace the charge lost by the capacitor during its discharge.

I = dQ/dT = C*dV/dT

As the magnitude of the filter capacitor increases, the peak current through the diodes must

increase to replace the charge in less time. Therefore it is not always best to choose the largest value

of C1 available. In a dc power supply, you can rely on the stages following the FFWR to

significantly improve the voltage regulation.

1.3 The Shunt Regulator

A shunt regulator may be placed between the filtered full wave rectifier and the load

resistance (impedance). Its purpose is to minimize the variation in the voltage across

the load, as either the input voltage or the output resistance changes.

Figure 4. Filtered FWR and shunt regulator


This regulator is called a shunt because it provides an additional path for current to flow, so

that some current can bypass the load. The shunt regulator consists of a zener diode and a resistor.

The zener diode has a nearly constant voltage drop when used in reverse bias. The resistor is chosen

to maintain the zener in its proper working region, where it can provide regulation and not exceed a

maximum power limit.

A simple model for the zener diode is a dc supply (battery) with a value of Vzo, where Vzo is the

effective zener voltage, , Vz is the rated breakdown voltage, and Rz is the effective resistance of the

zener, given by the inverse of the slope of the IV curve in the working region.

Figure 5. Filtered FWR and shunt regulator with the zener diode replaced with its circuit model

In the zeners working region, Rz is small (0.1 to 50 ohm ). For voltages less than the knee

voltage, Rz is very high, and for purposes of hand calculations can be considered to be an open

circuit.
Figure 6. Current-voltage characteristic of a zener diode

You can show for the circuit above that

where IL is the current through the load. The 1st term in this equation is constant since it depends

only on the diode zener voltage and two resistances. The 2nd and 3rd terms depend on the input

voltage and load current, both of which may change with time. These terms must be minimized for

quality regulation.

Input Sensitivity and Load Sensitivity

Assume the input to the shunt regulator is Vdc +/- Vripple. For Vin = Vin(max) = Vdc + Vripple,

additional current is available from the source. To keep Vo = IL RL constant, some of that current

must be shunted through the zener diode. As long as Iz < Iz(max), as defined by the maximum

power dissipation for the zener, the circuit will safely regulate. Choose R to prevent the zener from

exceeding its maximum current limit.


For Vin = Vin(min) = Vdc - Vripple, current drops. To keep Vo = IL*RL constant, the current

through the zener diode must be reduced. To maintain regulation, Iz must not be reduced below the

knee current. Choose R to maintain sufficient current through the zener:

The shunt regulator has several major problems which prevent its common use as the sole pre-

regulation stage in dc power supplies:

When the load is open circuit, all current is shunted through the zener diode. This requires

an expensive, high power device.

The line and load regulations values are high (~ 10 % or more).

The energy efficiency is low.

For an improved design, the shunt regulator is used in conjunction with a series pass

element with gain, usually a transistor, between the unregulated supply and the load.

II. Project Design

1. Simulation

Part 1:

To simulate the full wave rectifier circuit as shown in Figure 1, the following components

should be used:

1. Input AC voltage (Vin): Vin is a 10 Vpeak and 60 Hz sinusoidal wave. Use VSIN with the

setting: VOFF = 0, VAML = 10 and FREQ = 60

2. Full wave rectifier (FWR): The full wave rectifier is constructed in the form of bridge

rectifier using four diodes (D1N4004).


3. Load resistor: 200 and 500 resistors are used to understand the effect of load resistor on

the performance of the DC power supply.

Simulation results required in your lab report:

1. Output voltage for Rload = 200

2. Output voltage for Rload = 500

All the simulations in this project are in transient mode with run time = 35ms. On the simulation

results, you should indicate the maximum output voltage (Vmax), the minimum output voltage

(Vmin) and the ripple voltage Vr (Vmax Vmin).

To simulate the filtered full wave rectifier circuit as shown in Figure 2, the filter capacitor is

chosen from 100 uF, 470 uF and 1000 uF.

Simulation results required in your lab report:

1. Output voltage for Rload = 200 and C1 = 100 uF

2. Output voltage for Rload = 200 and C1 = 470 uF

3. Output voltage for Rload = 200 and C1 = 1000 uF

4. Output voltage for Rload = 500 and C1 = 100 uF

5. Output voltage for Rload = 500 and C1 = 470 uF

6. Output voltage for Rload = 500 and C1 = 1000 uF

Part 2:

To design and simulate a filtered full wave rectifier with a shunt regulator, the following design steps should be followed:
1. To design a shunt regulator, first pick up a 3.3 volts zener diode (a particle diode, part

number 1N5226) and plug it into the curve tracer. Caution: zener diode should be reverse

biased. The cathode of the zener diode (the end with a black ring) should be connected to

the A of the diode test port. Menu Settings: type diode; Vd 5 volts; Id 20 mA;

Rload .25 ohm; Pmax 2 Watt). Choose any two points in the linear region and use

CURSOR function to display Id and Vd of the two points. Print out from the screen and it

should look like that in Figure 6 except in the first quadrant.

2. Calculate the effective zener resistance Rz and effective zener voltage Vzo from the

equation or Rz = (Vz2 Vz1)/(Iz2 Iz1) and Vzo = Vz1 Iz1*Rz.

3. Calculate the value of the series resistor R (R5 in Figure 4) for the shunt regulator with the

equation

o Vin(min) is the minimum input voltage, Vin(min) = Vp 2*0.7 Vr, Vp is the peak

input voltage or 10 volts in this lab, 0.7 volt is the voltage drop across one diode, Vr

can be used as 2 volts for an estimation

o Vzo and Rz are obtained in step 2

o Iz(min) is the minimum current needed for the zener diode to operate properly, for

example, 5 mA is a good rating

o IL(max) is the maximum load current and determined by Vo/Rmin. The output

voltage of the shunt regulator is about the zener voltage used, Rmin is the minimum

load resistance. In this lab, Vo ~ 3.3 volts and Rmin = 200

4. Get a practical resistor with a value close but smaller than the resistance R calculated above.

Use this value for R in all the following calculation and simulation.

5. Calculate the capacitance required for the filter using C = Vp/(2*f*Vr*R).


6. Create a FWR and shunt regulator circuit in OrCAD-Capture as shown in Figure 4. R5 and

C1 in Figure 4 should use the value of R and C obtained in step 4 and step 5, respectively.

Dz1 is the 3.3 volts zener diode (D1N5226).

7. Simulate the circuit with Rload = 200 . Obtain a capture of the output voltage.

8. Simulate the circuit with Rload = 500 . Obtain a capture of the output voltage.

1. Measurements

Part 1:

1. Build the hardware circuit of a full wave rectifier as shown in Figure 1. The input voltage

Vin is a 10 volts peak, 60 Hz sinusoidal wave. Vin is stepped down from line voltage (60 Hz

and 110 Vrms) using a 15:1 turns-ratio transformer. Use 1N4004 diodes to construct your

bridge rectifier. Observe the output voltage across the load resistor on the scope for Rload =

200 . Capture the output into a Word file. Repeat for Rload = 500 and obtain a

capture.

2. Add a capacitor C = 100 uF to form a filtered full wave rectifier. Be careful of the polarity

of the capacitor when you connect the circuit. Positive of the capacitor goes to positive

of the DC output of the bridge rectifier. Capture the output voltages for both Rload = 200

and Rload = 500 .

3. Repeat step 2 for C = 470 uF and C = 1000 uF and capture the output voltages for both

Rload = 200 and Rload = 500 .

All the measurements on the scope in this project should have Vp-p, Vavg and frequency

displayed.
Part 2:

1. Modify your circuit as Figure 4. R5 and C1 should be the values obtained in the simulation

part. The zener diode is 1N5226 and Rload = 200 . Capture the output voltage.

2. Repeat step 1 for Rload = 500 and capture the output voltages.

III. Report

1. Brief Introduction

2. Schematic of full wave rectifier, filtered full wave rectifier and filtered full wave rectifier

with a shunt regulator

3. Calculation of the series resistor R and the filter capacitor C (R5 and C1 in Figure 4). Please

also give the values of the physical R and C in your circuit.

4. Simulation results. All the ten required captures are in bold font.

5. Measurement results. All the ten required captures are in bold font.

6. Discussion and conclusion:

Effect of the load resistance on the output voltage (ripple, average)

Effect of the filter capacitance on the output voltage (ripple, average)

Effect of the shunt regulator on the output voltage (ripple, average)

Comparison between the simulation results and the measurement results

Any other questions, comments


CURRENT SENSOR/TRANSFORMER:-

Current transformers can perform circuit control, measure current for power measurement and

control, and perform roles for safety protection and current limiting. They can also cause circuit

events to occur when the monitored current reaches a specified level. Current monitoring is

necessary at frequencies from the 50 Hz/60 Hz power line to the higher frequencies of switchmode

transformers that range into the hundreds of kilohertz.

The object with current transformers is to think in terms of current transformation rather than

voltage ratios. Current ratios are the inverse of voltage ratios. The thing to remember about

transformers is that Pout = (Pin transformer power losses). With this in mind, let's assume we had

an ideal loss-less transformer in which Pout = Pin. Since power is voltage times current, this product

must be the same on the output as it is on the input. This implies that a 1:10 step-up transformer

with the voltage stepped up by a factor of 10 results in an output current reduced by a factor of 10.

This is what happens on a current transformer. If a transformer had a one-turn primary and a ten-

turn secondary, each amp in the primary results in 0.1A in the secondary, or a 10:1 current ratio. It's

exactly the inverse of the voltage ratio preserving volt times current product.

How can we use this transformer and knowledge to produce something useful? Normally, an

engineer wants to produce an output on the secondary proportional to the primary current. Quite

often, this output is in volts output per amp of primary current. The device that monitors this output

voltage can be calibrated to produce the desired results when the voltage reaches a specified level.

A burden resistor connected across the secondary produces an output voltage proportional to the

resistor value, based on the amount of current flowing through it. With our 1:10 turns ratio

transformer that produces a 10:1 current ratio, a burden resistor can be selected to produce the
voltage we want. If 1A on the primary produces 0.1A on the secondary, then by Ohm's law, 0.1

times the burden resistor will result in an output voltage per amp.

Many voltage transformers have adjusted ratios that produce the desired output voltage and

compensate for losses. The turns-ratios or actual turns aren't the primary concern of the end-user.

Only the voltage output and possibly regulation and other loss parameters may be of concern. With

current transformers, the user must know the current ratio to use the transformer. The knowledge of

amps in per amps out is the basis for use of the current transformer. Quite often, the end users

provide the primary with a wire through the center of the transformer. They must know what

secondary turns are to determine what their output current will be. Generally, in catalogues, the

turns of the transformers are provided as a specification for use.

With this knowledge, the user can choose the burden resistor to produce their desired output

voltage. The output current of 0.1A for a 1A primary on the 1:10 turns ratio transformer will

produce 0.1 V/A across a 1 burden resistor, 1V per amp across a 10 burden and 10V per amp

across a 100 burden resistor.

Fig. 1 shows an ideal transformation ratio. In this analysis, the secondary dc resistance (RDCR)

doesn't become part of the calculation. When considering the secondary current, only the actual
current affects V. How well that current can be determined controls the accuracy of the prediction of

V. The secondary dc resistance is best analyzed by reflecting it to the primary by RDCR/N2.

When choosing the burden resistor, the engineer can create any output voltage per amp, as long as it

doesn't saturate the core. Core saturation level is an important consideration when specifying

current transformers. The maximum volt-microsecond product specifies what the core can handle

without saturating. The burden resistor is one of the factors controlling the output voltage. There's a

limit to the amount of voltage that can be achieved at a given frequency. Since frequency = 1/cycle

period, if the frequency is too low (cycle period too long) so that voltage-time product exceeds the

core's flux capacity, saturation will occur. The flux that exists in a core is proportional to the voltage

times cycle period. Most specifications provide a maximum volt-microsecond product that the

current transformer can provide across the burden resistor. Exceeding this voltage with too large a

burden resistor will saturate the transformer and limit the voltage.

What happens if the burden resistor is left off or opens during operation? The output voltage will

rise trying to develop current until it reaches the saturation voltage of the coil at that frequency. At

that point, the voltage will cease to rise and the transformer will add no additional impedance to the

driving current. Therefore, without a burden resistor, the output voltage of a current transformer will

be its saturation voltage at the operating frequency.

There are factors in the current transformer that affect efficiency. For complete accuracy, the output

current must be the input current divided by the turns ratio. Unfortunately, not all the current is

transferred. Some of the current isn't transformed to the secondary, but is instead shunted by the

inductance of the transformer and the core loss resistance. Generally, it's the inductance of the

transformer that contributes the majority of the current shunting that detracts from the output

current. This is why it's important to use a high-permeability core to achieve the maximum
inductance and minimize the inductance current. Accurate turns ratio must be maintained to produce

the expected secondary current and the expected accuracy. Fig. 2 shows the current transformed is

smaller than the input current by:

ITRANSFORMED=IINPUT-ICORE-jIMAG (1)

What about the effect the transformer will have on the current it's monitoring? This is where the

term burden enters the picture. Any measuring device alters the circuit in which it measures. For

instance, connecting a voltmeter to a circuit causes the voltage to change from what it was before

the meter was attached. However minuscule this effect may or may not be, the voltage you read isn't

the voltage that existed before attaching the meter. This is also true with a current transformer. The

burden resistor on the secondary is reflected to the primary by (1/N2), which provides a resistance in

series with the current on the primary. This usually has minimal effect and is usually only important

when you are concerned about the current that would exist when the transformer isn't in the circuit,

such as when it's used as a temporary measuring device.

Notice the four loss components in the circuit of Fig. 2. The resistance of the primary loop

(PRIDCR), the core loss resistance (RCORE), the secondary DCR (RDCR) is reduced by 1/N2, and the
secondary burden resistor RBURDEN is also reduced by a factor of N2. These are losses that affect

current source (I). The resistances have an indirect effect on the current transformer accuracy. It's

their effect on the circuit that they are monitoring that alters its current. The primary dc resistance

(PRIdcr) and the secondary DCR/N2 (RDCR/N2) don't detract from the Iinput that is read or is affecting

the accuracy of the actual current reading. Rather, they alter the current from what it would be if the

current transformer weren't in the circuit. With the exception of the burden resistor, these loss

resistors are the components that contribute to the loss in the transformer and heating.

This wasted energy is usually small compared with the power in the circuit it's monitoring. Usually,

the design of the transformer and choice of the burden resistor will be within the maximum energy

loss the end user can allow. As battery-operated devices come into wider use and power

consumption contributes to the energy crisis even this power may be of concern. Under these

circumstances, it may require special design attention to power consumption.

Current transformers are an efficient way to measure current. Since the burden resistor is reflected

to the primary by 1/N2, the resistance seen in the circuit being monitored can be very small. This

allows a larger voltage to be created on the output with minimal effect on the circuit being

measured. A simpler and lower-cost method to measure current is to use a sense resistor connected

in series with the current. However, this method can only be used when power consumption is of

secondary concern. With the more frequent use of battery-powered devices and the prevailing need

to reduce power consumption, the extra expense of a current transformer can soon be recovered

with use. Also, with high current or when a voltage of any magnitude is required, a sense resistor

would be impractical.
LCD display circuit

We have used 16x2 LCD display for displaying the value of measured distance. The detail

of the LCD is given in separate document.

LCD SECTION DETAILS:-

LCD DETAIL .

Frequently, an 8051 program must interact with the outside world using input and output devices

that communicate directly with a human being. One of the most common devices attached to an

8051 is an LCD display. Some of the most common LCDs connected to the 8051 are 16x2 and 20x2

displays. This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per line by 2 lines,

respectively.

Fortunately, a very popular standard exists which allows us to communicate with the vast

majority of LCDs regardless of their manufacturer. The standard is referred to as


HD44780U, which refers to the controller chip which receives data from an external source

(in this case, the 8051) and communicates directly with the LCD.
REFERENCE

Journal Papers

[1]. Selvaraj, R.S., Sivamadhavi, V., Magnitude of Green House Effect and the

contribution of Carbon di oxide, Recent Advances in Space Technology Services

and Climate Change (RSTSCC), 13-15 Nov. 2010, no. 41 44, Chennai.

[2]. Shakun Srivastava, Ankit asthana, produce electricity by the use of speed

breakers, Journal of Engineering Research and Studies, Vol.2, No.1 April-Jun

2011

[3]. Mukherje, D., Chakrabarti, S., Non-conventional power plants, New Delhi,

2005.

[4]. Pedal Power Generation-International Journal of Applied Engineering

Research,