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New Additional

Mathematics:

Cheat Sheet

For O Levels

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 1

1. Sets

A null or empty set is donated by { } or .

P Q, Q is subset of P.

P Q, P is subset of R.

P Q, Q is proper subset of P.

P Q, P is proper subset of Q.

P Q, Intersection of P and Q.

P Q, union of P and Q.

P compliment of P i.e. -P

2. Simultaneous Equations

2 4

=

2

Indices

1. 0 = 1

1

2. =

1

3. =

4. = ( )

5. = +

6. =

7. ( ) =

8. = ()

9. =( )

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 2

Logarithms

1. = =

2. 1 = 0

3. = 1

4. = +

5. =

6. =

1

7. =

8. =

1

9. =

log

10. log = log log =

log

1. Sketching Graph

y-intercept

Put x=0

x-intercept

Put y=0

Turning point

Method 1

x-coordinate: =

2

42

y-coordinate: =

4

Method 2

Express = 2 + + as = ( )2 + by completing

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 3

2. Types of roots of + + =

2 4 0 : real roots

2 4 < 0 : no real roots

2 4 > 0 : distinct real roots

2 4 = 0 : equal, coincident or repeated real roots

Polynomials

1. ax 2 + bx + c is a polynomial of degree 2.

2. ax 3 + bx + c is a polynomial of degree 3.

Identities

() () () = () For all values of x

powers of x.

Remainder theorem

If a polynomial f(x) is defined by (x-a), the remainder is R =f(a)

Factor Theorem

(x-a) is a factor of f(x) then f(a) = 0

I. Obtain one factor (x-a) by trail and error method.

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 4

II. Divide the cubic equation with a, by synthetic division to find the

quadratic equation.

III. Solve the quadratic equation to find remaining two factors of cubic

equation.

For example:

trail and error method.

II. Synthetic division will be done as follows:

IV. Equation is solved by quadratic formula, X=-1 and X=-3.

V. Answer would be (x-2)(x+1)(x+3).

6. Matrices

1. Order of a matrix

Order if matrix is stated as its number of rows x number of columns. For

example, the matrix (5 6 2) has order 1 x 3.

2. Equality

Two matrices are equal if they are of the same order and if their

corresponding elements are equal.

3. Addition

To add two matrices, we add their corresponding elements.

6 2 4 2 2 0

For example, ( )+( )=( ).

3 5 4 1 7 6

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 5

4. Subtraction

To subtract two matrices, we subtract their corresponding elements.

6 3 5 2 7 5 4 4 0

For example: ( )( )=( ).

9 14 5 4 20 1 12 6 6

5. Scalar multiplication

To multiply a matrix by k, we multiply each element by k.

2 4 2 4 2 6

For example, ( )=( ) or 3 ( ) = ( ).

3 1 3 4 12

6. Matrix multiplication

To multiply two matrices, column of the first matrix must be equal to the

row of the second matrix. The product will have order row of first matrix

X column of second matrix.

2 4

3 2 1 4

For example: (1 3 ) ( ) = ( )

1 5 2 7

2 1

To get the first row of product do following:

a = (2 x 3) + (4 X 1) = 10 (1st row of first, 1st column of second)

b = (2 x 2) + (4 x 5) = 24 (1st row of first, 2st column of second)

c = (2 x 1) + (4 x 2) = 10 (1st row of first, 3st column of second)

d = (2 x 4) + (4 x 7) = 36 (1st row of first, 4st column of second)

f = (1 x 2) + (3 x 5) = 17 (2st row of first, 2st column of second)

g = (1 x 1) + (3 x 2) = 7 (2st row of first, 3st column of second)

h = (1 x 4) + (3 x 7) = 25 (2st row of first, 4st column of second)

j = (2 x 2) + (-1 x 5) = -1 (3st row of first, 2st column of second)

k = (2 x 1) + (-1 x 2) = 0 (3st row of first, 3st column of second)

l = (2 x 4) + (-1 x 7) = 1 (3st row of first, 4st column of second)

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 6

7. 2 x2 Matrices

1 0

a. The matrix ( ) is called identity matrix. When it is multiplied with

0 1

any matrix X the answer will be X.

b. Determinant of matrix ( ) will be = | | =

c. Adjoint of matrix ( ) will be = ( )

d. Inverse of non-singular matrix (determinant is 0) ( ) will be :

1

= ( )

8. Solving simultaneous linear equations by a matrix method

+ =

( ) ( ) = ( )

+ =

1

() = ( ) ( )

7. Coordinate Geometry

Formulas

= (2 1 )2 + (2 1 )2

1 + 2 1 + 2

= ( , )

2 2

Parallelogram

midpoint.

To find the equation of a line of best fit, you need the gradient(m) of the

line, and the y-intercept(c) of the line. The gradient can be found by taking

any two points on the line and using the following formula:

2 1

= =

2 1

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 7

The y-intercept is the y-coordinate of the point at which the line crosses

the y-axis (it may need to be extended). This will give the following

equation:

= +

Where y and x are the variables, m is the gradient and c is the y-intercept.

1

If lines = 1 1 and = 2 2 are perpendicular then 1 = and 2 =

2

1

.

1

Perpendicular bisector

and B, and perpendicular bisector of AB.

For any point P on the line, PA = PB

Points of Intersection

curve can be obtained by solving their equations simultaneously.

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 8

8. Linear Law

To apply the linear law for a non-linear equation in variables x and y, express

the equation in the form

= +

9. Functions

Page 196 of Book

90

Sin All

2 1

180 0,360

Tan Cos

3 4

270

is always acute.

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 9

Basics

sin =

cos =

tan =

sin

tan =

cos

1

cosec =

sin

1

sec =

cos

1

cot =

tan

Rule 1

sin(90 ) = cos

cos(90 ) = sin

1

tan(90 ) = = cot

tan

Rule 2

sin(180 ) = + sin

cos(180 ) = cos

tan(180 ) = tan

Rule 3

sin(180 + ) = sin

cos(180 + ) = cos

tan(180 + ) = +tan

Rule 4

sin(360 ) = sin

cos(360 ) = +cos

tan(360 ) = tan

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 10

Rule 5

sin( ) = sin

cos() = +cos

tan() = tan

1 1 3

cos 45 = cos 60 = cos 30 =

2 2 2

1 3 1

sin 45 = sin 60 = sin 30 =

2 2 2

tan 45 = 1 tan 60 = 3 1

tan 30

3

Trigonometric Identities

sin2 + cos 2 = 1

1 + tan2 = sec 2

1 + cot 2 = cosec 2

Relation between Radian and Degree

= 90 = 180

2

3

= 270 2 = 360

2

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 11

1 1

= = 2 where A is Area of sector

2 2

! = ( 1)( 2) 3 2 1

0! = 1

! = ( 1)!

!

=

( )!

!

=

( )! !

( + ) = + 1 1 + 2 2 2 + 3 3 3 + +

+1 =

15. Differentiation

( ) = 1

( + ) = 1 + 1

( ) = 1

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 12

() = +

( )=

2

Gradient of a curve at any point P(x,y) is at x

The rate of change of a variable x with respect to time is

=

= 100%

( + ) = + +

= 0 when x =a then point (a, f(a)) is a stationary point.

2

= 0 and 0 when x =a then point (a, f(a)) is a turning point.

2

2

I. If > 0, then T is a minimum point.

2

2

II. If < 0, then T is a maximum point.

2

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 13

(sin ) = cos

(cos ) = sin

(tan ) = sec 2

(sinn ) = sinn1 cos

(cosn ) = cos n1 sin

(tann ) = tann1 sec 2

Functions

( ) =

+

( ) = +

A curve defined by y=ln(ax+b) has a domain ax+b>0 and the curve cuts the

x-axis at the point where ax+b=1

1

( ) =

1

(ln ) =

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 14

[( + )] =

+

20. Integration

= =

1 2 1

( + ) = = 2 +

2 2

+1

= +

+1

)

+1 +1

( + = + +

+1 +1

( + )+1

( + ) = +

( + 1)

[()] = () () = () ()

() + () = ()

() = ()

() = 0

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 15

(sin ) = cos cos = sin +

(cos ) = sin sin = cos +

(tan ) = sec 2 2 = +

1 1

[ sin( + )] = cos( + ) cos( + ) = sin( + ) +

1 1

[ cos( + )] = sin( + ) sin( + ) = cos( + ) +

1 1

[ tan( + )] = sec 2 ( + ) 2 ( + ) = ( + ) +

( ) = = +

( ) = = +

For a region R above the x-axis, enclosed by the

curve y=f(x), the x-axis and the lines x=a and

x=b, the area R is:

= ()

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 16

the curve y=f(x), the x-axis and the lines x=a

and x=b, the area R is:

= ()

y=g(x) and the lines x=a and x=b, the area R is:

= [() () ]

22. Kinematics

=

=

=

= +

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New Additional Mathematics: Cheat Sheet 17

1

= + 2

2

1

= ( + )

2

2 = 2 + 2

23. Vectors

= ( ) then |

If | = 2 + 2

= and k < 0 a and b are opposite in direction

+ = + p = r and q = s

is

= +

where i and j are unit vectors in the positive direction along the x-axis and

the y-axis respectively.

is

Unit vector is the direction of

1 1

( + ) ()

2 + 2 2 + 2

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