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Marslaw motivation theory

he theory is based on a simple premise: Human beings have needs that are
hierarchically ranked. There are some needs that are basic to all human beings, and in their absence
nothing else matters. As we satisfy these basic needs, we start looking to satisfy higher order needs.
In other words, once a lower level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a motivator.

The most basic of Maslows needs are physiological needs. Physiological needs refer to the need for
food, water, and other biological needs. These needs are basic because when they are lacking, the
search for them may overpower all other urges. Imagine being very hungry. At that point, all your
behavior may be directed at finding food. Once you eat, though, the search for food ceases and the
promise of food no longer serves as a motivator. Once physiological needs are satisfied, people tend
to become concerned about safety needs. Are they free from the threat of danger, pain, or an
uncertain future? On the next level up, social needs refer to the need to bond with other human
beings, be loved, and form lasting attachments with others. In fact, attachments, or lack of them, are
associated with our health and well-being.Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to
belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological
Bulletin, 117, 497529. The satisfaction of social needs makes esteem needs more salient. Esteem
need refers to the desire to be respected by ones peers, feel important, and be appreciated. Finally, at
the highest level of the hierarchy, the need for self-actualization refers to becoming all you are
capable of becoming. This need manifests itself by the desire to acquire new skills, take on new
challenges, and behave in a way that will lead to the attainment of ones life goals.

Alderfers hierarchy of motivational needs

ERG theorys main contribution to the literature is its relaxation of Maslows assumptions. For
example, ERG theory does not rank needs in any particular order and explicitly recognizes that more
than one need may operate at a given time. Moreover, the theory has a frustration-regression
hypothesis suggesting that individuals who are frustrated in their attempts to satisfy one need may
regress to another. For example, someone who is frustrated by the growth opportunities in his job
and progress toward career goals may regress to relatedness need and start spending more time
socializing with coworkers. The implication of this theory is that we need to recognize the multiple
needs that may be driving individuals at a given point to understand their behavior and properly
motivate them.

Mccleland theory of needs

He identified three motivators that he believed we all have: a need for achievement,
a need for affiliation, and a need for power. People will have different characteristics
depending on their dominant motivator. This dominant motivator is largely
dependent on our culture and life experiences

Two Factor Theory

Herzberg labeled factors causing dissatisfaction of workers as hygiene factors because these factors

were part of the context in which the job was performed, as opposed to the job itself. Hygiene

factors included company policies, supervision, working conditions, salary, safety, and security on

the job. To illustrate, imagine that you are working in an unpleasant work environment. Your office

is too hot in the summer and too cold in the winter. You are being harassed and mistreated. You

would certainly be miserable in such a work environment. However, if these problems were solved

(your office temperature is just right and you are not harassed at all), would you be motivated? Most

likely, you would take the situation for granted. In fact, many factors in our work environment are

things that we miss when they are absent but take for granted if they are present.

In contrast, motivators are factors that are intrinsic to the job, such as achievement, recognition,

interesting work, increased responsibilities, advancement, and growth opportunities. According to

Herzbergs research, motivators are the conditions that truly encourage employees to try harder.
Mcgregor Theory X and Theory Y
If you believe that your team members dislike their work and have little motivation,
then, according to McGregor, you'll likely use an authoritarian style of management.
This approach is very "hands-on" and usually involves micromanaging people's work
to ensure that it gets done properly. McGregor called this Theory X.

On the other hand, if you believe that your people take pride in their work and see it
as a challenge Add to My Personal Learning Plan, then you'll more likely adopt a
participative management style. Managers who use this approach trust their people
to take ownership of their work and do it effectively by themselves. McGregor called
this Theory Y.

Instinctive Theory of Motivation

nstinct theory of motivation suggests that the key to our motivation is biological or
genetic programming of our body. The general idea is that similar motivations occur
on humans because of the similar biological programming shared by humans.
Process Based Theories of Motivation
Reinforcement Theory

The fundamental concepts of this theory are reinforcement, punishment, and extinction.
Reinforcement can be divided into positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Positive
reinforcement occurs when the consequence resulting in the behavior you are attempting to produce
increases the probability that the desired behavior will continue. If a salesperson performs well, that
salesperson may receive a bonus, which reinforces the desire to make sales because of the positive
consequence of doing so.

Negative reinforcement occurs when a negative consequence is withheld if the behavior you desire
is demonstrated, which will increase the probability that the behavior you are seeking will continue.
For example, let's say that your company is opening a new office in Alaska. No one wants to move
there. The company decides to let the top ten salespeople in the office pick if they go to Alaska or
stay at the old office. You work very hard to be in the top ten so you can avoid the negative
consequence of relocating to Alaska. You will continue to perform your best to avoid the negative
consequence. Negative reinforcement, however, is not the same as punishment.

Punishment occurs when you impose a negative consequence to reduce an undesirable behavior.
While negative reinforcement involves withholding a negative consequence to encourage a desirable
behavior, punishment is imposing a negative consequence to discourage an unwanted behavior. For
example, getting a write-up for being late to work is a punishment that is imposed on late workers to
discourage workers from being late - an undesirable behavio

Extinction is similar to punishment in that its purpose is to reduce unwanted

behavior. The process of extinction begins when a valued behavioral consequence is
withheld in order to decrease the probability that a learned behavior will continue.
Over time, this is likely to result in the ceasing of that behavior. Extinction may
alternately serve to reduce a wanted behavior, such as when a positive reinforcer is
no longer offered when a desirable behavior occurs. For example, if an employee is
continually praised for the promptness in which he completes his work for several
months, but receives no praise in subsequent months for such behavior, his
desirable behaviors may diminish. Thus, to avoid unwanted extinction, managers
may have to continue to offer positive behavioral consequences.
The timing of the behavioral consequences that follow a given behavior is called the
reinforcement schedule. Basically, there are two broad types of reinforcement
schedules: continuous and intermittent. If a behavior is reinforced each time it
occurs, it is called continuous reinforcement. Research suggests that continuous
reinforcement is the fastest way to establish new behaviors or to eliminate
undesired behaviors. However, this type of reinforcement is generally not practical
in an organizational setting. Therefore, intermittent schedules are usually employed.
Intermittent reinforcement means that each instance of a desired behavior is not
reinforced. There are at least four types of intermittent reinforcement schedules:
fixed interval, fixed ratio, variable interval, and variable ratio.

Clark Hungs drive reduction theory

Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a balance, or optimal level, within a
biological system. In a body system, a control center (which is often part of the
brain) receives input from receptors (which are often complexes of neurons). The
control center directs effectors (which may be other neurons) to correct any
imbalance in the body detected by the control center.

According to this theory, deviations from homeostasis create physiological needs.

These needs result in psychological drive states that direct behavior to meet the
need and, ultimately, bring the system back to homeostasis. When a physiological
need is not satisfied, a negative state of tension is created; when the need is
satisfied, the drive to satisfy that need is reduced and the organism returns to
homeostasis. In this way, a drive can be thought of as an instinctual need that has
the power to motivate behavior..

Drive-reduction theory distinguishes between primary and secondary drives.

Primary drives are innate biological needs (e.g., thirst, hunger, and desire for sex)
that are usually necessary for survival. Secondary drives, on the other hand, are not
usually necessary for survival and are often linked to social or identity factors (e.g.,
the desire for wealth). Secondary drives are associated with primary drives because
the satisfaction of secondary drives indirectly satisfies primary drives. For example,
the desire for wealth is not necessary for survival; however, wealth provides you
with money that can be used to acquire food, shelter, and other basic needs,
thereby indirectly satisfying these primary drives. Secondary drives become
associated with primary drives through classical conditioning.

drive reduction is a major aspect of learning. Drives are thought to underlie all
behavior in that behaviors are only conditioned, or learned, if the reinforcement
satisfies a drive. Individuals faced with more than one need at the same time
experience multiple drives, and research has shown that multiple drives can lead to
more rapid learning than a single drive.

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

Porter and Lawler model of motivation

Porter and Edward Lawler came up with a comprehensive theory of motivation,
combining the various aspects. Porter and Lawler's model is a more complete model
of motivation. This model has been practically applied also in their study of
managers. This is a multivariate model which explains the relationship that exists
between job attitudes and job performance. This model is based on four basic
assumptions about human behaviour :

(i) As mentioned above, it is a multivariate model. According to this model,

individual behaviour is determined by a combination of factors in the individual and
in the environment.

(ii) Individuals are assumed to be rational human beings who make conscious
decisions about their behaviour in the organizations.

(iii) Individuals have different needs, desires and goals.

(iv) On the basis of their expectations, individuals decide between alternative

behaviours and such decided behaviour will read to a desired outcome.
Porter and Lawler's theory is an improvement over Vroom's expectancy theory. They
say that motivation does not equal satisfaction or performance. The model
suggested by them encounters some of the simplistic traditional assumptions made
about the positive relationship between satisfaction and performance. They
proposed a multivariate model to explain the complex relationship that exists
between satisfaction and performance. What is the main point in Porter and Lawler's
model is that effort or motivation does not lead directly to performance. It is, in fact,
medicated by abilities and traits and by role perceptions. Ultimately, performance
leads to satisfaction

Concept of Morale, Factors affecting morale and role of

incentives in building morale
It is a state of mind & emotions affecting the attitude & willingness to work, which in
turn, affects individual & organisational objectives