ISLAM and BUDDHISM

HARUN YAHYA

© 2003 — ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ISLAM and BUDDHISM HARUN YAHYA Translated b R!n E"ans MAY 2003 ISBN # $%&'23%&($%&' )*bl+s,ed b Abd*l Naee- .!r Isla-+/ B!!0 Ser"+/e 22(%1 2*/,a 3,elan1 Dar a Gan41 Ne5 Del,+ & %%0 002 6INDIA7 ),!ne8 32939%(1 32:93$01 32$:99% ;a<8 32''=%3 E&-a+l8+bsdel,+>del2?"snl?net?+n and +bsdel,+>-antra!nl+ne?/!@ebs+te8 ,ttA8BB555?+sla-+/&+nd+a?/!CUR ASSC3IATES Isla-+/ B!!0 Ser"+/e In/? %3: 3,arl!tte A"en*e1 H+/0s"+lle1 N Y %%$0% TeleA,!ne8 9%:&$'0&0(2'1 ;a<8 9%:&$'0&0(2= T!ll ;ree8 # $::&2(2&(IBS Al M*nna B!!0 S,!A Ltd? )?C? B!<&3((=1S,ar4a, 6U?A?E?71 TeleA,!ne8 0:&9:%&9($31 0:&9:%&(:90 E&-a+l8 n*srat>e-+rates?net?ae D*ba+ Bran/,8 TeleA,!ne8 0(&392=2=( )r+nted at N!+da )r+nt+nD )ress 3&3%1 Se/t!r '1 N!+da 6U?)?7 TeleA,!ne8=%&(92$2%% All translat+!ns .r!- t,e E*rFan are .r!- The Noble Qur'an: a New Rendering of its Meaning in English b Ha44 Abdal,aGG and A+s,a Be5le ? )*bl+s,ed b B!!05!r01 N!r5+/,1 U2? %(20 3EB%=== AH? All translat+!ns .r!- t,e B+ble are .r!- t,e Ne5 2+nD Ha-es B+ble 6,ttA8BBb+ble?D!sAel/!-?net7 Website: http: // www.ha !n"ah"a.#$% &'%ai(: in)$*ha !n"ah"a.#$%

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Intr!d*/t+!n B*dd,+s-8 An Id!latr!*s Rel+D+!n B*dd,+s-Fs Err!ne!*s Bel+e.s B*dd,+s- and Mater+al+st @estern 3*lt*re 3!*ld B*dd,+s- be a Tr*e Rel+D+!n T,atFs Be/!-e D+st!rtedI 3!n/l*s+!n8 Tr*t, Has 3!-e1 and ;alse,!!d Has Van+s,ed T,e De/eAt+!n !. E"!l*t+!n

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A sAe/+al /,aAter +s ass+Dned t! t,e /!llaAse !. t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n be/a*se t,+s t,e!r /!nst+t*tes t,e bas+s !. all ant+&sA+r+t*al A,+l!s!A,+es? S+n/e Dar5+n+s- re4e/ts t,e .a/t !. /reat+!n—and t,ere.!re1 G!dFs E<+sten/e—!"er t,e last %(0 ears +t ,as /a*sed -an Ae!Ale t! aband!n t,e+r .a+t, !r .all +nt! d!*bt? It +s t,ere.!re an +-Aerat+"e ser"+/e1 a "er +-A!rtant d*t t! s,!5 e"er !ne t,at t,+s t,e!r +s a de/eAt+!n? S+n/e s!-e readers -a .+nd t,e /,an/e t! read !nl !ne !. !*r b!!01 5e t,+n0 +t aAAr!Ar+ate t! de"!te a /,aAter t! s*--ar+Je t,+s s*b4e/t? All t,e a*t,!rFs b!!0s e<Ala+n .a+t,&related +ss*es +n l+D,t !. E*rFan+/ "erses1 and +n"+te readers t! learn G!dFs 5!rds and t! l+"e b t,e-? All t,e s*b4e/ts /!n/ern+nD G!dFs "erses are e<Ala+ned s! as t! lea"e n! d!*bt !r r!!- .!r G*est+!ns +n t,e readerFs -+nd? T,e b!!0sF s+n/ere1 Ala+n1 and .l*ent st le ens*re t,at e"er !ne !. e"er aDe and .r!- e"er s!/+al Dr!*A /an eas+l *nderstand t,e-? T,an0s t! t,e+r e..e/t+"e1 l*/+d narrat+"e1 t,e /an be read at a !ne s+tt+nD? E"en t,!se 5,! r+D!r!*sl re4e/t sA+r+t*al+t are +n.l*en/ed b t,e .a/ts t,ese b!!0s d!/*-ent and /ann!t re.*te t,e tr*t,.*lness !. t,e+r /!ntents? T,+s and all t,e !t,er b!!0s b t,e a*t,!r /an be read +nd+"+d*all 1 !r d+s/*ssed +n a Dr!*A? Readers eaDer t! Ar!.+t .r!- t,e b!!0s 5+ll .+nd d+s/*ss+!n "er *se.*l1 lett+nD t,e- relate t,e+r re.le/t+!ns and e<Aer+en/es t! !ne an!t,er? In add+t+!n1 +t 5+ll be a Dreat ser"+/e t! Isla- t! /!ntr+b*te t! t,e A*bl+/at+!n and read+nD !. t,ese b!!0s1 5r+tten s!lel .!r t,e Aleas*re !. G!d? T,e a*t,!rFs b!!0s are all e<tre-el /!n"+n/+nD? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 t! /!--*n+/ate tr*e rel+D+!n t! !t,ers1 !ne !. t,e -!st e..e/t+"e -et,!ds +s en/!*raD+nD t,e- t! read t,ese b!!0s? @e ,!Ae t,e reader 5+ll l!!0 t,r!*D, t,e re"+e5s !. ,+s !t,er b!!0s at t,e ba/0 !. t,+s b!!0? H+s r+/, s!*r/e -ater+al !n .a+t,&related +ss*es +s "er *se.*l1 and a Aleas*re t! read? In t,ese b!!0s1 *nl+0e s!-e !t,er b!!0s1 !* 5+ll n!t .+nd t,e a*t,!rFs Aers!nal "+e5s1 e<Alanat+!ns based !n d*b+!*s s!*r/es1 st les t,at are *n!bser"ant !. t,e resAe/t and re"eren/e d*e t! sa/red s*b4e/ts1 n!r ,!Aeless1 Aess+-+st+/ arD*-ents t,at /reate d!*bts +n t,e -+nd and de"+at+!ns +n t,e ,eart?

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N!5 5r+t+nD *nder t,e Aen&na-e !. HARUN YAHYA1 ,e 5as b!rn +n An0ara +n %=9:? Ha"+nD /!-Aleted ,+s Ar+-ar and se/!ndar ed*/at+!n +n An0ara1 ,e st*d+ed arts at Istanb*lFs M+-ar S+nan Un+"ers+t and A,+l!s!A, at Istanb*l Un+"ers+t ? S+n/e t,e %=$0s1 ,e ,as A*bl+s,ed -an b!!0s !n A!l+t+/al1 s/+ent+.+/1 and .a+t,&related +ss*es? Har*n Ya, a +s 5ell&0n!5n as t,e a*t,!r !. +-A!rtant 5!r0s d+s/l!s+nD t,e +-A!st*re !. e"!l*t+!n+sts1 t,e+r +n"al+d /la+-s1 and t,e dar0 l+a+s!ns bet5een Dar5+n+s- and s*/, bl!!d +de!l!D+es as .as/+s- and /!--*n+s-? H+s Aen&na-e +s a /!-A!s+te !. t,e na-es Harun 6Aar!n7 and Yahya 6H!,n71 +n -e-!r !. t,e t5! estee-ed )r!A,ets 5,! .!*D,t aDa+nst t,e+r Ae!AleFs la/0 !. .a+t,? T,e )r!A,etFs seal !n t,e ,+s b!!0sF /!"ers +s s -b!l+/ and +s l+n0ed t! t,e t,e+r /!ntents? It reAresents t,e E*rFan 6t,e .+nal s/r+At*re7 and t,e )r!A,et M*,a--ad 6Aea/e be *A!n ,+-71 last !. t,e Ar!A,ets? Under t,e D*+dan/e !. t,e E*rFan and t,e S*nna, 6tea/,+nDs !. t,e )r!A,et71 t,e a*t,!r -a0es +t ,+s A*rA!se t! d+sAr!"e ea/, .*nda-ental tenet !. D!dless +de!l!D+es and t! ,a"e t,e Klast 5!rd1K s! as t! /!-Aletel s+len/e t,e !b4e/t+!ns ra+sed aDa+nst rel+D+!n? He *ses t,e seal !. t,e .+nal )r!A,et1 5,! atta+ned *lt+-ate 5+sd!- and -!ral Aer.e/t+!n1 as a s+Dn !. ,+s +ntent+!n t! !..er t,e last 5!rd? All !. Har*n Ya, aFs 5!r0s s,are !ne s+nDle D!al8 t! /!n"e t,e E*rF anFs -essaDe1 en/!*raDe readers t! /!ns+der bas+/ .a+t,&related +ss*es s*/, as G!dFs E<+sten/e and Un+t and t,e ,erea.terL and t! e<A!se D!dless s ste-sF .eeble .!*ndat+!ns and Aer"erted +de!l!D+es? Har*n Ya, a en4! s a 5+de readers,+A +n -an /!*ntr+es1 .r!- Ind+a t! A-er+/a1 EnDland t! Ind!nes+a1 )!land t! B!sn+a1 and SAa+n t! BraJ+l? S!-e !. ,+s b!!0s are a"a+lable +n EnDl+s,1 ;ren/,1 Ger-an1 SAan+s,1 Ital+an1 )!rt*D*ese1 Urd*1 Arab+/1 Alban+an1 R*ss+an1 Serb!&3r!at 6B!sn+an71 )!l+s,1 Mala 1 U D*r T*r0+s,1 and Ind!nes+an? Greatl aAAre/+ated all ar!*nd t,e 5!rld1 t,ese 5!r0s ,a"e been +nstr*-ental +n -an Ae!Ale re/!"er+nD .a+t, +n G!d and Da+n+nD deeAer +ns+D,ts +nt! t,e+r .a+t,? H+s b!!0sF 5+sd!- and s+n/er+t 1 t!Det,er 5+t, a d+st+n/t st le t,atFs eas t! *nderstand1 d+re/tl a..e/t an !ne 5,! reads t,e-? T,!se 5,! ser+!*sl /!ns+der t,ese b!!0s1 /an n! l!nDer ad"!/ate at,e+s- !r an !t,er Aer"erted +de!l!D !r -ater+al+st+/ A,+l!s!A, 1 s+n/e t,ese b!!0s are /,ara/ter+Jed b raA+d e..e/t+"eness1 de.+n+te res*lts1 and +rre.*tab+l+t ? E"en +. t,e /!nt+n*e t! d! s!1 +t 5+ll be !nl a sent+-ental +ns+sten/e1 s+n/e t,ese b!!0s re.*te s*/, +de!l!D+es .r!- t,e+r "er .!*ndat+!ns? All /!nte-A!rar -!"e-ents !. den+al are n!5 +de!l!D+/all de.eated1 t,an0s t! t,e b!!0s 5r+tten b Har*n Ya, a? T,+s +s n! d!*bt a res*lt !. t,e E*rFanFs 5+sd!- and l*/+d+t ? T,e a*t,!r -!destl +ntends t! ser"e as a -eans +n ,*-an+t Fs sear/, .!r G!dFs r+D,t Aat,? N! -ater+al Da+n +s s!*D,t +n t,e A*bl+/at+!n !. t,ese 5!r0s? T,!se 5,! en/!*raDe !t,ers t! read t,ese b!!0s1 t! !Aen t,e+r -+nds and ,earts and D*+de t,e- t! be/!-e -!re de"!ted ser"ants !. G!d1 render an +n"al*able ser"+/e? Mean5,+le1 +t 5!*ld !nl be a 5aste !. t+-e and enerD t! Ar!AaDate !t,er b!!0s t,at /reate /!n.*s+!n +n Ae!AleFs -+nds1 lead t,e- +nt! +de!l!D+/al /,a!s1 and t,at /learl ,a"e n! str!nD and Are/+se e..e/ts +n re-!"+nD t,e d!*bts +n Ae!AleFs ,earts1 as als! "er+.+ed .r!- Are"+!*s e<Aer+en/e? It +s +-A!ss+ble .!r b!!0s de"+sed t! e-A,as+Je t,e a*t,!rFs l+terar A!5er rat,er t,an t,e n!ble D!al !. sa"+nD Ae!Ale .r!- l!ss !. .a+t,1 t! ,a"e s*/,

a Dreat e..e/t? T,!se 5,! d!*bt t,+s /an read+l see t,at t,e s!le a+- !. Har*n Ya, aFs b!!0s +s t! !"er/!-e d+sbel+e. and t! d+sse-+nate t,e E*rFanFs -!ral "al*es? T,e s*//ess and +-Aa/t !. t,+s ser"+/e are -an+.ested +n t,e readersF /!n"+/t+!n? Cne A!+nt s,!*ld be 0eAt +n -+nd8 T,e -a+n reas!n .!r t,e /!nt+n*+nD /r*elt 1 /!n.l+/t1 and !t,er !rdeals end*red b t,e "ast -a4!r+t !. Ae!Ale +s t,e +de!l!D+/al Are"alen/e !. d+sbel+e.? T,+s /an be ended !nl 5+t, t,e +de!l!D+/al de.eat !. d+sbel+e. and b /!n"e +nD t,e 5!nders !. /reat+!n and E*rFan+/ -!ral+t s! t,at Ae!Ale /an l+"e b +t? 3!ns+der+nD t,e state !. t,e 5!rld t!da 1 lead+nD +nt! a d!5n5ard sA+ral !. "+!len/e1 /!rr*At+!n and /!n.l+/t1 /learl t,+s ser"+/e -*st be Ar!"+ded sAeed+l and e..e/t+"el 1 !r +t -a be t!! late? In t,+s e..!rt1 t,e b!!0s !. Har*n Ya, a ass*-e a lead+nD r!le? B t,e 5+ll !. G!d1 t,ese b!!0s 5+ll be a -eans t,r!*D, 5,+/, Ae!Ale +n t,e t5ent .+rst /ent*r 5+ll atta+n t,e Aea/e1 4*st+/e1 and ,aAA+ness Ar!-+sed +n t,e E*rFan?

+he e(i0i$n with .$d is 1s(a%2 34! 5an/ 3:678

IN+R,DU-+I,N
Man Ae!Ale be/!-e e</+ted at t,e +dea !. be/!-+nD Kd+..erentK !r -!re K!r+D+nal?K In al-!st e"er s!/+et s+n/e t,e da5n !. ,+st!r 1 s!-e +nd+"+d*als ,a"e tr+ed t! stand !*t and dra5 attent+!n t! t,e-sel"es b t,e+r l+.e st le1 /l!t,+nD1 ,a+rst les1 !r d+st+n/t+"e 5a !. sAea0+nD? T,e F"e -anaDed t! st+r *A A*bl+/ rea/t+!n and attra/t +nterest at t,e sa-e t+-e? In re/ent ears1 @estern s!/+et+es ,a"e seen t,e e-erDen/e !. an *n*s*al /*rrent t,at dra5s attent+!n t! +tsel. b +ts rat,er stranDe l+.e st le? ItFs -ade *A !. +nd+"+d*als 5,! 5ant t! attra/t attent+!n b ad!At+nD Eastern /*lt*re1 bel+e.s1 and A,+l!s!A,+es—!. 5,+/, t,e -!st +-A!rtant +s B*dd,+s-? T,r!*D,!*t t,e 5!rld1 b*t esAe/+all +n A-er+/a and E*r!Ae1 s!-e +nd+"+d*als ,a"e been +ntr+D*ed b B*dd,+s-1 sA*rred !n -!stl b t,e s*Aerst+t+!*s1 se/ret1 and a5es!-e G*al+t+es t,e Aer/e+"e +n t,+s rel+D+!n? Generall 1 t,!se 5,! ad!At B*dd,+s- d! s! n!t be/a*se t,e bel+e"e +n t,e l!D+/ !. +ts A,+l!s!A, 1 b*t be/a*se t,e Fre attra/ted b +ts K- st+/alK at-!sA,ere1 dra5n t! t,+s s*Aerst+t+!n be/a*se +t +s Aresented t! t,e- as .ar -!re d+..erent and a5es!-e t,an an !t,er A,+l!s!A, t,e en/!*nter +n t,e+r n!r-al l+"es? ;!r e<a-Ale1 t,e st!r !. ,!5 B*dd,+s- /a-e t! be +s related t! t,e- as a .antast+/1 - st+/ leDend? B!!0s and .+l-s ab!*t B*dd,+s- deA+/t B*dd,a as t,e s!*r/e !. a Dreat - ster ? L+0e5+se1 B*dd,+st Ar+ests are Aresented as A!ssess!rs !. se/ret1 ar/ane 0n!5ledDe? T,e .as/+nate @esterners 5+t, t,e+r e<!t+/ r!bes1 s,a"ed ,eads1 st le !. 5!rs,+A1 elab!rate /ere-!n+es1 d5ell+nD Ala/es1 -ed+tat+!n1 !Da and !t,er s*/, stranDe Ara/t+/es? ;!r t,ese reas!ns1 B*dd,+s- +s se+Jed *A!n as an +-A!rtant t!!l b Ae!Ale 5,! 5ant t! de-!nstrate t,at t,e are d+..erent .r!- !t,ers +n t,e+r s!/+et 1 and 5,! 5ant t! Ar!4e/t t,e +-aDe !. ,a"+nD d+s/!"ered !. a "al*able se/ret? I. an !rd+nar Aers!n s*ddenl s,a"es ,+s ,ead !ne da 1 A*ts !n a br+D,tl &/!l!red r!be and beD+ns t! tea/, B*dd,+st d!/tr+ne *s+nD - st+/al 5!rds ,e ne"er *ttered be.!re1 ,e 5+ll /erta+nl attra/t /*r+!*s attent+!n and be t,!*D,t !. as K!r+D+nal?K A n*-ber !. /elebr+t+es ,a"e ad!Ated B*dd,+s- .!r s+-+lar A*rA!ses? T,e -a0e sAee/,es +n T+betan B*dd,+st r!bes t! aAAear d+..erent .r!- !t,ers1 dra5+nD attent+!n t! t,e-sel"es Aer,aAs t! be/!-e e"en better 0n!5n t! t,e+r A*bl+/? T,e "+s+t B*dd,+st te-Ales a//!-Aan+ed b B*dd,+st Ar+ests and als! -a0e Ar!AaDanda .!r t,e B*dd,+st rel+D+!n? Y!* -a ,a"e alread learned a /!ns+derable a-!*nt ab!*t B*dd,+s- and Da+ned a Deneral 0n!5ledDe !. +t t,r!*D, b!t, 5r+tten and "+s*al -ed+a? In t,+s b!!01 5eFll e<a-+ne B*dd,+s-Fs s*Aerst+t+!*s /,ara/ter +n t,e l+D,t !. t,e E*rFan and let !* see /learl t,+s s*Aerst+t+!*s rel+D+!nFs -!re Aer"erse asAe/ts? @,en 5e /!ns+der B*dd,+s-Fs aAAearan/e1 +ts s/r+At*res1 Deneral bel+e.s1 st le !. 5!rs,+A +n t,e l+D,t !. t,e E*rFan1 5e beD+n t! see t,at +ts bas+/ A,+l!s!A, +s .!*nded !n "er de"+ant d!/tr+nes? Indeed1 +ts 5!rs,+A /!nta+ns stranDe Ara/t+/es lead+nD +ts de"!tees t! 5!rs,+A +d!ls !. st!ne and /la ? As a bel+e.1 B*dd,+s- +s /!ntrar t! l!D+/ and +ntell+Den/e? 3!*ntr+es 5,ere +t ,as been ad!Ated ,a"e -+<ed +t 5+t, t,e+r !5n +d!latr!*s +deas1 trad+t+!ns and l!/al /*st!-s1 4!+n+nD +t 5+t, - t,s and de"+ant +deas *nt+l +t ,as e"!l"ed +nt! a t!tall D!dless A,+l!s!A, ?

@,en .*sed 5+t, Bra,-an+s-1 H+nd*+s-1 S,+nt!+s- and !t,er +d!latr!*s Eastern rel+D+!ns1 B*dd,+s,as ass*-ed a -*/, dar0er .!r-? T,!se 5,! ad!At t,+s rel+D+!n n!t be/a*se t,e bel+e"e +t1 b*t be/a*se t,e Fre attra/ted b t,e Kse/retsK !. t,e ;ar East !r 4*st t! dra5 attent+!n t! t,e-sel"es1 s,!*ld real+Je t,at B*dd,+s/!nta+ns Aer"erse d!/tr+nes t,at /an lead t,e- t! den G!d1 ass!/+ate ,and-ade +d!ls 5+t, H+- and lead a l+.e !. s*Aerst+t+!n? T! +Dn!re B*dd,+s-Fs -+ndless asAe/ts and esA!*se +t 4*st t! be trend and D! al!nD 5+t, !t,ers 5+ll res*lt +n Dreat l!ss? T,!se 5,! -a0e Ar!AaDanda !n be,al. !. B*dd,+s- !.ten Aresent +t as a -eans !. sal"at+!n? T,!se 5,! l!nD t! es/aAe .r!- a -ater+al+st s!/+et Fs ,ard1 d+sA*tat+!*s /*lt*re— al!nD 5+t, +ts 5!rr+es1 an<+et+es1 G*arrels1 A+t+less r+"alr 1 sel.+s,ness and .alse,!!ds—res!rt t! B*dd,+s- as t,e 5a t! a/,+e"e Aea/e !. -+nd1 se/*r+t 1 t!leran/e and a .*l.+ll+nD l+.e? B*t B*dd,+s- +s n!t1 as +t +s Denerall t,!*D,t t! be1 a bel+e. t,at br+nDs /!ntent-ent? Cn t,e /!ntrar 1 t,!se 5,! are ta0en +nt! B*dd,+s- are !.ten dra5n +nt! a deeA Aess+-+s-? E"en Ae!Ale 5+t, a /!ns+derable le"el !. ed*/at+!n and -!dern 5!rld"+e5 5+ll be/!-e +nd+"+d*als 5,! see n!t,+nD 5r!nD 5+t, beDD+nD 5+t, t,e+r b!5ls +n ,and1 5,! bel+e"e t,at +n t,e+r ne<t l+"es1 ,*-an be+nDs -a be reb!rn as -+/e !r /attle1 and 5,! e<Ae/t ,elA .r!- +d!ls /ar"ed .r!- st!ne !r /ast +n br!nJe? ;!r t,ese Ae!Ale1 B*dd,+s-Fs de"+ant bel+e.s +n.l+/t ser+!*s As /,!l!D+/al da-aDe? In /!*ntr+es 5,ere B*dd,+s- +s 5+desAread1 !r +n reD+!ns +n,ab+ted b -an B*dd,+st Ar+ests1 Aess+-+s- and Dl!!-+ness are /learl Ar!-+nent? Cne bas+/ reas!n .!r t,+s +s t,e laJ+ness and +nd!len/e t,at B*dd,+s- +n/*l/ates +n +ts ad,erents? Be/a*se +t la/0s an .a+t, +n an eternal a.terl+.e1 B*dd,+s- d!es n!t *rDe +ts de"!tees t! be better !r de"el!A t,e-sel"es1 t! bea*t+. t,e+r en"+r!n-ent1 !r t! ad"an/e /*lt*rall ? Isla- al5a s *rDes +ts ad,erents t! see0 !*t and aAAl t,e-sel"es t! 5,at +s better and -!re bea*t+.*l? Isla-Fs d na-+/ -!ral tea/,+nD reG*+res Ae!Ale t! resear/, and learn1 t! de"el!A t,e-sel"es and be *se.*l t! t,e+r /!--*n+t+es? In !ne "erse !. t,e E*rFan 6398 2$71 G!d sa s t,at 9,n(" th$se $) His se :ants with ;n$w(ed0e stand t !(" in awe $) Hi%.9 T,e !nl 5a t! .+nd tr*e ,aAA+ness and /!ntent-ent +n t,+s 5!rld—t! es/aAe e"er 0+nd !. Aess+-+s-1 *n,aAA+ness1 and A+t+less e"+l—+s .!r Ae!Ale t! s*b-+t t,e-sel"es t! G!d1 !*r 3reat!r1 and lead l+"es t,at 5+ll 5+n H+s aAAr!"al? C*r L!rd1 t,e !nl s!"ere+Dn !. Eart, and Hea"en ,as ann!*n/ed t,at .!r all Ae!Ale t,e 5a !. sal"at+!n +s t! e-bra/e t,e E*rFan1 sent d!5n as a D*+de t! t,e tr*e Aat,? In t,e E*rFan 6%(8 %71 G!d a..+r-s1 92 this is a B$$; We ha:e sent d$wn t$ "$! s$ that "$! #an b in0 %an;ind ) $% the da ;ness t$ the (i0ht/ b" the pe %issi$n $) thei L$ d/ t$ the <ath $) the A(%i0ht"/ the < aisew$ th".9 T,!se 5,! bel+e"e +n +d!latr!*s rel+D+!*s l+0e B*dd,+s- s,!*ld real+Je t,at t,e ,a"e been -+sD*+ded8 +hat is .$d/ "$! L$ d/ the + !th/ and what is the e a)te t !th e=#ept %is0!idan#e> S$ h$w ha:e "$! been dist a#ted> 34! ?an/ 60: 328

BUDDHISM: AN ID,LA+R,US R&LI.I,N
Ab!*t 2900 ears aD!1 B*dd,+s- ar!se +n n!rt,east Ind+a and1 +n t+-e1 e<tended +ts +n.l*en/e t,r!*D,!*t Sr+ Lan0a1 B*r-a1 T,a+land1 La!s1 2a-A*/,ea1 3,+na1 HaAan1 T+bet1 M!nD!l+a1 Man/,*r+a1 2!rea1 and NeAal? T!da 1 +t ,as ab!*t 330 -+ll+!n .!ll!5ers? De.+n+t+!ns !. B*dd,+s- ,a"e al5a s "ar+ed1 al!nD 5+t, ,!5 B*dd,+sts *nderstand l+.eFs -ean+nD? ;!r s!-e1 B*dd,+s- +s a rel+D+!nL !t,ers reDard +t as a se/t !r s/,!!l !. A,+l!s!A, ? B*t .r!- +ts "+e5 !. l+.e and all +ts Ara/t+/es1 +t +s *lt+-atel /lear t,at t,e d!/tr+ne !. B*dd,+s- +s +d!latr!*s and s*Aerst+t+!*s? S+n/e B*dd,+s+s an at,e+st rel+D+!n t,at la/0s an bel+e. +n G!d1 +t als! re4e/ts t,e e<+sten/e !. anDels1 t,e eternal a.terl+.e1 Hell1 and t,e Da !. H*dD-ent? S+dd,art,a Ga*ta-a1 t,e .!*nder !. B*dd,+s-1 5as b!rn +n t,e Ind+an /+t !. 2aA+la"ast* and l+"ed bet5een 9:3 and ($3 B?3? At t,+s t+-e1 Ind+aFs d!-+nant rel+D+!n 5as Bra,-an+s-1 t,e rel+D+!n !. Ar an +n"aders? A//!rd+nD t! t,e Ar ansF r+D+d and *nbrea/,able /aste s ste-1 all !. s!/+et 5as d+"+ded +nt! .!*r Dr!*As1 ea/, !. 5,+/, +n t*rn 5as d+"+ded +nt! s*b /astes? Bra,-an Ar+ests .!r-ed t,e "er ,+D,est seD-ent !. s!/+et and t,e A+t+lessl !AAressed t,e Ae!Ale !. lesser stat*s? Ga*ta-a 5as b!rn t,e s!n !. a 5ealt, Ar+n/e b t,e na-e !. S*dd,!dana1 +n t,e n!ble Sa0 a .a-+l ? A.ter sAend+nD ,+s !*t, +n /!-.!rt and ease1 Ga*ta-a le.t t,e Aala/e at t,e aDe !. 2= and beDan a - st+/ sear/, t,at lasted *nt+l ,+s deat, at t,e aDe !. $0? D*r+nD ,+s l+.et+-e1 ,e establ+s,ed /erta+n Ar+n/+Ales t,at !"er t,e /!*rse !. t+-e1 e"!l"ed +nt! t,e d!/tr+ne 5e n!5 /all B*dd,+s-? T,e 5!rd B*dd,a -eans Kt,e a5a0ened1 !r enl+D,tened !ne1K s+Dn+. +nD t,e sA+r+t*al ,e+D,ts t,at S+dd,art,a Ga*ta-a +s s*AA!sed t! ,a"e atta+ned? T,!se B*dd,+st tea/,+nDs and te<ts t,at ,a"e /!-e d!5n t! *s d! n!t date .r!- t,e Aer+!d +n 5,+/, ,e l+"ed1 b*t 5ere 5r+tten d!5n bet5een 300 and (00 ears a.ter ,+s deat,? In t,e .!ll!5+nD AaDes !. t,+s b!!01 5e 5+ll e<a-+ne t,ese te<ts +n deta+l and 5e 5+ll see t,at t,e /!nta+n .alse bel+e.s1 Ara/t+/es t,at D! be !nd all l!D+/ and Aresent B*dd,a Aer"ersel as an +d!l t! be 5!rs,+AAed?

+h$se Wh$ Ass$#iate B!ddha with .$d
In +ts bas+/ bel+e.s1 A,+l!s!A, and Ara/t+/es1 t,+s rel+D+!n +s +d!latr!*s? B*dd,+sts ,!ld B*dd,a +n a ,e+D,tened sense !. l!"e1 deeA resAe/t and .ear1 e"en a//eAt+nD ,+- as a D!d? Alt,!*D, 5e ,a"e n! d!/*-ents .r!- B*dd,aFs t+-e t,at s*DDest t,at ,e *rDed ,+s .!ll!5ers t! 5!rs,+A ,+-L t,e Bra,-ans—5,! 5ere alread 5!rs,+AA+nD +d!ls—G*+/0l beDan t! -a0e stat*es !. S+dd,art,a? And +n t+-e1 t,!se 5,! n*rt*red an e</ess+"e l!"e t!5ards B*dd,a /a-e t! 5!rs,+A t,ese +d!ls and /!ns+der ,+- a D!d? H!5e"er1 all rel+D+!ns based !n G!dFs re"elat+!ns ad,ere t! a -!n!t,e+st+/ .a+t, t,at re/!Dn+Jes H+- as s+nDle and *n+G*e? In t,e E*rFan 6228 3(71 G!d states1 9Y$! .$d is ,ne .$d/ s$ s!b%it t$ Hi%.9 T! den t,e s*Are-a/ !. G!d and 5!rs,+A t,e +d!ls !. an !rd+nar Aers!n1 as t,e B*dd,+sts d!1 +s des/r+bed +n t,e E*rFan

as t! Kass!/+ate s!-et,+nD 5+t, G!d?K In ,*ndreds !. Ala/es +n t,e E*rFan1 G!d re-+nds *s t,at t,+s Kass!/+at+!nK +s a "er ser+!*s s+n? ;!r e<a-Ale8 .$d d$es n$t )$ 0i:e an"thin0 bein0 ass$#iated with Hi%/ b!t He )$ 0i:es wh$e:e He wi((s )$ an"thin0 $the than that. An"$ne wh$ ass$#iates s$%ethin0 with .$d has #$%%itted a te ib(e # i%e. 34! ?an/ @: @A8 T,e 5!rd Kass!/+ate1K !r shirk1 -eans Aartners,+A? T,e E*rFan *ses +t +n t,e sense !. ass!/+at+nD H+s /reat*res 5+t, H+-1 as +n treat+nD an t,+nD1 Aers!n1 !r an +dea as eG*al t! !r ,+D,er t,an G!d? T,e +d!later re"eres 5,ate"er +-aDe1 rel+/1 !r !b4e/t t,at ,e ass!/+ates 5+t, G!d -!re ,+D,l t,an ,e d!es G!d H+-sel.1 d+re/t+nD t!5ard +t all ,+s l!"e and resAe/t1 +nterest and ad!rat+!n? T,e E*rFan 6%98=:L%'8 3=L 9%8 9%7 re.ers t! t,+s Aer"erse 5a !. t,+n0+nD as Ksett+nD *A an!t,er D!d t!Det,er 5+t, G!d?K T,e Isla-+/ rel+D+!n +s based !n t,e bel+e. +n t,e !neness !. G!d 6 tawhid7? G!d !.ten reAeats t,e A,rase La ilahe illahu 6Kt,ere +s n! !t,er G!d b*t HeK71 5,+/, +s t,e .+rst /!nd+t+!n !. .a+t,? T,ere.!re1 t,e -!st bas+/ -ean+nD !. shirk +s de"+at+nD .r!- t,+s tr*t, +nt! t,e -+sta0en +dea t,at t,ere are !t,er be+nDs bes+des G!d 5,! A!ssess KA!5er and -+D,t?K In t,e E*rFan1 !*r L!rd -a0es H+-sel. 0n!5n b des/r+b+nD H+s attr+b*tes and tells *s +n -an "erses +n t,e E*rFan t,at t,ere +s n! !t,er D!d b*t He? In "erse 9=8 22&2(1 G!d re"eals H+s s*bl+-e na-es +n t,ese 5!rds8 He is .$dBthe e is n$ 0$d b!t Hi%. He is the Cn$we $) the Unseen and the Disib(e. He is the A((' Me #i)!(/ the M$st Me #i)!(. He is .$dBthe e is n$ 0$d b!t Hi%. He is the Cin0/ the M$st <! e/ the <e )e#t <ea#e/ the + !stw$ th"/ the Sa)e0!a de / the A(%i0ht"/ the -$%pe((e / the S!p e%e(" . eat. .($ " be t$ .$d ab$:e a(( the" ass$#iate with Hi%. He is .$dBthe - eat$ / the Ma;e / the .i:e $) E$ %. +$ Hi% be($n0 the M$st Bea!ti)!( Na%es. &:e "thin0 in the hea:ens and ea th 0($ i)ies Hi%. He is the A(%i0ht"/ the A(('Wise. G!d -an+.ests H+s attr+b*tes .!r ,*-an be+nDs t! Aer/e+"e? ;!r e<a-Ale1 He ,as endless -er/ and -an+.ests H+s attr+b*te as t,e KMer/+.*lK +n ,*-an be+nDs? H+s G*al+t+es /an be seen +n t,!se Ae!Ale1 alt,!*D, t,e d! n!t en4! t,ese G*al+t+es as a res*lt !. t,e+r !5n e..!rts !r -er+ts? B t,e-sel"es1 n! !t,er be+nDs /an A!ssess !r /reate t,e attr+b*tes !. G!d? T! assert t,at t,e d! ,a"e t,+s ab+l+t +s t! Kset *A an!t,er D!d t!Det,er 5+t, G!d?K L+0e B*dd,+sts1 t,e -a0e t,e -+sta0e !. ass!/+at+nD H+s /reat*res 5+t, G!d1 attr+b*t+nD s!-e !. H+s G*al+t+es t! !t,er1 lesser be+nDs? ;!r e<a-Ale1 G!d +s All&See+nD and 0n!5s K5,at +s e"en -!re /!n/ealed?K @,en s!-e!ne a/ts +n se/ret1 5+t, n! !ne ar!*nd1 bel+e"+nD t,at n! !ne sees ,+-1 !*r L!rd d!es see ,+- and 0n!5s e"er t,+nD t,at ,e d!es? He sees and 0n!5s e"er e"ent t,at ,aAAens +n t,e *n+"erse1 d!5n t! +ts s-allest deta+ls1 be/a*se He +s t,e Cne G!d @,! /reated t,e- all? In t,e E*rFan 6:8 %0371 G!d a..+r-s t,at1 9&"esi0ht #ann$t pe #ei:e Hi%/ b!t He pe #ei:es e"esi0ht. He is the A(('<enet atin0/ the A(('Awa e.9 @,ere"er a Aers!n +s1 +tFs abs!l*tel tr*e t,at G!d +s 5+t, ,+-? G!d 0n!5s 5,at !*Fre t,+n0+nD at t,+s "er -!-ent1 as !*Fre read+nD t,ese 5!rds? G!d tells *s t,at He sees *s 5,ere"er 5e are8 Y$! d$ n$t en0a0e in an" %atte $ e#ite an" $) the 4! ?an $ d$ an" a#ti$n with$!t ,! witnessin0 "$! whi(e "$! a e $##!pied with it. N$t e:en the s%a((est spe#; e(!des "$! L$ d/ eithe $n

ea th $ in hea:en. N$ is the e an"thin0 s%a((e than that/ $ (a 0e / whi#h is n$t in a -(ea B$$;. 34! ?an/ 60: F68 It is He Wh$ # eated the hea:ens and the ea th in si= da"s/ then estab(ished Hi%se() )i %(" $n the +h $ne. He ;n$ws what 0$es int$ the ea th and what #$%es $!t $) it/ what #$%es d$wn ) $% hea:en and what 0$es !p int$ it. He is with "$! whe e:e "$! a eB.$d sees what "$! d$. 34! ?an/ GH: @8 T,+s A!+nt re"eals B*dd,+stsF +d!latr!*s *nderstand+nD1 as d! -an !t,ers? B*dd,aFs .!ll!5ers reDard ,+as all&see+nD and all&0n!5+nD? T,e Ar!l+.erat+!n !. stat*es !. B*dd,a +n /!*ntr+es 5,ere +t +s t,e d!-+nant rel+D+!n1 and t,e e es !. B*dd,a Aa+nted !n e"er te-Ale all bear 5+tness t! B*dd,+stsF de"+ant bel+e. t,at B*dd,a sees t,e- at e"er -!-ent 5+t, ,+s e es -ade !. st!ne !r 5!!d1 and ,ears t,e- 5+t, ,+s 5!!den ears? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 t,e .+ll t,e+r ,!*ses 5+t, ,+s stat*es1 +n .r!nt !. 5,+/, t,e Aer.!r- a/ts !. re"eren/e? In t,+s1 t,e are a/t+nD /!ntrar t! +ntell+Den/e and /!--+tt+nD a Dra"e s+n? In t,e E*rFan 6'8 %=971 G!d tells *s t,at Ae!Ale 5,! ass!/+ate !t,ers 5+t, G!d are Dreatl de/e+"edL and t,at 5,ate"er t,+nDs t,e ,a"e -ade +nt! D!ds ,a"e n! A!5er !"er an t,+nD8 9D$ the" ha:e (e0s the" #an wa(; with> D$ the" ha:e hands the" #an 0 asp with> D$ the" ha:e e"es the" #an see with> D$ the" ha:e ea s the" #an hea with>9 Ne"er .!rDet1 K+d!latr K d!es n!t -ean !nl t,e 5!rs,+A !. -ater+al +d!ls? An !ne 5,! ,!n!rs an!t,er Aers!n .!r ,+s A!ssess+!ns1 t,+n0+nD t,at t,e bel!nD t! ,+- and der+"e .r!- s!-e A!5er !. ,+s !5n1 de+.+es t,at Aers!n1 n!t real+J+nD t,at t,ese trans+ent !b4e/ts are a test t,at G!d ,as A!sed .!r ,+-? As G!d 5arns +n t,e E*rFan 628 %:978 A%$n0 the pe$p(e a e th$se wh$ ta;e $the than .$d as eI!a(s Jt$ Hi%K/ ($:in0 the% as the" sh$!(d ($:e .$d. B!t th$se wh$ be(ie:e ha:e 0 eate ($:e )$ .$d. I) $n(" "$! #$!(d see th$se wh$ d$ w $n0 at the ti%e when the" see the p!nish%ent/ and that t !(" a(( st en0th be($n0s t$ .$d/ and that .$d is se:e e in p!nish%ent. B*dd,a 5as a A!5erless ser"ant 5,!- G!d /reated and tested +n t,+s 5!rldL ,e ,ad n! ab+l+t !r 5+ll !. ,+s !5n t! +n.l*en/e Ae!Ale? It 5as b G!dFs 5+ll t,at ,e sA!0e1 and ,e l+"ed t,e l+.e t,at G!d Da"e ,+-1 a//!rd+nD t! t,e .ate t,at G!d ,ad deter-+ned? Abra,a-Fs 6Aea/e be *A!n ,+-7 Ara er +n t,e E*rFan 62:8 '$&$27 e<Aresses -!st /learl t,e ,elAlessness !. ,*-an be+nDs be.!re G!dFs abs!l*te -+D,t8 He Wh$ # eated %e and 0!ides %eL He Wh$ 0i:es %e )$$d and 0i:es %e d in;L and when I a% i((/ it is He Wh$ hea(s %eL He Wh$ wi(( #a!se %" death/ then 0i:e %e (i)eL He Wh$ I sin#e e(" h$pe wi(( )$ 0i:e %" %ista;es $n the Da" $) Re#;$nin0. B*dd,a l+"ed t,e .ate t,at G!d ,ad !rda+ned .!r ,+-1 and 5,en ,+s t+-e /a-e1 ,e d+ed? It -*st n!t be .!rD!tten t,at aAart .r!- G!dFs 5+ll1 n! !ne /an ,a"e .a+t,L +t +s G!d @,! D*+des ,*-an be+nDs? Unless G!d 5+lls +t1 n! !ne /an D*+de an!t,er t! t,e r+D,t Aat,? ADa+n1 +t +s G!d @,! D*+des Ae!Ale t!5ard tr*t, and bea*t ? In"+tat+!ns and /!--*n+/at+!ns +n.l*en/e t,e ,*-an ,eart !nl +ns!.ar as G!d 5+lls +t? Indeed1 He +s t,e !nl abs!l*te A!5er t,at -*st be -aDn+.+ed1 ad!red and entreated .!r ,elA? As G!d ann!*n/ed t,+s tr*t, +n t,e E*rFan 6228 '(78 9+he" d$ n$t %eas! e .$d a##$ din0 t$ His t !e p$we . .$d is A(('St $n0/ A(%i0ht".9 T,e E*rFan D+"es a n*-ber !. e<a-Ales !. Ae!Ale 5,! 5!rs,+A +d!ls? As 4*st !ne e<a-Ale1 t,e A!l t,e+st Ae!Ale !. Abra,a- /ar"ed reAresentat+!ns !. t,e+r D!ds1 5!rs,+AAed t,e-1 and l+stened t! t,e+r /alls? In t,e E*rFan 62%8 92&9371 !*r L!rd relates8 9When he JAb aha%K said t$ his )athe and his pe$p(e/ ?What a e these stat!es "$! a e #(in0in0 t$>? the" said/ ?We )$!nd $! )athe s w$ shippin0 the%.? 9

As t,ese "erses s,!51 ,*-an be+nDs ,a"e ad!Ated t,+s 0+nd !. 5!rs,+A as an +n,er+tan/e t,at t,e+r an/est!rs ,a"e Aassed d!5n t! t,e-? T,*s +d!l 5!rs,+A1 n! -atter ,!5 +ll!D+/al1 /an be a 0+nd !. s!/+al a/t+"+t re-e-bered .r!- /,+ld,!!d and n!t reDarded as stranDe1 e"en +n t,e -!st -!dern s!/+et+es? In t,e E*rFan 62'8 2(&2971 G!d sa s t,at t,e Ae!Ale !. S,eba 6SabaF7 5ere +d!laters1 4*st l+0e t,e Ae!Ale !. Abra,a-8 I )$!nd b$th he Jthe 4!een $) ShebaK and he pe$p(e p $st atin0 t$ the s!n instead $) .$d. Satan has %ade thei a#ti$ns see% 0$$d t$ the% and deba ed the% ) $% the Wa" s$ the" a e n$t 0!ided and d$ n$t p $st ate t$ .$d/ Wh$ b in0s $!t what is hidden in the hea:ens and the ea th/ and ;n$ws what "$! #$n#ea( and what "$! di:!(0e. T,ese "erses dra5 !*r attent+!n t! an!t,er +-A!rtant A!+nt8 t,at Satan ,as -ade +d!latr!*s rel+D+!ns see"al+d and -ean+nD.*l t! Ae!Ale1 t! bar t,e- .r!- G!dFs @a ? Satan 0n!5s1 .!r e<a-Ale1 t,at t,e s*n +s n!t a D!d t! be 5!rs,+AAedL b*t a /reat+!n !. G!d l+0e all t,e rest !. t,e *n+"erse? In !t,er 5!rds1 e"er +d!latr!*s rel+D+!n t,at !AA!ses G!dFs re"elat+!n +s a/t*all based !n t,e re"elat+!ns !. Satan1 5,! d!es t,+s s! t,at -en and 5!-en 5+ll n!t Ar!strate t,e-sel"es be.!re G!d? An!t,er e<a-Ale !. +d!latr t,at G!d D+"es In t,e E*rFan /!n/erns t,e 3,+ldren !. Israel? @,+le t,e 5ere es/aA+nD ),ara!, and ,+s Ae!Ale 5+t, M!ses 6Aea/e be *A!n ,+-71 t,e -et a Ae!Ale t,at 5!rs,+AAed +d!ls and t,e 5anted M!ses t! -a0e t,e- a s+-+lar +d!l? In t,e E*rFan 6'8 %3$&%3=71 G!d tells ab!*t t,+s8 We #$n:e"ed the t ibe $) Is ae( a# $ss the sea/ and the" #a%e !p$n s$%e pe$p(e wh$ we e de:$tin0 the%se(:es t$ s$%e id$(s that the" had. +he" said/ 9M$ses/ 0i:e !s a 0$d M!st as these pe$p(e ha:e 0$ds.9 He said/ 9Y$! a e indeed an i0n$ ant pe$p(e. What these pe$p(e a e d$in0 is destined )$ dest !#ti$n. What the" a e d$in0 is p! p$se(ess.9 ;r!- t,+s a//!*nt1 5e see t,at t,e 3,+ldren !. Israel1 a/t+nD +n +Dn!ran/e1 5anted a D!d t,e /!*ld see 5+t, t,e+r e es1 be.!re 5,+/, t,e /!*ld b!5 d!5n and Aer,aAs Aer.!r- elab!rate /ere-!n+es? T,+s +nd+/ates t,e d+d n!t /!n/e+"e !.1 -*/, less aAAre/+ate1 G!dFs -+D,t? Alt,!*D, M!ses e<Ala+ned t,e tr*t, t! t,e-1 as s!!n as ,e le.t t,e-1 t,e -ade t,e-sel"es an +d!l—a Dreat Aer"ers+!n? In t,e E*rFan 6'8 %($&%(=71 G!d tells *s t,at +--ed+atel a.ter1 reDret !"er/a-e t,e-8 A)te he (e)t/ M$ses?s pe$p(e ad$pted a #a() %ade ) $% thei $ na%ents/ a )$ % whi#h %ade a ($win0 s$!nd. Did the" n$t see that it #$!(d n$t spea; t$ the% $ 0!ide the% t$ an" wa"> +he" ad$pted it/ and s$ the" we e w $n0d$e s. When the" t$$; )!(( st$#; $) what the" had d$ne and saw the" had been %is(ed/ the" said/ 9I) $! L$ d d$es n$t ha:e %e #" $n !s and )$ 0i:e !s/ we wi(( #e tain(" be a%$n0 the ($st.9 B*t t! t,!se 5,! ,ad -ade t,e /al. +nt! a D!d1 G!d Da"e t,+s ans5er 6E*rFan1 '8 %9278 As )$ th$se wh$ ad$pted the -a()/ an0e ) $% thei L$ d wi(( $:e ta;e the% t$0ethe with abase%ent in the (i)e $) this w$ (d. +hat is h$w we epa" the p! :e"$ s $) )a(seh$$d. T,e ab!"e "erses s,!5 t,at +. G!d 5+lls1 He /an .!rD+"e !r A*n+s, t,!se 5,! ass!/+ate H+s /reat*res 5+t, H+-? T,!se 5,! d! s! are a/t*all .abr+/at+nD .alse,!!d1 s+n/e t,e e"+dent tr*t, +s t,at t,ere +s !nl !ne G!d? T! b!5 be.!re t,ese +n"ented D!ds +s a terr+ble /r+-e aDa+nst G!d? As stated +n t,e E*rFan 6(8 ($71 G!d -a .!rD+"e t,!se 5,! /!--+t e"er !t,er s+n and err!r1 b*t ne"er !ne 5,! ass!/+ates H+s /reat*res 5+t, H+-8 .$d d$es n$t )$ 0i:e an"thin0 bein0 ass$#iated with Hi% b!t He )$ 0i:es wh$e:e He wi((s )$ an"thin0 $the than that. An"$ne wh$ ass$#iates s$%ethin0 with .$d has #$%%itted a te ib(e # i%e.

+he e is N$ Deit" &=#ept .$d
T,e bas+s !. Isla- +s t,e 0n!5ledDe t,at G!d e<+sts1 and t,e *nderstand+nD t,at t,ere +s n! D!d b*t H+-? In t,e E*rFan1 t,e d+"+ne s!*r/e !. Isla-1 G!d tells *s 628 %:37 t,at t,+s +s t,e Dreatest .!*ndat+!n !. rel+D+!n8 9Y$! .$d is .$d A($ne. +he e is n$ deit" e=#ept Hi%/ the A(('Me #i)!(/ the M$st Me #i)!(.9 Indeed1 t,ere +s !nl !ne Abs!l*te Be+nD1 and e"er t,+nD else +s H+s /reat+!n? G!d -ade t,e *n+"erse 5e l+"e +n and1 be.!re He /reated +t1 n! -ater+al t,+nD e<+sted? N!t,+nD1 an+-ate !r +nan+-ate1 ,ad been br!*D,t +nt! e<+sten/eL t,ere 5as n!t,+nD b*t a /!-Alete "!+d? T,e -!-ent t,e *n+"erse 5as /reated1 !nl t,en d+d t+-e1 sAa/e and -atter /!-e +nt! be+nD1 /reated b t,e Eternal G!d @,! +s n!t s*b4e/t t! an !. t,e-? In !ne "erse 628 %%'7 !. t,e E*rFan1 G!d sAea0s !. H+-sel. as t,e .la5less 3reat!r !. t,e *n+"erse8 JHe isK +he , i0inat$ $) the hea:ens and ea th. When He de#ides $n s$%ethin0/ He M!st sa"s t$ it/ 9BeN9 and it is. G!d /reates e"er t,+nD t,at +s ,aAAen+nD at t,+s -!-ent1 and e"er -!-ent? G!d /!nstantl /reates e"er ra+n dr!A t,at .alls1 e"er /,+ld 5,! +s b!rn1 t,e A,!t!s nt,es+s !//*rr+nD +n lea"es1 t,e .*n/t+!ns !. l+"+nD b!d+es1 t,e /!*rses !. t,e stars +n t,e+r Dala<+es1 e"er seed t,at sAr!*ts1 all 5e 0n!5 and e"er t,+nD 5e d! n!t? E"er t,+nD +n t,e *n+"erse1 Dreat and s-all1 .*n/t+!ns a//!rd+nD t! H+s /!--and 6E*rFan1 2'8 :(78 He Wh$ $ i0inates # eati$n and then e0ene ates it and p $:ides )$ "$! ) $% $!t $) hea:en and ea th. Is the e an$the 0$d besides .$d> Sa": 9B in0 "$! p $$) i) "$! a e bein0 t !th)!(.9 ;r!- t,e /ells !. l+"+nD t,+nDs t! t,e stars +n t,e *n+"erse1 all s ste-s e<+st +n 5!nder.*l !rder and .*n/t+!n Aer.e/tl ? T,+s a-aJ+nD !rder1 /!ntr!lled at e"er -!-ent1 /!nt+n*es +n Aer.e/t ,ar-!n be/a*se !*r L!rd e-bra/es all e<+st+nD t,+nDs 5+t, H+s eternal 0n!5ledDe 6E*rFan1 :'8 3&(78 He # eated the se:en hea:ens in (a"e s. Y$! wi(( n$t )ind an" )(aw in the # eati$n $) the A((' Me #i)!(. L$$; a0ainBd$ "$! see an" 0aps> +hen ($$; a0ain and a0ain. Y$! si0ht wi(( et! n t$ "$! daOO(ed and e=ha!stedN T! re4e/t G!d as 3reat!r and t! attr+b*te /!ns/+!*sness t! an !. t,e !b4e/ts He ,as /reated s,!5s a Dreat la/0 !. +ntell+Den/e? T,e 5!nder.*l !rder +n t,e *n+"erse and t,e .la5less des+Dn +n all l+"+nD t,+nDs s,!5 *s t,at !ne 3reat!r /reated t,e- all? In !ne "erse 6238 =%71 G!d ann!*n/ed t,at t,ere +s n! !t,er D!d bes+des H+-1 and t,at n! !t,er e<+st+nD t,+nD +n t,e *n+"erse A!ssesses A!5er1 aAart .r!- H+-8 .$d has n$ s$n/ and the e is n$ $the 0$d a##$%pan"in0 Hi%/ )$ then ea#h 0$d w$!(d ha:e 0$ne $)) with what He # eated/ and $ne $) the% w$!(d ha:e been e=a(ted ab$:e the $the . .($ " be t$ .$d ab$:e what the" des# ibe. G!d +s e"er 5,ere and en/!-Aasses all t,+nDs? He +s t,e !ne tr*e1 abs!l*te Be+nD1 and all t,+nDs !be H+s 5+ll? G!d +s +n e"er -!-ent and +n e"er Ala/e? T,ere +s n! Ala/e 5,ere He +s n!tL n! l+"+nD t,+nD e<+sts t,at +s be !nd H+s /!ntr!l? He +s All&s*..+/+ent and .ree .r!- all 5ea0ness 6E*rFan1 28 29978 .$d/ the e is n$ 0$d b!t Hi%/ the Li:in0/ the Se()'S!stainin0. He is n$t s!bMe#t t$ d $wsiness $ s(eep. &:e "thin0 in the hea:ens and the ea th be($n0s t$ Hi%. Wh$ #an inte #ede with Hi% e=#ept b" His pe %issi$n> He ;n$ws what is be)$ e the% and what is behind the% b!t the" #ann$t 0 asp an" $) His ;n$w(ed0e sa:e what He wi((s. His E$$tst$$( en#$%passes the hea:ens and the ea th and thei p ese :ati$n d$es n$t ti e Hi%. He is the M$st Hi0h/ the Ma0ni)i#ent.

BUDDHISM5S &RR,N&,US B&LI&ES
T,e err!ne!*s bel+e.s !. B*dd,+s- "ar Dreatl .r!- /!*ntr t! /!*ntr 1 be/a*se !"er t,e Aast 2900 ears1 t,+s rel+D+!n ,as -+nDled 5+t, t,e "ar+!*s l!/al rel+D+!ns1 /*st!-s1 and establ+s,ed /*lt*res !. /!*ntr+es +nt! 5,+/, +t ,as sAread? T!da 1 t,e "ar+et+es !. B*dd,+s- Ara/t+/ed +n HaAan1 3,+na1 T+bet1 Sr+ Lan0a1 V+etnaand A-er+/a are all G*+te d+..erent .r!- !ne an!t,er? As ,+st!r+/al s!*r/es s,!51 B*dd,a al5a s /,!se t! sAea0 ab!*t ,+s bas+/ tenets and del+"er ,+s 5a !. 5!rs,+A !rall L /ent*r+es !. resear/, ,as deter-+ned t,at ,e le.t be,+nd n! 5r+tten te<ts? B*dd,+sts -a+nta+n t,at ,+s ser-!ns 5ere Aassed d!5n !rall .r!- Denerat+!n t! Denerat+!n .!r (00 ears1 *nt+l t,e 5ere .+nall /!-A+led +n t,e )al+ /an!n? H!5e"er1 -!st s/,!lars bel+e"e t,at t,e Dreat -a4!r+t !. t,ese 5!rds are n!t B*dd,aFs at all1 b*t 5ere added t! +n t,e /!*rse !. /ent*r+es *nt+l t,e atta+ned t,e+r Aresent .!r-? T,ere.!re B*dd,+s-1 n!t rel +nD !n an 5r+tten te<ts1 *nder5ent -an /,anDes and d+st!rt+!ns !"er t,e /!*rse !. t+-e1 be+nD /!ns+derabl res,aAed b add+t+!ns and !-+ss+!ns? T!da 1 B*dd,+s-Fs ,!l b!!01 5r+tten +n t,e )al+ lanD*aDe1 +s /alled t,e T+A+ta0a1 5,+/, -eans Ktr+Ale bas0et?K It +s n!t 0n!5n .!r s*re 5,en t,e T+A+ta0a 5as 5r+tten d!5n1 b*t +t +s t,!*D,t t! ,a"e atta+ned +ts Aresent s,aAe +n Sr+ Lan0a s!-et+-e +n t,e .+rst /ent*r B?3? Its te<ts are d+"+ded +nt! t,e .!ll!5+nD /,aAters8 %? Vinaya itaka8 T,+s /,aAter1 -ean+nD KBas0et !. D+s/+Al+ne1K /!nta+ns r*les rele"ant t! Ar+ests and n*ns and ,!5 t,e s,!*ld be .!ll!5ed? T,ere are als! s!-e -atters !. rele"an/e t! t,!se la readers 5,! are n!t Ar+ests !r n*ns? 2? !utta itaka8 M!st !. t,+s "!l*-e +s /!-A!sed !. tal0s +n 5,+/, B*dd,a e<Ala+ned ,+s +deas? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 t,+s /,aAter +s /alled t,e KBas0et !. D+s/!*rse?K T,ese 5!rds !. ,+s 5ere Aassed d!5n t,r!*D, t,e /ent*r+es1 be/!-+nD -+<ed 5+t, !t,er leDends and .alse bel+e.s? 3? "bhidha##a itaka8 T,+s "!l*-e /!nta+ns B*dd,+st A,+l!s!A, and +nterAretat+!ns !. B*dd,aFs ser-!ns? T!da Fs B*dd,+st Ar+ests reDard t,ese te<ts as ,!l L t,e 5!rs,+A and !rDan+Je t,e+r l+"es a//!rd+nD t! t,e-? T,e A!rtra B*dd,a as an a/t*al D!d 6G!d +s s*rel be !nd t,atM71 and .!r t,+s reas!n1 -!dern B*dd,+sts b!5 be.!re ,+s stat*es1 Ala/e be.!re t,e- !..er+nDs !. .!!d and .l!5ers1 and e<Ae/t ,elA .r!- t,e-? T,+s +s a /!-Aletel +ll!D+/al Ara/t+/e1 ,!5e"er1 and an !ne 5,! bel+e"es t,at st!ne !r br!nJe stat*es /an ,ear !r ,elA +s Dreatl de/e+"ed? Later +n t,+s b!!01 5e e<a-+ne t,ese bas+/all AaDan Ara/t+/es +n -!re deta+l1 and see ,!5 B*dd,+s- ,as be/!-e a se/ret d!/tr+ne /!n/entrat+nD !n ,*-an be+nDs 5+t,!*t a//!*nt+nD .!r G*est+!ns !. ,!5 t,+s 5!rldFs .la5less s ste-s .*n/t+!n1 -*/, less ,!5 t,e ent+re *n+"erse /a-e t! be?

An Atheisti# Re(i0i$n
B*dd,+st A,+l!s!A, den+es t,e e<+sten/e !. G!d1 b*t bases +tsel. !n a .e5 asAe/ts !. ,*-an -!ral+t and !n es/aA+nD .r!- s*..er+nDs !. t,+s 5!rld? @+t,!*t an +ntelle/t*al !r s/+ent+.+/ s*AA!rt1 +t rests *A!n t,e t5+n /!n/eAts !. 0ar-a and re+n/arnat+!n—t,e +dea t,at ,*-an be+nDs are /!nt+n*all reb!rn +nt! t,+s 5!rld1 t,at t,e+r s*bseG*ent l+"es are s,aAed b t,e+r be,a"+!r +n t,e+r Are"+!*s !nes? N! B*dd,+st s/r+At*re /!ns+ders t,e

e<+sten/e !. a 3reat!r1 -*/, less ,!5 t,e *n+"erse1 t,e 5!rld and l+"+nD t,+nDs /a-e t! be? N! B*dd,+st te<t des/r+bes ,!5 t,e *n+"erse 5as /reated .r!- n!t,+nDL !r ,!5 l+"+nD t,+nDs /a-e +nt! be+nDL !r ,!5 t! e<Ala+n t,e e"+den/e1 t! be seen e"er 5,ere +n t,+s 5!rld1 !. an +n/!-Aarable /reat+!n? A//!rd+nD t! t,e B*dd,+st de/eAt+!n1 +t +s n!t e"en ne/essar t! t,+n0 ab!*t t,ese t,+nDsM T,e !nl +-A!rtant t,+nD +n l+.e1 B*dd,+st te<ts /la+-1 +s s*AAress+nD des+res1 re"er+nD B*dd,a1 and es/aA+nD .r!- s*..er+nD? As a rel+D+!n1 t,ere.!re1 B*dd,+s- s*..ers .r!- a "er narr!5 "+s+!n t,at 0eeAs +ts bel+e"ers .r!/!ns+der+nD s*/, bas+/ G*est+!ns as 5,ere t,e /a-e .r!-1 !r ,!5 t,e *n+"erse and all l+"+nD t,+nDs /a-e t! be? Indeed1 +t deters t,e- .r!- e"en t,+n0+nD ab!*t t,ese t,+nDs and Aresses t,e- +nt! t,e narr!5 -!ld !. t,e+r Aresent eart,l l+.e?

An ,pp essi:e/ &ns(a:in0 Re(i0i$n
B*dd,+s-Fs atte-At t! n*ll+. all ,*-an des+res +s an!t,er asAe/t !. +ts narr!5 A,+l!s!A, ? G!d /reated t,e bless+nDs !. t,+s 5!rld .!r ,*-an be+nDsF bene.+t and Aleas*re1 and s! t,at t,e 5!*ld D+"e H+- t,an0s +n ret*rn? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 Isla- d!es n!t /!--and Ae!Ale t! s*AAress t,e+r des+res !r t! end*re Aa+n and s*..er+nD? Cn t,e /!ntrar 1 +t en4!+ns t,e- t! ta0e ad"antaDe !. t,e bea*t+.*l asAe/ts +n t,e 5!rld 6aAart .r!- base and *nla5.*l be,a"+!r71 n!t t! restra+n t,e-sel"es needlessl 1 n!r t! +n.l+/t Aa+n *A!n t,e-sel"es? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 G!d re"ealed 6E*rFan1 '8 %9'7 t,at t,e )r!A,et M*,a--ad 6Aea/e be *A!n ,+-7 ,ad Krel+e"ed ,+s .!ll!5ers !. t,e+r /,a+nsK8 +h$se wh$ )$(($w the Messen0e / the U%%i/ wh$% the" )ind w itten d$wn with the% in the +$ ah and the .$spe(/ #$%%andin0 the% t$ d$ i0ht and )$ biddin0 the% t$ d$ w $n0/ %a;in0 0$$d thin0s (aw)!( )$ the% and bad thin0s !n(aw)!( )$ the%/ e(ie:in0 the% $) thei hea:" ($ads and the #hains whi#h we e a $!nd the%. +h$se wh$ be(ie:e in hi% and h$n$ hi% and he(p hi%/ and )$(($w the Li0ht that has been sent d$wn with hi%/ the" a e the $nes wh$ a e s!##ess)!(. In s,!rt1 Isla- +s a l+berat+nD rel+D+!n t,at sa"es Ae!Ale .r!- *seless /*st!-s and Ar!,+b+t+!ns1 s!/+al Aress*res and 5!rr+es ab!*t 5,at !t,er Ae!Ale -a t,+n0? It /alls t,e- t! lead /al-1 Aea/e.*l l+"es 5+t, t,e A*rA!se !. Da+n+nD G!dFs aAAr!"al? S! +t +s t,at !*r )r!A,et 6-a G!d bless ,+- and Drant ,+- Aea/e71 +n -an !. ,+s sa +nDs1 ad"+ses *s t! -a0e rel+D+!n s+-Ale and eas ? $Make things easy for the %eo%le& and do not #ake it diffi'ult for the#& and #ake the# 'al# (with glad % tidings) and do not re%ulse (the#)*$ $You ha+e been sent to #ake things easy (for the %eo%le) and you ha+e not been sent to #ake things 2 diffi'ult for the#*$ B*dd,+s- ensla"es +ts de"!tees +n -+st -!naster+es and .!r/es t,e- +nt! a l+.e !. s*..er+nD and A!"ert ? StranDel 1 +t d+s/!*raDes D!!d .!!d1 /leanl+ness1 /!-.!rt—t,e bless+nDs t,at G!d ,as /reated .!r ,*-an be+nDs —a//eAts s*..er+nD as a "+rt*e and ad"+ses +ts de"!tees t! lead a -+serable l+.e? ;!r B*dd,+st -!n0s and n*ns1 l+.e +s .*ll !. all 0+nds !. d+..+/*lt+es? T,e are .!rb+dden t! 5!r0 !r !5n Ar!Aert 1 !bl+Ded t! .eed t,e-sel"es b D!+nD .r!- d!!r t! d!!r and beDD+nD a-!nD t,e Ae!Ale1 5+t, t,e+r b!5ls +n t,e+r ,ands? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 B*dd,+st Ar+ests are e"en /alled bhikkhus 6beDDars7 b t,e Ae!Ale?

B*dd,+st Ar+ests are .!rb+dden t! -arr !r ,a"e an 0+nd !. .a-+l l+.eL t,e -a !5n !nl !ne r!be1 5,+/, -*st be !. A!!r G*al+t ell!5 !r red /l!t,? Bes+des t,+s r!be1 t,e+r !nl !t,er A!ssess+!ns +n/l*de a ,ard bed t! sleeA !n1 a raJ!r t! s,a"e t,e+r ,eads 5+t,1 a needle /ase .!r t,e+r !5n *se1 a 5ater b!ttle and a b!5l t! beD 5+t,? T,e eat !nl !ne -eal a da 1 Denerall /!ns+st+nD !. bread and r+/e .la"!red 5+t, sA+/es1 and dr+n0 e+t,er 5ater !r r+/e -+l0? T,e -*st .+n+s, t,+s .!!d be.!re n!!n and are n!t all!5ed t! eat an t,+nD *nt+l t,e ne<t da ? Ct,er .!!ds1 e"en -ed+/+nes1 are reDarded as .!rb+dden l*<*r+es? A Ar+est -a eat -eat1 .+s, !r "eDetables !nl +. ,e +s s+/0 and t,en1 !nl 5+t, t,e Aer-+ss+!n !. a ,+D,er&ran0+nD Ar+est? In s,!rt1 B*dd,+st str+/t*res are a .!r- !. sel.&t!rt*re? T,+s s+t*at+!n +s a -an+.estat+!n !. t,e tr*t, !. t,e "erse +n t,e E*rFan 6%08 ((7 t,at reads1 9.$d d$es n$t w $n0 pe$p(e in an" wa"L athe it is pe$p(e wh$ w $n0 the%se(:es.9 B*t t! t,!se 5,! bel+e"e +n H+- and s*b-+t t,e-sel"es t! H+-1 G!d Ar!-+ses a "er D!!d l+.e1 b!t, +n t,+s 5!rld and t,e 5!rld t! /!-e? T! t,ebel!nD b!t, t,e bless+nDs !. t,+s 5!rld and t,!se !. t,e a.terl+.e? A//!rd+nD t! t,e E*rFan 6'8 3278 Sa": 9Wh$ has )$ bidden the )ine #($thin0 .$d has p $d!#ed )$ His se :ants and the 0$$d ;inds $) p $:isi$n>9 Sa": 9,n the Da" $) Risin0/ s!#h thin0s wi(( be e=#(!si:e(" )$ th$se wh$ be(ie:ed d! in0 thei (i)e in this w$ (d.9 In this wa"/ We %a;e the Si0ns #(ea )$ pe$p(e wh$ ;n$w. An!t,er dar0 asAe/t !. B*dd,+s- +s +ts Aess+-+s-? T,e Kn+r"anaK +t Ar!-+ses t! +ts bel+e"ers +s n!t,+nD less t,an a s/,+J!A,ren+/ brea0+nD !. all /!nne/t+!ns 5+t, l+.e b a -elan/,!l+/ -+nd t,at ta0es a d+- "+e5 !. t,e 5!rld? The ,atholi' En'y'lo%edia des/r+bes t,+s asAe/t !. B*dd,+s- +n t,ese 5!rds8 An!t,er .atal de.e/t !. B*dd,+s- +s +ts .alse Aess+-+s-? A str!nD and ,ealt, -+nd re"!lts aDa+nst t,e -!rb+d "+e5 t,at l+.e +s n!t 5!rt, l+"+nD1 t,at e"er .!r- !. /!ns/+!*s e<+sten/e +s an e"+l? B*dd,+s- stands /!nde-ned b t,e "!+/e !. nat*re t,e d!-+nant t!ne !. 5,+/, +s ,!Ae and 4! ? It +s a Ar!test aDa+nst nat*re .!r A!ssess+nD t,e Aer.e/t+!n !. rat+!nal l+.e? T,e ,+D,est a-b+t+!n !. B*dd,+s- +s t! destr! t,at Aer.e/t+!n b br+nD+nD all l+"+nD be+nDs t! t,e *n/!ns/+!*s reA!se !. N+r"ana? B*dd,+s- +s t,*s D*+lt !. a /aA+tal /r+-e aDa+nst nat*re1 and +n /!nseG*en/e d!es +n4*st+/e t! t,e +nd+"+d*al? All leD+t+-ate des+res -*st be reAressed? Inn!/ent re/reat+!ns are /!nde-ned? T,e /*lt+"at+!n !. -*s+/ +s .!rb+dden? Resear/,es +n nat*ral s/+en/e are d+s/!*ntenan/ed? T,e de"el!A-ent !. t,e -+nd +s l+-+ted t! t,e -e-!r+J+nD !. B*dd,+st te<ts and t,e st*d !. B*dd,+st -etaA, s+/s1 !nl a -+n+-*- !. 5,+/, +s !. an "al*e? T,e B*dd,+st +deal !n eart, +s a state !. 3 Aass+"e +nd+..eren/e t! e"er t,+nD? Isla- d!es n!t -a0e +ts ad,erents +nd+..erentL !n t,e /!ntrar 1 +t /alls t,e- t! l+"el+ness1 a/t+"+t 1 and 4! ? All t,!se 5,! ad!At t,e tea/,+nDs !. Isla- are "er sens+t+"e t! 5,at D!es !n ar!*nd t,e-? T,e d! n!t reDard t,e 5!rld as B*dd,+s- d!es1 as /,a!s t! a"ert t,e e es .r!-1 b*t as a test+nD Ala/e—an arena +n 5,+/, t,e /an A*t t,e ,+D, -!ral tea/,+nDs !. t,e E*rFan +nt! Ara/t+/e? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 Isla-+/ ,+st!r +s .*ll !. 4*st and s*//ess.*l leaders 5,! ens*red /!-.!rtable and ,aAA l+"es .!r t,e+r Ae!Ale? In s,arA /!ntrast1 B*dd,+sAr!d*/es !nl 5ret/,ed ad,erents 5,! /a*se t,e-sel"es s*..er+nD1 draD t,e-sel"es and !t,ers +nt! Aass+"+t and A!"ert 1 and 5,!se !nl s!l*t+!n t! t,e Ar!ble-s t,e en/!*nter +s t! +--!late t,e-sel"es? T,+s +s !ne !. t,e b+DDest Da-es t,at Satan Ala s 5+t, Ae!Ale?

A <a0an Re(i0i$n
B*dd,+s- +s a AaDan rel+D+!n1 +nas-*/, as +t 5!rs,+As +d!ls? It +s sa+d t,at t!da Fs B*dd,+s- ,as been d+"+ded +nt! d+..erent s/,!!ls1 and t,at 5!rs,+A !. B*dd,a /,ara/ter+Jes !nl s!-e !. t,e-? B*t e"en t! a//eAt B*dd,+s- as an +n.all+ble D*+de—an err!r t,at all s/,!!ls !. B*dd,+s- .all +nt!—+s an +nd+/at+!n t,at t,+s rel+D+!n "+e5s B*dd,a as a D!d? A//!rd+nD t! ,+st!r+/al s!*r/es1 B*dd,+st Ar+ests beDan t! de+. B*dd,a s,!rtl a.ter ,+s deat,? Stat*es !. ,+- 5ere ere/ted e"er 5,ere1 and t,e Aer"erse bel+e. Da+ned strenDt, t,at N+r"ana ,ad a/t*all ta0en s,aAe +n ,+s b!d and 5as e-b!d+ed +n t,ese stat*es? T,e e</ess+"e resAe/t t,at B*dd,+st Ar+ests Aa+d t! B*dd,a later t*rned +nt! !*tr+D,t 5!rs,+A? T!da 1 D+ant stat*es !. ,+- ad!rn e"er /!*ntr 5,ere B*dd,+s- +s t,e d!-+nant rel+D+!n? In -an /!*ntr+es .r!- As+a t! A-er+/a1 !* /an see stat*es and te-Ales 5+t, B*dd,aFs e es Aa+nted !n t,e-—aDa+n1 s*DDest+nD t,e -essaDe t,at B*dd,a sees e"er t,+nD and 5at/,es Ae!Ale /!nstantl 1 and t,at t,e s,!*ld be t,+n0+nD !. ,+- e"er -+n*te !. t,e+r l+"es? 3learl 1 +tFs a /!-Aletel *ntenable bel+e. t,at s!-e!ne 5,! d+ed t,!*sands !. ears aD! /an st+ll see t,!se 5,! bel+e"e +n ,+-1 Ar!te/t t,e-1 and l+sten t! t,e+r Ara ers? T,e bas+/ tr*t, t,at B*dd,+sts are *nable t! DrasA +s t,at G!d1 L!rd !. all t,e @!rlds1 @,! en/!-Aasses e"er t,+nD and 0n!5s t,e deeAest ,+dden se/rets !. all t,+nDs1 /reated B*dd,a1 l+0e all ,*-an be+nDs?

Be(ie) in Ca %a
T,e d!/tr+ne !. 0ar-a s*AA!ses t,at e"er t,+nD a Aers!n d!es 5+ll ,a"e +ts e..e/t !n ,+- s!!ner !r later1 and 5+ll ,a"e a bear+nD !n ,+s s!&/alled ne<t +n/arnat+!n? A//!rd+nD t! t,+s bel+e.1 Ae!Ale are /!nt+n*all reb!rn +nt! t,+s 5!rld1 5,ere t,e -*st bear t,e /!nseG*en/es +n t,at later l+.e !. 5,at t,e d+d +n a .!r-er !ne? B*dd,+s- den+es t,e e<+sten/e !. G!d and bel+e"es t,at 0ar-a +s t,e *n+G*e A!5er t,at D!"erns e"er t,+nD? 2ar-a +s a Sans0r+t 5!rd t,at -eans Ka/t1K and re.ers t! t,e la5 !. /a*se and e..e/t? A//!rd+nD t! t,!se 5,! bel+e"e +n +t1 a Aers!n 5+ll e<Aer+en/e +n t,e .*t*re 5,at ,e ,as d!ne +n t,e Aast1 .!r D!!d !r +ll? T,e Aast +s !neFs .!r-er l+.eL t,e .*t*re +s s*AA!sed t! be a ne5 l+.e t,e 5+ll beD+n a.ter deat,? A//!rd+nD t! t,+s bel+e.1 an !ne 5,! +s A!!r +n t,+s l+.e +s Aa +nD 5+t, ,+s A!"ert t,e Ar+/e .!r e"+l t,at ,e /!--+tted +n s!-e .!r-er l+.e? T,+s s*Aerst+t+!*s bel+e. als! /la+-s t,at +n a later l+.e1 an e"+l Aers!n -a be Kde-!tedK t! reb+rt, as an an+-al !r e"en a Alant? Cne ,ar-.*l res*lt !. bel+e"+nD +n 0ar-a +s t,at +t tea/,es t,at Aresent ,elAlessness1 A!"ert and 5ea0ness are A*n+s,-ents .!r a Aers!nFs -!ral e"+ls? A//!rd+nD t! t,+s bel+e. s ste-1 +. a Aers!n +s d+sabled1 +tFs be/a*se ,e ,as +n.l+/ted a s+-+lar +n4*r !n s!-e!ne else +n a .!r-er l+.e and t,ere.!re deser"es +t? T,+s s*Aerst+t+!*s bel+e. +s t,e -a+n reas!n 5, t,e *n4*st s!/+al str*/t*re !. t,e /aste s ste- d!-+nated Ind+a .!r s! -an /ent*r+es? 6It -*st be re-e-bered t,at 0ar-a +s a H+nd* +dea1 and B*dd,+s- a/t*all ar!se .r!H+nd*+s-?7 Be/a*se t,e /aste s ste- 5as based !n 0ar-a1 t,e A!!r1 s+/0 and d+sabled 5+t,+n Ind+a 5ere desA+sed and !AAressed? T,e 5ealt, ,+D,&/aste r*l+nD /lass reDarded t,e+r !5n Ar+"+leDes as nat*ral and 4*st? In Isla-1 ,!5e"er1 be+nD 5ea0 +s n!t a retr+b*t+!nL +t +s a//eAted as a test .r!- G!d? ;*rt,er-!re1 !t,er Ae!Ale ,a"e t,e "er +-A!rtant d*t !. ,elA+nD t,!se 5,! are +n need? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 Isla-—l+0e H*da+s- and

3,r+st+an+t 1 !t,er rel+D+!ns based !n d+"+ne re"elat+!n b*t t,at 5ere later altered—,as a "er str!nD sense !. s!/+al 4*st+/e? B*t 0ar-a&based rel+D+!ns l+0e B*dd,+s- and H+nd*+s- t!lerate +neG*al+t and A!se a Dreat !bsta/le t! s!/+al Ar!Dress? 2ar-a +s based !n t,e bel+e. +n re+n/arnat+!n8 t,e +dea t,at Ae!Ale /!-e ba/0 +nt! t,e 5!rld 5+t, t,e sa-e sA+r+t b*t +n a d+..erent b!d ? T,+s +dea !. a K5,eel !. reb+rt,K s*AA!ses t,at e"er l+.e +n.l*en/es a s*bseG*ent !ne? B*t t,+s bel+e. .a+ls 5+t, !ne s+nDle G*est+!n8 ,!5 d!es t,+s 0ar-a !AerateI I. B*dd,+s- d!esnFt a//eAt t,e e<+sten/e !. G!d1 t,en 5,! 4*dDes a Aers!nFs .!r-er l+.e and sends ,+- ba/0 +nt! t,e 5!rld +n a ne5 b!d I T,+s G*est+!n ,as n! ans5erM B*dd,+sts bel+e"e t,at 0ar-a +s a Knat*ral la5K t,at .*n/t+!ns b +tsel.1 sA!ntane!*sl 1 l+0e Dra"+t !r t,er-!d na-+/s? H!5e"er1 +t +s G!d @,! /reated all nat*ral la5s? N! nat*ral la5 !bser"es 5,at Ae!Ale d! t,r!*D,!*t t,e+r l+"es1 0eeAs an a//!*nt1 and 4*dDes t,e- a.ter deat, !n t,at bas+s? N! nat*ral la5 deter-+nes1 as a res*lt !. t,+s 4*dD-ent1 5,at 0+nd !. ne5 l+.e a Aers!n 5+ll ,a"e and re&/reates ,+a//!rd+nDl L and n! nat*ral la5 +-A!ses t,+s Ar!/ess .la5lessl !n b+ll+!ns !. Ae!Ale1 -*/, less an+-als? 3learl n! s*/, nat*ral la5 e<+sts1 and s!1 ne+t,er /an s*/, a Ar!/ess e<+st? S! -an Ae!Ale t,r!*D,!*t t,e 5!rld bel+e"e +n re+n/arnat+!n1 e"en t,!*D, +t ,as n! l!D+/al bas+s1 be/a*se t,e ,a"e n! rel+D+!*s .a+t,? Den +nD t,e e<+sten/e !. an +n.+n+te a.terl+.e1 t,e .ear deat, and /l+nD t! t,e +dea !. re+n/arnat+!n as a 5a t! es/aAe t,e+r .ear? Bel+e. +n re+n/arnat+!n—l+0e bel+e. +n 0ar-a—+s based +n t,e .alse /!ns!lat+!n t,at deat, +s n!t,+nD t! be .eared1 and t,at an !ne 5+ll be able t! atta+n ,+s D!als +n a ne5 b+rt,? I. re+n/arnat+!n /anFt !//*r !n +ts !5n1 as a nat*ral la51 t,en /learl +t /!*ld e<+st !nl t,r!*D, a s*Aernat*ral a/t !. /reat+!n? B*t a l!!0 at t,e E*rFan tells *s t,at re+n/arnat+!n +s a - t,? T,e B!!0 t,at G!d sent d!5n as a D*+de t! ,*-an+t !Aenl de/lares t,at re+n/arnat+!n +s .alse?

Rein#a nati$n A##$ din0 t$ Is(a%
As +n e"er !t,er -atter1 t,e M*sl+- A!+nt !. "+e5 reDard+nD t! t,e A,+l!s!A, !. 0ar-a -*st be based !n 5,at G!d sa s +n t,e E*rFan1 5,+/, states t,ere +s !nl !ne b+rt, and res*rre/t+!n? E"er !ne l+"es !nl !n/e !n t,+s eart,1 and t,en ,e d+es? In "erse :28 $1 !*r L!rd D+"es t,e .!ll!5+nD /!--and8 Death/ ) $% whi#h "$! a e )(eein0/ wi(( #e tain(" #at#h !p with "$!. +hen "$! wi(( be et! ned t$ the Cn$we $) the Unseen and the Disib(e and He wi(( in)$ % "$! ab$!t what "$! did. A Aers!n +s res*rre/ted a.ter deat, and1 a//!rd+nD t! all t,e t,+nDs ,e ,as d!ne and t,e 5!r0s ,e ,as Aer.!r-ed1 +s re5arded 5+t, e+t,er eternal )arad+se !r endless Hell? T,at +s t! sa 1 t,at a ,*-an be+nD ,as !ne l+.e +n t,+s 5!rld1 and t,en an e"erlast+nD a.terl+.e? G!d sa s "er /learl +n t,e E*rFan 62%8 =97 t,at a.ter ,e ,as d+ed1 n! !ne 5+ll ret*rn t! t,+s l+.e8 9It is $ dained that n$ nati$n We ha:e dest $"ed sha(( e:e ise a0ain.9 And s+-+larl 8 When death #$%es t$ $ne $) the%/ he sa"s/ 9M" L$ d/ send %e ba#; a0ain s$ that pe haps I %a" a#t i0ht(" e0a din0 the thin0s I )ai(ed t$ d$N9 N$ indeedN It is M!st w$ ds he !tte s. Behind the% is a ba ie !nti( the Da" the" a e es! e#ted. 34! ?an/ 23: 77'6008

As t,ese "erses s,!51 !ne Aart !. ,*-an+t 5+ll d+e +n t,e ,!Aes !. be+nD reb!rn1 b*t at t,e -!-ent !. t,e+r deat,1 +t 5+ll be re"ealed t! t,e- t,at t,+s +s abs!l*tel +-A!ss+ble? In an!t,er "erse +n t,e E*rFan 628 2$71 G!d sa s t,+s ab!*t t,e deat, and res*rre/t+!n !. ,*-an be+nDs8 H$w #an "$! eMe#t .$d/ when "$! we e dead and then He 0a:e "$! (i)e/ then He wi(( %a;e "$! die and then 0i:e "$! (i)e a0ain/ then "$! wi(( be et! ned t$ Hi%> G!d sa s t,at e"er ,*-an be+nD +s dead t! beD+n 5+t,L t,at +s1 ,e +s /reated !*t !. t,e bas+/ +nan+-ate ele-ents !. s!+l1 5ater and -*d? T,en1 G!d 9)$ %ed and p $p$ ti$ned9 t,+s l+.eless -ass 6E*rFan1 $28 '7 and br!*D,t ,+- t! l+.e? At a sAe/+.+/ t+-e a.ter t,e +nd+"+d*al ,as been br!*D,t t! l+.e1 l+.e /!-es t! an end1 and ,e d+es? He ret*rns t! t,e eart, and de/a s ba/0 +nt! t,e s!+l1 5,ere ,e a5a+ts t,e .+nal res*rre/t+!n? E"er !ne 5+ll be res*rre/ted !n t,e Last Da 5,en1 learn+nD t,at an!t,er ret*rn t! eart, +s n!t A!ss+ble1 ,e 5+ll D+"e an a//!*nt !. all t,e a/t+!ns ,e d+d +n ,+s l+.e? In t,e E*rFan 6((8 9:&9'71 G!d sa s t,at a.ter a ,*-an be+nD ,as /!-e +nt! t,+s 5!rld1 ,e 5+ll e<Aer+en/e !nl !ne deat,8 9+he" wi(( n$t taste an" death the eBe=#ept )$ the )i st $ne. He wi(( sa)e0!a d the% ) $% the p!nish%ent $) the B(aOin0 Ei e. A )a:$ ) $% "$! L$ d. +hat is the . eat Di#t$ ".9 T,ese "erses -a0e +t /lear t,at deat, !//*rs !nl !n/e? N! -atter ,!5 -*/, Ae!Ale 5ant t! !"er/!-e t,e+r .ears !. deat, and an e"erlast+nD a.terl+.e and /!ns!le t,e-sel"es 5+t, .alse bel+e.s +n 0ar-a and re+n/arnat+!n1 t,e real+t +s t,at t,e 5!nFt ret*rn t! t,+s 5!rld a.ter t,e d+e? E"er !ne 5+ll d+e !nl !n/e and1 as G!d ,as 5+lled1 5+ll ,a"e an endless l+.e +n t,e 5!rld t! /!-e? A//!rd+nD t! t,e D!!d !r t,e e"+l t,at +nd+"+d*als ,a"e d!ne1 t,e 5+ll e+t,er be re5arded 5+t, )arad+se1 !r A*n+s,ed 5+t, Hell? Eternall 4*st1 -er/+.*l and /!-Aass+!nate1 G!d D+"es t,e Aer.e/t re5ard .!r 5,at e"er !ne ,as d!ne? I. a Aers!n see0s /!-.!rt +n .alse bel+e.s be/a*se ,e .ears deat, !r t,e A!ss+b+l+t !. D!+nD t! Hell1 ,e 5+ll e<Aer+en/e /erta+n r*+n? An !ne 5,! ,as +ntell+Dent a5areness1 /!ns/+en/e1 and .ears +n t,+s reDard -*st t*rn t! G!d 5+t, a s+n/ere ,eart +. ,e ,!Aes t! es/aAe t,e Aa+ns !. Hell and atta+n )arad+se? He -*st /!n.!r- ,+s l+.e t! t,e E*rFan1 t,e tr*e D*+de .!r ,*-an+t ? Ne"er et ,as be+nD !ld !r !*nD1 bea*t+.*l !r r+/, been able t! Are"ent an !ne .r!- d +nDL and s!1 n! !ne /an d+sreDard deat,Fs real+t ? @,et,er Ae!Ale d+sreDard t,at real+t !r n!t1 +t +s s!-et,+nD t,e /an ne"er a"!+d? +he th $es $) death #$%e e:ea(in0 the t !th. +hat is what "$! we e t "in0 t$ e:adeN 34! ?an/ G0: 678 Read+nD t,ese l+nes1 !* -a be led t! /!ns+der t,e /l!seness !. deat,? )er,aAs deat, +s /l!ser t! !* t,an t! !t,ersL and !* -a d+e be.!re !* .+n+s, read+nD t,+s b!!0? It -a /!-e .!r n! aAAarent reas!n1 5+t, n! +llness1 a//+dent !r aDe&related /a*se? G!d 5+ll send t,e AnDel !. Deat, t! /!-e at t,e ,!*r !. !*r deAart*re and ta0e !*r s!*l? @e -*st al5a s 0eeA t,+s +-A!rtant .a/t +n -+nd and ne"er A!stA!ne -a0+nD AreAarat+!ns .!r deat,? T,e E*rFan 6:38 %%7 re-+nds *s t,at 9.$d wi(( n$t 0i:e an"$ne %$ e ti%e/ $n#e thei ti%e has #$%e.9 Here1 G!d tells *s t,at deat, /ann!t be A!stA!ned1 and He sAea0s !. t,e s!rr!5 !. an +nd+"+d*al 5,! -eets +t8

.i:e ) $% what We ha:e p $:ided )$ "$! be)$ e death #$%es t$ $ne $) "$! and he sa"s/ 9M" L$ d/ i) $n(" "$! w$!(d 0i:e %e a (itt(e %$ e ti%e s$ that I w$!(d 0i:e #ha it" and be a%$n0 the i0hte$!sN9 .$d wi(( n$t 0i:e an"$ne %$ e ti%e/ $n#e thei ti%e has #$%e. .$d is awa e $) what "$! d$. 34! ?an/ F3:60'668

B!ddhis%?s Mis0!ided Be(ie) Ab$!t the A)te (i)e
B*dd,+s-Fs bel+e. +n 0ar-a lea"es n! r!!- .!r bel+e. +n t,e eternal a.terl+.e1 )arad+se !r Hell? T,+s .alse and Aer"erse A!s+t+!n —t,e +dea t,at an +nd+"+d*al ret*rns +nt! t,e 5!rld a.ter ea/, deat,1 /!nt+n*all — /!n.l+/ts 5+t, 5,at G!d ,as re"ealed +n t,e E*rFan? In The Religions of -ndia1 Ed5ard @as,b*rn H!A0+ns1 a Ar!.ess!r !. Sans0r+t and 3!-Aarat+"e ),+l!l!D 1 e<Ala+ns t,at B*dd,+s- d!es n!t bel+e"e +n an a.terl+.e8 ? ? ? T,e l!D+/ !. ,+s !5n s ste- led B*dd,a +nt! a .!r-al and /!-Alete Aess+-+s-1 5,+/, den+es an a.ter& l+.e t! t,e -an t,at .+nds n! ,aAA+ness +n t,+s ? ? ? In ,+s tal0s 5+t, ,+s G*est+!ners and d+s/+Ales1 ,e *ses all -eans t! e"ade d+re/t +nG*+r +n reDard t! t,e .ate !. -an a.ter deat,? He bel+e"ed t,at N+r"ana 6e<t+n/t+!n !. l*st7 led t! /essat+!n !. be+nDL ,e d+d n!t bel+e"e +n an +--!rtal s!*l??? @,at ,e *rDed reAeatedl 5as t,at e"er !ne a//eAt+nD t,e *nd+sA*ted d!/tr+ne !. kar#a !r re&b+rt, +n +ts .*ll e<tent 6+?e?1 t,at .!r e"er s+n ,ere1 A*n+s,-ent .!ll!5ed +n t,e ne<t e<+sten/e71 s,!*ld endea"!r t! es/aAe1 +. A!ss+ble1 .r!- s*/, an endless /!*rse ( !. Aa+n.*l re&b+rt,s? ? ? ;r!- s!-e B*dd,+st 5r+t+nDs1 !ne /an Dlean t,e .!ll!5+nD +n.!r-at+!n !n t,e a.terl+.e8 @,et,er !ne +s reb!rn +n Hea"en !r +n !ne !. t,e "ar+!*s le"els !. Hell1 t,e .!r-s !. e<+sten/e +n t,ese Ala/es are trans+t!r 1 as t,e are !n eart,1 and are n!t eternal? As +n H+nd*+s-1 t,e Aer+!d !. t+-e d*r+nD 5,+/, ? ? ? +nd+"+d*als re-a+n +n t,ese Ala/es deAends !n t,e a-!*nt !. D!!d and e"+l t,e ,a"e d!ne 5,+le !n eart,? @,en t,e Ares/r+bed t+-e ,as been /!-Aleted1 t,e 5+ll ret*rn t! eart, aDa+n? Hea"en and Hell are n! -!re t,an te-A!rar states !. e<+sten/e +n 5,+/, t,e +nd+"+d*als re/e+"e t,e+r re5ard .!r t,e a/ts t,e ,a"e 9 /!--+tted 5,+le !n eart,? B*dd,+s- tea/,es t,at t,ere +s a 0+nd !. )arad+se and Hell1 as a re5ard and A*n+s,-ent .!r 5,at a Aers!n ,as d!ne? B*t be/a*se t,+s bel+e. d!es n!t ste- .r!- a re"ealed rel+D+!n1 +t /!nta+ns -an /!ntrad+/t+!ns and +ll!D+/al+t+es? Ab!"e all1 and /!ntrar t! 5,at G!d ,as re"ealed +n t,e E*rFan1 B*dd,+s- bel+e"es t,at )arad+se and Hell are !nl trans+t!r ? ADa+n1 !ne !. t,+s bel+e.Fs -!st +ll!D+/al asAe/ts +s t,e +dea t,at all s ste-s +n t,e 5!rld !Aerate1 +n e..e/t1 b t,e-sel"es? A//!rd+nD t! B*dd,+s-1 4*st as t,e e<+sten/e !. t,e *n+"erse and ,*-an be+nDs +s *n/!ntr!lled1 s! +s t,e / /le !. deat, and re&b+rt,? T,ere +s n! r!!- +n t,+s bel+e. .!r a 3reat!r @,! ,as br!*D,t +nt! e<+sten/e t,e 5!rld and t,e l+.e *A!n +t1 t!Det,er 5+t, )arad+se and Hell1 and re5ards ,*-an be+nDs .!r 5,at t,e ,a"e d!ne? H!5e"er1 a//eAt+nD t,e e<+sten/e !. )arad+se and Hell as Ala/es 5,ere re5ard and A*n+s,-ent are D+"en1 b*t n!t e<Ala+n+nD ,!5 t,ese real-s 5ere /reated1 +s an e<tre-el +ll!D+/al1 *na//eAtable /la+-? B*t 5,! deals !*t t,e re5ards and A*n+s,-entsI M!re!"er1 ,!5 5ere t,ese real-s /reatedI T,e A,+l!s!A, !. 0ar-a /la+-s n! a//!*nt !. ,!5 )arad+se and Hell /!*ld ,a"e /!-e +nt! be+nD 5+t,!*t a 3reat!r? T,+s s*Aerst+t+!*s bel+e. ,as been Aassed d!5n .r!- Denerat+!n t! Denerat+!n1 5+t,!*t e"er be+nD G*est+!ned !r

l!D+/all e<Ala+ned? B*dd,+s- ,as n! l!D+/al e<Alanat+!n .!r t,e e<+sten/e !. t,e *n+"erse !r ,!5 +t .*n/t+!ns1 n!r !. t,e !r+D+n !. t,e .la5less /reat+"e art e"+dent +n all l+"+nD t,+nDs? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 B*dd,+s- /an ne"er Ares*-e t! be -!re t,an a - st+/al -!"e-ent 5+t, n! bas+s +n l!D+/1 s*AA!rted !nl b - t,s?

+ h e R e a ( i t " Aw a i t i n 0 U s i n t h e H e e a ) t e
T,e !nl s!*r/e 5,ere 5e /an learn t,e .a/ts ab!*t l+.e +n t,+s 5!rld and bel+e. +n t,e a.terl+.e +s t,e E*rFan1 sent d!5n as a D*+de .!r ,*-an be+nDs and t,e tea/,+nDs 6S*nna,7 !. t,e )r!A,et 6-a G!d bless ,+and Drant ,+- Aea/e7? G!d sa s +n t,e E*rFan t,at l+.e +n t,+s 5!rld +s a te-A!rar test+nD Aer+!d .!r e"er !ne1 and t,at t,e a.terl+.e +s !*r eternal ,!-eland? E"er !ne 5+ll ,a"e a re5ard +n )arad+se !r Hell .!r all t,e deeds ,e ,as d!ne !"er t,e l+.et+-e ,e ,as sAent +n t,+s 5!rld? G!d re"eals t,+s tr*t, +n t,ese 5!rds 6E*rFan1 :8 3278 +he (i)e $) this w$ (d is n$thin0 b!t a 0a%e and a di:e si$n. +he he ea)te is bette )$ th$se wh$ d$ thei d!t". S$ wi(( "$! n$t !se "$! inte((e#t> S!-e!ne 5,! s*b-+ts t! G!d1 /!n.!r-+nD ,+s l+.e t! t,e tr*e D*+de He ,as sent d!5n and t! t,e tea/,+nDs !. t,e )r!A,et 6-a G!d bless ,+- and Drant ,+- Aea/e71 bel+e"es 5+t, all ,+s ,eart t,at !n t,e Last Da 1 ,e 5+ll a//!*nt .!r all .!r ,+s deeds—and 5+ll re/e+"e t,e re5ard +n eternal )arad+se !r endless Hell? G!d ,as re"ealed t,+s t! ,*-an+t +n t,e b!!0s He ,as sent d!5n and t,e Ar!A,ets He ,as /,!sen? B*t B*dd,+s- +s a -an&-ade d!/tr+ne1 b*+lt t,r!*D, ,earsa !n t,e .!*ndat+!n !. a A,+l!s!A, Ar!A!*nded b !ne s+nDle -an? Us+nD ,*-an reas!n+nD t! /,anDe 5,at ,as /!-e .r!- G!d +s a ser+!*s err!r? T,!se 5,! Det t,e+r ,eads .*ll !. ,al.&ba0ed +deas ab!*t t,e B*dd,+st 5a and1 +n t,e+r des+re t! +-+tate t,e+r .a"!r+te A!A -*s+/+ans !r .+l- stars1 start t! .!ll!5 B*dd,+s- as a .ad1 s,!*ld /!ns+der t,+s and .ree t,e-sel"es .r!- t,e+r -+sta0e? In t,e E*rFan1 G!d re"eals t,e state !. t,!se 5,! sa t,ere +n n! a.terl+.e8 As )$ th$se wh$ denied ,! Si0ns and the en#$!nte $) the he ea)te / thei a#ti$ns wi(( #$%e t$ n$thin0. Wi(( the" be epaid e=#ept )$ what the" did> 34! ?an/ H: 6@H8 B!t as )$ th$se wh$ did n$t be(ie:e and denied ,! Si0ns and %eetin0 in the he ea)te / the" wi(( be s!%%$ned t$ the p!nish%ent 34! ?an/ 30: 6F8. T,e KreAa -entK and KA*n+s,-entK -ent+!ned +n t,ese "erses 5+ll beD+n at t,e -!-ent !. deat,? T,!se 5,! real+Je 5,at an err!r t,e ,ad been l+"+nD d*r+nD t,e+r eart,l l+"es 5+ll .eel *nreAentable s!rr!58 I) $n(" "$! #$!(d see when the" a e standin0 be)$ e the Ei e and sa"in0/ 9,hN I) $n(" we #$!(d be sent ba#; a0ain/ we w$!(d n$t den" the Si0ns $) $! L$ d and we w$!(d be a%$n0 the be(ie:e s.9 34! ?an/ F: 2H8

I) $n(" "$! #$!(d see the e:i(d$e s han0in0 thei heads in sha%e be)$ e thei L$ d: 9,! L$ d/ we ha:e seen and we ha:e hea d/ s$ send !s ba#; a0ain and we wi(( a#t i0ht(". + !(" we n$w ha:e #e taint".9 34! ?an/ 32: 628 H!5e"er -*/, t,e -a beD and as0 .!r .!rD+"eness1 t,e 5+ll beD+n an a.terl+.e .*ll !. aD!n .r!5,+/, t,ere +s n! es/aAe1 -*/, less a ret*rn? T,e+r reAentan/e 5+ll n!t be a//eAted1 and ne"er 5+ll t,e+r des+re t! ret*rn t! t,e 5!rld be .*l.+lled? T,!*D, 5arned -an t+-es1 t,e D!dless 5,! d+d n!t bel+e"e—and b!5ed t,e-sel"es be.!re stat*es !. st!ne and 5!!d t,at t,e ass!/+ated 5+t, G!dL 5,! esA!*sed "a+n A,+l!s!A,+es !nl as a s,!5 t! attra/t t,e +nterest !. !t,ersL 5,! d+d n!t .ear G!d as t,e s,!*ld ,a"e—5+ll enter *nend+nD ,*-+l+at+!n .r!- t,e -!-ent t,e -eet t,e AnDel !. Deat,? T,e+r s!*ls 5+ll be ta0en 5+t, bl!5s t! t,e+r ba/0 and s+des1 t,e 5+ll be Drabbed b t,e .!rel!/0 and be t,r!5n +nt! HellL t,+s 5+ll be t,e beD+nn+nD !. t,e+r a.terl+.e? G!d 5+ll n!t all!5 t,e- t! sAea01 and t,e+r "!+/es 5+ll be n! l!*der t,an a 5,+sAer? 6E*rFan1 208 %0$7 Hell 5+ll be t,e .+nal Ala/e .!r all t,!se D!dless Ae!Ale 5,! e<alted t,e-sel"es be.!re G!d1 d+d n!t bel+e"e +n t,e res*rre/t+!n !r t,e a.terl+.e1 5ere rebell+!*s desA+te t,e 5arn+nDs and d+d n!t lead a -!ral l+.e? T,e Ae!Ale !. Hell1 9sha#;(ed t$0ethe in #hains9 6E*rFan1 298 %371 5+ll be 4a--ed +nt! 9a sea(ed :a!(t $) Ei e9 6E*rFan1 =08 207 and l+"e +n t,e -*r0 !. t,+/0 bla/0 s-!0e? T,e 5+ll ,ear t,e .+re DasA+nD ,ars,l as +t seet,es and .+nd Ae!Ale -!an+nD +n +t? T,e+r endless Aa+n 5+ll ne"er be rel+e"ed1 desA+te t,e+r entreat+es1 /a*s+nD t,e+ndes/r+bable an<+et ? ), s+/all 1 t,e den+Jens !. Hell 5+ll ,a"e a terr+ble aAAearan/e? T,e 5+ll be b!*nd 5+t, s,a/0les and /,a+ns1 and t,e+r e es 5+ll be d!5n/ast1 dar0ened b debase-ent? A s/!r/,+nD 5+nd 5+ll b*rn t,e+r s0+n1 5,+/, 5+ll be /!nt+n*all reAla/ed t! b*rn et aDa+n1 as G!d des/r+bes +n "erse (8 9:1 9&:e " ti%e thei s;ins a e b! ned $))/ We wi(( ep(a#e the% with new s;ins.9 T,e 5+ll be beaten 5+t, /*dDels -ade !. +r!n and b!*nd +n 9a #hain whi#h is se:ent" #!bits ($n09 6E*rFan1 :=8 327? T,e+r .!re,eads1 s+des and ba/0s 5+ll be branded 5+t, t,e .+re? B!+l+nD 5ater 5+ll be A!*red !"er t,e+r ,eads1 and t,e 5+ll be 5ear+nD s,+rts !. tar? T,e E*rFan als! tells ab!*t t,e terr+ble .!!d and dr+n0 reser"ed .!r t,!se +n Hell? G!d ann!*n/es +n "erse :=8 3: t,at t,e 5+ll ,a"e 9n$ )$$d e=#ept e=!din0 p!s9 t! eat—5,+/, Ae!Ale +n t,+s 5!rld /an ,ardl stand? In t,e Hell t,e ,a"e entered .!r .!rDett+nD G!d and A*rs*+nD t,e+r !5n Aass+!ns +n t,+s l+.e1 t,e 5+ll be -ade t! dr+n0 b!+l+nD 5ater -+<ed 5+t, A*s? And be/a*se n!t,+nD 5+ll Aass t,r!*D, t,e+r t!rn t,r!ats1 t,e 5+ll n!t be able t! s5all!5? In Hell1 G!d 5+ll als! -a0e t,e s+nners eat b+tter t,!rn b*s, and JaGG*- 6t,e +n.ernal tree78 +he + ee $) aO'PaII!% is the )$$d $) the wi#;ed/ seethin0 in the be((" (i;e %$(ten b ass/ as b$i(in0 wate b!bb(es and seethes. 34! ?an/ @@: @3'@G8 As .!r t,!se 5,! bel+e"e +n G!d and t*rn t! H+-1 t,e 5+ll n!t be /!nde-ned t! t,+s state1 b*t 5+ll Aass t,r!*D, an eas a//!*nt+nD? Be/a*se t,e d+d n!t .!ll!5 "a+n A,+l!s!A,+es and1 +n !rder t! Alease G!d and .ear+nD t,e t!r-ents !. Hell1 l+"ed a//!rd+nD t! t,e E*rFan1 t,e 5+ll re/e+"e t,e+r eternal re5ard and be 5el/!-ed +n )arad+se1 .ree .r!- .ear1 s!rr!5 and sadness? Cn t,at da 1 G!d sa s1 t,e .a/es !. bel+e"ers 5+ll be rad+ant? As G!d sa s +n t,e E*rFan 63=8 '%&'378

+he !nbe(ie:e s wi(( be d i:en t$ He(( in #$%panies and when the" a i:e the e and its 0ates a e $pened its #!st$dians wi(( sa" t$ the%/ 9Did Messen0e s ) $% "$! se(:es n$t #$%e t$ "$!/ e#itin0 "$! L$ d?s Si0ns t$ "$! and wa nin0 "$! ab$!t %eetin0 JHi%K $n this Da" $) "$! s>9 +he" wi(( sa"/ 9Indeed the" didN9 B!t the senten#e ab$!t t$ %ent wi(( Ja( ead"K ha:e )a((en d!e !p$n the denie s $) the t !th. +he" wi(( be t$(d/ 9&nte the 0ates $) He(( and sta" the e ti%e(ess("/ )$ e:e . H$w e:i( is the ab$de $) the a $0antN9 And th$se wh$ heeded thei L$ d wi(( be d i:en t$ the .a den in #$%panies/ and when the" a i:e the e/ )indin0 its 0ates $pen/ its #!st$dians wi(( sa" t$ the%/ 9<ea#e be !p$n "$!N Y$! ha:e d$ne we(( s$ ente it ti%e(ess("/ )$ e:e .9 E"er !ne s,!*ld ta0e ser+!*sl G!dFs /!nstant 5arn+nDs t,at t,e da !. re/0!n+nD aAAr!a/,es1 t,at 9the H$! is #$%in0 with$!t an" d$!bt9 6E*rFan1 228 '7? In an!t,er "erse1 G!d sa s8 Man;ind?s Re#;$nin0 has d awn :e " #($se t$ the%/ "et the" heed(ess(" t! n awa". N$ ) esh e%inde #$%es t$ the% ) $% thei L$ d with$!t thei (istenin0 t$ it as i) it was a 0a%e. 34! ?an/ 26: 6'28 Cn t,at da 1 t,e D!!d 5+ll re/e+"e a Aer.e/t re/!-Aense .!r t,e+r deeds1 5,+le an !ne 5,! /!--+tted e"+l 5+ll 5+s, t,at t,ere 5ere a l!nD sAan !. t+-e bet5een ,+-sel. and t,at da ? Ea/, +nd+"+d*al 5+ll D! al!ne +nt! G!dFs Aresen/e1 5,ere ,e 5+ll be 4*dDed 5+t, /!-Alete .a+rness8 We wi(( set !p the Q!st Ba(an#e $n the Da" $) Risin0 and n$ se() wi(( be w $n0ed in an" wa". &:en i) it is n$ %$ e than the wei0ht $) a 0 ain $) %!sta d'seed/ We wi(( b in0 it )$ th. We a e s!))i#ient as a Re#;$ne . 34! ?an/ 26: @H8 All -an&-ade A,+l!s!A,+es are de/eAt+!ns t,at al+enate Ae!Ale .r!- a bel+e. +n t,e e<+sten/e !. G!d and .r!- H+s ser"+/e? B*dd,+s-Fs s*Aer.+/+al *nderstand+nD !. -!ral+t +s /!-Aletel /!ntrar t! ,*-an nat*ral Aattern +n -an asAe/ts? T! an e<tent1 +t lets Ae!Ale a"!+d t,e t!r-ents !. /!ns/+en/e t,at /!-es .r!- ,a"+nD n! rel+D+!n and s!1 .*n/t+!ns as a .alse s!*r/e !. sA+r+t*al+t ? Bel+e"ers +n B*dd,+s- /!ns!le t,e-sel"es 5+t, t,e +dea t,at t,e ,a"e atta+ned sA+r+t*al -aster b +n.l+/t+nD Aa+n !n t,e-sel"es and den +nD t,e needs !. t,e b!d ? B*t t,ereFs !ne bas+/ tr*t, !. 5,+/, t,e ta0e n! n!t+/e8 t,at Ae!Ale -*st real+Je t,at t,e are ser"ants !. G!d? A D!!d deed +s !. an "al*e !nl +. +t +s d!ne t! /!ns/+!*sl ser"e G!d and 5+n H+s Aleas*re? Br+dl+nD t,e 5+s,es and des+res !. !*r ,earts /arr+es Dreat "al*e1 b*t !nl +. d!ne t! 5+n G!dFs Aleas*re1 and t! t,e e<tent t,at He des+res? C. t,!se 5,! e<ert t,+s 0+nd !. e..!rt 5+t, n! "+e5 t! 5+nn+nD H+s Aleas*re1 G!d sa s t,at 9thei a#ti$ns ha:e #$%e t$ n$thin0 in the w$ (d and the he ea)te .9 6E*rFan1 28 2%'7

B ! d d h i s % ? s I d e a $ ) t h e L i ) e $ ) + h i s W$ ( d
T,!se 5,! a//eAt t,e +dea !. 0ar-a bel+e"e t,at t,e+r / /le !. reb+rt,s 5+ll ne"er end—t,at t,e l+"e aDa+n a.ter e"er deat,1 *nt+l t,e atta+n n+r"ana? And s!1 t,e ass*-e t,at be.!re t,e- l+e /!*ntless A!ss+b+l+t+es? T,ere.!re1 +. s!-e!ne de/+des t! /!--+t s+n1 ,e -a t,+n0 ,e 5+ll be able t! at!ne .!r +t +n a later +n/arnat+!n1 e"en +. ,+s "er ne<t l+.e +s 5!rse t,an ,+s Aresent !ne? An *nderstand+nD .!*nded !n s*/, an err!ne!*s .!*ndat+!n /ann!t restra+n a Aers!n .r!- /!--+tt+nD e"+l?

Atta/,-ent t! t,+s 5!rld +s -!st Ae!AleFs -a4!r 5ea0ness? T,e bel+e"e +n a Aer"erse +dea l+0e re+n/arnat+!n /,+e.l be/a*se t,e 5ant ne"er t! D+"e *A eart,l te-Atat+!ns? T,ere.!re1 !nl +. s!-e!ne ,as an a//*rate /!n/eAt+!n !. t,e real nat*re !. t,+s 5!rldl l+.e /an ,e rad+/all alter ,+s be,a"+!r s! as t! l+"e -!rall ? An !ne a5are !. t,e real nat*re !. t,e l+.e !. t,+s 5!rld 0n!5s t,at ,e ,as been /reated t! ser"e t,e L!rd1 ,+s )r!te/t!r and HelAer1 @,! ,as /reated b!t, ,+- and t,e *n+"erse? Als!1 ,e 0n!5s t,at G!d 5+ll ,!ld ,+resA!ns+ble .!r all ,+s t,!*D,ts1 5!rds and deeds1 and t,at ,e -*st D+"e an a//!*nt+nD t! G!d a.ter ,+s deat,? T,e L!rd re"eals t,e reas!n .!r t,e /reat+!n !. t,e l+.e !. t,+s 5!rld +n t,e E*rFan 6:'8 278 9He Wh$ # eated death and (i)e t$ test whi#h $) "$! is best in a#ti$n. He is the A(%i0ht"/ the &:e 'E$ 0i:in0.9 As t,+s "erse states1 G!d ,as /reated ,*-an be+nDs and Ala/ed t,e- +n t,+s !ne l+.e te-A!rar+l 1 as a test? Here1 He tr+es *s 5+t, t,e t,+nDs t,at ,aAAen t! *s1 and /a*ses !*r l+"es t! /!nt+n*e +n !rder t! seAarate bel+e"ers .r!- t,e *nbel+e"ers1 t! A*r+. t,e- !. t,e+r s+ns1 and t! D*+de t,e- t! t,e -!ral "al*es t,at lead t! )arad+se? In !t,er 5!rds1 t,+s 5!rld +s !nl a Ala/e !. tra+n+nD1 5,ere 5e /an 5+n G!dFs Aleas*re? In t,e E*rFan1 "erse 28 2%1 G!d re"eals t,at He ,as /reated ,*-an be+nDs t! ser"e H+-8 9Man;indN W$ ship "$! L$ d/ Wh$ # eated "$! and th$se be)$ e "$!/ s$ that "$! %a" d$ "$! d!t".9 G!d ,as /learl +nd+/ated t,e l+-+ts t,at ,*-an be+nDs -a n!t transDress1 and t,e 0+nds !. be,a"+!r t,at 5+ll 5+n H+s aAAr!"al and t,e 0+nds t,at 5+ll n!t? Cn t,e bas+s !. t,e+r be,a"+!r +n t,e 5!rld1 Ae!Ale 5+ll re/e+"e re5ard !r A*n+s,-ent +n t,e eternal l+.e t! /!-e? T,+s -eans t,at e"er -!-ent 5e l+"e br+nDs *s /l!ser t! e+t,er Hell !r )arad+se? G!d re-+nds H+s ser"ants !. t,+s real+t and 5arns t,e- aDa+nst t,at da +n -an "erses !. t,e E*rFan1 +n/l*d+nD t,+s !ne 69=8%$78 Y$! wh$ be(ie:eN Heed .$d and (et ea#h se() ($$; t$ what it has sent )$ wa d )$ +$%$ $w. Heed .$d. .$d is awa e $) what "$! d$. Bel+e"ers 5,! .ear G!dFs A*n+s,-ent1 ser"e !nl H+-1 !be H+s /!--ands abs!l*tel 1 a"!+d e"+l and a/t +n 5a s t,at 5+ll 5+n !*r L!rdFs Aleas*re? T! be atta/,ed t! G!d 5+t, str!nD b!nds !. l!"e1 .ear+nD H+- and ,eed+nD H+s /!--ands and be+nD deter-+ned t! ser"e H+-—t,at +s t,e !nl 5a t! Da+n -!ral s*Aer+!r+t t,at a Aers!n s,!*ld /!--+t t!? He 5!*ld ne"er /!-Ar!-+se t,at D!al1 e"en +. +t /!n.l+/ts 5+t, ,+s +nterests? He -a ,a"e a .e5 .+ne -!ral G*al+t+es !t,er5+se1 b*t t,ese 5+ll be restr+/ted1 s,!rt&l+"ed !r deAend !n s!-e /!nd+t+!n? B*dd,+s- als! re/!--ends D!!d deeds1 !. /!*rse1 b*t t,e -a ,a"e n! "al*e +n t,e s+D,t !. G!d? @,at "al*e l+es +n a Aers!nFs d!+nD s!-e D!!d t! t,!se ar!*nd ,+-1 +. ,e +s *nDrate.*l t! G!d1 den +nD t,e e<+sten/e !. t,e Cne @,! /reated ,+- .r!- n!t,+nDI In !rder .!r ,+s deeds t! ,a"e an "al*e1 t,e -*st be d!ne 5+t, .a+t, +n G!d—5+t, a "+e5 t! Da+n+nD H+s aAAr!"al1 +n a5e !. H+s Dl!r 1 !bed+en/e1 and 5+t, a5areness !. H+s A!5er? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 bel+e"ersF s*Aer+!r -!ral /,ara/ter d!es n!t rest !n r!-ant+/+s-? T,e+r 5!rs,+A +s /!nt+n*al and *n+nterr*Ated1 as G!d ,as /!--anded +n t,e E*rFan8 .$d a!0%ents th$se wh$ a e 0!ided b" 0i:in0 the% 0 eate 0!idan#e. In "$! L$ d?s si0ht/ i0ht a#ti$ns that a e (astin0 a e bette b$th in ewa d and end es!(t 34! ?an/ 67: HF8. &:e "thin0 in the hea:ens and ea th be($n0s t$ Hi%/ and the e(i0i$n be($n0s t$ Hi%/ )i %(" and )$ e:e . S$ wh" d$ "$! )ea an"$ne $the than .$d> 34! ?an/ 6F: G28

Wea(th and s$ns a e the e%be((ish%ent $) the (i)e $) this w$ (d. B!t/ in "$! L$ d?s si0ht/ i0ht a#ti$ns that a e (astin0 b in0 a bette ewa d and a e a bette basis )$ h$pe. 34! ?an/ 6A: @F8 )e!Ale -*st be 5ar !. Dr!5+nD atta/,ed t! trans+ent and de/eAt+"e ba*bles +n t,+s l+.e1 be/a*se l+.e +n t,+s 5!rld +s "er s,!rt? @ealt,1 bea*t and 5!rldl A!ssess+!ns are 5!rt,less +n t,e a.terl+.e? T,e b*r+ed b!d 5+ll de/a L t+-e 5+ll destr! -ater+al A!ssess+!ns? E"er !ne 5+ll be br!*D,t +nt! t,e Aresen/e !. G!d t! D+"e an a//!*nt? M!re!"er1 +. !* as0 a t,+rt & ear&!ld 5,at ,e ,as e<Aer+en/ed *A t! t,+s A!+nt1 ,eFll sa t,at ,+s l+.e ,as Aassed b "er G*+/0l ? He -a l+"e an!t,er t,+rt !r .+.t ears +n t,e sa-e 5a 1 be.!re ,+s l+.e 5+ll /!-e t! an end? In se"eral "erses1 G!d dra5s !*r attent+!n t! t,e .a/t t,at t,e sAan !. l+.e +n t,+s 5!rld +s s,!rtL He +n.!r-s *s t,at +n t,e a.terl+.e1 Ae!Ale 5+ll !Aenl /!n.ess t,+s8 ,n the da" We 0athe the% t$0ethe Bwhen it wi(( see% i) the" had ta ied n$ %$ e than an h$! $) a sin0(e da"2 34! ?an/ 60: @G8 ,n the Da" the Last H$! a i:es/ the e:i(d$e s wi(( swea the" ha:e n$t e:en ta ied )$ an h$! . +hat is the e=tent t$ whi#h the" a e de#ei:ed. 34! ?an/ 30: GG8 It 5+ll be "er *n5+se .!r a Aers!n t! be de/e+"ed b t,e trans+ent attra/t+!ns !. t,+s s,!rt eart,l l+.e and t! Aa n! reDard t! t,e a.terl+.e? T,e da 5,en Ae!Ale 5+ll ,a"e t,e+r a//!*nt t! G!d +s a real+t ? In t,e E*rFan 6%08 '&$71 G!d /!--ands8 As )$ th$se wh$ d$ n$t e=pe#t t$ %eet Us and a e #$ntent with the (i)e $) this w$ (d and at est in it/ and th$se wh$ a e heed(ess $) ,! Si0ns/ thei she(te wi(( be the Ei e be#a!se $) what the" ea ned. B*t t! t,!se 5,! are n!t .!!led b t,e l+.e !. t,+s 5!rld and /,!!se t,e endless l+.e !. t,e 5!rld t! /!-e1 G!d ann!*n/es D!!d ne5s8 I) an"$ne desi es t$ #!(ti:ate the he ea)te / We wi(( in# ease hi% in his #!(ti:ati$n. I) an"$ne desi es t$ #!(ti:ate this w$ (d/ We wi(( 0i:e hi% s$%e $) it b!t he wi(( ha:e n$ sha e in the he ea)te . 34! ?an/ @2: 208 D$ n$t di e#t "$! e"es ($n0in0(" t$ what We ha:e 0i:en #e tain $) the% t$ enM$"/ the )($we $) the (i)e $) this w$ (d/ s$ that We #an test the% b" it. Y$! L$ d?s p $:isi$n is bette and ($n0e (astin0. 34! ?an/ 20: 6368

BUDDHISM AND MA+&RIALIS+ W&S+&RN -UL+UR&
Cne reas!n 5, B*dd,+s- ,as /!-e t! t,e 5!rldFs attent+!n +s n!t be/a*se !. +ts e<+sten/e +n t,e ;ar East —+ts trad+t+!nal ,!-e—b*t t,an0s t! Ar!AaDanda sAread +n t,e @est? T,e beD+nn+nD !. t,+s Ar!AaDanda D!es ba/0 as .ar as t,e %=t, /ent*r and attra/ted -!re +nterest +n t,e se/!nd ,al. !. t,e 20t, /ent*r 5,en +t be/a-e a .ad .!r t,!se l!!0+nD t! be -!re K!r+D+nal?K T,e beD+nn+nD !. t,+s .ad dates .r!- t,e A!A&/*lt*re !. t,e %=:0Fs 5,en a larDe n*-ber !. 5estern !*t, and s!-e 5estern +ntelle/t*als t*rned a5a .r!- trad+t+!nal 3,r+st+an+t l!!0+nD .!r s!-et,+nD else and .!*nd 5,at t,e 5ere see0+nD +n .ar&eastern rel+D+!ns? T,e -a+n +-Aet*s .!r t,+s sear/, 5as t,e des+re t! attra/t +nterest b D!+nD aDa+nst t,e establ+s,ed !rder? @,en t,e late Ge!rDe Harr+s!n !. t,e Beatles1 5,! ,elAed de.+ne t,e A!A /*lt*re !. t,e F:0s1 stated t,at ,e ,ad be/!-e a H+nd* 6a AaDan rel+D+!n t,at Are/eded B*dd,+s-7 and later re/!rded ,+s !5n /!-A!s+t+!n1 KM S5eet L!rd1K a s!nD t! 2r+s,na1 -an BeatlesF .ans .!ll!5ed s*+t? H!,n Lenn!n *sed B*dd,+st -antras +n ,+s s!nD ent+tled KA/r!ss t,e Un+"erse?K B*dd,+st , -ns1 st les !. dress1 and art5!r0s 5ere "er A!A*lar a-!nD ,+AA+es +n t,e F:0s and F'0s? Interest+nDl 1 t,e -!st +-A!rtant ar/,+te/ts !. A!A*lar /*lt*ral e<Aress+!ns are +-A!s+nD B*dd,+s- !n @estern s!/+et ? In t,+s Ar!/ess1 H!ll 5!!d ,as ta0en t,e lead? ItFs Denerall a//eAted t,at H!ll 5!!d re.le/ts t,e +deas !. A-er+/an s!/+et Fs l+beral 5+nD1 !.ten s*AA!rt+nD ant+&rel+D+!*s +deas and "al*es /!ntrar t! 3,r+st+an -!ral+t and bel+e.? ;!r e<a-Ale1 -!st .+l-s str!nDl +-A!se t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n !n t,e -+nds !. "+e5ers? In t,e e"!l*t+!n&"ers*s&/reat+!n arD*-ent1 Ks/+ent+.+/K .+l-s are al-!st al5a s /!-e d!5n !n t,e s+de !. Dar5+n+s-? 6H!ll 5!!dFs ant+&rel+D+!*s1 Ar!&Dar5+n Ar!AaDanda beDan 5+t, t,e .a-!*s .+l-1 -nherit the .ind?7 And t,e tenden/ !. t!da Fs .+l-s t! d+sAaraDe Isla- +s a ,+D,l e"+dent strateD ? B*t t,!*D, H!ll 5!!d +s Denerall *n.a"!rable t!5ards re"ealed rel+D+!ns l+0e 3,r+st+an+t and Isla-L 5,en +t /!-es t! B*dd,+s-1 +t ta0es a t!tall !AA!s+te l+ne1 deA+/t+nD t,+s rel+D+!n +n a -!st attra/t+"e l+D,t as Aea/eable and ,*-ane? ;+l-s l+0e !e+en Years in Tibet1 starr+nD Brad )+tt1 and /undun1 ab!*t t,e l+.e !. t,e Dala+ La-a1 d+re/ted b Mart+n S/!r/ese1 ,a"e *nderta0en t! A!A*lar+J+nD B*dd,+s- a-!nD t,e -!"+e&D!+nD -asses? ;!r sAread+nD B*dd,+st Ar!AaDanda1 t,e Ar+"ate l+"es !. a/t!rs and a/tresses are as +-A!rtant as t,e .+l-s t,e star +n? T,e S*Are-e Head !. t,e N +nD-a S/,!!l !. T+betan B*dd,+s- ,as de/lared Ste"en SeaDal1 5ell& 0n!5n .!r ,+s r!les +n a/t+!n .+l-s1 t! be t,e re+n/arnat+!n !. a %9t, /ent*r la-a 6a B*dd,+st -!n0 !. T+bet !r M!nD!l+a7M ;a-!*s a/t!r R+/,ard Gere1 +n add+t+!n t! 5r+t+nD b!!0s Ar!-!t+nD B*dd,+s-1 ,as .!*nded t,e T+bet H!*se +n Ne5 Y!r0 5+t, R+/,ard T,*r-an1 .at,er !. a/tress U-a T,*r-an? Ct,er 5ell&0n!5n B*dd,+sts +n/l*de T+na T*rner1 Harr+s!n ;!rd1 Cl+"er St!ne1 Herb+e Han/!/0 and 3!*rtne L!"e? C. /!*rse1 a Aers!nFs Ar+"ate l+.e and Aers!nal bel+e.s /!n/ern n! !ne else? )e!Ale are .ree t! /,!!se an rel+D+!n t,e 5+s,? B*t +. t,ese +nd+"+d*als learned ab!*t tr*e Isla-1 /erta+nl t,e+r ,earts 5!*ld be 5ar-ed? B*t t,e A+/t*re Aresented s! .ar br+nDs *s t! an +-A!rtant /!n/l*s+!n8 B*dd,+s- +s attra/t+nD +nterest1 be+nD ad!Ated and Ar!-!ted +n t,e @est 5,ere"er a -ater+al+st /*lt*re Ared!-+nates? Mater+al+s- @estern /*lt*re ,as be/!-e al+enated .r!- t,e H*de!&3,r+st+an bas+s !. +ts !5n sA+r+t*al+t ?

B*t 5, I T! ans5er t,+s G*est+!n1 5e -*st .+rst deter-+ne t,e bas+/ /,ara/ter+st+/s !. @estern -ater+al+s-? T,+s /*lt*reFs .!*ndat+!ns 5ere la+d +n t,e %$t, /ent*r L +ts t,e!ret+/al .ra-e5!r0 5as establ+s,ed +n t,e %=t, and—desA+te t,e Drad*al er!s+!n !. t,e t,e!ret+/al .ra-e5!r0—+t be/a-e a -ass -!"e-ent +n t,e 20t,? Essent+all 1 +t8 & den+es t,e e<+sten/e !. G!d and bel+e"es t,e *n+"erse t! be t,e res*lt !. /,an/e? & bel+e"es t,at l+"+nD t,+nDs arr+"ed at t,e+r Aresent state t,r!*D, e"!l*t+!n1 and t,at Dar5+n+s- e<Ala+ns t,e A,en!-en!n !. l+.e and t,e K!r+D+nK !. sAe/+es? & bel+e"es t,at ,*-an be+nDs are s+-Al a ,+D,er sAe/+es !. an+-al and d!5nAla s t,e e<+sten/e !. an ,*-an sA+r+t? & re4e/ts t,e +dea !. l+.e a.ter deat,1 res*rre/t+!n1 H*dD-ent Da and t,e e<+sten/e !. an eternal )arad+se and Hell? T,ese ass*-At+!ns !. a -ater+al+st /*lt*re1 e"er !ne !. t,e- .alse1 nat*rall /!ntrad+/t all re"ealed rel+D+!ns? B*t s+Dn+.+/antl 1 all t,ese err!ne!*s ass*-At+!ns are s,ared b an!t,er /*lt*re—B*dd,+s-?

H!=(e"?s Dis#$:e " $) B!ddhis%
An at,e+st rel+D+!n1 B*dd,+s- d!esnFt a//eAt t,e e<+sten/e !. G!d1 an e"erlast+nD ,erea.ter1 )arad+se1 !r Hell? It s*AA!ses t,at t,e ,*-an sA+r+t +s n! d+..erent .r!- t,at !. an an+-al and bel+e"es +n /!nt+n*al 0ar-+/ ret*rns t! t,e nat*ral 5!rld? A//!rd+nD t! B*dd,+sts1 a .+s, /!*ld /!-e ba/0 as a -a--al +n a later l+.e1 and a ,*-an /!*ld /!-e ba/0 as a 5!r-? T,+s +dea !. t,e Ktrans-+Drat+!n !. s!*lsK bet5een sAe/+es ,as +-A!rtant Aarallels 5+t, Dar5+nFs t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n? Cne B*dd,+st resear/,er ,as des/r+bed as .!ll!5s t,e relat+!n bet5een B*dd,+s- and e"!l*t+!n8 B*dd,+s-? ? ? +s G*+te ,aAA 5+t, t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n? In .a/t1 B*dd,+st A,+l!s!A, a/t*all reG*+res e"!l*t+!n t! ta0e Ala/e—all t,+nDs are seen as be+nD trans+ent1 /!nstantl be/!-+nD1 e<+st+nD .!r a 5,+le1 and : t,en .ad+nD? T,e +dea !. *n/,anD+nD sAe/+es 5!*ld n!t be /!-Aat+ble 5+t, B*dd,+st !nt!l!D ? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 Dar5+n+sts ,a"e .elt s -Aat,et+/ t!5ard B*dd,+s- and Ar!-!ted +t e"er s+n/e t,e %=t, /ent*r ? T,e .+rst t! e<Aress Dar5+n+st ad-+rat+!n .!r B*dd,+s- 5as T,!-as H? H*<le 5,!1 a.ter Dar5+n ,+-sel. Ar!A!sed ,+s t,e!r 1 Ala ed t,e ne<t -!st +-A!rtant r!le +n t,e sAread !. Dar5+n+s-? H*<le aAAeared !n t,e s/ene as Dar5+nFs -!st Aass+!nate s*AA!rter and be/a-e 0n!5n as KDar5+nFs b*lld!D?K H+s debates 5+t, s/+ent+sts and /lerD de.end+nD t,e +dea !. /reat+!n1 and t,e Aass+!n !. ,+s 5r+t+nDs and sAee/,es ,a"e -ade ,+t,e %=t, /ent*r Fs -!st .a-!*s Dar5+n+st? Cne l+ttle&0n!5n .a/t ab!*t H*<le 5as ,+s 0een +nterest +n B*dd,+s-? E"en 5,+le str*DDl+nD 5+t, reAresentat+"es !. re"ealed rel+D+!ns l+0e H*da+s- and 3,r+st+an+t 1 ,e reDarded B*dd,+s- as aAAr!Ar+ate t! t,e 0+nd !. se/*lar /+"+l+Jat+!n t,at ,e 5anted t! see establ+s,ed +n t,e @est? T,+s +s elab!rated +n t,e hiloso%hy East and .est art+/le1 KB*dd,+s- +n H*<le Fs E"!l*t+!n and Et,+/s1K 5,+/, +n/l*des t,e .!ll!5+nD des/r+At+!n !. B*dd,+s- .r!- H*<le Fs b!!0 !. t,at na-e8 NB*dd,+s- +sO a s ste- 5,+/, 0n!5s n! G!d +n t,e @estern senseL 5,+/, den+es a s!*l t! -anL 5,+/, /!*nts t,e bel+e. +n +--!rtal+t a bl*nder and ,!Ae !. +t a s+nL 5,+/, re.*ses an e..+/a/ t! Ara er and

sa/r+.+/eL 5,+/, b+ds -en l!!0 t! n!t,+nD b*t t,e+r !5n e..!rts.!r sal"at+!n ? ? ? ? et N+tO sAread !"er a /!ns+derable -!+et !. t,e Cld @!rld 5+t, -ar"el!*s raA+d+t and +s st+ll1 5+t, 5,ate"er base ad-+<t*re !. ' .!re+Dn s*Aerst+t+!ns1 t,e d!-+nant /reed !. a larDe .ra/t+!n !. -an0+nd? T,e !nl reas!n .!r H*<le Fs ad-+rat+!n !. B*dd,+s- +s t,at +t—l+0e H*<le and !t,er Dar5+n+sts—d+d n!t bel+e"e +n G!d? A//!rd+nD t! V+4+t,a Ra4aAa0se1 a Ar!.ess!r at Ha5a++ Un+"ers+t and t,e a*t,!r !. KB*dd,+s- +n H*<le Fs E"!l*t+!n and Et,+/s1K H*<le sa5 a Aarallel bet5een B*dd,+s- and t,e at,e+st+/ AaDan +deas !. an/+ent Gree/e? T,+s /!ntr+b*ted t! ,+s ad-+rat+!n8 H*<le Fs e"+dent tenden/ t! l+n0 B*dd,+st t,!*D,t 5+t, @estern +deas1 5,+/, /!-es t! t,e .!re str+0+nDl +n ,+s /!--ents !n t,e /!n/eAt !. s*bstan/e1 5as .*rt,er e<e-Al+.+ed at !t,er le"els !. ,+s d+s/*ss+!n as 5ell? He .!*nd t,e n!nt,e+st+/ stan/e ta0en b t,e earl B*dd,+sts t! be anal!D!*s t! t,e !*tl!!0 !. $ Hera/le+t*s and re.erred1 +n add+t+!n1 t! K-an Aarallel+s-s !. St!+/+s- and B*dd,+s-?K? ? ? Ra4aAa0se n!tes t,at s!-e !t,er %$t, and %=t, /ent*r at,e+sts !r aDn!st+/s 5ere als! Dreat ad-+rers !. B*dd,+s-? )arallels bet5een B*dd,+s- and t,e -ater+al+st @estern A,+l!s!A, !. t,e t+-e .!r- Aart !. t,e t,!*D,t !. Da"+d H*-e1 an %$t, /ent*r S/!tt+s, A,+l!s!A,er and at,e+st 5+t, an ant+Aat, t!5ards rel+D+!n? Ra4aAa0se 5r+tes1 KInterest+nDl en!*D,1 t,e Aarallel+s-s t,at e<+st bet5een B*dd,+st and H*-ean standA!+nts !n t,e G*est+!n !. a s*bstant+al s!*l 5ere d*l n!ted b /erta+n earl /!--entat!rs !n B*dd,+s-K and /!nt+n*es8 Mrs? R, s Da"+ds Na A+!neer translat!r !. earl B*dd,+st te<ts .r!- )aal+ +nt! EnDl+s,O1 .!r e<a-Ale1 re-ar0ed t,at K5+t, reDard t! t,e bel+e. +n an +nd5ell+nD sA+r+t !r eD!1 Aer-anent1 *n/,anD+nD1 *ns*..er+nD1 = B*dd,+s- t!!0 t,e standA!+nt t5! t,!*sand1 .!*r ,*ndred ears aD! !. !*r !5n H*-e !. t5! /ent*r+es aD!?K As Ra4aAa0se -a+nta+ns +n ,+s art+/le1 B*dd,+s- +ntr+D*ed -an t,+n0ers +n V+/t!r+an EnDland be/a*se t,e .!*nd +t +n ,ar-!n 5+t, t,e as/endant A,+l!s!A,+es !. t,e %=t, /ent*r —at,e+s- and Dar5+n+s-? ;r+edr+/, N+etJs/,e1 t,e .a-!*s Ger-an A,+l!s!A,er1 l!!0ed 5+t, .a"!r !n B*dd,+s- .!r t,e sa-e reas!n?

NietOs#he?s S"%path" )$

B!ddhis%

N+etJs/,e1 !ne !. t,e %=t, /ent*r Fs -!st a"+d at,e+st t,+n0ers1 n*rt*red a Aass+!nate ,atred .!r 3,r+st+an+t and Ar!-!ted +n +ts stead a AaDan /*lt*re and -!ral+t ? H+s "+e5s ,elAed .!r- .as/+s- +n t,e 20t, /ent*r 1 esAe/+all NaJ+s-? N+etJs/,e battled 5+t, 3,r+st+an+t .!r esA!*s+nD t,e "+rt*es !. /!-Aass+!n1 -er/ 1 ,*-+l+t and tr*st +n G!d? T,ere.!re1 +n .a/t1 ,e 5as als! aDa+nst t,e -!ral Ar+n/+Ales !. Isla- and Den*+ne H*da+s-? He ,ated re"ealed rel+D+!ns n!t !nl be/a*se !. t,e+r -!ral Ar+n/+Ales1 b*t -a+nl be/a*se !. ,+s .anat+/ at,e+s-? In ,+s art+/le !n N+etJs/,e1 A-er+/an resear/,er Has!n DeB!er 5r+tes t,at Kat,e+s- +s a /r*/+al Aart !. N+etJs/,eFs t,!*D,t1K add+nD t,at8 H+s +s n!t an *nb+ased /r+t+G*e8 N+etJs/,e b*rns 5+t, ,atred t!5ard 3,r+st+an+t 1 and ,+s at,e+st+/ 5r+t+nDs %0 are e<tre-el "+tr+!l+/? As 5e /an +-aD+ne1 N+etJs/,e d+re/ted ,+s ,atred at re"ealed rel+D+!ns !nl 1 n!t at AaDan !nes? Cn t,e /!ntrar 1 as DeB!er 5r+tes8

? ? ? N+etJs/,e1 alt,!*D, !ne !. t,e .+er/est at,e+sts +n ,+st!r 1 5as +n .a/t n!t ent+rel ant+&rel+D+!*s ? ? ? %% NHeO resAe/ted and ad-+red -an !. t,e asAe/ts !. !t,er rel+D+!ns1 +n/l*d+nD AaDan+s- and e"en B*dd,+s-? In ,+s re"+e5 !. R!bert G? M!rr+s!nFs b!!0 Niet0'he and 1uddhis#:" !tudy in Nihilis# and -roni' "ffinities1 EnDl+s, a/ade-+/ Da"+d R? L! sa s t,e .!ll!5+nD !n t,+s -atter8 3!-Aar+nD N+etJs/,e 5+t, B*dd,+s- ,as be/!-e s!-et,+nD !. a /!ttaDe +nd*str 1 and .!r D!!d reas!n8 t,ere see-s t! be a deeA res!nan/e bet5een t,e-? M!rr+s!n A!+nts !*t t,at t,e s,are -an /!--!n .eat*res8 b!t, e-A,as+se t,e /entral+t !. ,*-ans +n a D!dless /!s-!s and ne+t,er l!!0s t! an e<ternal be+nD !r A!5er .!r t,e+r resAe/t+"e s!l*t+!ns t! t,e Ar!ble- !. e<+sten/e ? ? ? B!t, *nderstand NaO ,*-an be+nD as an e"er& /,anD+nD .l*< !. -*lt+Ale As /,!A, s+/al .!r/es1 and 5+t,+n t,+s .l*< t,ere +s n! a*t!n!-!*s !r *n/,anD+nD %2 s*b4e/t 6FeD!F1 Fs!*lF7? T,e s!*r/es !. t,ese err!ne!*s +deas t,at N+etJs/,e s,ared 5+t, B*dd,+s- 5ere /erta+nl n!t,+nD -!re t,an +Dn!ran/e and arr!Dan/e? An !ne 5,! l!!0s at t,e *n+"erse and t,e 5!rld !. nat*re 5+t, /!ns/+!*s +ntell+Den/e /an see /lear Ar!!.s !. G!dFs e<+sten/e? T,+s ,as been s*AA!rted b -!dern1 s/+ent+.+/ d+s/!"er+es8 t,e B+D BanD t,e!r and t,e Ant,r!A+/ )r+n/+Ale 6t,e Ar+n/+Ale t,at e"er deta+l +n t,e *n+"erse ,as been /are.*ll arranDed t! -a0e ,*-an l+.e A!ss+ble7 ,a"e /r*s,ed t,e +dea !. a D!dless *n+"erse as Ar!A!sed b N+etJs/,e and !t,er at,e+sts? S/+en/e ,as /lear Ar!!.s t,at t,e *n+"erse 5as /reated and !rdered +n an e<tra!rd+nar balan/e? T,ese Ar!!.s s,!5 t,e +n"al+d+t !. Dar5+nFs t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n1 b*t d! s*AA!rt t,e e<+sten/e !. an +ntell+Dent des+Dn and Ar!"e t,e tr*t, !. /reat+!n? T,e res*lts !. s/+ent+.+/ and s!/+!l!D+/al d+s/!"er+es ,a"e als! d+s/red+ted t,e +deas !. %=t, /ent*r t,+n0ers l+0e Mar<1 ;re*d1 and D*r0,e+-? 6;!r -!re +n.!r-at+!n1 Alease re.er t! Har*n Ya, aFs art+/le KA T*rn+nD )!+nt +n H+st!r 8 T,e ;all !. At,e+s-K at 555?,ar*n a, a?/!-B'0t,eP.allP!.Pat,e+s- Ps/+e3(?A,A7

B!ddhis%: Ea(se Spi it!a(it" t$ a Mate ia(ist -!(t! e
Ir!n+/all 1 t,+s s/+ent+.+/ test+-!n aDa+nst at,e+s- +s /l!sel related t! 5, B*dd,+s- +s sAread+nD +n t,e @estern 5!rld? Ar/,+te/ts !. at,e+s- and -ater+al+st /*lt*re see t,at t,e+r t,e!r +s /!llaAs+nD? T! Are"ent t,e raA+dl Dr!5+nD -!"e-ent t!5ards re"ealed rel+D+!ns1 t,e /!*nter +t b Ar!-!t+nD AaDan .a+t,s s*/, as B*dd,+s-? In !t,er 5!rds1 B*dd,+s-—and !t,er ;ar Eastern rel+D+!ns l+0e +t—are sA+r+t*al re+n.!r/e-ents !. -ater+al+s-? B*t 5, s,!*ld -ater+al+st @estern /*lt*re need an s*/, re+n.!r/e-entI EnDl+s, 5r+ters M+/,ael Ba+Dent1 R+/,ard Le+D, and Henr L+n/!ln ,a"e e<a-+ned t,e de"el!A-ent 6and deDenerat+!n7 !. +deas +n t,e @estern 5!rld !"er t,e Aast 21000 ears? In t,e 20t, /ent*r 1 t,e e<Ala+n1 t,e @estern 5!rld ,as .allen +nt! a K/r+s+s !. -ean+nD?K In !t,er 5!rds1 t,e 5a !. l+.e +-A!sed !n @estern s!/+et+es b -ater+al+st A,+l!s!A, ,as str+AAed Ae!AleFs l+"es !. -ean+nD b /*tt+nD t,e- !.. .r!- t,e+r bel+e. +n G!dFs e<+sten/e and .r!- 5!rs,+A !. H+-? T,ese t,ree a*t,!rs A*t +t t,+s 5a 8 L+.e be/a-e +n/reas+nDl bere.t !. -ean+nD1 de"!+d !. s+Dn+.+/an/e — a 5,!ll rand!- A,en!-en!n1 %3 l+"ed .!r n! Aart+/*lar A*rA!se?

Add+nD t! t,+s /r+s+s !. -ean+nD1 t,e /!llaAse !. -ater+al+st t,e!r+es !n a s/+ent+.+/ le"el ,as !Aened t,e 5a .!r a ne5 ret*rn t! re"ealed rel+D+!ns1 esAe/+all Isla-? ;!r t,+s reas!n1 t,e -!n!t,e+st+/ .a+t,s are Dr!5+nD +n t,e+r n*-bers !. ad,erentsL t,e n*-ber !. t,!se 5,! bel+e"e and Ara/t+/e t,e+r rel+D+!n +s +n/reas+nDL and rel+D+!*s /!n/eAts and "al*es are ass*-+nD -*/, -!re +-A!rtant Ala/es +n s!/+al l+.e? B*dd,+s- and s+-+lar AaDan bel+e.s are eaDer t! /*rta+l t,+s -!"e-ent b !..er+nD1 t! t,!se /!n.*sed b t,e /r+s+s !. -ean+nD br!*D,t !n b t,e -ater+al+st /*lt*re1 a .alse r!*te t! sal"at+!n? B*dd,+s-1 Ta!+s-1 H+nd*+s- and "ers+!ns !. +t l+0e t,e Hare 2r+s,na se/t1 @+//a and !t,er Ne5 ADe trends t,at br+nD t!Det,er "ar+!*s AaDan tea/,+nDs1 U;C rel+D+!ns t,at b*s t,e-sel"es 5+t, s!&/alled ,!l -essaDes bel+e"ed t! ,a"e /!-e .r!- sAa/e—t,ese are all .alse tea/,+nDs e-bra/ed b t,!se 5,! d! n!t 5ant t! brea0 5+t, at,e+st and -ater+al+st d!D-as1 5,+le eaDerl sear/, .!r sA+r+t*al+t at t,e sa-e t+-e? Bes+des1 -an 5,! be/!-e B*dd,+sts are larDel +n.l*en/ed b a des+re t! *n5+tt+nDl and bl+ndl +-+tate s!-et,+nD t,e d! n!t *nderstand1 s+-Al t! attra/t attent+!n and Aretent t,at t,e are1 +ndeed1 a5are and s!A,+st+/ated? T! *nderstand 5, t,ese d!/tr+nes are *n.!*nded1 5e need !nl Aass t,e- t,r!*D, t,e s+e"e !. l!D+/? @e ,a"e alread e<a-+ned t,e /!n/eAt !. 0ar-a1 t,e .!*ndat+!n !. se"eral ;ar Eastern rel+D+!ns1 and s,!5n +t t! ,a"e n! rat+!nal bas+s? 6;!r a -!re deta+led d+s/*ss+!n1 see Har*n Ya, aFs -sla# and /ar#a1 Ta Ha )*bl+s,ers1 L!nd!n1 20037 T,ese rel+D+!ns d! n!t bel+e"e +n t,e e<+sten/e !. G!d1 n!r +n an *lt+-ate Ala/e !. d+"+ne 4*dD-ent .!r -an0+nd? H!51 t,en1 /an t,e bel+e"e t,at e"er Aers!n 5+ll re/e+"e a re5ard .!r 5,at ,e ,as d!ne —+n a s*bseG*ent l+.eI @,! 5+ll deter-+ne t,+sI T,!se 5,! re"ere KE<traterrestr+alsK als! bel+e"e +n s+-+lar n!nsense? H!5 /an a Aers!n b*+ld a A,+l!s!A, !. l+.e !n U;Cs1 5,!se real+t +s G*+te debatableI E"en +. be+nDs .r!- !*ter sAa/e d+d e<+st1 t,e t!! 5!*ld1 ne/essar+l 1 ,a"e t! ,a"e been /reated? B*t 5,at +s t,e D*arantee t,at t,e /!*ld s,!5 ,*-ans t,e tr*e Aat,I T,!se /a*D,t *A +n s*/, s*Aerst+t+!*s +deas s,!*ld t,+n0 ab!*t t,ese 5!rds !. G!d .r!- t,e E*rFan 69:8 9'78 9We # eated "$!/ s$ wh" d$ "$! n$t #$n)i % the t !th> K T,e s,!*ld .!ll!5 H+s 5a 1 as He ,as /!--anded8 +his is M" <ath/ and it is st ai0ht/ s$ )$(($w it. D$ n$t )$(($w $the wa"s/ $ "$! wi(( be#$%e #!t $)) ) $% His Wa". +hat is what He inst !#ts "$! t$ d$/ s$ that h$pe)!((" "$! %a" d$ "$! d!t". 34! ?an/ F: 6G38

-,ULD BUDDHISM B& A +RU& R&LI.I,N +HA+5S B&-,M& DIS+,R+&D>
Alt,!*D, *A t! t,+s A!+nt 5eF"e e<a-+ned B*dd,+s- as s*Aerst+t+!*s and .alse1 at t,e sa-e t+-e1 5e -*st sa t,at +t /!nta+ns s!-e A!s+t+"e -!ral Ar+n/+Ales? B*dd,+st s/r+At*res 5arn Ae!Ale aDa+nst steal+nD1 en/!*raDes t,e- t! be ,elA.*l t! !ne an!t,er and /leanse t,e-sel"es !. sel.+s,ness and 5!rldl a-b+t+!ns? All !. t,+s s*DDests t,at B*dd,+s- A!ss+bl beDan as a rel+D+!n .!*nded !n G!dFs re"elat+!n1 !nl t! be/!-e /!rr*Ated !"er t,e /!*rse !. t+-e? In t,e E*rFan1 G!d tells *s t,at t! e"er nat+!n1 He sent -essenDers t! del+"er H+s 5arn+nDs8 We ha:e sent "$! JM!ha%%adK with the t !th b in0in0 0$$d news and 0i:in0 wa nin0. +he e is n$ #$%%!nit" t$ whi#h a wa ne has n$t #$%e. 34! ?an/ 3G: 2@8 We sent a Messen0e a%$n0 e:e " pe$p(e sa"in0: 9W$ ship .$d and ;eep #(ea $) a(( )a(se 0$ds.9 A%$n0 the% we e s$%e wh$% .$d 0!ided/ b!t $the s e#ei:ed the %is0!idan#e the" dese :ed2 34! ?an/ 6F: 3F8 Else5,ere +n t,e E*rFan1 He a..+r-s t,at1 9&:e " nati$n has a Messen0e 9 6%08 ('7 and 9e:e " nati$n JisK s!%%$ned t$ its B$$;9 6(98 2$7? T,ese "erses s,!5 *s t,at G!d /!*ld /erta+nl ,a"e sent a -essenDer t! t,e H+nd*sL and !ne !. t,e- /!*ld ,a"e been S+dd,art,a Ga*ta-a? B*dd,+s- rese-bles re"ealed rel+D+!n +n an!t,er !ne !. +ts tenets8 t,at t,r!*D,!*t ,+st!r 1 Ar!A,ets ,a"e /!-e t! re"eal t,e sa-e tr*t,s t! ,*-an+t 1 b*t a.ter t,e-1 ,*-an .!ll!5ers ,a"e debased t,ese rel+D+!*s tr*t,s? Indeed1 a.ter Ga*ta-aFs deat,1 ,+s tea/,+nD -a ,a"e l!st +ts r!!ts and be/!-e d+st!rted +n 4*st t,+s 5a 1 -+<+nD 5+t, t,e rel+D+!ns and /*lt*res !. t,e /!*ntr+es t! 5,+/, +t sAread1 and ass+-+lat+nD "ar+!*s l!/al - t,s and s*Aerst+t+!ns? 6B*t !. /!*rse1 !nl G!d 0n!5s t,e tr*t,?7 In s*/, /ase1 d!*btless t,e real b+!DraA, !. S+dd,art,a Ga*ta-a 5!*ld be -*/, d+..erent .r!- t,e - t,!l!D+/al st!r+es ab!*t ,+- t,at 5e 0n!5 t!da ? T,ere e<+st /!n.l+/t+nD "ers+!ns !. ,+s l+.e st!r —a /lear s+Dn t,at t,e real+t -a ,a"e been Ar!babl G*+te d+..erent .r!- t,e K,+st!r K 5e are n!5 .a-+l+ar 5+t,? S!-e !. t,e tr*e -!ral Ar+n/+Ales t,at B*dd,+s- Ar!-!tes lead *s t! bel+e"e t,at +t -+D,t ,a"e de"el!Aed .r!- an !r+D+nall -!n!t,e+st+/ rel+D+!n? @estern s/,!lar H? M? R!berts!n e<Ala+ns t,e B*dd,+st bel+e. !. t,e K/,a+n !. Ar!A,etsK8 NB*dd,+s-O d+d n!t /la+- t! be a ne5 tea/,+nD? T,e trad+t+!n ,!lds t,at +t ,ad been Ar!-*lDated -an t+-es be.!re—t,at G!ta-a 2si'3 5as !nl !ne !. a l!nD ser+es !. B*dd,as 5,! ar+se at +nter"als and 5,! all tea/, t,e sa-e d!/tr+ne? T,e na-es !. t5ent &.!*r !. s*/, B*dd,as 5,! aAAeared be.!re G!ta-a ,a"e been re/!rded ? ? ? It 5as ,eld t,at a.ter t,e deat, !. ea/, B*dd,a1 ,+s rel+D+!n .l!*r+s,es .!r a t+-e and t,en de/a s? %( A.ter +t +s .!rD!tten1 a ne5 B*dd,a e-erDes and Area/,es t,e l!st D,a--a1 !r Tr*t,? All !. t,+s s*DDests t,at B*dd,+s- /!*ld be !ne !. t,e Aer"erse1 d+st!rted bel+e.s t,at /a-e t! deDenerate +n t,e 5a0e !. t,e Ar!A,ets? Cn t,e !t,er ,and1 B*dd,+s-Fs set1 /!nser"at+"e str*/t*re re-+nds !ne !. t,e /lass+/ d+st!rt+!ns t,at /an !//*r d*r+nD t,e deDenerat+!n !. t,e tr*e rel+D+!n?

In t,e E*rFan1 G!d sa s t,at 3,r+st+ans and He5s ,a"e .allen +nt! t,e sa-e traA and ,a"e s-!t,ered t,e+r rel+D+!ns 5+t, *seless -+n*t+ae and Ar!,+b+t+!ns? ;!r e<a-Ale1 err!ne!*s +deas +n B*dd,+s- ab!*t 5+t,dra5+nD .r!- t,e 5!rld and s*b4e/t+nD !neFs sel. t! Aa+n als! ar!se +n 3,r+st+an+t as +t deDenerated t,r!*D, t,e ears? G!d sAea0s !. t,+s err!r +n t,e E*rFan 69'8 2'78 +hen We sent ,! Messen0e s )$(($win0 in thei )$$tsteps and sent Qes!s s$n $) Ma " a)te the%/ 0i:in0 hi% the .$spe(. We p!t #$%passi$n and %e #" in the hea ts $) th$se wh$ )$(($wed hi%. +he" in:ented %$nasti#is%BWe did n$t p es# ibe it )$ the%Bp! e(" $!t $) desi e t$ 0ain the p(eas! e $) .$d/ b!t e:en s$/ the" did n$t $bse :e it as it sh$!(d ha:e been $bse :ed. +$ th$se $) the% wh$ be(ie:ed/ We 0a:e thei ewa d/ b!t %an" $) the% a e de:iat$ s. B*dd,+s- -a ,a"e been a tr*e rel+D+!n t,at 5as r*+ned a.ter t,e de"el!A-ent !. a Ar+est,!!d? It ,as /erta+nl deDenerated -*/, -!re t,an H*da+s- !r 3,r+st+an+t ? H!5e"er -*/, t,ese t5! rel+D+!ns ,a"e been d+st!rted !"er t,e /!*rse !. t+-e1 st+ll t,e are de"!ted t! G!dFs re"elat+!ns and .!*nd t,e+r .a+t,s *A!n H+-? E"en +. t,e essen/e !. B*dd,+s- a/t*all /!-es .r!- a tr*e s!*r/e1 +t ,as /!-Aletel deAarted .r!- t,at essen/e and be/!-e s-!t,ered +n s*Aerst+t+!*s r+t*al1 5+t, !nl a .e5 tr*e -!ral Ar+n/+Ales le.t? B*dd,+s- rese-bles t,e -!n!t,e+st+/ .a+t,s !. H*da+s-1 3,r+st+an+t and Isla- +n an!t,er 5a 8 It1 t!!1 bel+e"es +n t,e End T+-es and +n !ne *lt+-ate sa"+!r .!r ,*-an+t —He5s and 3,r+st+ans 0n!5 ,+- as t,e Mess+a,L and .!r M*sl+-s1 ,e +s t,e Ma,d+? T,e End T+-es +s t,e Aer+!d +--ed+atel Are/ed+nD t,e Last Da ? B!t, t,e E*rFan and t,e sa +nDs !. t,e )r!A,et 6-a G!d bless ,+- and Drant ,+- Aea/e7 /!nta+n a n*-ber !. +nd+/at+!ns t,at +n t,e End T+-es1 Isla-+/ -!ral+t 5+ll sAread t,r!*D,!*t t,e 5,!le 5!rld? T,e E*rFan sa s t,at Hes*s 6Aea/e be *A!n ,+-7 d+d n!t d+e1 t,at ,e 5as n!t 0+lled b*t 5as ra+sed t! t,e Aresen/e !. G!d 5,+le ,e 5as st+ll al+"e1 and t,at ,e 5+ll /!-e t! eart, aDa+n? T,e )r!A,et M*,a--ad 6-a G!d bless ,+- and Drant ,+- Aea/e7 als! ann!*n/ed t,e D!!d ne5s t,at Hes*s 5+ll be sent t! t,e 5!rld aDa+n1 and +n t,!se End T+-es 5,+le ,e +s ,ere1 t,e 5!rld 5+ll be .+lled 5+t, Aea/e1 4*st+/e1 5ell&be+nD1 and Ar!sAer+t ? T,e )r!A,etFs sa +nDs re"eal t,at t,e Ma,d+ 5+ll ass+st Hes*s +n ,+s blessed 5!r0? 6;!r a -!re deta+led a//!*nt1 see Har*n Ya, aFs 4esus .ill Return1 Ta&Ha )*bl+s,ers1 L!nd!n1 200%?7 In t,e )r!A,etFs sa +nDs1 t,e End T+-es are d+"+ded +nt! t5! d+st+n/t Aer+!ds? In t,e .+rst1 G!d 5+ll be !Aenl den+edL t,e n*-ber !. Ae!Ale l+"+nD a//!rd+nD t! t,e "al*es !. rel+D+!n 5+ll be .e5L t,e /!st !. l+"+nD and d+stress .r!- -ater+al 5ant 5+ll be Dreat? T,ere 5+ll be .a-+nes? )e!Ale 5+ll s*..er .r!- nat*ral d+sastersL +n4*st+/e 5+ll be 5+desAread1 5ars and /!n.l+/ts 5+ll +n/rease1 and A+t+lessness and /r*elt 5+ll d!-+nate !"er l!"e1 -er/ and /!-Aass+!n? A.ter5ards1 ,*-an+t 5+ll be sa"ed .r!- t,e D!dless and +rrel+D+!*s A,+l!s!A,+es t,at are t,e real s!*r/e !. all t,e+r anD*+s, and t*rn t! t,e "al*es !. rel+D+!n? As a res*lt1 /!n.l+/t1 +n4*st+/e and /r*elt 5+ll /!-e t! an end? Instead !. an<+et and reAress+!n1 ,*-an+t 5+ll l+"e +n /!-.!rt1 Aea/e1 se/*r+t and Ar!sAer+t ? T,e 5,!le 5!rld 5+ll be .+lled 5+t, Alent and ab*ndan/e? In Isla-1 as 5ell as +n H*da+s- and 3,r+st+an+t 1 t,ere +s t,e bel+e. +n t,e Ma,d+1 t,e Mess+a,1 and t,e End T+-es? T,e B+ble—-ade *A !. t,e Cld Testa-ent 6t,e T!ra, and !t,er He5+s, 5r+t+nDs7 and t,e Ne5 Testa-ent 6t,e .!*r D!sAels and !t,er b!!0s and letters7—!..ers se"eral des/r+At+!ns !. t,e end t+-es? T,e D!sAels esAe/+all deal 5+t, t,e /!-+nD !. Hes*s 6Aea/e be *A!n ,+-7 and s,!5 +-A!rtant Aarallels 5+t, 5,at +s 5r+tten +n t,e E*rFan and +n t,e sa +nDs !. t,e )r!A,et 6-a G!d bless ,+- and Drant ,+- Aea/e7?

Alt,!*D, t,e na-e !. Hes*s d!es n!t !//*r +n t,e Cld Testa-ent1 !. /!*rse1 t,e Hebre5 B+ble d!es .!retell a Mess+a, as a sa"+!r .r!- t,e l+neaDe !. Da"+d 6Aea/e be *A!n ,+-7? And +n s!-e Ala/es +n t,e Cld Testa-ent t,ere are -ent+!ns !. 5,at 5+ll ,aAAen at t,e T+-e !. t,e End? T,e Mess+a,1 5,!se /!-+nD +s Ar!-+sed and ab!*t 5,!se deeds are sA!0en !. +n t,e Cld Testa-ent1 +s—as +n t,e E*rFan—Hes*s? AAart .r!%9 t,e t+tle KMess+a,1K t,+s Aers!n +s /alled b !t,er des/r+At+!ns s*/, as K0+nD1K Kl!rdK and K-!st ,!l ?K T,e Cld Testa-ent sAea0s !. t,e Mess+a,Fs /!-+nD1 and -*/, +s sa+d ab!*t t,e 0+nDd!- ,e 5+ll .!*nd !n eart,? S!-e !. t,e essent+al t,+nDs sa+d ab!*t ,+- are t,at ,e 5+ll Dat,er t,e nat+!ns *nder ,+s r*le1 t,at ,e +s !. t,e l+neaDe !. Da"+d 6Aea/e be *A!n ,+-7 and t,at ,e rese-bles ,+s an/est!r1 Da"+d 65,! +n ,+s !5n t+-e1 establ+s,ed ,+s d!-+n+!n e"er 5,ere ,e 5ent7? S!-e !. t,ese rele"ant AassaDes .r!- t,e Cld Testa-ent are as .!ll!5s8 T,e ad"ersar+es !. t,e L!rd s,all be br!0en +n A+e/esL ;r!- ,ea"en He 5+ll t,*nder aDa+nst t,e-? T,e L!rd 5+ll 4*dDe t,e ends !. t,e eart,? He 5+ll D+"e strenDt, t! H+s 0+nD1 and e<alt t,e ,!rn !. H+s an!+nted? 6% Sa-*el 28 %07 And +n t,e da s !. t,ese 0+nDs1 t,e G!d !. ,ea"en 5+ll set *A a 0+nDd!- t,at s,all ne"er be destr! edL and t,e 0+nDd!- s,all n!t be le.t t! !t,er Ae!AleL +t s,all brea0 +n A+e/es and /!ns*-e all t,ese 0+nDd!-s1 and +t s,all stand .!re"er? 6Dan+el 28 ((7 Be,!ldM M Ser"ant 5,!- I *A,!ld1 M Ele/t Cne +n 5,!- M s!*l del+D,tsM I ,a"e A*t M SA+r+t *A!n ,+-L ,e 5+ll br+nD .!rt, 4*st+/e t! t,e Gent+les? He 5+ll n!t /r !*t1 n!r ra+se ,+s "!+/e1 n!r /a*se ,+s "!+/e t! be ,eard +n t,e street? A br*+sed reed ,e 5+ll n!t brea01 and s-!0+nD .la< ,e 5+ll n!t G*en/,L ,e 5+ll br+nD .!rt, 4*st+/e .!r tr*t,? He 5+ll n!t .a+l n!r be d+s/!*raDed1 t+ll ,e ,as establ+s,ed 4*st+/e +n t,e eart,L and t,e /!astlands s,all 5a+t .!r ,+s la5 ? ? ? I1 t,e L!rd1 ,a"e /alled !* +n r+D,te!*sness1 and 5+ll ,!ld !*r ,andL I 5+ll 0eeA !* and D+"e !* as a /!"enant t! t,e Ae!Ale1 as a l+D,t t! t,e Gent+les1 t! !Aen bl+nd e es1 t! br+nD !*t Ar+s!ners .r!- t,e Ar+s!n1 t,!se 5,! s+t +n dar0ness .r!- t,e Ar+s!n ,!*se? 6Isa+a, (28 %&'7 B*t 5+t, r+D,te!*sness ,e s,all 4*dDe t,e A!!r1 and de/+de 5+t, eG*+t .!r t,e -ee0 !. t,e eart,L ,e s,all str+0e t,e eart, 5+t, t,e r!d !. ,+s -!*t,1 and 5+t, t,e breat, !. ,+s l+As ,e s,all sla t,e 5+/0ed? R+D,te!*sness s,all be t,e belt !. ,+s l!+ns ? ? ? 6Isa+a, %%8 (&97 T,e Ne5 Testa-ent D+"es -*/, +n.!r-at+!n ab!*t t,e Se/!nd 3!-+nD !. Hes*s t! t,e 5!rld8 I D! t! AreAare a Ala/e .!r !*? And +. I D! and AreAare a Ala/e .!r !*1 I 5+ll /!-e aDa+n and re/e+"e !* t! - sel.L t,at 5,ere I a-1 t,ere !* -a be als!? 6H!,n %(8 2&37 T,+s sa-e Hes*s1 5,! 5as ta0en *A .r!- !* +nt! ,ea"en1 5+ll s! /!-e +n l+0e -anner as !* sa5 ,+- D! +nt! ,ea"en? 6A/ts %8 %%7 T,ere.!re +. t,e sa t! !*1 KL!!01 ,e +s +n t,e desertMF d! n!t D! !*tL !r KL!!01 He +s +n t,e +nner r!!-sMK d! n!t bel+e"e +t? ;!r as t,e l+D,tn+nD /!-es .r!- t,e east and .las,es t! t,e 5est1 s! als! 5+ll t,e /!-+nD !. t,e S!n !. Man be? 6Matt,e5 2(8 2:&2'7 I*rDe !* +n t,e s+D,t !. G!d 5,! D+"es l+.e t! all t,+nDs1 and be.!re 3,r+st Hes*s? ? ? t,at !* 0eeA t,+s /!--and-ent 5+t,!*t sA!t1 bla-eless *nt+l !*r L!rd Hes*s 3,r+stFs aAAear+nD1 5,+/, He 5+ll -an+.est +n H+s !5n t+-e1 He 5,! +s t,e blessed and !nl )!tentate1 T,e 2+nD !. 0+nDs and L!rd !. l!rds1 5,! al!ne ,as +--!rtal+t 1 d5ell+nD +n *naAAr!a/,able l+D,t1 5,!- n! -an ,as seen !r /an see1 t! 5,!- be ,!n!r and e"erlast+nD A!5er? A-en? 6% T+-!t, :8 %3&%:7

T,e 0+nDd!- t,at 5+ll /!-e +nt! be+nD 5+t, t,e se/!nd /!-+nD !. Hes*s 5+ll be a Aer+!d !. 4*st+/e1 5ealt, and ,+D, -!ral+t 8 Blessed are t,e -ee01 .!r t,e s,all +n,er+t t,e eart,? 6Matt,e5 98 97 In t,+s -anner1 t,ere.!re1 Ara ? ? ? KY!*r 0+nDd!- /!-e ? ? ? ?K 6Matt,e5 :8 =&%07 T,ere 5+ll be 5eeA+nD and Dnas,+nD !. teet,1 5,en !* see Abra,a- and Isaa/ and Ha/!b and all t,e Ar!A,ets +n t,e 0+nDd!- !. G!d1 and !*rsel"es t,r*st !*t? T,e 5+ll /!-e .r!- t,e east and t,e 5est1 .r!- t,e n!rt, and t,e s!*t,1 and s+t d!5n +n t,e 0+nDd!- !. G!d? And +ndeed t,ere are last 5,! 5+ll be .+rst1 and t,ere are .+rst 5,! 5+ll be last? 6L*0e %38 2$&307 As 5e -ent+!ned earl+er1 B*dd,+s- als! .!retells and e<Ae/ts a sa"+!r&-ess+a,? B*dd,a sa+d t,at %000 ears a.ter ,+-1 t,e Mette a 6!r Ma+tre a7 5!*ld /!-e and br+nD d+"+ne -er/ t! t,e 5,!le *n+"erseL and 5+t, ,+s /!-+nD1 rel+D+!n 5!*ld rea/, +ts /!-Alet+!n? T,e .!ll!5+nD are s!-e e<a-Ales !. t,+s e<Ae/tat+!n .r!B*dd,+st 5r+t+nDs .r!- t5! d+..erent /!*ntr+es? ;+rst B*r-a8 B*dd,a sa+d8 KC*r / /le +s a ,aAA !ne1 t,ree leaders ,a"e alread l+"ed ? ? ? T,e B*dd,a s*Are-e a- I1 b*t a.ter -e1 Ma+tr+ a /!-es? @,+le st+ll t,+s ,aAA / /le lasts1 be.!re +ts tale !. ears s,all laAse? T,+s B*dd,a1 %: /alled Mette a1 s,all be s*Are-e /,+e. !. all Men?K N!51 .r!- Sr+ Lan0a8 I a- n!t t,e .+rst B*dd,a Na5a0ened !neO 5,! ,as /!-e *A!n t,e Eart,1 n!r 5+ll I be t,e last? In d*e t+-e an!t,er B*dd,a 5+ll r+se +n t,e 5!rld1 a H!l Cne1 a s*Are-e enl+D,tened !ne1 end!5ed 5+t, a*sA+/+!*s 5+sd!- e-bra/+nD t,e Un+"erse1 an +n/!-Aarable leader !. -en? ? ? He 5+ll re"eal t! !* t,e sa-e eternal tr*t,s1 5,+/, I ,a"e ta*D,t !*? He 5+ll establ+s, ,+s La5 Nrel+D+!nO ? ? ? He 5+ll Ar!/la+- a r+D,te!*s l+.e 5,!ll Aer.e/t and A*re1 s*/, as I n!5 Ar!/la+-? H+s d+s/+Ales 5+ll n*-ber -an t,!*sands1 5,+le -+ne n*-ber -an %' ,*ndreds? He 5+ll be 0n!5n as Ma+tre a?

-,N-LUSI,N: +RU+H HAS -,M& AND EALS&H,,D HAS DANISH&D
In aDes Aast1 Ae!Ale 5!rs,+AAed stat*es -ade !. 5!!d and st!ne and besee/,ed t,e- .!r ,elA? T,e .eared t,ese stat*es1 bel+e"+nD t,at t,e 5ere 5at/,+nD t,e- and 5!*ld be/!-e anDr 5,ene"er a Aers!n /!--+tted s+n? B*dd,a +s t,e B*dd,+st +d!l? B*t B*dd,+sts 5,! eG*ate B*dd,a 5+t, G!d—and t,!se 5,! ,!A !n t,e band5aD!n and be/!-e B*dd,+sts t! dra5 attent+!n t! t,e-sel"es—d! n!t real+Je ,!5 ser+!*sl t,e are de/e+"ed? Be/a*se t,e d! n!t bel+e"e +n t,e eternal a.terl+.e1 )arad+se !r Hell1 +t ne"er !//*rs t! t,e- t,at t,e 5+ll ,a"e an a//!*nt+nD +n t,e Aresen/e !. G!d? S+n/e t,e bel+e"e t,at t,e are alread !n t,e r+D,t Aat,1 t,e rea/t 5+t, Dreat s*rAr+se 5,en +n"+ted t! .!ll!5 +t? All !. t,e -essenDers 5,! 5arned aDa+nst t,e AaDan rel+D+!ns t,at Ae!Ale ,ad .!ll!5ed and /alled !t,ers t! t,e !neness !. G!d en/!*ntered s+-+lar rea/t+!ns? In t,e E*rFan 63$8 (&'71 G!d sa s8 +he" a e s! p ised that a wa ne sh$!(d #$%e t$ the% ) $% a%$n0 the%se(:es. +he !nbe(ie:e s sa"/ 9+his is a ("in0 %a0i#ian. Has he t! ned a(( the 0$ds int$ ,ne .$d> +hat is t !(" ast$nishin0N9 +hei (eade s went $)) sa"in0/ 9-a " $n as "$! a eN H$(d )ast t$ "$! 0$ds. +his is #(ea (" s$%ethin0 p(anned. We ha:e n$t hea d $) this in the $(d e(i0i$n. +his is %e e(" s$%ethin0 #$nt i:ed.9 In t,+s b!!01 5e +n"+te B*dd,+sts and all !t,ers 5,!1 .!r 5,ate"er reas!n1 .eel s -Aat, 5+t, t,+s s*Aerst+t+!*s rel+D+!n t! *nderstand t,e tr*t, t,at t,ere +s n! D!d b*t G!dL and t! a//eAt t,at G!d +s Cne and t,at t,ere +s n! !t,er? @e +n"+te t,e- t! /!-e t! Isla-1 t,e rel+D+!n !. Abra,a-1 M!ses1 Hes*s1 and t,e )r!A,et M*,a--ad 6Aea/e be *A!n t,e- all7? A Aers!n 5,! Aer/e+"es all ,+s an/est!rs as bel+e"+nD +n a rel+D+!n t,at ass!/+ates !t,er t,+nDs 5+t, G!d—and 5,! ,+-sel. ass!/+ates t,e- 5+t, G!d—-a .+nd +t ,ard at .+rst t! -a0e t,+s de/+s+!n? He -a n!t *nderstand ,!51 a.ter D+"+nD *A all t,!se A!5ers ,e !n/e ass!/+ated 5+t, G!d1 ,e /an 5!rs,+A H+- al!ne? Be t,at as +t -a 1 t,e !nl Cne @,! s*AA!rts and .eeds ,+- at t,+s -!-entL t,e !nl Cne 5at/,+nD !"er ,+- and Ar!te/t+nD ,+- +s G!d? T,e Cne @,! D+"es ,+- l+.e and ,eals ,+- 5,en ,e +s s+/0 +s G!d1 L!rd !. all t,e @!rlds1 @,! /reated t,+s Eart, a//!rd+nD t! a Are&!rda+ned de/ree? As +t sa s +n t,e E*rFan 6$%8 2=71 ,*-an be+nDs ,a"e s*b-+tted t! t,e 5+ll !. G!d1 t! t,e A!+nt 5,ere t,e ,a"e n! A!5er t! 5+ll *nless G!d 5+lls1 /ann!t a/t e</eAt b t,e 5+ll !. G!d? As G!d sa s !. H+-sel. +n t,e E*rFan 6%%8 9:71 9+he e is n$ # eat! e He d$es n$t h$(d b" the )$ e($#;.9 Satan /an s,!5 B*dd,+sts1 and e"er !ne else1 t,at +t +s +-A!ss+ble t! es/aAe ass!/+at+nD !t,ers 5+t, G!d? H!5e"er1 t,+s +s s+-Al an +nt+-at+!n t,at /!-es .r!- SatanL t,e E*rFan 6%(8 227 ann!*n/es t,at1 !n t,e Last Da 1 Satan 5+ll sa 1 9.$d %ade "$! a p $%ise/ a p $%ise $) t !th/ and I %ade "$! a p $%ise/ b!t b $;e %" p $%ise. I had n$ a!th$ it" $:e "$!/ e=#ept that I #a((ed "$! and "$! esp$nded t$ %e. D$ n$t/ the e)$ e/ b(a%e %e/ b!t b(a%e "$! se(:es. I #ann$t #$%e t$ "$! aid/ n$ "$! t$ %ine. . . .9 and all !. t,!se 5,! ,a"e ass!/+ated !t,ers 5+t, G!d 5+ll be le.t /!-Aletel al!ne? As 5e 0n!51 be+nD sa"ed .r!- t,e err!r !. ass!/+at+nD !t,er t,+nDs !. H+s /reat+!n 5+t, G!d enta+ls a s+n/ere /,anDe !. +ntent+!n1 t*rn+nD !neFs t,+n0+nD t! t,e !neness !. G!d? And n! -atter 5,at s+t*at+!n ,e .+nds ,+-sel. +n1 t,at Aers!n de/+des t! tr*st +n G!d and /!n.!r- ,+s l+.e .a+t,.*ll t! t,e E*rFan? 3erta+nl 1 ,+s .a+t,.*lness and de/+s+"eness 5+ll br+nD ab!*t G!dFs ,elA1 +n/!-Aarable bless+nDs1 -er/ and ab*ndan/e? N! d!*bt1 G!d 5+ll d+re/t a Aers!n !n t,e r+D,t Aat,1 Ar!te/t+nD ,+- .r!- SatanFs atte-Ats t! -+sD*+de ,+-?

An !ne 5,! s*b-+ts ,+-sel. t! G!d sees t,at real ,aAA+ness and /!ntent-ent /an be .!*nd !nl +n .a+t,1 and +n t,e bel+e. +n G!dFs !neness? In t,e E*rFan 6:98 2&371 G!d D+"es t,+s D!!d ne5s t! bel+e"ers8 Wh$e:e heeds .$dBHe wi(( 0i:e hi% a wa" $!t and p $:ide )$ hi% ) $% whe e he d$es n$t e=pe#t. Wh$e:e p!ts his t !st in .$dBHe wi(( be en$!0h )$ hi%. .$d a(wa"s a#hie:es His ai%... ;!r t,+s reas!n1 a Aers!n 5,! reAents !. ,+s err!r !. ass!/+at+nD !t,er t,+nDs 5+t, G!d s,!*ld aband!n ,+s +d!ls 5+t,!*t a -!-entFs ,es+tat+!n? T,!se 5,! bel+e"e t,at B*dd,a +s a D!d 6G!d +s s*rel be !nd t,atM7 5,! sees and ,ears all t,+nDs1 D+"es strenDt,1 Dets anDr and .!rebears1 -*st /,anDe t,e+r -+nds and aband!n t,e+r Aer"erse *nderstand+nD? And t,!se 5,! are /a*D,t *A +n t,e *n.!*nded +dea !. 0ar-a and re4e/t t,e e<+sten/e t,e e"erlast+nD a.terl+.e1 -*st *se t,e+r +ntell+Den/e t! sa"e t,e-sel"es .r!- t,+s err!r1 be/a*se 9What these pe$p(e a e d$in0 is destined )$ dest !#ti$n. What the" a e d$in0 is p! p$se(ess.9 6E*rFan1 '8 %3=7

+H& D&-&<+I,N ,E &D,LU+I,N
In t,e Aresent da 1 t,ere are Ae!Ale 5,! l+"e +n a -anner .ar re-!"ed .r!- G!d1 and 5,! e"en re4e/t .a+t, and den t,e e<+sten/e !. G!d .!r t,e+r !5n ends? Cn a//!*nt !. t,e+r bl+ndness and -+ndless .earlessness1 t,e tr t! +n.l*en/e !t,ers and t*rn t,e- a5a .r!- G!d? T,e ,a"e A*t .!r5ard a 5,!le ranDe !. +n/!ns+stent +deas and t5+sted +de!l!D+es b 5,+/, t! d! t,+s? Cne !. t,ese +s t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n?

+he Ide$($0i#a( -$((apse ,) Da winis%
T,e asAe/t !. Dar5+n+s- t,at st!As +t .r!- be+nD a /la+- !. +nterest !nl t! t,e s/+ent+.+/ 5!rld and -a0es +t !. Dreat +-A!rtan/e t! s!/+et as a 5,!le +s +ts +de!l!D+/al d+-ens+!n? T,e ans5er +t D+"es t! t,e G*est+!n !. ,!5 l+"+nD t,+nDs1 +n/l*d+nD -an0+nd1 /a-e +nt! e<+sten/e -a0es Dar5+n+s- t,e bas+s !. a n*-ber !. A,+l!s!A,+es1 5!rld"+e5s and A!l+t+/al +de!l!D+es? Here1 5e s,all /!ns+der t,e relat+!ns,+A bet5een Dar5+n+s- and -ater+al+st A,+l!s!A, ? Mater+al+st A,+l!s!A, 1 !r K-ater+al+s-1K +s a s ste- !. t,!*D,t D!+nD as .ar ba/0 as an/+ent Gree/e? Mater+al+s- rests !n t,e ass*-At+!n t,at -atter +s t,e !nl t,+nD t,at e<+sts? A//!rd+nD t! -ater+al+st A,+l!s!A, 1 -atter ,as al5a s e<+sted1 and 5+ll /!nt+n*e t! d! s! .!r all t+-e? ADa+n a//!rd+nD t! t,+s A,+l!s!A, 1 n!t,+nD e<+sts be !nd -atter? Nat*rall 1 -ater+al+s- +s als! re.le/ted +n t,e A!l+t+/al arena1 5+t, /!--*n+s- +nd+sA*tabl ta0+nD Ar+de !. Ala/e +n t,+s reDard? 2arl Mar< 6%$%$&$37 and ;r+edr+/, EnDels 6%$20&=971 reDarded as t,e .!*nders !. /!--*n+s-1 5ere als! t,e .!*nders !. d+ale/t+/al -ater+al+s-? In an /ase1 /!--*n+s- +s n!t,+nD -!re t,an -ater+al+st A,+l!s!A, adaAted t! t,e s!/+al s/+en/es b Mar< and EnDels? 3!--*n+s- +s t!da reDarded as an +de!l!D /!ns+Dned t! t,e 5astes !. ,+st!r 1 5,ereas t,e .a/t +s t,at +t +s st+ll e</eed+nDl +n.l*ent+al? T,e destr*/t+"e e..e/ts !. t,+s +de!l!D /an st+ll be .elt +n -an /!*ntr+es? T,+s +s 5,ere Dar5+n+s- ass*-es Dreat +-A!rtan/e? S+n/e Dar5+n+s-1 !r t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n1 -a+nta+ns t,at l+"+nD t,+nDs 5ere n!t /reated b*t /a-e +nt! be+nD b /,an/e1 +t ,as re/e+"ed a 5+de a//eAtan/e a-!nD -ater+al+st +de!l!D+es1 and ,as been ad!Ated as t,e Kbas+/ .!*ndat+!nK !. /!--*n+s- +n Aart+/*lar? All t,e -a+n /!--*n+st +de!l!D*es ,a"e a//eAted t,e t,e!r 5!rd .!r 5!rd1 and ,a"e based t,e+r +de!l!D+es *A!n +t? In a letter t! ;r+edr+/, EnDels +n %$:01 .!r +nstan/e1 2arl Mar< sa+d !. Dar5+nFs b!!0 t,at KT,+s +s t,e %$ b!!0 5,+/, /!nta+ns t,e bas+s +n nat*ral ,+st!r .!r !*r "+e5?K In an!t,er letter t,e .!ll!5+nD ear1 t,+s t+-e t! ;erd+nand Lassalle 6%$29&:(71 Mar< sa+d8 KDar5+nFs b!!0 +s "er +-A!rtant and ser"es -e as a bas+s +n %= nat*ral s/+en/e .!r t,e /lass str*DDle +n ,+st!r ?K S+-+larl Ma! Tse T*nD1 t,e .!*nder !. 3,+nese /!--*n+s-1 !Aenl stated t,at KT,e .!*ndat+!ns !. 3,+nese s!/+al+s- rest !n Dar5+n and t,e t,e!r !. 20 e"!l*t+!n?K T,*s t,e +ntelle/t*al str*DDle aDa+nst /!--*n+s- -*st be a+-ed at -ater+al+st A,+l!s!A, and1 t,ere.!re1 t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n? It +s als! /lear t,at t,e 5+de a//eAtan/e !. t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n +n s!/+et 5+ll .*rt,er n!*r+s, -ater+al+s- as 5ell as /!--*n+s-?

+he S#ienti)i# -$((apse $) Da winis%
Alt,!*D, t,+s d!/tr+ne D!es ba/0 as .ar as an/+ent Gree/e1 t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n 5as ad"an/ed e<tens+"el +n t,e n+neteent, /ent*r ? T,e -!st +-A!rtant de"el!A-ent t,at -ade +t t,e t!A t!A+/ !. t,e 5!rld !. s/+en/e 5as 3,arles Dar5+nFs The 5rigin of !%e'ies& A*bl+s,ed +n %$9=? In t,+s b!!01 ,e den+ed t,at G!d /reated d+..erent l+"+nD sAe/+es !n Eart, seAaratel 1 .!r ,e /la+-ed t,at all l+"+nD be+nDs ,ad a /!--!n an/est!r and ,ad d+"ers+.+ed !"er t+-e t,r!*D, s-all /,anDes? Dar5+nFs t,e!r 5as n!t based !n an /!n/rete s/+ent+.+/ .+nd+nDL as ,e als! a//eAted1 +t 5as 4*st an Kass*-At+!n?K M!re!"er1 as Dar5+n /!n.essed +n t,e l!nD /,aAter !. ,+s b!!0 t+tled KD+..+/*lt+es !. t,e T,e!r 1K t,e t,e!r .a+led +n t,e .a/e !. -an /r+t+/al G*est+!ns? Dar5+n +n"ested all !. ,+s ,!Aes +n ne5 s/+ent+.+/ d+s/!"er+es1 5,+/, ,e e<Ae/ted t! s!l"e t,ese d+..+/*lt+es? H!5e"er1 /!ntrar t! ,+s e<Ae/tat+!ns1 s/+ent+.+/ .+nd+nDs e<Aanded t,e d+-ens+!ns !. t,ese d+..+/*lt+es? T,e de.eat !. Dar5+n+s- +n t,e .a/e !. s/+en/e /an be re"+e5ed *nder t,ree bas+/ t!A+/s8 %7 T,e t,e!r /ann!t e<Ala+n ,!5 l+.e !r+D+nated !n Eart,? 27 N! s/+ent+.+/ .+nd+nD s,!5s t,at t,e Ke"!l*t+!nar -e/,an+s-sK Ar!A!sed b t,e t,e!r ,a"e an e"!l*t+!nar A!5er at all? 37 T,e .!ss+l re/!rd Ar!"es t,e e<a/t !AA!s+te !. 5,at t,e t,e!r s*DDests? In t,+s se/t+!n1 5e 5+ll e<a-+ne t,ese t,ree bas+/ A!+nts +n Deneral !*tl+nes8

+he Ei st Ins! %$!ntab(e Step: +he , i0in $) Li)e
T,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n A!s+ts t,at all l+"+nD sAe/+es e"!l"ed .r!- a s+nDle l+"+nD /ell t,at e-erDed !n t,e Ar+-+t+"e Eart, 3?$ b+ll+!n ears aD!? H!5 a s+nDle /ell /!*ld Denerate -+ll+!ns !. /!-Ale< l+"+nD sAe/+es and1 +. s*/, an e"!l*t+!n reall !//*rred1 5, tra/es !. +t /ann!t be !bser"ed +n t,e .!ss+l re/!rd are s!-e !. t,e G*est+!ns t,at t,e t,e!r /ann!t ans5er? H!5e"er1 .+rst and .!re-!st1 5e need t! as08 H!5 d+d t,+s K.+rst /ellK !r+D+nateI S+n/e t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n den+es /reat+!n and an 0+nd !. s*Aernat*ral +nter"ent+!n1 +t -a+nta+ns t,at t,e K.+rst /ellK !r+D+nated /!+n/+dentall 5+t,+n t,e la5s !. nat*re1 5+t,!*t an des+Dn1 Alan !r arranDe-ent? A//!rd+nD t! t,e t,e!r 1 +nan+-ate -atter -*st ,a"e Ar!d*/ed a l+"+nD /ell as a res*lt !. /!+n/+den/es? S*/, a /la+-1 ,!5e"er1 +s +n/!ns+stent 5+t, t,e -!st *nassa+lable r*les !. b+!l!D ?

9Li)e -$%es ) $% Li)e9
In ,+s b!!01 Dar5+n ne"er re.erred t! t,e !r+D+n !. l+.e? T,e Ar+-+t+"e *nderstand+nD !. s/+en/e +n ,+s t+-e rested !n t,e ass*-At+!n t,at l+"+nD be+nDs ,ad a "er s+-Ale str*/t*re? S+n/e -ed+e"al t+-es1 sA!ntane!*s Denerat+!n1 5,+/, asserts t,at n!n&l+"+nD -ater+als /a-e t!Det,er t! .!r- l+"+nD !rDan+s-s1 ,ad been 5+del a//eAted? It 5as /!--!nl bel+e"ed t,at +nse/ts /a-e +nt! be+nD .r!- .!!d le.t!"ers1 and -+/e .r!- 5,eat?

Interest+nD e<Aer+-ents 5ere /!nd*/ted t! Ar!"e t,+s t,e!r ? S!-e 5,eat 5as Ala/ed !n a d+rt A+e/e !. /l!t,1 and +t 5as bel+e"ed t,at -+/e 5!*ld !r+D+nate .r!- +t a.ter a 5,+le? S+-+larl 1 -aDD!ts de"el!A+nD +n r!tt+nD -eat 5as ass*-ed t! be e"+den/e !. sA!ntane!*s Denerat+!n? H!5e"er1 +t 5as later *nderst!!d t,at 5!r-s d+d n!t aAAear !n -eat sA!ntane!*sl 1 b*t 5ere /arr+ed t,ere b .l+es +n t,e .!r- !. lar"ae1 +n"+s+ble t! t,e na0ed e e? E"en 5,en Dar5+n 5r!te The 5rigin of !%e'ies1 t,e bel+e. t,at ba/ter+a /!*ld /!-e +nt! e<+sten/e .r!n!n&l+"+nD -atter 5as 5+del a//eAted +n t,e 5!rld !. s/+en/e? H!5e"er1 .+"e ears a.ter t,e A*bl+/at+!n !. Dar5+nFs b!!01 L!*+s )aste*r ann!*n/ed ,+s res*lts a.ter l!nD st*d+es and e<Aer+-ents1 t,at d+sAr!"ed sA!ntane!*s Denerat+!n1 a /!rnerst!ne !. Dar5+nFs t,e!r ? In ,+s tr+*-A,al le/t*re at t,e S!rb!nne +n %$:(1 )aste*r sa+d8 $Ne+er will the do'trine of s%ontaneous generation 2% re'o+er fro# the #ortal blow stru'k by this si#%le e6%eri#ent*$ ;!r a l!nD t+-e1 ad"!/ates !. t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n res+sted t,ese .+nd+nDs? H!5e"er1 as t,e de"el!A-ent !. s/+en/e *nra"eled t,e /!-Ale< str*/t*re !. t,e /ell !. a l+"+nD be+nD1 t,e +dea t,at l+.e /!*ld /!-e +nt! be+nD /!+n/+dentall .a/ed an e"en Dreater +-Aasse?

I n # $ n # ( ! s i : e & ) ) $ t s i n t h e +w e n t i e t h - e n t ! "
T,e .+rst e"!l*t+!n+st 5,! t!!0 *A t,e s*b4e/t !. t,e !r+D+n !. l+.e +n t,e t5ent+et, /ent*r 5as t,e ren!5ned R*ss+an b+!l!D+st Ale<ander CAar+n? @+t, "ar+!*s t,eses ,e ad"an/ed +n t,e %=30s1 ,e tr+ed t! Ar!"e t,at a l+"+nD /ell /!*ld !r+D+nate b /!+n/+den/e? T,ese st*d+es1 ,!5e"er1 5ere d!!-ed t! .a+l*re1 and CAar+n ,ad t! -a0e t,e .!ll!5+nD /!n.ess+!n8 Un.!rt*natel 1 ,!5e"er1 t,e Ar!ble- !. t,e !r+D+n !. t,e /ell +s Aer,aAs t,e -!st !bs/*re A!+nt +n t,e 22 5,!le st*d !. t,e e"!l*t+!n !. !rDan+s-s? E"!l*t+!n+st .!ll!5ers !. CAar+n tr+ed t! /arr !*t e<Aer+-ents t! s!l"e t,+s Ar!ble-? T,e best 0n!5n e<Aer+-ent 5as /arr+ed !*t b t,e A-er+/an /,e-+st Stanle M+ller +n %=93? 3!-b+n+nD t,e Dases ,e alleDed t! ,a"e e<+sted +n t,e Ar+-!rd+al Eart,Fs at-!sA,ere +n an e<Aer+-ent set&*A1 and add+nD enerD t! t,e -+<t*re1 M+ller s nt,es+Jed se"eral !rDan+/ -!le/*les 6a-+n! a/+ds7 Aresent +n t,e str*/t*re !. Ar!te+ns? Barel a .e5 ears ,ad Aassed be.!re +t 5as re"ealed t,at t,+s e<Aer+-ent1 5,+/, 5as t,en Aresented as an +-A!rtant steA +n t,e na-e !. e"!l*t+!n1 5as +n"al+d1 .!r t,e at-!sA,ere *sed +n t,e e<Aer+-ent 5as "er 23 d+..erent .r!- t,e real Eart, /!nd+t+!ns? 2( A.ter a l!nD s+len/e1 M+ller /!n.essed t,at t,e at-!sA,ere -ed+*- ,e *sed 5as *nreal+st+/? All t,e e"!l*t+!n+stsF e..!rts t,r!*D,!*t t,e t5ent+et, /ent*r t! e<Ala+n t,e !r+D+n !. l+.e ended +n .a+l*re? T,e De!/,e-+st He..re Bada1 .r!- t,e San D+eD! S/r+AAs Inst+t*te a//eAts t,+s .a/t +n an art+/le A*bl+s,ed +n Earth -aDaJ+ne +n %==$8 T!da as 5e lea"e t,e t5ent+et, /ent*r 1 5e st+ll .a/e t,e b+DDest *ns!l"ed Ar!ble- t,at 5e ,ad 5,en 5e 29 entered t,e t5ent+et, /ent*r 8 H!5 d+d l+.e !r+D+nate !n Eart,I

+he -$%p(e= St !#t! e $) Li)e
T,e Ar+-ar reas!n 5, t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n ended *A +n s*/, a Dreat +-Aasse reDard+nD t,e !r+D+n !. l+.e +s t,at e"en t,!se l+"+nD !rDan+s-s dee-ed t! be t,e s+-Alest ,a"e +n/red+bl /!-Ale< str*/t*res? T,e /ell !. a l+"+nD t,+nD +s -!re /!-Ale< t,an all !. !*r -an&-ade te/,n!l!D+/al Ar!d*/ts? T!da 1 e"en +n t,e -!st de"el!Aed lab!rat!r+es !. t,e 5!rld1 a l+"+nD /ell /ann!t be Ar!d*/ed b br+nD+nD !rDan+/ /,e-+/als t!Det,er? T,e /!nd+t+!ns reG*+red .!r t,e .!r-at+!n !. a /ell are t!! Dreat +n G*ant+t t! be e<Ala+ned a5a b /!+n/+den/es? T,e Ar!bab+l+t !. Ar!te+ns1 t,e b*+ld+nD bl!/0s !. a /ell1 be+nD s nt,es+Jed /!+n/+dentall 1 +s % +n =90 %0 .!r an a"eraDe Ar!te+n -ade *A !. 900 a-+n! a/+ds? In -at,e-at+/s1 a Ar!bab+l+t s-aller t,an % !"er 90 %0 +s /!ns+dered t! be +-A!ss+ble +n Ara/t+/al ter-s? T,e DNA -!le/*le1 5,+/, +s l!/ated +n t,e n*/le*s !. a /ell and 5,+/, st!res Denet+/ +n.!r-at+!n1 +s an +n/red+ble databan0? I. t,e +n.!r-at+!n /!ded +n DNA 5ere 5r+tten d!5n1 +t 5!*ld -a0e a D+ant l+brar /!ns+st+nD !. an est+-ated =00 "!l*-es !. en/ /l!Aed+as /!ns+st+nD !. 900 AaDes ea/,? A "er +nterest+nD d+le--a e-erDes at t,+s A!+nt8 DNA /an reAl+/ate +tsel. !nl 5+t, t,e ,elA !. s!-e sAe/+al+Jed Ar!te+ns 6enJ -es7? H!5e"er1 t,e s nt,es+s !. t,ese enJ -es /an be real+Jed !nl b t,e +n.!r-at+!n /!ded +n DNA? As t,e b!t, deAend !n ea/, !t,er1 t,e ,a"e t! e<+st at t,e sa-e t+-e .!r reAl+/at+!n? T,+s br+nDs t,e s/enar+! t,at l+.e !r+D+nated b +tsel. t! a deadl!/0? )r!.? Lesl+e CrDel1 an e"!l*t+!n+st !. reA*te .r!- t,e Un+"ers+t !. San D+eD!1 3al+.!rn+a1 /!n.esses t,+s .a/t +n t,e SeAte-ber %==( +ss*e !. t,e !'ientifi' "#eri'an -aDaJ+ne8 It +s e<tre-el +-Ar!bable t,at Ar!te+ns and n*/le+/ a/+ds1 b!t, !. 5,+/, are str*/t*rall /!-Ale<1 ar!se sA!ntane!*sl +n t,e sa-e Ala/e at t,e sa-e t+-e? Yet +t als! see-s +-A!ss+ble t! ,a"e !ne 5+t,!*t t,e !t,er? And s!1 at .+rst Dlan/e1 !ne -+D,t ,a"e t! /!n/l*de t,at l+.e /!*ld ne"er1 +n .a/t1 ,a"e !r+D+nated b /,e-+/al 2: -eans? N! d!*bt1 +. +t +s +-A!ss+ble .!r l+.e t! ,a"e !r+D+nated .r!- nat*ral /a*ses1 t,en +t ,as t! be a//eAted t,at l+.e 5as K/reatedK +n a s*Aernat*ral 5a ? T,+s .a/t e<Al+/+tl +n"al+dates t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n1 5,!se -a+n A*rA!se +s t! den /reat+!n?

I%a0ina " Me#hanis%s $) &:$(!ti$n
T,e se/!nd +-A!rtant A!+nt t,at neDates Dar5+nFs t,e!r +s t,at b!t, /!n/eAts A*t .!r5ard b t,e t,e!r as Ke"!l*t+!nar -e/,an+s-sK 5ere *nderst!!d t! ,a"e1 +n real+t 1 n! e"!l*t+!nar A!5er? Dar5+n based ,+s e"!l*t+!n alleDat+!n ent+rel !n t,e -e/,an+s- !. Knat*ral sele/t+!n?K T,e +-A!rtan/e ,e Ala/ed !n t,+s -e/,an+s- 5as e"+dent +n t,e na-e !. ,+s b!!08 The 5rigin of !%e'ies& 1y Means of Natural !ele'tion7 Nat*ral sele/t+!n ,!lds t,at t,!se l+"+nD t,+nDs t,at are str!nDer and -!re s*+ted t! t,e nat*ral /!nd+t+!ns !. t,e+r ,ab+tats 5+ll s*r"+"e +n t,e str*DDle .!r l+.e? ;!r e<a-Ale1 +n a deer ,erd *nder t,e t,reat !. atta/0 b 5+ld an+-als1 t,!se t,at /an r*n .aster 5+ll s*r"+"e? T,ere.!re1 t,e deer ,erd 5+ll be /!-Ar+sed !. .aster and str!nDer +nd+"+d*als? H!5e"er1 *nG*est+!nabl 1 t,+s -e/,an+s- 5+ll n!t /a*se deer t! e"!l"e and trans.!rt,e-sel"es +nt! an!t,er l+"+nD sAe/+es1 .!r +nstan/e1 ,!rses?

T,ere.!re1 t,e -e/,an+s- !. nat*ral sele/t+!n ,as n! e"!l*t+!nar A!5er? Dar5+n 5as als! a5are !. t,+s .a/t and ,ad t! state t,+s +n ,+s b!!0 The 5rigin of !%e'ies: 2' Nat*ral sele/t+!n /an d! n!t,+nD *nt+l .a"!*rable +nd+"+d*al d+..eren/es !r "ar+at+!ns !//*r?

La%a #;?s I%pa#t
S!1 ,!5 /!*ld t,ese K.a"!rable "ar+at+!nsK !//*rI Dar5+n tr+ed t! ans5er t,+s G*est+!n .r!- t,e standA!+nt !. t,e Ar+-+t+"e *nderstand+nD !. s/+en/e at t,at t+-e? A//!rd+nD t! t,e ;ren/, b+!l!D+st 3,e"al+er de La-ar/0 6%'((&%$2=71 5,! l+"ed be.!re Dar5+n1 l+"+nD /reat*res Aassed !n t,e tra+ts t,e a/G*+red d*r+nD t,e+r l+.et+-e t! t,e ne<t Denerat+!n? He asserted t,at t,ese tra+ts1 5,+/, a//*-*lated .r!- !ne Denerat+!n t! an!t,er1 /a*sed ne5 sAe/+es t! be .!r-ed? ;!r +nstan/e1 ,e /la+-ed t,at D+ra..es e"!l"ed .r!- antel!AesL as t,e str*DDled t! eat t,e lea"es !. ,+D, trees1 t,e+r ne/0s 5ere e<tended .r!- Denerat+!n t! Denerat+!n? Dar5+n als! Da"e s+-+lar e<a-Ales? In ,+s b!!0 The 5rigin of !%e'ies& .!r +nstan/e1 ,e sa+d t,at s!-e 2$ bears D!+nD +nt! 5ater t! .+nd .!!d trans.!r-ed t,e-sel"es +nt! 5,ales !"er t+-e? H!5e"er1 t,e la5s !. +n,er+tan/e d+s/!"ered b GreD!r Mendel 6%$22&$(7 and "er+.+ed b t,e s/+en/e !. Denet+/s1 5,+/, .l!*r+s,ed +n t,e t5ent+et, /ent*r 1 *tterl de-!l+s,ed t,e leDend t,at a/G*+red tra+ts 5ere Aassed !n t! s*bseG*ent Denerat+!ns? T,*s1 nat*ral sele/t+!n .ell !*t !. .a"!r as an e"!l*t+!nar -e/,an+s-?

Ne$'Da winis% and M!tati$ns
In !rder t! .+nd a s!l*t+!n1 Dar5+n+sts ad"an/ed t,e KM!dern S nt,et+/ T,e!r 1K !r as +t +s -!re /!--!nl 0n!5n1 Ne!&Dar5+n+s-1 at t,e end !. t,e %=30Fs? Ne!&Dar5+n+s- added -*tat+!ns1 5,+/, are d+st!rt+!ns .!r-ed +n t,e Denes !. l+"+nD be+nDs d*e t! s*/, e<ternal .a/t!rs as rad+at+!n !r reAl+/at+!n err!rs1 as t,e K/a*se !. .a"!rable "ar+at+!nsK +n add+t+!n t! nat*ral -*tat+!n? T!da 1 t,e -!del t,at stands .!r e"!l*t+!n +n t,e 5!rld +s Ne!&Dar5+n+s-? T,e t,e!r -a+nta+ns t,at -+ll+!ns !. l+"+nD be+nDs .!r-ed as a res*lt !. a Ar!/ess 5,ereb n*-er!*s /!-Ale< !rDans !. t,ese !rDan+s-s 6e?D?1 ears1 e es1 l*nDs1 and 5+nDs7 *nder5ent K-*tat+!ns1K t,at +s1 Denet+/ d+s!rders? Yet1 t,ere +s an !*tr+D,t s/+ent+.+/ .a/t t,at t!tall *nder-+nes t,+s t,e!r 8 M*tat+!ns d! n!t /a*se l+"+nD be+nDs t! de"el!AL !n t,e /!ntrar 1 t,e are al5a s ,ar-.*l? T,e reas!n .!r t,+s +s "er s+-Ale8 DNA ,as a "er /!-Ale< str*/t*re1 and rand!- e..e/ts /an !nl ,ar+t? T,e A-er+/an Denet+/+st B?G? RanDanat,an e<Ala+ns t,+s as .!ll!5s8 ;+rst1 Den*+ne -*tat+!ns are "er rare +n nat*re? Se/!ndl 1 -!st -*tat+!ns are ,ar-.*l s+n/e t,e are rand!-1 rat,er t,an !rderl /,anDes +n t,e str*/t*re !. DenesL an rand!- /,anDe +n a ,+D,l !rdered s ste5+ll be .!r t,e 5!rse1 n!t .!r t,e better? ;!r e<a-Ale1 +. an eart,G*a0e 5ere t! s,a0e a ,+D,l !rdered str*/t*re s*/, as a b*+ld+nD1 t,ere 5!*ld be a rand!- /,anDe +n t,e .ra-e5!r0 !. t,e b*+ld+nD 5,+/,1 +n all Ar!bab+l+t 1 2= 5!*ld n!t be an +-Ar!"e-ent? N!t s*rAr+s+nDl 1 n! -*tat+!n e<a-Ale1 5,+/, +s *se.*l1 t,at +s1 5,+/, +s !bser"ed t! de"el!A t,e Denet+/ /!de1 ,as been !bser"ed s! .ar? All -*tat+!ns ,a"e Ar!"ed t! be ,ar-.*l? It 5as *nderst!!d t,at -*tat+!n1 5,+/,

+s Aresented as an Ke"!l*t+!nar -e/,an+s-1K +s a/t*all a Denet+/ !//*rren/e t,at ,ar-s l+"+nD t,+nDs1 and lea"es t,e- d+sabled? 6T,e -!st /!--!n e..e/t !. -*tat+!n !n ,*-an be+nDs +s /an/er?7 C. /!*rse1 a destr*/t+"e -e/,an+s- /ann!t be an Ke"!l*t+!nar -e/,an+s-?K Nat*ral sele/t+!n1 !n t,e !t,er ,and1 K/an d! n!t,+nD b +tsel.1K as Dar5+n als! a//eAted? T,+s .a/t s,!5s *s t,at t,ere +s n! Ke"!l*t+!nar -e/,an+s-K +n nat*re? S+n/e n! e"!l*t+!nar -e/,an+s- e<+sts1 n! s*/, an +-aD+nar Ar!/ess /alled Ke"!l*t+!nK /!*ld ,a"e ta0en Ala/e?

+he E$ssi( Re#$ d: N$ Si0n $) Inte %ediate E$ %s
T,e /learest e"+den/e t,at t,e s/enar+! s*DDested b t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n d+d n!t ta0e Ala/e +s t,e .!ss+l re/!rd? A//!rd+nD t! t,+s t,e!r 1 e"er l+"+nD sAe/+es ,as sAr*nD .r!- a Arede/ess!r? A Are"+!*sl e<+st+nD sAe/+es t*rned +nt! s!-et,+nD else !"er t+-e and all sAe/+es ,a"e /!-e +nt! be+nD +n t,+s 5a ? In !t,er 5!rds1 t,+s trans.!r-at+!n Ar!/eeds Drad*all !"er -+ll+!ns !. ears? Had t,+s been t,e /ase1 n*-er!*s +nter-ed+ar sAe/+es s,!*ld ,a"e e<+sted and l+"ed 5+t,+n t,+s l!nD trans.!r-at+!n Aer+!d? ;!r +nstan/e1 s!-e ,al.&.+s,B,al.&reAt+les s,!*ld ,a"e l+"ed +n t,e Aast 5,+/, ,ad a/G*+red s!-e reAt+l+an tra+ts +n add+t+!n t! t,e .+s, tra+ts t,e alread ,ad? Cr t,ere s,!*ld ,a"e e<+sted s!-e reAt+le&b+rds1 5,+/, a/G*+red s!-e b+rd tra+ts +n add+t+!n t! t,e reAt+l+an tra+ts t,e alread ,ad? S+n/e t,ese 5!*ld be +n a trans+t+!nal A,ase1 t,e s,!*ld be d+sabled1 de.e/t+"e1 /r+AAled l+"+nD be+nDs? E"!l*t+!n+sts re.er t! t,ese +-aD+nar /reat*res1 5,+/, t,e bel+e"e t! ,a"e l+"ed +n t,e Aast1 as 9t ansiti$na( )$ %s.9 I. s*/, an+-als e"er reall e<+sted1 t,ere s,!*ld be -+ll+!ns and e"en b+ll+!ns !. t,e- +n n*-ber and "ar+et ? M!re +-A!rtantl 1 t,e re-a+ns !. t,ese stranDe /reat*res s,!*ld be Aresent +n t,e .!ss+l re/!rd? In The 5rigin of !%e'ies& Dar5+n e<Ala+ned8 I. - t,e!r be tr*e1 n*-berless +nter-ed+ate "ar+et+es1 l+n0+nD -!st /l!sel all !. t,e sAe/+es !. t,e sa-e Dr!*A t!Det,er -*st ass*redl ,a"e e<+sted???? 3!nseG*entl 1 e"+den/e !. t,e+r .!r-er e<+sten/e /!*ld be .!*nd 30 !nl a-!nDst .!ss+l re-a+ns?

Da win?s H$pes Shatte ed
H!5e"er1 alt,!*D, e"!l*t+!n+sts ,a"e been -a0+nD stren*!*s e..!rts t! .+nd .!ss+ls s+n/e t,e -+ddle !. t,e n+neteent, /ent*r all !"er t,e 5!rld1 n! trans+t+!nal .!r-s ,a"e et been *n/!"ered? All !. t,e .!ss+ls1 /!ntrar t! t,e e"!l*t+!n+stsF e<Ae/tat+!ns1 s,!5 t,at l+.e aAAeared !n Eart, all !. a s*dden and .*ll &.!r-ed? Cne .a-!*s Br+t+s, Aale!nt!l!D+st1 Dere0 V? ADer1 ad-+ts t,+s .a/t1 e"en t,!*D, ,e +s an e"!l*t+!n+st8 T,e A!+nt e-erDes t,at +. 5e e<a-+ne t,e .!ss+l re/!rd +n deta+l1 5,et,er at t,e le"el !. !rders !r !. sAe/+es1 5e .+nd Q !"er and !"er aDa+n Q n!t Drad*al e"!l*t+!n1 b*t t,e s*dden e<Al!s+!n !. !ne Dr!*A at t,e 3% e<Aense !. an!t,er?

T,+s -eans t,at +n t,e .!ss+l re/!rd1 all l+"+nD sAe/+es s*ddenl e-erDe as .*ll .!r-ed1 5+t,!*t an +nter-ed+ate .!r-s +n bet5een? T,+s +s 4*st t,e !AA!s+te !. Dar5+nFs ass*-At+!ns? Als!1 t,+s +s "er str!nD e"+den/e t,at all l+"+nD t,+nDs are /reated? T,e !nl e<Alanat+!n !. a l+"+nD sAe/+es e-erD+nD s*ddenl and /!-Alete +n e"er deta+l 5+t,!*t an e"!l*t+!nar an/est!r +s t,at +t 5as /reated? T,+s .a/t +s ad-+tted als! b t,e 5+del 0n!5n e"!l*t+!n+st b+!l!D+st D!*Dlas ;*t* -a8 3reat+!n and e"!l*t+!n1 bet5een t,e-1 e<,a*st t,e A!ss+ble e<Alanat+!ns .!r t,e !r+D+n !. l+"+nD t,+nDs? CrDan+s-s e+t,er aAAeared !n t,e eart, .*ll de"el!Aed !r t,e d+d n!t? I. t,e d+d n!t1 t,e -*st ,a"e de"el!Aed .r!- Are&e<+st+nD sAe/+es b s!-e Ar!/ess !. -!d+.+/at+!n? I. t,e d+d aAAear +n a .*ll de"el!Aed 32 state1 t,e -*st +ndeed ,a"e been /reated b s!-e !-n+A!tent +ntell+Den/e? ;!ss+ls s,!5 t,at l+"+nD be+nDs e-erDed .*ll de"el!Aed and +n a Aer.e/t state !n t,e eart,? T,at -eans t,at 9the $ i0in $) spe#ies/9 #$nt a " t$ Da win?s s!pp$siti$n/ is n$t e:$(!ti$n/ b!t # eati$n.

+ h e +a ( e $ ) H ! % a n & : $ ( ! t i $ n
T,e s*b4e/t -!st !.ten br!*D,t *A b ad"!/ates !. t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n +s t,e s*b4e/t !. t,e !r+D+n !. -an? T,e Dar5+n+st /la+- ,!lds t,at -!dern -an e"!l"ed .r!- aAe&l+0e /reat*res? D*r+nD t,+s alleDed e"!l*t+!nar Ar!/ess1 5,+/, +s s*AA!sed t! ,a"e started (&9 -+ll+!n ears aD!1 s!-e Ktrans+t+!nal .!r-sK bet5een -!dern -an and ,+s an/est!rs are s*AA!sed t! ,a"e e<+sted? A//!rd+nD t! t,+s /!-Aletel +-aD+nar s/enar+!1 .!*r bas+/ K/ateD!r+esK are l+sted8 %? A*stral!A+t,e/*s 2? H!-! ,ab+l+s 3? H!-! ere/t*s (? H!-! saA+ens E"!l*t+!n+sts /all -anFs s!&/alled .+rst aAe&l+0e an/est!rs "ustralo%ithe'us& 5,+/, -eans KS!*t, A.r+/an aAe?K T,ese l+"+nD be+nDs are a/t*all n!t,+nD b*t an !ld aAe sAe/+es t,at ,as be/!-e e<t+n/t? E<tens+"e resear/, d!ne !n "ar+!*s "ustralo%ithe'us sAe/+-ens b t5! 5!rld .a-!*s anat!-+sts .r!- EnDland and t,e USA1 na-el 1 L!rd S!ll R*/0er-an and )r!.? 3,arles C<nard1 s,!5s t,at t,ese aAes bel!nDed t! an !rd+nar aAe 33 sAe/+es t,at be/a-e e<t+n/t and b!re n! rese-blan/e t! ,*-ans? E"!l*t+!n+sts /lass+. t,e ne<t staDe !. ,*-an e"!l*t+!n as $ho#o&$ t,at +s K-an?K A//!rd+nD t! t,e+r /la+-1 t,e l+"+nD be+nDs +n t,e Ho#o ser+es are -!re de"el!Aed t,an "ustralo%ithe'us* E"!l*t+!n+sts de"+se a .an/+.*l e"!l*t+!n s/,e-e b arranD+nD d+..erent .!ss+ls !. t,ese /reat*res +n a Aart+/*lar !rder? T,+s s/,e-e +s +-aD+nar be/a*se +t ,as ne"er been Ar!"ed t,at t,ere +s an e"!l*t+!nar relat+!n bet5een t,ese d+..erent /lasses? Ernst Ma r1 !ne !. t,e t5ent+et, /ent*r Fs -!st +-A!rtant e"!l*t+!n+sts1 /!ntends +n ,+s b!!0 5ne Long "rgu#ent t,at KAart+/*larl ,+st!r+/al NA*JJlesO s*/, as t,e !r+D+n !. l+.e !r !. Ho#o saA+ens1 are e<tre-el 3( d+..+/*lt and -a e"en res+st a .+nal1 sat+s. +nD e<Alanat+!n?K B !*tl+n+nD t,e l+n0 /,a+n as "ustralo%ithe'us 8 Ho#o habilis 8 Ho#o ere'tus 8 Ho#o sa%iens& e"!l*t+!n+sts +-Al t,at ea/, !. t,ese sAe/+es +s !ne an!t,erFs an/est!r? H!5e"er1 re/ent .+nd+nDs !. Aale!ant,r!A!l!D+sts ,a"e re"ealed t,at "ustralo%ithe'us& Ho#o habilis& and Ho#o ere'tus l+"ed at d+..erent 39 Aarts !. t,e 5!rld at t,e sa-e t+-e?

M!re!"er1 a /erta+n seD-ent !. ,*-ans /lass+.+ed as Ho#o ere'tus ,a"e l+"ed *A *nt+l "er -!dern t+-es? Ho#o sa%iens neandarthalensis and Ho#o sa%iens sa%iens 6-!dern -an7 /!&e<+sted +n t,e sa-e 3: reD+!n? T,+s s+t*at+!n aAAarentl +nd+/ates t,e +n"al+d+t !. t,e /la+- t,at t,e are an/est!rs !. !ne an!t,er? A Aale!nt!l!D+st .r!- Har"ard Un+"ers+t 1 SteA,en Ha G!*ld1 e<Ala+ns t,+s deadl!/0 !. t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n1 alt,!*D, ,e +s an e"!l*t+!n+st ,+-sel.8 @,at ,as be/!-e !. !*r ladder +. t,ere are t,ree /!e<+st+nD l+neaDes !. ,!-+n+ds 6A? a.r+/an*s1 t,e r!b*st a*stral!A+t,e/+nes1 and H? ,ab+l+s71 n!ne /learl der+"ed .r!- an!t,erI M!re!"er1 n!ne !. t,e t,ree d+sAla an 3' e"!l*t+!nar trends d*r+nD t,e+r ten*re !n eart,? )*t br+e.l 1 t,e s/enar+! !. ,*-an e"!l*t+!n1 5,+/, +s K*A,eldK 5+t, t,e ,elA !. "ar+!*s dra5+nDs !. s!-e K,al. aAe1 ,al. ,*-anK /reat*res aAAear+nD +n t,e -ed+a and /!*rse b!!0s1 t,at +s1 .ran0l 1 b -eans !. Ar!AaDanda1 +s n!t,+nD b*t a tale 5+t, n! s/+ent+.+/ .!*ndat+!n? L!rd S!ll R*/0er-an1 !ne !. t,e -!st .a-!*s and resAe/ted s/+ent+sts +n t,e U?2?1 5,! /arr+ed !*t resear/, !n t,+s s*b4e/t .!r ears and st*d+ed "ustralo%ithe'us .!ss+ls .!r %9 ears1 .+nall /!n/l*ded1 desA+te be+nD an e"!l*t+!n+st ,+-sel.1 t,at t,ere +s1 +n .a/t1 n! s*/, .a-+l tree bran/,+nD !*t .r!- aAe&l+0e /reat*res t! -an? R*/0er-an als! -ade an +nterest+nD KsAe/tr*- !. s/+en/eK ranD+nD .r!- t,!se ,e /!ns+dered s/+ent+.+/ t! t,!se ,e /!ns+dered *ns/+ent+.+/? A//!rd+nD t! R*/0er-anFs sAe/tr*-1 t,e -!st Ks/+ent+.+/K—t,at +s1 deAend+nD !n /!n/rete data—.+elds !. s/+en/e are /,e-+str and A, s+/s? A.ter t,e- /!-e t,e b+!l!D+/al s/+en/es and t,en t,e s!/+al s/+en/es? At t,e .ar end !. t,e sAe/tr*-1 5,+/, +s t,e Aart /!ns+dered t! be -!st K*ns/+ent+.+/1K are Ke<tra&sens!r Aer/eAt+!nK—/!n/eAts s*/, as teleAat, and s+<t, sense—and .+nall K,*-an e"!l*t+!n?K R*/0er-an e<Ala+ns ,+s reas!n+nD8 @e t,en -!"e r+D,t !.. t,e reD+ster !. !b4e/t+"e tr*t, +nt! t,!se .+elds !. Ares*-ed b+!l!D+/al s/+en/e1 l+0e e<trasens!r Aer/eAt+!n !r t,e +nterAretat+!n !. -anFs .!ss+l ,+st!r 1 5,ere t! t,e .a+t,.*l Ne"!l*t+!n+stO an t,+nD +s A!ss+ble Q and 5,ere t,e ardent bel+e"er N+n e"!l*t+!nO +s s!-et+-es able t! bel+e"e se"eral /!ntrad+/t!r 3$ t,+nDs at t,e sa-e t+-e? T,e tale !. ,*-an e"!l*t+!n b!+ls d!5n t! n!t,+nD b*t t,e Are4*d+/ed +nterAretat+!ns !. s!-e .!ss+ls *neart,ed b /erta+n Ae!Ale1 5,! bl+ndl ad,ere t! t,e+r t,e!r ?

+e # h n $ ( $ 0 " i n t h e & " e a n d t h e & a
An!t,er s*b4e/t t,at re-a+ns *nans5ered b e"!l*t+!nar t,e!r +s t,e e</ellent G*al+t !. Aer/eAt+!n +n t,e e e and t,e ear? Be.!re Aass+nD !n t! t,e s*b4e/t !. t,e e e1 let *s br+e.l ans5er t,e G*est+!n !. ,!5 5e see? L+D,t ra s /!-+nD .r!- an !b4e/t .all !AA!s+tel !n t,e e eFs ret+na? Here1 t,ese l+D,t ra s are trans-+tted +nt! ele/tr+/ s+Dnals b /ells and rea/, a t+n sA!t at t,e ba/0 !. t,e bra+n1 t,e K/enter !. "+s+!n?K T,ese ele/tr+/ s+Dnals are Aer/e+"ed +n t,+s /enter as an +-aDe a.ter a ser+es !. Ar!/esses? @+t, t,+s te/,n+/al ba/0Dr!*nd1 let *s d! s!-e t,+n0+nD?

T,e bra+n +s +ns*lated .r!- l+D,t? T,at -eans t,at +ts +ns+de +s /!-Aletel dar01 and t,at n! l+D,t rea/,es t,e Ala/e 5,ere +t +s l!/ated? T,*s1 t,e K/enter !. "+s+!nK +s ne"er t!*/,ed b l+D,t and -a e"en be t,e dar0est Ala/e !* ,a"e e"er 0n!5n? H!5e"er1 !* !bser"e a l*-+n!*s1 br+D,t 5!rld +n t,+s A+t/, dar0ness? T,e +-aDe .!r-ed +n t,e e e +s s! s,arA and d+st+n/t t,at e"en t,e te/,n!l!D !. t,e t5ent+et, /ent*r ,as n!t been able t! atta+n +t? ;!r +nstan/e1 l!!0 at t,e b!!0 !* are read+nD1 !*r ,ands 5+t, 5,+/, !* are ,!ld+nD +t1 and t,en l+.t !*r ,ead and l!!0 ar!*nd !*? Ha"e !* e"er seen s*/, a s,arA and d+st+n/t +-aDe as t,+s !ne at an !t,er Ala/eI E"en t,e -!st de"el!Aed tele"+s+!n s/reen Ar!d*/ed b t,e Dreatest tele"+s+!n Ar!d*/er +n t,e 5!rld /ann!t Ar!"+de s*/, a s,arA +-aDe .!r !*? T,+s +s a t,ree&d+-ens+!nal1 /!l!red1 and e<tre-el s,arA +-aDe? ;!r -!re t,an %00 ears1 t,!*sands !. enD+neers ,a"e been tr +nD t! a/,+e"e t,+s s,arAness? ;a/t!r+es1 ,*De Are-+ses 5ere establ+s,ed1 -*/, resear/, ,as been d!ne1 Alans and des+Dns ,a"e been -ade .!r t,+s A*rA!se? ADa+n1 l!!0 at a TV s/reen and t,e b!!0 !* ,!ld +n !*r ,ands? Y!* 5+ll see t,at t,ere +s a b+D d+..eren/e +n s,arAness and d+st+n/t+!n? M!re!"er1 t,e TV s/reen s,!5s !* a t5!&d+-ens+!nal +-aDe1 5,ereas 5+t, !*r e es1 !* 5at/, a t,ree&d+-ens+!nal AersAe/t+"e 5+t, deAt,? ;!r -an ears1 tens !. t,!*sands !. enD+neers ,a"e tr+ed t! -a0e a t,ree&d+-ens+!nal TV and a/,+e"e t,e "+s+!n G*al+t !. t,e e e? Yes1 t,e ,a"e -ade a t,ree&d+-ens+!nal tele"+s+!n s ste-1 b*t +t +s n!t A!ss+ble t! 5at/, +t 5+t,!*t A*tt+nD !n sAe/+al 3&D DlassesL -!re!"er1 +t +s !nl an art+.+/+al t,ree&d+-ens+!n? T,e ba/0Dr!*nd +s -!re bl*rred1 t,e .!reDr!*nd aAAears l+0e a AaAer sett+nD? Ne"er ,as +t been A!ss+ble t! Ar!d*/e a s,arA and d+st+n/t "+s+!n l+0e t,at !. t,e e e? In b!t, t,e /a-era and t,e tele"+s+!n1 t,ere +s a l!ss !. +-aDe G*al+t ? E"!l*t+!n+sts /la+- t,at t,e -e/,an+s- Ar!d*/+nD t,+s s,arA and d+st+n/t +-aDe ,as been .!r-ed b /,an/e? N!51 +. s!-eb!d t!ld !* t,at t,e tele"+s+!n +n !*r r!!- 5as .!r-ed as a res*lt !. /,an/e1 t,at all !. +ts at!-s 4*st ,aAAened t! /!-e t!Det,er and -a0e *A t,+s de"+/e t,at Ar!d*/es an +-aDe1 5,at 5!*ld !* t,+n0I H!5 /an at!-s d! 5,at t,!*sands !. Ae!Ale /ann!tI I. a de"+/e Ar!d*/+nD a -!re Ar+-+t+"e +-aDe t,an t,e e e /!*ld n!t ,a"e been .!r-ed b /,an/e1 t,en +t +s "er e"+dent t,at t,e e e and t,e +-aDe seen b t,e e e /!*ld n!t ,a"e been .!r-ed b /,an/e? T,e sa-e s+t*at+!n aAAl+es t! t,e ear? T,e !*ter ear A+/0s *A t,e a"a+lable s!*nds b t,e a*r+/le and d+re/ts t,e- t! t,e -+ddle ear1 t,e -+ddle ear trans-+ts t,e s!*nd "+brat+!ns b +ntens+. +nD t,e-1 and t,e +nner ear sends t,ese "+brat+!ns t! t,e bra+n b translat+nD t,e- +nt! ele/tr+/ s+Dnals? H*st as 5+t, t,e e e1 t,e a/t !. ,ear+nD .+nal+Jes +n t,e /enter !. ,ear+nD +n t,e bra+n? T,e s+t*at+!n +n t,e e e +s als! tr*e .!r t,e ear? T,at +s1 t,e bra+n +s +ns*lated .r!- s!*nd 4*st as +t +s .r!l+D,t? It d!es n!t let an s!*nd +n? T,ere.!re1 n! -atter ,!5 n!+s +s t,e !*ts+de1 t,e +ns+de !. t,e bra+n +s /!-Aletel s+lent? Ne"ert,eless1 t,e s,arAest s!*nds are Aer/e+"ed +n t,e bra+n? In !*r /!-Aletel s+lent bra+n1 !* l+sten t! s -A,!n+es1 and ,ear all !. t,e n!+ses +n a /r!5ded Ala/e? H!5e"er1 5ere t,e s!*nd le"el +n !*r bra+n 5as -eas*red b a Are/+se de"+/e at t,at -!-ent1 /!-Alete s+len/e 5!*ld be .!*nd t! be Are"a+l+nD t,ere? As +s t,e /ase 5+t, +-aDer 1 de/ades !. e..!rt ,a"e been sAent +n tr +nD t! Denerate and reAr!d*/e s!*nd t,at +s .a+t,.*l t! t,e !r+D+nal? T,e res*lts !. t,ese e..!rts are s!*nd re/!rders1 ,+D,&.+del+t s ste-s1 and s ste-s .!r sens+nD s!*nd? DesA+te all !. t,+s te/,n!l!D and t,e t,!*sands !. enD+neers and e<Aerts 5,! ,a"e been 5!r0+nD !n t,+s endea"!r1 n! s!*nd ,as et been !bta+ned t,at ,as t,e sa-e s,arAness and /lar+t as t,e s!*nd Aer/e+"ed b t,e ear? T,+n0 !. t,e ,+D,est&G*al+t ,+&.+ s ste-s Ar!d*/ed b t,e larDest /!-Aan +n t,e -*s+/ +nd*str ? E"en +n t,ese de"+/es1 5,en s!*nd +s re/!rded s!-e !. +t +s l!stL !r 5,en !* t*rn !n a ,+&.+ !*

al5a s ,ear a ,+ss+nD s!*nd be.!re t,e -*s+/ starts? H!5e"er1 t,e s!*nds t,at are t,e Ar!d*/ts !. t,e ,*-an b!d Fs te/,n!l!D are e<tre-el s,arA and /lear? A ,*-an ear ne"er Aer/e+"es a s!*nd a//!-Aan+ed b a ,+ss+nD s!*nd !r 5+t, at-!sA,er+/s as d!es a ,+&.+L rat,er1 +t Aer/e+"es s!*nd e<a/tl as +t +s1 s,arA and /lear? T,+s +s t,e 5a +t ,as been s+n/e t,e /reat+!n !. -an? S! .ar1 n! -an&-ade "+s*al !r re/!rd+nD aAAarat*s ,as been as sens+t+"e and s*//ess.*l +n Aer/e+"+nD sens!r data as are t,e e e and t,e ear? H!5e"er1 as .ar as see+nD and ,ear+nD are /!n/erned1 a .ar Dreater tr*t, l+es be !nd all t,+s?

+$ W h $ % D $ e s t h e - $ n s # i $ ! s n e s s + h a t Sees and Hea s within the B ain Be($n0>
@,! 5at/,es an all*r+nD 5!rld +n t,e bra+n1 l+stens t! s -A,!n+es and t,e t5+tter+nD !. b+rds1 and s-ells t,e r!seI T,e st+-*lat+!ns /!-+nD .r!- a Aers!nFs e es1 ears1 and n!se tra"el t! t,e bra+n as ele/tr!&/,e-+/al ner"e +-A*lses? In b+!l!D 1 A, s+!l!D 1 and b+!/,e-+str b!!0s1 !* /an .+nd -an deta+ls ab!*t ,!5 t,+s +-aDe .!r-s +n t,e bra+n? H!5e"er1 !* 5+ll ne"er /!-e a/r!ss t,e -!st +-A!rtant .a/t8 @,! Aer/e+"es t,ese ele/tr!& /,e-+/al ner"e +-A*lses as +-aDes1 s!*nds1 !d!rs1 and sens!r e"ents +n t,e bra+nI T,ere +s a /!ns/+!*sness +n t,e bra+n t,at Aer/e+"es all t,+s 5+t,!*t .eel+nD an need .!r an e e1 an ear1 and a n!se? T! 5,!- d!es t,+s /!ns/+!*sness bel!nDI C. /!*rse +t d!es n!t bel!nD t! t,e ner"es1 t,e .at la er1 and ne*r!ns /!-Ar+s+nD t,e bra+n? T,+s +s 5, Dar5+n+st&-ater+al+sts1 5,! bel+e"e t,at e"er t,+nD +s /!-Ar+sed !. -atter1 /ann!t ans5er t,ese G*est+!ns? ;!r t,+s /!ns/+!*sness +s t,e sA+r+t /reated b G!d1 5,+/, needs ne+t,er t,e e e t! 5at/, t,e +-aDes n!r t,e ear t! ,ear t,e s!*nds? ;*rt,er-!re1 +t d!es n!t need t,e bra+n t! t,+n0? E"er !ne 5,! reads t,+s e<Al+/+t and s/+ent+.+/ .a/t s,!*ld A!nder !n Al-+D,t G!d1 and .ear and see0 re.*De +n H+-1 .!r He sG*eeJes t,e ent+re *n+"erse +n a A+t/,&dar0 Ala/e !. a .e5 /*b+/ /ent+-eters +n a t,ree& d+-ens+!nal1 /!l!red1 s,ad!5 1 and l*-+n!*s .!r-?

A Mate ia(ist Eaith
T,e +n.!r-at+!n 5e ,a"e Aresented s! .ar s,!5s *s t,at t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n +s a +n/!-Aat+ble 5+t, s/+ent+.+/ .+nd+nDs? T,e t,e!r Fs /la+- reDard+nD t,e !r+D+n !. l+.e +s +n/!ns+stent 5+t, s/+en/e1 t,e e"!l*t+!nar -e/,an+s-s +t Ar!A!ses ,a"e n! e"!l*t+!nar A!5er1 and .!ss+ls de-!nstrate t,at t,e reG*+red +nter-ed+ate .!r-s ,a"e ne"er e<+sted? S!1 +t /erta+nl .!ll!5s t,at t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n s,!*ld be A*s,ed as+de as an *ns/+ent+.+/ +dea? T,+s +s ,!5 -an +deas1 s*/, as t,e Eart,&/entered *n+"erse -!del1 ,a"e been ta0en !*t !. t,e aDenda !. s/+en/e t,r!*D,!*t ,+st!r ? H!5e"er1 t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n +s 0eAt !n t,e aDenda !. s/+en/e? S!-e Ae!Ale e"en tr t! reAresent /r+t+/+s-s d+re/ted aDa+nst +t as an Katta/0 !n s/+en/e?K @, I

T,e reas!n +s t,at t,+s t,e!r +s an +nd+sAensable d!D-at+/ bel+e. .!r s!-e /+r/les? T,ese /+r/les are bl+ndl de"!ted t! -ater+al+st A,+l!s!A, and ad!At Dar5+n+s- be/a*se +t +s t,e !nl -ater+al+st e<Alanat+!n t,at /an be A*t .!r5ard t! e<Ala+n t,e 5!r0+nDs !. nat*re? Interest+nDl en!*D,1 t,e als! /!n.ess t,+s .a/t .r!- t+-e t! t+-e? A 5ell&0n!5n Denet+/+st and an !*tsA!0en e"!l*t+!n+st1 R+/,ard 3? Le5!nt+n .r!- Har"ard Un+"ers+t 1 /!n.esses t,at ,e +s K.+rst and .!re-!st a -ater+al+st and t,en a s/+ent+stK8 It +s n!t t,at t,e -et,!ds and +nst+t*t+!ns !. s/+en/e s!-e,!5 /!-Ael *s a//eAt a -ater+al e<Alanat+!n !. t,e A,en!-enal 5!rld1 b*t1 !n t,e /!ntrar 1 t,at 5e are .!r/ed b !*r a Ar+!r+ ad,eren/e t! -ater+al /a*ses t! /reate an aAAarat*s !. +n"est+Dat+!n and a set !. /!n/eAts t,at Ar!d*/e -ater+al e<Alanat+!ns1 n! -atter ,!5 /!*nter&+nt*+t+"e1 n! -atter ,!5 - st+. +nD t! t,e *n+n+t+ated? M!re!"er1 t,at -ater+al+s- +s abs!l*te1 s! 5e 3= /ann!t all!5 a D+"+ne ;!!t +n t,e d!!r? T,ese are e<Al+/+t state-ents t,at Dar5+n+s- +s a d!D-a 0eAt al+"e 4*st .!r t,e sa0e !. ad,eren/e t! -ater+al+s-? T,+s d!D-a -a+nta+ns t,at t,ere +s n! be+nD sa"e -atter? T,ere.!re1 +t arD*es t,at +nan+-ate1 *n/!ns/+!*s -atter /reated l+.e? It +ns+sts t,at -+ll+!ns !. d+..erent l+"+nD sAe/+es 6e?D?1 b+rds1 .+s,1 D+ra..es1 t+Ders1 +nse/ts1 trees1 .l!5ers1 5,ales1 and ,*-an be+nDs7 !r+D+nated as a res*lt !. t,e +ntera/t+!ns bet5een -atter s*/, as A!*r+nD ra+n1 l+D,tn+nD .las,es1 and s! !n1 !*t !. +nan+-ate -atter? T,+s +s a Are/eAt /!ntrar b!t, t! reas!n and s/+en/e? Yet Dar5+n+sts /!nt+n*e t! de.end +t 4*st s! as Kn!t t! all!5 a D+"+ne ;!!t +n t,e d!!r?K An !ne 5,! d!es n!t l!!0 at t,e !r+D+n !. l+"+nD be+nDs 5+t, a -ater+al+st Are4*d+/e 5+ll see t,+s e"+dent tr*t,8 All l+"+nD be+nDs are 5!r0s !. a 3reat!r1 @,! +s All&)!5er.*l1 All&@+se1 and All&2n!5+nD? T,+s 3reat!r +s G!d1 @,! /reated t,e 5,!le *n+"erse .r!- n!n&e<+sten/e1 des+Dned +t +n t,e -!st Aer.e/t .!r-1 and .as,+!ned all l+"+nD be+nDs?

+he +he$ " $) &:$(!ti$n is the M$st < $ t e n t S p e ( ( i n t h e W$ ( d
An !ne .ree !. Are4*d+/e and t,e +n.l*en/e !. an Aart+/*lar +de!l!D 1 5,! *ses !nl ,+s !r ,er reas!n and l!D+/1 5+ll /learl *nderstand t,at bel+e. +n t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n1 5,+/, br+nDs t! -+nd t,e s*Aerst+t+!ns !. s!/+et+es 5+t, n! 0n!5ledDe !. s/+en/e !r /+"+l+Jat+!n1 +s G*+te +-A!ss+ble? As e<Ala+ned ab!"e1 t,!se 5,! bel+e"e +n t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n t,+n0 t,at a .e5 at!-s and -!le/*les t,r!5n +nt! a ,*De "at /!*ld Ar!d*/e t,+n0+nD1 reas!n+nD Ar!.ess!rs and *n+"ers+t st*dentsL s*/, s/+ent+sts as E+nste+n and Gal+le!L s*/, art+sts as H*-A,re B!Dart1 ;ran0 S+natra and L*/+an! )a"ar!tt+L as 5ell as antel!Aes1 le-!n trees1 and /arnat+!ns? M!re!"er1 as t,e s/+ent+sts and Ar!.ess!rs 5,! bel+e"e +n t,+s n!nsense are ed*/ated Ae!Ale1 +t +s G*+te 4*st+.+able t! sAea0 !. t,+s t,e!r as Kt,e -!st A!tent sAell +n ,+st!r ?K Ne"er be.!re ,as an !t,er bel+e. !r +dea s! ta0en a5a Ae!AlesF A!5ers !. reas!n1 re.*sed t! all!5 t,e- t! t,+n0 +ntell+Dentl and l!D+/all and ,+dden t,e tr*t, .r!- t,e- as +. t,e ,ad been bl+nd.!lded? T,+s +s an e"en 5!rse and *nbel+e"able bl+ndness t,an t,e ED At+ans 5!rs,+AA+nD t,e S*n G!d Ra1 t!te- 5!rs,+A +n s!-e Aarts !. A.r+/a1 t,e Ae!Ale !. Saba 5!rs,+AA+nD t,e S*n1 t,e tr+be !. )r!A,et Abra,a- 6Aea/e be *A!n ,+-7 5!rs,+AA+nD +d!ls t,e ,ad -ade 5+t, t,e+r !5n ,ands1 !r t,e Ae!Ale !. t,e )r!A,et M!ses 6Aea/e be *A!n ,+-7 5!rs,+AA+nD t,e G!lden 3al.?

In .a/t1 G!d ,as A!+nted t! t,+s la/0 !. reas!n +n t,e E*rFan? In -an "erse1 He re"eals +n -an "erses t,at s!-e Ae!AlesF -+nds 5+ll be /l!sed and t,at t,e 5+ll be A!5erless t! see t,e tr*t,? S!-e !. t,ese "erses are as .!ll!5s8 As )$ th$se wh$ d$ n$t be(ie:e/ it %a;es n$ di))e en#e t$ the% whethe "$! wa n the% $ d$ n$t wa n the%/ the" wi(( n$t be(ie:e. .$d has sea(ed !p thei hea ts and hea in0 and $:e thei e"es is a b(ind)$(d. +he" wi(( ha:e a te ib(e p!nish%ent. 34! ?an/ 2: F'H8 2 +he" ha:e hea ts with whi#h the" d$ n$t !nde stand. +he" ha:e e"es with whi#h the" d$ n$t see. +he" ha:e ea s with whi#h the" d$ n$t hea . S!#h pe$p(e a e (i;e #att(e. N$/ the" a e e:en )! the ast a"N +he" a e the !nawa e. 34! ?an/ H: 6H78 &:en i) We $pened !p t$ the% a d$$ int$ hea:en/ and the" spent the da" as#endin0 th $!0h it/ the" w$!(d $n(" sa": 9,! e"esi0ht is be)!dd(edN , athe we ha:e been p!t !nde a spe((N9 34! ?an/ 6G: 6@' 6G8 @!rds /ann!t e<Aress 4*st ,!5 ast!n+s,+nD +t +s t,at t,+s sAell s,!*ld ,!ld s*/, a 5+de /!--*n+t +n t,rall1 0eeA Ae!Ale .r!- t,e tr*t,1 and n!t be br!0en .!r %90 ears? It +s *nderstandable t,at !ne !r a .e5 Ae!Ale -+D,t bel+e"e +n +-A!ss+ble s/enar+!s and /la+-s .*ll !. st*A+d+t and +ll!D+/al+t ? H!5e"er1 K-aD+/K +s t,e !nl A!ss+ble e<Alanat+!n .!r Ae!Ale .r!- all !"er t,e 5!rld bel+e"+nD t,at *n/!ns/+!*s and l+.eless at!-s s*ddenl de/+ded t! /!-e t!Det,er and .!r- a *n+"erse t,at .*n/t+!ns 5+t, a .la5less s ste- !. !rDan+Jat+!n1 d+s/+Al+ne1 reas!n1 and /!ns/+!*snessL a Alanet na-ed Eart, 5+t, all !. +ts .eat*res s! Aer.e/tl s*+ted t! l+.eL and l+"+nD t,+nDs .*ll !. /!*ntless /!-Ale< s ste-s? In .a/t1 t,e E*rFan relates t,e +n/+dent !. )r!A,et M!ses and ),ara!, t! s,!5 t,at s!-e Ae!Ale 5,! s*AA!rt at,e+st+/ A,+l!s!A,+es a/t*all +n.l*en/e !t,ers b -aD+/? @,en ),ara!, 5as t!ld ab!*t t,e tr*e rel+D+!n1 ,e t!ld )r!A,et M!ses t! -eet 5+t, ,+s !5n -aD+/+ans? @,en M!ses d+d s!1 ,e t!ld t,e- t! de-!nstrate t,e+r ab+l+t+es .+rst? T,e "erses /!nt+n*e8 He said: 9Y$! th $w.9 And when the" th ew/ the" #ast a spe(( $n the pe$p(e?s e"es and #a!sed the% t$ )ee( 0 eat )ea $) the%. +he" p $d!#ed an e=t e%e(" p$we )!( %a0i#. 34! ?an/ H: 66F8 As 5e ,a"e seen1 ),ara!,Fs -aD+/+ans 5ere able t! de/e+"e e"er !ne1 aAart .r!- M!ses and t,!se 5,! bel+e"ed +n ,+-? H!5e"er1 ,+s e"+den/e br!0e t,e sAell1 !r Ks5all!5ed *A 5,at t,e ,ad .!rDed1K as t,e "erse A*ts +t? We e:ea(ed t$ M$ses/ 9+h $w d$wn "$! sta)).9 And it i%%ediate(" swa(($wed !p what the" had )$ 0ed. S$ the + !th t$$; p(a#e and what the" did was sh$wn t$ be )a(se. 34! ?an/ H: 66H'6678 As 5e /an see1 5,en Ae!Ale real+Jed t,at a sAell ,ad been /ast *A!n t,e- and t,at 5,at t,e sa5 5as 4*st an +ll*s+!n1 ),ara!,Fs -aD+/+ans l!st all /red+b+l+t ? In t,e Aresent da t!!1 *nless t,!se 5,!1 *nder t,e +n.l*en/e

!. a s+-+lar sAell1 bel+e"e +n t,ese r+d+/*l!*s /la+-s *nder t,e+r s/+ent+.+/ d+sD*+se and sAend t,e+r l+"es de.end+nD t,e-1 aband!n t,e+r s*Aerst+t+!*s bel+e.s1 t,e als! 5+ll be ,*-+l+ated 5,en t,e .*ll tr*t, e-erDes and t,e sAell +s br!0en? In .a/t1 Mal/!l- M*DDer+dDe1 an at,e+st A,+l!s!A,er and s*AA!rter !. e"!l*t+!n1 ad-+tted ,e 5as 5!rr+ed b 4*st t,at Ar!sAe/t8 I %"se() a% #$n:in#ed that the the$ " $) e:$(!ti$n/ espe#ia((" the e=tent t$ whi#h it?s been app(ied/ wi(( be $ne $) the 0 eat M$;es in the hist$ " b$$;s in the )!t! e. )!ster+t 5+ll -ar"el t,at s! "er .l+-s and (0 d*b+!*s an , A!t,es+s /!*ld be a//eAted 5+t, t,e +n/red+ble /red*l+t t,at +t ,as? T,at .*t*re +s n!t .ar !..8 Cn t,e /!ntrar 1 Ae!Ale 5+ll s!!n see t,at K/,an/eK +s n!t a de+t 1 and 5+ll l!!0 ba/0 !n t,e t,e!r !. e"!l*t+!n as t,e 5!rst de/e+t and t,e -!st terr+ble sAell +n t,e 5!rld? T,at sAell +s alread raA+dl beD+nn+nD t! be l+.ted .r!- t,e s,!*lders !. Ae!Ale all !"er t,e 5!rld? Man Ae!Ale 5,! see +ts tr*e .a/e are 5!nder+nD 5+t, a-aJe-ent ,!5 t,e /!*ld e"er ,a"e been ta0en +n b +t?

+he" said/ 9.($ " be t$ Y$!N We ha:e n$ ;n$w(ed0e e=#ept what Y$! ha:e ta!0ht !s. Y$! a e the A(('Cn$win0/ the A(('Wise.9 34! ?an/ 2:328

N,+&S
%? !ahih 1ukhari 2? !ahih 1ukhari 3? B*dd,+s-1 The ,atholi' En'y'lo%edia1 "!l? 31 3!A r+D,t © %=0$ b R!bert AAAlet!n 3!-Aan Cnl+ne Ed+t+!n 3!A r+D,t © %=== b 2e"+n 2n+D,t1 ,ttA8BB555?ne5ad"ent?!rD (? Ed5ard @as,b*rn H!A0+ns1 The Religions of -ndia1 G+nn S 3!-Aan 1 AA? 3%=&320 9? Dr? Al+ I,san Y+t+01 Hint /okenli 9inlerde /ar#a -nan':n:n Tenasuh -nan':yla -liskisi 6T,e Relat+!n !. t,e Idea !. 2ar-a +n Ind+an Rel+D+!ns 5+t, t,e Idea !. Re+n/arnat+!n7 1 AA? %30&%3% :? Sean R!bs"+lle1 "rgu#ents "gainst 1uddhis#1 ,ttA8BB555?De!/+t+es?/!-Bs/+-a,BarD*-entsaDa+nstb*dd,+s-?,t'? T,!-as Henr H*<le 1 E+olution and Ethi's1 A? '(L V+4+t,a Ra4aAa0se TB*dd,+s- +n H*<le Fs E"!l*t+!n and Et,+/s8 A n!te !n a V+/t!r+an e"al*at+!n and +ts /!-Aarat+"+st d+-ens+!n1U ),+l!s!A, East and @est1 "!l 391 n!? 3 6H*l %=$971 A? 2=$ $?T,!-as Henr H*<le 1 E+olution and Ethi's1 A? =0L V+4+t,a Ra4aAa0se TB*dd,+s- +n H*<le Fs E"!l*t+!n and Et,+/s8 A n!te !n a V+/t!r+an e"al*at+!n and +ts /!-Aarat+"+st d+-ens+!n1U ),+l!s!A, East and @est1 "!l?391 n!? 3 6H*l %=$971 A? 30% =? R ,s Da"+ds1 1uddhis#;" !tudy of the 1uddhist Nor#& 6L!nd!n1 n?d?71 A? '=L V+4+t,a Ra4aAa0se TB*dd,+s- +n H*<le Fs E"!l*t+!n and Et,+/s8 A n!te !n a V+/t!r+an e"al*at+!n and +ts F/!-Aarat+"+st d+-ens+!nF1U hiloso%hy East and .est1 "!l? 391 n!? 3 6H*l %=$971 A? 2== %0? Has!n DeB!er1 TS*bl+-e Hatred8 N+etJs/,eVs Ant+&3,r+st+an+t 1U ,ttA8BB555?abs+nt,e&l+terar &re"+e5?/!Bar/,+"esB.+er/e:?,t%%? Has!n DeB!er1 TS*bl+-e Hatred8 N+etJs/,eVs Ant+&3,r+st+an+t 1U ,ttA8BB555?abs+nt,e&l+terar &re"+e5?/!Bar/,+"esB.+er/e:?,t%2? R!bert G? M!rr+s!n1 Niet0s'he and 1uddhis#: " !tudy in Nihilis# and -roni' "ffinities 1 Re"+e5ed b Da"+d R? L! ? "sian hiloso%hy1 V!l? $1 N!? 21 6HUl %==$71 AA? %2=&%3%1 ,ttA8BB//bs?nt*?ed*?t5BB;ULLTEWTBHR&E)TB l! ?,t%3? M+/,ael Ba+Dent1 R+/,ard Le+D,1 Henr L+n/!ln1 Messiani' Lega'y1 L!nd!n8 3!rD+ B!!0s1 %==%1 A? %$( %(? <1uddha as =i'tion> e</erAt .r!- agan ,hrists1 b HM R!berts!n1 D!rset )ress %9? )sal-s1 %(=8%&=L %(98%&%'L %%08%&'1 Isa+a, ::8%3&(1 Dan+el =823&( %:? Henr 3? @arren1 1uddhis# in translation1 A?($%&$2 %'? H!,n H!D*e1 The Messiahs1 The +isions and %ro%he'ies for the se'ond 'o#ing& Ele-ent B!!0s1 A? 39 %$? 3!n5a R+r0le1 E+olution& Mar6ian 1iology and the !o'ial !'ene 1 ),+ladelA,+a8 Un+"ers+t !. )enns l"an+a )ress1 %=9=1 AA?$9&$' %=? 3!n5a R+r0le1 E+olution& Mar6ian 1iology and the !o'ial !'ene 1 ),+ladelA,+a8 Un+"ers+t !. )enns l"an+a )ress1 %=9=1 AA?$9&$' 20? 2? Me,nert1 /a#%f u# Mao's Erbe1 De*ts/,e VerlaDs&Anstalt1 %='' 2%? S+dne ;!<1 2la*s D!se1 Mole'ular E+olution and The 5rigin of Life 1 @?H? ;ree-an and 3!-Aan 1 San ;ran/+s/!1 %='21 A? (?

22? Ale<ander I? CAar+n1 5rigin of Life1 D!"er )*bl+/at+!ns1 Ne5Y!r01 %=3:1 %=93 6reAr+nt71 A? %=:? 23? KNe5 E"+den/e !n E"!l*t+!n !. Earl At-!sA,ere and L+.eK1 1ulletin of the "#eri'an Meteorologi'al !o'iety1 "!l :31 N!"e-ber %=$21 A? %32$&%330? 2(? Stanle M+ller1 Mole'ular E+olution of Life: ,urrent !tatus of the rebioti' !ynthesis of !#all Mole'ules 1 %=$:1 A? '? 29? He..re Bada1 Earth1 ;ebr*ar %==$1 A? (0 2:? Lesl+e E? CrDel1 KT,e Cr+D+n !. L+.e !n Eart,K1 !'ientifi' "#eri'an1 "!l? 2'%1 C/t!ber %==(1 A? '$? 2'? 3,arles Dar5+n1 The 5rigin of !%e'ies by Means of Natural !ele'tion 1 T,e M!dern L+brar 1 Ne5 Y!r01 A? %2'? 2$? 3,arles Dar5+n1 The 5rigin of !%e'ies: " =a'si#ile of the =irst Edition 1 Har"ard Un+"ers+t )ress1 %=:(1 A? %$(? 2=? B? G? RanDanat,an1 5rigins?& )enns l"an+a8 T,e Banner C. Tr*t, Tr*st1 %=$$1 A? '? 30? 3,arles Dar5+n1 The 5rigin of !%e'ies8 " =a'si#ile of the =irst Edition& Har"ard Un+"ers+t )ress1 %=:(1 A? %'=? 3%? Dere0 A? ADer1 KT,e Nat*re !. t,e ;!ss+l Re/!rdK1 ro'eedings of the 1ritish @eologi'al "sso'iation 1 "!l $'1 %=':1 A? %33? 32? D!*Dlas H? ;*t* -a1 !'ien'e on Trial1 )ant,e!n B!!0s1 Ne5 Y!r01 %=$3? A? %='? 33? S!ll R*/0er-an1 1eyond The -+ory Tower& T!Al+nDer )*bl+/at+!ns1 Ne5 Y!r01 %='01 AA? '9&=(L 3,arles E? C<nard1 KT,e )la/e !. A*stral!A+t,e/+nes +n H*-an E"!l*t+!n8 Gr!*nds .!r D!*btK1 Nat*re1 "!l 29$1 A? 3$=? 3(? K3!*ld s/+en/e be br!*D,t t! an end b s/+ent+stsF bel+e. t,at t,e ,a"e .+nal ans5ers !r b s!/+et Fs rel*/tan/e t! Aa t,e b+llsIK !'ientifi' "#eri'an& De/e-ber %==21 A? 20? 39? Alan @al0er1 !'ien'e1 "!l? 20'1 ' Mar/, %=$01 A? %%03L A? H? 2els!1 ), s+/al Antr!A!l!D 1 %st ed?1 H? B? L+A+n/!tt 3!?1 Ne5 Y!r01 %='01 A? 22%L M? D? Lea0e 1 Cld*"a+ G!rDe1 "!l? 31 3a-br+dDe Un+"ers+t )ress1 3a-br+dDe1 %='%1 A? 2'2? 3:? He..re 2l*Der1 KN!t S! E<t+n/t A.ter All8 T,e )r+-+t+"e H!-! Ere/t*s Ma Ha"e S*r"+"ed L!nD En!*D, T! 3!e<+st @+t, M!dern H*-ans1K Ti#e1 23 De/e-ber %==:? 3'? S? H? G!*ld1 Natural History1 "!l? $91 %=':1 A? 30? 3$? S!ll R*/0er-an1 1eyond The -+ory Tower& A? %=? 3=? R+/,ard Le5!nt+n1 KT,e De-!n&Ha*nted @!rld1K The New York Re+iew of 1ooks& Han*ar =1 %=='1 A? 2$? (0? Mal/!l- M*DDer+dDe1 The End of ,hristendo#& Grand RaA+ds8 Eerd-ans1 %=$01 A? (3?

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