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MAT- :

Linear Algebra
Table of Contents:

1. Introduction
2. Summary of applications in LA
3. Encrypting a message
4. Encryption process
5. Decryption process
6. Modular arithmetic
7. Examples
8. References

Cryptography or cryptology, is the practice and study of hiding information. It is sometimes called
code, but this is not really a correct name. It is the science used to try to keep information secret and safe.
Modern cryptography is a mix of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering.
Cryptography is used in ATM (bank) cards, computer passwords, and shopping on the internet.

The study of encoding and decoding secret messages is called cryptography. Although secret codes date to
the earliest days of written communication, there has been a recent surge of interest in the subject because
of the need to maintain the privacy of information transmitted over public lines of communication. In the
language of cryptography, codes are called ciphers, uncoded messages are called plaintext, and coded
messages are called ciphertext. The process of converting from plaintext to ciphertext is called
enciphering, and the reverse process of converting from ciphertext to plaintext is called
Summary of Application in Linear Algebra

1 Use of Matrices. Encrypting Representation

A matrix can be used to In order to encrypt plaintext, These numbers can range in
encrypt a message. each character in the plaintext value, but an example is using
must be denoted with a 1-26 to represent A to Z and
The matrix must be invertible numerical value and 27 to represent a space.
for use in decrypting. placed into a matrix.
Encrypting a message :
1. Each character of the plaintext is given a numerical values as stated before.
2. These values are then separated into vectors, S.T. the number of rows of each vector is equivalent to
thenumber of rows the cipher matrix.
3. Values are placed into each vector one at a time, going down a row for each values. A vector is filled
bythe plaintext then the remaining entries will hold the values for space.
4. The vectors are then augmented to form a matrix that contains the plaintext.
5. The plaintext matrix is then multiplied with the cipher matrix to create the ciphertext matrix.
The encryption process:
We can summarize the encryption in the following steps.
I. Choose a pxp matrix A which is invertible, where p may have be depends on the length of the
message that needs to be encrypted.
II. Change each plaintext to its numerical value units.

III. Form the px1 column vector P, having these numerical values as its entries.

IV. Get each vector C by multiplying A with P1 and convert each entry of the
vector to its letter in the alphabet. The encryption algorithm of this method is:C= AP mod N
The decryption process:

I. Get the inverse of the matrix A .

II. Change each text to its numerical value.
III. Put each text in a px1 column vector say C.
IV. Get each plain text vector by multiplying A-1 with C and convert each plaintext
vector to its letter in the
alphabet. The decryption algorithm of this method is
P = A^-1 C mod N
Where A^-1 in the inverse of the matrix A.
Here when the size of the matrix A
increases we will have following
1) The cryptography process will be
more complex and more difficult to
2) The number of column vector will
decreases and we can encode any
message consisting for example of
7 letters by using a (7x7) matrix in
only one step. But there is one
problem here, i.e its not easy to get
the inverse of the matrix used in the
encryption process as its size
Modular Arithmetic:
Several important cryptosystems make use of modular arithmetic. This is when
the answer to a calculation is always in the range 0 m where m is the modulus.
To calculate the value of n mod m, you take away as many multiples of m as
possible until you are left with an answer between 0 and m.
If n is a negative number then you add as many multiples of m as necessary to get
an answer in the range 0 m.
17 mod 5 = 2 7 mod 11 = 7 -3 mod 11 = 8
-1 mod 11 = 10 25 mod 5 = 0 -11 mod 11 = 0
Here are some examples to illustrate the above facts:
References :
1. Advanced Encryption standard http:// csrc.nist. gov/encryption/aes/
3. Oded Goldreich,Foundations of cryptography Volume II Basic applications
4. Mark Stamp, Information Security principles and practice , 2002.
5. A.R. Vasishtha ,Modern Algebra, Krishna Prakashan Mandir, Meerut.
6. Advanced encryption standanred (AES) ,Federal information processing
Standards publications
7. SergeLang,Introduction to linear algebra ,Second edition, springer
8. Oded Goldreich, Foundations of cryptography, volume I, Basic applications.
9. Dr. B.S. Grewal, Higher engineering mathematics, 40th edition, Khanna