2 views

Uploaded by sagrv

LA2

- Crypt Analysis of the Public-Key Encryption Based on Braid Groups
- Secure Database Access and Transfer Using Public Key Cryptography
- Security Part 1
- Securely Encrypt Messages with a Deck of Cards and Solitaire.docx
- Cryptography Forouzan Code Implementation
- ask.pdf
- cryptography_tutorial.pdf
- w_esec01
- fifth semster
- PABKE: Provable Attribute-based Keyword explore over Outsourced Encrypted Data
- Modified Rabin Cryptosystem through Advanced Key Distribution System
- Implementation of Des Algorithm
- CHENCHUAES
- MOBILE AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATION
- Encrypt Basics
- Notice: Information processing standards, Federal: Secure Hash Standard; new hash algorithm(s) development
- parklessonplan6 mathlesson 5
- Container-Beating Approaches for Avoiding Discriminative Cramming Assaults
- On Sloane's Generalization of Non-squashing Stacks of Boxes
- FTB Cryptography

You are on page 1of 11

Linear Algebra

Topic:CRYPTOGRAPHY

Table of Contents:

1. Introduction

2. Summary of applications in LA

3. Encrypting a message

4. Encryption process

5. Decryption process

6. Modular arithmetic

7. Examples

8. References

Introduction:

CRYPTOGRAPHY

Cryptography or cryptology, is the practice and study of hiding information. It is sometimes called

code, but this is not really a correct name. It is the science used to try to keep information secret and safe.

Modern cryptography is a mix of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering.

Cryptography is used in ATM (bank) cards, computer passwords, and shopping on the internet.

The study of encoding and decoding secret messages is called cryptography. Although secret codes date to

the earliest days of written communication, there has been a recent surge of interest in the subject because

of the need to maintain the privacy of information transmitted over public lines of communication. In the

language of cryptography, codes are called ciphers, uncoded messages are called plaintext, and coded

messages are called ciphertext. The process of converting from plaintext to ciphertext is called

enciphering, and the reverse process of converting from ciphertext to plaintext is called

deciphering.

Summary of Application in Linear Algebra

A matrix can be used to In order to encrypt plaintext, These numbers can range in

encrypt a message. each character in the plaintext value, but an example is using

must be denoted with a 1-26 to represent A to Z and

The matrix must be invertible numerical value and 27 to represent a space.

for use in decrypting. placed into a matrix.

Encrypting a message :

1. Each character of the plaintext is given a numerical values as stated before.

2. These values are then separated into vectors, S.T. the number of rows of each vector is equivalent to

thenumber of rows the cipher matrix.

3. Values are placed into each vector one at a time, going down a row for each values. A vector is filled

bythe plaintext then the remaining entries will hold the values for space.

4. The vectors are then augmented to form a matrix that contains the plaintext.

5. The plaintext matrix is then multiplied with the cipher matrix to create the ciphertext matrix.

The encryption process:

We can summarize the encryption in the following steps.

I. Choose a pxp matrix A which is invertible, where p may have be depends on the length of the

message that needs to be encrypted.

II. Change each plaintext to its numerical value units.

III. Form the px1 column vector P, having these numerical values as its entries.

IV. Get each vector C by multiplying A with P1 and convert each entry of the

vector to its letter in the alphabet. The encryption algorithm of this method is:C= AP mod N

The decryption process:

II. Change each text to its numerical value.

III. Put each text in a px1 column vector say C.

IV. Get each plain text vector by multiplying A-1 with C and convert each plaintext

vector to its letter in the

alphabet. The decryption algorithm of this method is

P = A^-1 C mod N

Where A^-1 in the inverse of the matrix A.

Here when the size of the matrix A

increases we will have following

advantages.

1) The cryptography process will be

more complex and more difficult to

decade.

2) The number of column vector will

decreases and we can encode any

message consisting for example of

7 letters by using a (7x7) matrix in

only one step. But there is one

problem here, i.e its not easy to get

the inverse of the matrix used in the

encryption process as its size

increases.

Modular Arithmetic:

Several important cryptosystems make use of modular arithmetic. This is when

the answer to a calculation is always in the range 0 m where m is the modulus.

To calculate the value of n mod m, you take away as many multiples of m as

possible until you are left with an answer between 0 and m.

If n is a negative number then you add as many multiples of m as necessary to get

an answer in the range 0 m.

Examples

17 mod 5 = 2 7 mod 11 = 7 -3 mod 11 = 8

-1 mod 11 = 10 25 mod 5 = 0 -11 mod 11 = 0

Here are some examples to illustrate the above facts:

References :

1. Advanced Encryption standard http:// csrc.nist. gov/encryption/aes/

3. Oded Goldreich,Foundations of cryptography Volume II Basic applications

4. Mark Stamp, Information Security principles and practice , 2002.

5. A.R. Vasishtha ,Modern Algebra, Krishna Prakashan Mandir, Meerut.

6. Advanced encryption standanred (AES) ,Federal information processing

Standards publications

,197,2001

7. SergeLang,Introduction to linear algebra ,Second edition, springer

8. Oded Goldreich, Foundations of cryptography, volume I, Basic applications.

9. Dr. B.S. Grewal, Higher engineering mathematics, 40th edition, Khanna

Publications.

- Crypt Analysis of the Public-Key Encryption Based on Braid GroupsUploaded byLu Pyo Gyi
- Secure Database Access and Transfer Using Public Key CryptographyUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- Security Part 1Uploaded byfducdbhcbdhbhcdcdhb
- Securely Encrypt Messages with a Deck of Cards and Solitaire.docxUploaded bysteved_43
- Cryptography Forouzan Code ImplementationUploaded byAnubhav Sah
- ask.pdfUploaded byashwiniborse318
- cryptography_tutorial.pdfUploaded bysvd
- w_esec01Uploaded bySilenthand
- fifth semsterUploaded byDil Prasad Kunwar
- PABKE: Provable Attribute-based Keyword explore over Outsourced Encrypted DataUploaded byIJCERT PUBLICATIONS
- Modified Rabin Cryptosystem through Advanced Key Distribution SystemUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Implementation of Des AlgorithmUploaded byambrish_pandey_1
- CHENCHUAESUploaded bysatya248
- MOBILE AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONUploaded byantmonibritto
- Encrypt BasicsUploaded byDellendo Farquharson
- Notice: Information processing standards, Federal: Secure Hash Standard; new hash algorithm(s) developmentUploaded byJustia.com
- parklessonplan6 mathlesson 5Uploaded byapi-301818008
- Container-Beating Approaches for Avoiding Discriminative Cramming AssaultsUploaded byInternational Journal of Engineering Inventions (IJEI)
- On Sloane's Generalization of Non-squashing Stacks of BoxesUploaded byapi-26401608
- FTB CryptographyUploaded bySamuel Nii Annan O'Neil
- Report Based Payment Scheme for Multihop Wireless NetworksUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous EngineeringUploaded byPeter Osundwa Kiteki
- Privacy ComputerUploaded byParamjit Singh
- RSA ALGORITHMUploaded byubaid_saudagar
- IJETR011307.pdfUploaded byerpublication
- Military Crypt AnalysisUploaded byLiz Maria
- 4.Morpheo (1704.05017)Uploaded byJuracy Bertoldo
- Manferdelli_011006Uploaded byMatt Kirk
- A Wireless Protocol to Prevent Wormhole AttacksUploaded byNazar Aziz
- Icsnc 2015 - Joffre - Fhe-gaUploaded byJoffre Gavinho Filho

- CAT 2002 PaperUploaded byNitinj11
- DESIGN_AND_IMPLEMENTATION_OF_TWO_PHASE_I.pdfUploaded bysagrv
- Maths Ques. 1Uploaded byarora20
- Maths Ques. 1Uploaded byarora20
- Monthly Current Affairs and GK Capsule July 2018 - Download in PDFUploaded bysagrv
- Puzzles WorkbookUploaded byannu khandelwal
- SSC ANTONYMS Till 2016.ProtectedUploaded bymannar.mani.2000
- Statistics BasicsUploaded bysagrv
- Maths Ques. 1Uploaded bysagrv
- 19_abbrevationUploaded bysagrv
- Reasoning 3Uploaded byPrasad Durga D
- Wireless Power TransferUploaded bysagrv
- List of Airports in IndiaUploaded bysagrv
- reasoningUploaded bysagrv
- Maths Ques. 1Uploaded bysagrv
- IMPQUESTIONS.txtUploaded bysagrv
- EPFL_TH6925Uploaded bysagrv
- A Wndowed Graph Fourier TransformUploaded bysagrv
- Simplex MethodUploaded byShantanu Dutta
- SOL1Uploaded bysagrv
- SOL1Uploaded bysagrv
- Chap 8Uploaded byNikhil Dedhia
- MBegue PrelimUploaded bysagrv
- HW1 SolutionsUploaded bysagrv
- HW1 SolutionsUploaded bysagrv
- Syllabus for MAT 280Uploaded bysagrv
- L4Uploaded bysagrv
- CodeUploaded bysagrv
- Solar Charger CircuitUploaded bygopir28
- Branch & BoundUploaded byvijaydh

- The_Wear_of_Aluminum_in_the_Presence_of.pdfUploaded byMelmakPolytron
- Customer Needs Kano Garvin & QFDUploaded bymadhuboorada
- 3PL-eBookUploaded byKumar K Kumar
- h12204 VP for New Vnx Series WpUploaded byMarouani Amor
- B-14_Revised_T_YUploaded byEr Shubham Rakshe
- Steam Generation & Distribution.pdfUploaded byPopescu Andrei-Mihai
- SelfUploaded byerine5995
- 8179 Rehau Ba Controller 864602 UkUploaded byQYTREWPOIUD
- Safety RulesUploaded byJastineAraOgnita
- Example_E4,18,2-4Uploaded byMasoodMiyan
- Change Second Barrel Machine Gun M2 M240 MAG M249Uploaded bygabinou98
- Traction Electric Drive-EngUploaded byAlcides Enrique González Carreño
- Sealants for concreteUploaded bySiva Prasad
- Arc Viewing DistanceUploaded byjsierra333
- IT321- Data - Part 1Uploaded byrayden22
- cheatham 2 citicompletionreportUploaded byapi-377835688
- AC 204 B174_Sm-Pc.pdfUploaded byJulio Felipe
- Manual ParametrosUploaded byares201216675
- eBook - Guitar Rig - Tutorials by Jerry McphersonUploaded byJoe Masso
- GS01E20D01-01EUploaded byknightfelix12
- CEH v10 Module 04 - Enumeration- Www.ethicalhackx.comUploaded byethicalhacker2006
- Cad StandardsUploaded byasif
- NanoparticlesUploaded byHennah Usman
- Generalized Symmetrical Angle Pwm Technique for a.cUploaded byapi-27465568
- Installation ConfigUploaded byatilabayat
- C-Full Programs 001[1]Uploaded byharshasai123456
- 2013 Soil Heave Due to Pile DrivingUploaded bynumspy
- MendeleyUploaded byTerrae2011
- Automatic Street Lighting SystemUploaded byAvik Kumar Sircar
- PD 984Uploaded bymav3riick