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MMPI Interpretation Anastasya Glezerman, Ph.D.

MMPI-2: Basic Scales

Scale High Low


? - cannot say>30 - invalid,0-5 - normal
L - lie >60 - might be2-4 - can admit minor faults, independent, relaxed, honest

>4raw - rigid,<2 - cynical and wary, all true resp.


F - rarely end>90 - faking calm, conventional

65-80 - psycho
very low - denial of psychopathology, very rigid and conventional, faking go

58-64 - confusion, emotional problems, unconvent. beliefs


Fback the same for the same
K - subtle de >70 - invalid,very low - faking bad (esp. if F-K >+11), confusion, conforming, suspicious,

60-70 - denial of vulnerability and psychopathology, little insight & tolerance, blaming ot
VRIN random responding, confused psychosis
TRIN all true respo all false responding
1-Hs-Hypochon
>80 - somatic38-45 - adequately adjusted, insightful, may appear moralistic and interper

>65 - somatic<38 - deinvested in their bodies, high risk behaviors

58-64 - lesser degree of the above or an actual disorder


2 - D - Depres>80 - check for suicidal id norm - comfortable, gregarious, active, alert, enthusiastic

75-85 - moderate depressiovery low - lack of impulse control, conflict with societal values

unhappy, low self-esteem, helplesness, hopelesness - depression, withdrawal, psychomo

D1 - Subjective depression - agitation, meaninglessness, insecurity, low self-esteem

D2 - Psychomotor retardation - immobilized, socially avoidant, motorically slow, deny ho

D3 - Physical malfunctioning - preoccupation with physical symptoms

D4 - Mental dullness - memory/concentration problems, lack of energy, hopelessness, he

D5 - Brooding - ruminative, unable to control intrusive thoughts, irritable, sensitive to cri


3 - Hy - Hyste>80 - might be conversion very low - tough-minded, cynical, misantropic or low need for

denial of psychological and interpersonal problems and vulnerabilities and specific soma
moderate elevation - pollyannish

Hy1 - Denial of social anxiety - extroverted, good social skills, accept criticism

Hy2 - Need for affection - attention-seeking, trusting, nonconfrontational, deny unpleasa

Hy3 - Lassitude-malaise - weakness, fatigue, attention/concentration problems, seek atte

Hy4 - Somatic complaints - specific (chest pin, nausea, etc.)

Hy5 - Inhibition of aggression - deny hostility

Scale(s) High Low


4 - Pd - Psych>75 - angry re
norm - interpersonally adequate, sincere, concerned for others

65-75 - authovery low - conforming, rigid, follow authority, tolerate boredom and medioc

Pd1 - Familial discord - perception of family as unsupportive, distressing, or abusive

Pd2 - Authority problems - assertive, opinionated, rebellious, in trouble at school or with

Pd3 - Social imperturbability - socially skilled, seek interaction, are assertive, deny depen

Pd4 - Social alienation - feel lonely, are self-centered, unhappy, project responsibility, ex

Pd5 - Self-alienation - agitated, unhappy, guilt, lack of self-integration, poor concentratio


5 - Mf - Mascu>80 - serious traditional gender role

milder elevation - not traditional gender role (as indicated by vocational and aesthetic in
6 - Pa - Paran >75 - psychos<40 - underacheivers, interpersonally insensitive, optimistic; in psychiatric

moderate elevation - hostile, externalizing, hypervigilant/suspicious, egocentric, self-righ

Pa1 - Persecutory ideas - perceive others as threat, feel misunderstood, blame others, pr

Pa2 - Poignancy - perceive self as more sensitive and intense in feelings than others, fee

Pa3 - Naivete - trusting, deny hostility and ulterior motives in self and others
7 - Pt - Psych >75 - excessiv self-confident, content, ambitious, relaxed toward responsibilities
8 - Sc - Schiz >90 - signific very low - happy, accepting of authority, yielding in rel-s, very rigid and con

70-90 - may be a thought disorder: confused thught process, hallusinations, social aliena

Sc1 - Social alienation - feel alienated, misunderstood and mistreated, socially avoidant
Sc2 - Emotional alienation - depression/despair or flat affect/apathy, poss. sadistic/masoc

Sc3 - Lack of ego mastery, cognitive - odd/confused thoughts, feelings of unreality/deper

Sc4 - Lack of ego mastery, conative - feel helpless, inhibited, psychologically weak, worr

Sc5 - Lack of ego mastery, defective inhibition - frightened by the sense of impending lo

Sc6 - Bizarre sensory experiences - unusual physical symptoms, depersonalization, unus


9 - Ma - Mani >80 - poss. mvery low - little energy, low self-confidence, pessimistic, depressed, reliable

moderate elevation - high energy, distractability, lack of persistence, extroversion, stimu

Ma1 - Amorality - see others as dishonest and self-centered, manipulative, exploitative

Ma2 - Psychomotor acceleration - accelerated motoric/thougt/speech patterns, labile affe

Ma3 - Imperturbability - deny social anxiety, feel irritable toward others, not influenced b

Ma4 - Ego inflation - grandiose, narcissistic, resent demands from others


0 - Si - Social Si1 - Shiness very low - extroverted, superficial and manipulative in rel-s.

Si2 - Social avoidance - avoid groups

Si3 - Self/other alienation - low self-esteem, low self-confidence, indecisive, nervous

MMPI-2: Code Types

Code Description Possible diagnoses


Spike 1 Somatization used to control others, not psychologically-minded.
1-2/2-1 Somatic disturbance, irritability, agitation, pain, anx Somatoform dis., Anxiety dis., Conv
2/1/2003 Neurotic triad - elevated in most neuroses, exaggerated need for affection

Conversion V - use somatic disorder as a projection channel for problems


1-2-9/2-1-9 acute clinical distress, neurological problems, masked depression
1-2-3-4/2-1-3-4 alcoholism, often hostile and acting out
1-3/3-1 Neurotic symptoms and somatic concerns, shallow rel-s, narcissistic, resentful, pollyanna
3/1/2008 Possible somatic delusions, depression, suicidal ideatiParanoid schizophrenia
3/1/2009 Impulsive, spells of aggressiveness, migt have organ Somatoform disorder, brain damag
1-4/4-1 More common in men, problems in meeting responsibiliti Hypochondriasis, Social phobia, Ch
1-6/6-1 Somatic and hypochondriacal preoccupation, projected Somatization, Paranoid schizophren
1-7/7-1 High somatic tension, obsessive patterns focusing on Somatization, Obsessive-compulsiv
1-8/8-1 Vague and odd medical complaints, cannot acknowledge Pedophilia, Schizoid Pers. dis., Acut
1-9/9-1 Agitation, irritability, disteress, high ambitions, pas Masked depression, PTSD, brain da
1-0/0-1 Social discomfort, passive-avoidant, conventional, somatic complaints
Spike 2 Sometimes depression developed out of inability to deReactive depression
2-3/3-2 Apathetic depression, anxiety, overcontrol, somatic c Female psychosexual dysfunction,
3/2/2007 High aspirations and standards, passive-aggressive, Phobic disorders and sexual dysfun
2-4/4-2 Depression, stimulation-seeking, substance abuse comm Acute alcohol intoxication, Schizop
2-4-7/7-4-2/4-7-2 Hostile, fearful, worried, Passive-aggressive pers., Alcohol a
2-5/5-2 Women: lower SES, interpersonal and social role confliPassive-aggressive pers. dis., Depe
2-6/6-2 Mostly females, physical problems, interpersonal stress
Paranoid pers., Major depression, P
2-7/7-2 Depression, agitation, rumination, diffic Agoraphobia, Avoidant p.d., Dependent p.d., Dep

Code Description Possible diagnoses


2-7-8/2-8-7 Tense, phobic, depressed, suicidal, psychotic/schizoid reactions/episodes
2-8/8-2 Childhood hurt and deprivaDepression, Bipolar/Cyclothymic dis., Brain damage, PTSD, Ge
2-9/9-2 Manic defenses against depr Bipolar, Brain damage, Alcolism
2-0/0-2 Shy, insecure, socially inepDepression, Avoidant p.d., Schizoid p.d., Bipolar/Cyclothymic
Spike 3 Pollyannish, conventional, deny anger, no insight, use somatization, avoidant
3-4/4-3 Chronic anger/hostility, im Histrionic, Borderline, Passive-aggressive, avoidant, Dissociati
3-5/5-3 Narcissism, denial, immatur Transvestism
3-6/6-3 Anxiety, tension, rigidity, Paranoia, Pranoid p.d., Paranoid schizophrenia, Somatization,
3-7/7-3 Anticipatory worrier, respDepersonalization dis., Somatization, Anxiety dis.
3-8/8-3 Confusion, distress, anxiet Multiple personality, Pedophilia, Schizophrenia, Somatization,
3-9/9-3 Mostly females, extroverted Somatization, Bipolar, Conversion, Explosive p.d., Psychosis, H
Spike 4 Problems with law, psychopa Psychopathy
4-5/5-4 Antiestablishment, antiauthNarcissistic, Passive-aggressive, Exhibitionism, Opiate abuse,
4-6/6-4 Narcissistic, immature, susp Substance abuse, Oppositional p.d., Paranoid schizophrenia, S
4-7/7-4 Insensitivity and social al Substance abuse, Bipolar/Cyclothymic dis.
4-8/8-4 Narcissistic, unpredictable Exibitionism, Pedophilia, Psychopathy, Schizoid, Antisocial, Bo
8/4/2006 Usually very destructive family background, world is a jungle
4-9/9-4 Do not profit from experienc Substance abuse, Pathological gambling, Rape, Psychopathy,
4-0/0-4 Usually females, carry a lot of anger they cannot express, shy, evasive, hold grudges, pa
Spike 5 Either transient situational disturbance or normal, liberal college males and open homos
5-6/6-5 Aloof, abrasive, self-righteous, see themselves as perfect
5-7/7-5 Introspective, excitable, Schizoid, Passive-aggressive, Anxiety reactions
5-8/8-5 usually from abusive or dysfunctional families, may have odd or intrusive thoughts, shy,

5-9/9-5 Stimulation-seeking, easily bored, like to be in control, see themselves positively


5-0/0-5 Introspective, schizoid, anxious, problems in sexual rel-s, see themselves as happy and w
Spike 6 Openly distrustful and suspicious or clinically paranoid
6-7/7-6 Anxious, tensObsessive-compulsive dis., Multiple phobias, Anxiety reactions, Affective di
6-8/8-6 Rebellion, angSubstance abuse, Paranoid schizophrenia, Brain damage, Borderline, Schizo
7/6/2008 Where 6&8 are >75 and 7 is <65 - paranoid valley - might have paranoid schizophreni
6-9/9-6 Hostile, angr Brain damage, Manic episode, Bipolar, Dysthymic, Paranoid schizophrenia
6-0/0-6 Shy, easily embarrassed, have distant relationships, but usually well adjusted
Spike 7 Shy, fearful, phobic, obsessive-compulsive, tense
7-8/8-7 Depressive anBorderline p.d., Substance abuse, Brief reactive psychosis, Depression, Obs
0-7/7-0 Tension, insecAnxiety dis-s, Agoraphobia, Avoidant p.d.
Spike 8 Odd, eccentric, nonconformist, aloof or psychotic
8-9/9-8 Narcissistic, Acting out, Substance abuse, Agitated catatonic schizophrenia, Brain dama
8-0/0-8 Socially avoidSchizoid p.d., Avoidant p.d., Schizophrenia
Spike 9 Aggressive act Substance abuse, Antisocial p.d.
9-0/0-9 Adequate social skills, high energy,self-confident, present as happy and well-adjusted, m
Spike 0 Situational adjustment difficulties or schizoid adjustment or mild but chronic distress; the

Range Code
>90 *
80-89
70-79
60-69 -
50-59 /
40-49 :
30-39 #
elaxed, honest

igid and conventional, faking good

fusion, conforming, suspicious, week emotional-behavioral controls, distress, low self-esteem, interpersonal pro

insight & tolerance, blaming others, no antisocial tendencies

appear moralistic and interpersonally detached

s, active, alert, enthusiastic

rol, conflict with societal values, manic state

pression, withdrawal, psychomotor retardation

insecurity, low self-esteem

dant, motorically slow, deny hostility

l symptoms

ack of energy, hopelessness, helplessness

oughts, irritable, sensitive to criticism, lack meaning


al, misantropic or low need for people, narrow range of interests, conforming, show little affect

ulnerabilities and specific somatic problems, psychologically naive, narcissistic, neurotic defenses, need attentio
kills, accept criticism

confrontational, deny unpleasant facts and feelings

ncentration problems, seek attention

ncerned for others

, tolerate boredom and mediocrity, males often show lack of interest and mistrust of females

ve, distressing, or abusive

us, in trouble at school or with the law

ction, are assertive, deny dependency

appy, project responsibility, externalize conflicts

f-integration, poor concentration, may be alcohol abuse

d by vocational and aesthetic interests, sexual role interests, degree of dependency, and activity vs. passivity)
sitive, optimistic; in psychiatric pt-s - subtle defensiveness, suspicion, controlled anger, paranoid disorder (in br

suspicious, egocentric, self-righteous, angry, sexual deviation or preoccupation is probable

misunderstood, blame others, project conflicts and responsibility

nse in feelings than others, feel misunderstood/lonely, may be stimulation/risk-seeking

s in self and others


oward responsibilities
lding in rel-s, very rigid and conventional thinling, not creative

ess, hallusinations, social alienation, depression, dissatisfaction, attention problems, agitation, anxiety, irritabilit

d mistreated, socially avoidant


ect/apathy, poss. sadistic/masochistic

ghts, feelings of unreality/depersonal.

ed, psychologically weak, worried, withdrawn, depressed, despairing

d by the sense of impending loss of control, ego-alien affect, hyperactive, labile affect, irritable, poss. amnesic e

ptoms, depersonalization, unusual thoughts, delusions of influence, hallucinations


pessimistic, depressed, reliable, responsible, may be tense and anxious

persistence, extroversion, stimulation seeking, grandiosity, amorality, may be controlling, aggressive, narcissisti

ed, manipulative, exploitative

ougt/speech patterns, labile affect, stimulation seeking, hyperactive, may have impulses to shock and harm othe

toward others, not influenced by them

nds from others


pulative in rel-s.

dence, indecisive, nervous

sible diagnoses

matoform dis., Anxiety dis., Conversion dis., Chronic alcohol intoxication, Female psychosexual dysfunction, Som
d need for affection

nnel for problems


s, masked depression

narcissistic, resentful, pollyannaish or avoidant of problems and responsibilities, attention seeking, irritable, whin
anoid schizophrenia
matoform disorder, brain damage
ochondriasis, Social phobia, Chronic alcohol intoxication,Substance abuse, Somatization, Affective disorer
matization, Paranoid schizophrenia
matization, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Eating disorder
ophilia, Schizoid Pers. dis., Acute schizophrenia, Affective dis., Borderline
ked depression, PTSD, brain damage, Dependent pers. dis., Sexual masochism
c complaints
ctive depression
male psychosexual dysfunction, Depression, Generalized anxiety dis., Histrionic pers. dis., Panic dis., Affective dis
bic disorders and sexual dysfunctions
te alcohol intoxication, Schizophrenia, Psychopathy, Antisocial pers. dis., Unsocialized Conduct dis., Adjustment
sive-aggressive pers., Alcohol abuse
sive-aggressive pers. dis., Dependent pers. dis.
anoid pers., Major depression, Paranoid schizophrenia, Histrionic, Borderline
oidant p.d., Dependent p.d., Depressions, Bipolar, Dysthymia, Alcoholism, Factitious dis., Generalized anxiety, Id

c/schizoid reactions/episodes
ic dis., Brain damage, PTSD, Generalized anxiety, Explosive, Panic, Schizoaffective dis.

izoid p.d., Bipolar/Cyclothymic


matization, avoidant
aggressive, avoidant, Dissociative, Intermittent-explosive, Manic, Pedophilia, Psychogenic amnesia, Voyerism, S

d schizophrenia, Somatization, Affective dis.


zation, Anxiety dis.
a, Schizophrenia, Somatization, Psychosis, Affective dis.
ion, Explosive p.d., Psychosis, Histrionic, Panic, passive-aggressive

e, Exhibitionism, Opiate abuse, Aggression


p.d., Paranoid schizophrenia, Somatization, Passive-aggressive, Depression, Paranoia
othymic dis.
opathy, Schizoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Pyromania, Rape, Paranoid schizophrenia, Sexual sadism, Aggressive co

gambling, Rape, Psychopathy, Antisocial, Histrionic, Narcissistic, Sexual sadism, Socialized nonaggressive cond
shy, evasive, hold grudges, passive-aggressive
college males and open homosexuals, rep. self-confidence and good physical and psychological health

Anxiety reactions
odd or intrusive thoughts, shy, reserved, have family and sexual problems

e themselves positively
see themselves as happy and well adjusted

, Anxiety reactions, Affective dis., Avoidant dis.


rain damage, Borderline, Schizoaffective, Psychopathy, Antisocial p.d.
ght have paranoid schizophrenia, auditory hallucinations, psychotic behavior, autistic thinkingm blunted affect,
hymic, Paranoid schizophrenia
usually well adjusted
tive psychosis, Depression, Obsessive-compulsive dis., Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform dis.

onic schizophrenia, Brain damage, Depression, Schizoaffective, Disorganised/Paranoid schizophrenia, Mania, Bip

as happy and well-adjusted, may be grandiose and a bit manic


or mild but chronic distress; they are shy \and easily embarrassed, prone to phobias and fears
w self-esteem, interpersonal problems, all true res.

ow little affect

eurotic defenses, need attention, suggestible, may have problems with authority, sexual & aggressive acting ou
st of females

ncy, and activity vs. passivity)


anger, paranoid disorder (in bright pt-s)

s probable

ms, agitation, anxiety, irritability, high standards, guilt, low self-esteem


affect, irritable, poss. amnesic episodes

ntrolling, aggressive, narcissistic

mpulses to shock and harm others

psychosexual dysfunction, Somatization

attention seeking, irritable, whining, martyr-complexpassive, suggestable, use repression and denial

tization, Affective disorer


ers. dis., Panic dis., Affective dis., Bipolar or Cyclothymic dis.

lized Conduct dis., Adjustment dis.

us dis., Generalized anxiety, Identity dis., Obsessive-compulsive dis., Psychogenic pain, Schizotypal p.d., Sexua

chogenic amnesia, Voyerism, Substance abuse, Rape

a, Sexual sadism, Aggressive conduct dis.

Socialized nonaggressive conduct disorder

d psychological health

tistic thinkingm blunted affect, rapid and incoherent speech, withdrawal into fantasy, low insight
eniform dis.

anoid schizophrenia, Mania, Bipolar/Dysthymic dis.

bias and fears


y, sexual & aggressive acting out or be overly conventional
pression and denial
ic pain, Schizotypal p.d., Sexual masochism, Stuporous catatonic schizophrenia, Zoophilia, PTSD, Adjustment dis

asy, low insight


Zoophilia, PTSD, Adjustment dis.