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Exercises in Traditional Term Logic: Selections from Socratic Logic by Peter Kreeft

Atlas Gresko

Grand Canyon University: COM-319

October 6th, 2015


Exercises in Traditional Term Logic


Chapter 4, Page 130:

5. Reasoning is the mental process of applying the laws of logic and implication to

propositions in order to derive new propositions. This definition is meant to be essential.

6. A proposition is that which can reflect or fail to reflect reality. This definition is meant

to be by proper accident.

7. A term is a token of language which refers to or designates some object, mental or real.

This definition is meant to be essential.

8. Abstract: That which is achieved by a process of abs-trahere, literally drawing out of

a particular object. This definition is nominal.

9. Concrete: That which is tangible or particular. This definition is meant to be essential.

10. Accident: A property or attribute a thing can have or lack without affecting a change

in its essence or quiddity. This definition is meant to be essential.

11. Property: A repeatable aspect of reality which can inhere simultaneously in multiple

objects. This definition is by proper accident.

12. Definition: A definition is a proposition which states the boundaries of the concept to

which a specific word or term refers. More literally, this is to state the limits or fines of a word.

This definition is nominal.

13. Religion is any given set of rituals or beliefs which attempt to connect a participant to

some supernatural reality. This definition is by property.

14. Truth is the state of a propositions positive correspondence with some reality. This

definition is essential.

15. Fate is any preordained state of affairs which will occur irrespective of an individuals

thoughts, actions or decisions. This definition is essential.


1. This is definitely a negative definition. It is far too loaded and biased to be an adequate

definition: paradoxically, it itself is a philosophical statement, and therefore according to itself it

must be an unintelligible answer to an insoluble problem.

2. This definition is metaphorical and negative. Like the previous definition, it assumes

too much at the outset: it is philosophically presumptuous to presume that none of the problems

of philosophy are capable of being answered, for this assumption is itself philosophical in nature.

3. This definition is circular, negative and vague. Its capital sin is that it uses the term

philosophy, which it is trying to define, in the definition itself. This is akin to saying

Mathematics is what mathematicians do or A mathematician is one who agrees with other


4. This definition is too metaphorical, and proffers next to nothing about the genuine,

objective content of what philosophy is in practice.

5. This definition is negative, biased and metaphorical. Religion is largely abstract and

conceptual, not tangible and concrete in the way opium is.

Chapter 5, P. 156


5. No P (Philosophy professors) is A (Absent-Minded).

6. All I is T (Itch).

7. No T (Thing) is M (Matters).

8. This is a compound proposition: although it can be symbolized simplistically as All N

(non-observers of everything) is U (things in the universe), it is best portrayed as (Vx)((Tx &

~Ox) -> Ux).

9. No D is M, where D = Mad Cow Disease and M = Myth.

10. Compound proposition, but easy to symbolize: Some G is L and Some G is not L,

where G = Gamblers and L = Lucky.


1. Some W is not H, where W = Wit and H = Whit Wittier than Whittier.

2. All C is B, where C = Charity and B = Begins at Home.

3. Some S is R, where S = Swedes and R = Ran through the Reeds Chasing One


4. All I is D, with I = I and D = Dub Thee Knight of the Round Table.

5. All L is W, with L = Little Breeze and W = Seems to Whisper Louise.

Extra Credit, A C D or E

Extra Credit, C

1. All W is S, with W = Those who Stand and Wait and S = Those who serve.
2. All T is A, with T = Good talkers and A = Have good audiences.
3. All T is G, with T = Those who think the great unhappy and G = Those who are great.
4. All T is L, with T = Vices trampled underfoot and L = Vices that are made a ladder

out of.
5. All E is N, with E = Those Eligible for Presidency and N = Natural Born Citizens.
6. All Non-C is Non-P, with C = Complainers and P = Those who are pitied. In clearer

standard form, this proposition is logically equivalent to All P are C.

7. All A is S, with A = Propositions told by angels and S = Propositions that sound like 2

* 2 = 13.
8. All M is R, with M = Men and R = Those who are given back by the world reflections

of their own faces.


9. No M is C, with M = Man and C = Can live without joy.

10. All U is A, U = Those who understand the greatness of the past and A = Those who

are adventurous.
11. No K is G, with K = Thoughts known by Samuel Johnson and G = Can concentrate a

mans mind more than the thought of being hung tomorrow morning.
12. All T is B, with T = They and B = Those who were born of the sun and traveled a

brief while toward the sun and who left the vivid air singed with their honour. B is,

clearly, a compound predicate.

13. No I is O, with I = Beliefs useful to attempt to reason a man out of and O = Beliefs a

man was never reasoned into.

14. All W is C, with W = Work and C = Curse of the drinking class.
15. This is a compound proposition: No M is A, No M is B, and All C is R, with M =

Man, A = Angel, B = Brute, C = Acts the angel, and R = Acts the brute.
16. Definitely compound: Some B is T, Some B is S, and some B is C (B = Books, T =

Ought to be tasted, S = Ought to be swallowed, C = Ought to be chewed and

17. All E is A (E = Those who enter here, and A = Should/ought to abandon all hope).
18. All C is W (C = Cleopatras nose, W = things such that had they been shorter, the

whole history of the world would have changed).

19. Some M is Q (M = Men, Q = Those who lead lives of quiet desperation). Mass here

could mean all, but as it is it means almost all and is therefore best translated as

20. Compound A propositions: All H is R, and All Non-H is F (H = Happy families, R =

Things that represent one another, F = unhappy in its own fashion).

21. Dryden could mean all or not all: For the former, No P is M, and the latter Some P is

not M (P = People, M = Those who have the gift of martyrdom).

22. No R is W (R = Running, W = Useful when on the wrong road.)
23. All D is C (D = Demonstrable propositions, C = Propositions whose contrary implies

a contradiction).

24. Compound proposition: All D is U, or All D is M (D = Death, U = States of

nothingness and utter unconsciousness, M = States of migration from one world to

the next).
25. Definitely compound! All M is W, All W is O, No P is L and No I is L (Not all here

is ambiguous, but seems to imply an E rather than an O proposition), No T is A. M =

Moving fingers, W = Fingers that write/have written, O = Fingers that move on, P =

Your piety, I = Your Wit, T = Your tears, L = Those things that will wash out half a

26. Compound A propositions: All T (Slithy Toves) is Y (did Gyre), All T is G (gimble),

All M (mimsy) is B (were Borogoves), All R (mome raths) is O (outgrabe).

27. No S is H (S = Times your superior drawls or hesitates in his words, H = Times you

ought to prepare or prompt him).

28. All N is D (N = Things necessary for the triumph of Evil, D = Times when good men

do nothing).
29. All I is M (I = Industrious and Intelligent Boys who live in the country, M = Those

who are mostly well up in the art of etc.).

30. Very compound: For the sake of brevity I will have to skip strict symbolization. All

{God} is {Ought to be feared}, All {Thy King} is {Ought to be honored}, All {Thy

Parents} is {Ought to be reverenced}, All {Thy Superiors} is {Ought to be submitted

to}, No {Thy Inferiors} is {Ought to be despised}, All {Thy Equals} is {Ought to be

treated courteously}, All {Days} is {Times when you should pray devoutly}, All

{Good} is {That which should be conversed with}, No {Wicked} is {Worthy of your

imitation}, All {Instruction} is {Should be hearkened to}, All {learning} is {things

you ought to be desirious of}, All {School} is {ought to be loved by you}, All

{Times} is {Times one ought to be cleanly}, All {virtue} is {ought to be studied}, No

{Person} is {Ought to be provoked by you}, All {Schoolfellows} is {People you


ought to love}, All {Thy Masters} is {People you ought to please}, No {Play} is

{Ought to entice thee}, All {Thy Tongue} is {Ought to be restrained by you}, All

{Future Honour} is {Ought to be coveted by you}, and finally All {Future honour} is

{procurable by virtue and wisdom}. Sheeesh!!!

31. Compound I proposition: Some S (Things that Scrooge said) is B (Bah), and Some S

is H (Humbug).
32. All R is T, R = Rustlings of each purple curtain and T = Events that thrilled me.
33. No B is E, B = Baseball and E = Things at the beginning.
34. No T is J, All T is B. T = Times in my life, J = Times I had a job, B = Times I played

35. All M is C, All M is R: M = Man, C = Created by God, R = Returning the

36. All M is C, All M is G: M = Men, C = Created lower than the Angels, G = Getting

lower than the point at which one was first created.

37. All T is L: T = Things thought by understanding too heavy, L = Things that become

lighter through love.

38. No T is O, T = Time and O = When so much has been owed to so few.

D, Extra Credit p. 159

1. All R is C: R = What we are, C = Caused by what we think.

2. All Non-P is T, All P is H: P = Times you speak with a pure mind, T = Times when

trouble follows you, H = Times when happiness follows you.

3. No H is D: H = Hate, D = Has ever dispelled hate.
4. All T is W, All Non-T is Non-W: T = The fool who thinks himself a fool, W = is wise

(the negation, of course, implying that one is a fool).

5. All C is B: C = Times you conquer yourself, B = Things better than winning a

thousand battles.
6. All S is M: S = Times you are slow to do good, M = Times your mind will catch you.
7. No H is F: H = Those who seek happiness by hurting others, F = Those who will find

8. All H is R: H = Hurt, R = Things that rebound.

9. All Y is W, All Y is D: Y = You being referred to, W = Laughing while the world is on

fire, D = In the darkness but will not seek light.

10. All I is O: I = Ignorant men, O = Like oxen who will grow in size, but not grow in

11. All W is B: W = the world, B = a bubble and a mirage.
12. All L is J: L = times you let go of winning and losing, J = times you will find joy.
13. All B is E, No O is E: B = Brothers faults, O = Own faults, E = Easy to

14. No W is S, All W is H: W = the way to salvation, S = In the sky, H= In the heart.
15. All M is S, All B is K: M = Mind, S = Speaks, B = Body, K = Knows.