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Hydrology

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1.0 OBJECTIVE

To determine the characteristic of Pelton Turbine by using several speed.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of the course, students should be able to apply the knowledge and skills they have

learned to:

a. Understand the basic operating system of the Pelton turbine.

b. Understand the factors which influence the efficiency of turbine.

3.0 THEORY

A Pelton Turbine characteristic operation curve can be derived by using the same method as a

pump. It is because the velocity is usually assumed as an independent parameter when the

plotting of power, efficiency, torque and discharge are carried out. Mechanical Power, Pm

(watt) = Rotation ( , Nm) Circular velocity ( , rad/sec). Where, T=Force(N)

2radius / min

60 sec/ min

Radius(m)(Nm) and (rad/s) where, 1 revolution is equal to 2 radius.

Pw gHQ g

3

Meanwhile, Water Power, where, is water density (100kg/m ), is gravity

H Q

constant (9.81m/s2), is head at inlet point (m) and is flowrate (m3/s). Wheel efficiency,

Pm

% 100

Pw x x

. To convert the unit of rpm to radians per minute is given by, rpm= (

x

revolution/min)=( x2 radian)/min.

4.0 EQUIPMENTS

1. Pelton Turbine

2. Tachometer

3. Stopwatch

5.0 PROCEDURES

1. The bell brake is fixed according to the W1 value (Neglect W1 = 0)

2. The level ball should be push up before the pump is on.

3. The pump is switch on.

4. Open the valve controller from low level to high level.

5. The pressure reading is obtained from the most high sound from the valve controlled.

6. The pressure obtained is recorded.

7. The RPM reading is obtained from the optic tachometer. (The reading which a frequently

is recorded)

8. The W2 value is obtained from the bell brake.

9. The level ball should be pushed down.

10. The stop watch is use to obtained the time needed to reach 5 liter volume of water.

11. The level ball should be pushed up after recording the time.

12. The valve controller should be off.

13. The pump is switch off.

14. Repeat the procedure according to the next W1 valve.

Table 6.1 Results of Pelton Turbine experiment

RPM 9514.9 7883.4 7677.0 4855.6 3404.2 1985.2

(rad/s)

W1 (N)

0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

W2 (N)

0 1.8 3.8 5.5 6.9 8.3

W2 W1 (N)

0 0.8 1.8 2.5 2.9 3.3

Drum Radius

x10-3m 30 30 30 30 30 30

Rotation

0 0.024 0.054 0.075 0.087 0.099

(Nm)

Pm(W)

0 19.81 43.41 38.14 31.01 20.58

Volume (l)

5 5 5 5 5 5

Time(s)

23 23 23 23 23 23

Flowrate (m3/s)

2.17x10-4 2.17x10-4 2.17x10-4 2.17x10-4 2.17x10-4 2.17x10-4

Pw (W)

4340 4340 4340 4340 4340 4340

Efficiency (%) 0 0.46 1.00 0.88 0.71 0.47

RPM= 7883.4

W1= 1.0

W2= 1.8

Volume = 0.005m3

Time= 23s

Pressure = 20 x106

Drum Radius x 10-3m= 30

= 7883.4 x 2rad/min

= 825.55rad/s

2. W2 - W1 = 1.8 1.0

= 0.8 N

3. Rotation, = load (W2 W1) x drum radius (30x10-3)

= (0.8) x 30x10-3

= 0.024 Nm

4. Mechanical Power, Pm = (Rotation, ) x (Circular velocity, )

= 0.024 Nm x 825.55 rad/s

= 19.81watt

5. Flowrate, Q = Volume (10-3m3) / Time (s)

= 0.005 x 2.17x10-4

= 1.085 x 10-6 m3/s

6. Water Power, Pw = (Pressure x 106) x (flow rate)

= 20x106 x2.17x10-4

=4340 watt

7. Efficiency, = (Pm/Pw) x 100

= (19.81 / 4340) x 100

= 0.46%

1. Plot graph of:

a. the rotation power curve

b. efficiency curve

c. discharge versus motor speed

2.

Graph of Rotation Power Curve

Form the graph, we can see that the RPM is decreased when the rotation is

increased. Lowest RPM value was achieved when the rotation was reached the

maximum value. So, the rotation of turbine affected the RPM value.

Graph of Efficiency Curve

Based on the efficiency graph, we can see that when the efficiency increased, the

RPM will decreased. The maximum power achieved, the efficiency will be

maximum.

Graph of discharge versus motor speed

From the graph, we can see that the discharge is constant with the motor speed.

When the RPM is decreasing, the flowrate will constant.

3. Calculate the velocity where the maximum power is reached. Give your comment based

on the level of maximum efficiency.

Circular velocity = (Pm/Rotation)

= 19.81 watt / 0024Nm

= 825.42 rad/s

4. State five (5) safety factors that have been taken in the experiment?

The Pelton turbine machine have been ensured in good condition before

experiment started.

The experiment must be conduct properly to make sure incident not happen

because this experiment involved the electricity and water.

All group member must read and understand the manual sheet before make an

experiment to avoid injuries while conducting the experiment.

While the RPM reading taken by using tachometer, must beware to avoid injuries

as if hand or fingers touched the moving belt brake wheel.

Before turned off the switch, make sure our hand in dry condition to avoid electric

shocked that could be dangerous.

9.0 CONCLUSION

The numerical analysis of flow in the Pelton turbine was performed for several operating

Accurate calculation of jet thickness and velocity is crucial for prediction of Pelton

turbine efficiency.

Too coarse grid greatly influences the results and is one of the most important

reasons.

Discrepancies between numerical and experimental values of efficiency.

Numerical results are sufficiently accurate to be used for efficiency prediction in a

design process.

A numerical analysis of a Pelton turbine demands large computing capacities. Its

limited use in design.

Process is mostly due to excessive CPU time.

As a conclusion, we can conclude that the different range of flow rates and rotational speeds

influences the performance of Pelton wheel turbine. The factors which influence the

efficiency of turbine also were mechanical power and water power. So we can assume that

our experiment is successful due to the result we obtained.

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